WorldWideScience

Sample records for aggressive mass removal

  1. Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stepišnik, Urška

    2013-01-01

    There are a lot of aspects of aggressiveness and everybody understands and defines it differently. Professionals define aggressiveness as actually inflicting damage to other organism or object6, the reaction which aims in damaging living organism or object. The objectives of aggressive behaviour are physical and mental damage. The difference between aggressiveness and aggression is that the term aggression relates to a momentary reaction, aggressiveness, however, means permanent characteristi...

  2. Forehead Mass Removal by Endoscopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soyeon; Jung, Sung Won; Koh, Sung Hoon; Lim, Hyoseob

    2016-03-01

    Patients with forehead mass have a cosmetic problem because the forehead is an important first impression. Conventional skin approach results in visible scar even though surgeons designed the incision along the relaxed skin tension line1. Since Onishi introduced the technique for endoscopic approach in 1995, endoscopic surgery has become rapidly popular in the field of plastic surgery. Endoscopic approach to the forehead mass by small incision on the scalp behind hair line is big advantageous for leaving less ugly scar on the forehead. All procedures need to be identified under the endoscopic visualization. When it was completed, the mass was pulled out. The authors also used the osteotome or rasp when it was the osteoma. The forehead and scalp were applied compressive dressing to prevent hematoma and swelling for 2 days. The cosmesis was excellent because they have no visible scar on the forehead. Endoscopic approaching technique is getting popular and commonly used during the cosmetic surgery because it has many advantages. This method also, however, has difficulties to remove large-sized mass and to perform caudal dissection, and for increased operative times. Furthermore, there are complication of incomplete removal, hematoma, and swelling. The proper candidate is the patient with smooth forehead, with a mobile and soft mass, with a propensity for keloid formation, or hypertrophic scarring. Endoscopic technique is not only advantageous but also disadvantageous. That is why surgeon's selection is more important. PMID:26967101

  3. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  4. A media maniac's guide to removable mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, Linda S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses at a high level, the many individual technologies available today in the removable storage arena including removable magnetic tapes, magnetic floppies, optical disks and optical tape. Tape recorders represented below discuss logitudinal, serpantine, logitudinal serpantine,and helical scan technologies. The magnetic floppies discussed will be used for personal electronic in-box applications.Optical disks still fill the role for dense long-term storage. The media capacities quoted are for native data. In some cases, 2 KB ASC2 pages or 50 KB document images will be referenced.

  5. A framework for assessing risk reduction due to DNAPL mass removal from low permeability soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, R.A. [R. Allan Freeze Engineering, Inc., White Rock, British Columbia (Canada); McWhorter, D.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Many emerging remediation technologies are designed to remove contaminant mass from source zones at DNAPL sites in response to regulatory requirements. There is often concern in the regulated community as to whether mass removal actually reduces risk, or whether the small risk reductions achieved warrant the large costs incurred. This paper sets out a framework for quantifying the degree to which risk is reduced as mass is removed from shallow, saturated, low-permeability, dual-porosity, DNAPL source zones. Risk is defined in terms of meeting an alternate concentration level (ACL) at a compliance well in an aquifer underlying the source zone. The ACL is back-calculated from a carcinogenic health-risk characterization at a downstream water-supply well. Source-zone mass-removal efficiencies are heavily dependent on the distribution of mass between media (fractures, matrix) and phases (dissolved, sorbed, free product). Due to the uncertainties in currently-available technology performance data, the scope of the paper is limited to developing a framework for generic technologies rather than making risk-reduction calculations for specific technologies. Despite the qualitative nature of the exercise, results imply that very high mass-removal efficiencies are required to achieve significant long-term risk reduction with technology, applications of finite duration. 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Mixed conductors—single phases that conduct electronically and ionically—enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the ‘super-ionic’ conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors.

  7. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-11

    Mixed conductors-single phases that conduct electronically and ionically-enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the 'super-ionic' conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors. PMID:27510217

  8. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes ... type of behavior? The best way to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure ...

  9. Removal of Hg~0 with sodium chlorite solution and mass transfer reaction kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The absorption behavior of Hg0 was studied experimentally by using sodium chlorite solution(NaClO2) as the absorbent in a bubble reactor.Primary influencing factors on removal efficiency of Hg0 such as NaClO2 concentration,pH,reaction temperature and the concentration of Hg0 were investigated.The results indicated that 72.91% of Hg0 removal efficiency could be achieved in acidic NaClO2 solution.The removal mechanism of Hg0 was proposed by analyzing of Hg2+ concentration in ab-sorption solution after reaction and comparing the electrode potentials between NaClO2 species and Hg2+/Hg0.The experimental results of mass transfer-reaction kinetics on oxidation of Hg0 by NaClO2 solution showed that with the increase of NaClO2 concentration and the decrease of pH value,the enhancement factor(E) and ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) increased and the liquid phase mass transfer resistance decreased,which is benefit to the mass transfer adsorption reaction.Although the increase of reaction temperature could improve the enhancement factor(E),but the ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) decreased;as a result,the liquid phase mass transfer resistance increased,therefore,the reaction rate for removal of Hg0 decreased.

  10. Nitrate Removal in Two Relict Oxbow Urban Wetlands: A 15N Mass-balance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 15N-tracer method was used to quantify nitrogen (N) removal processes in two relict oxbow wetlands located adjacent to the Minebank Run restored stream reach in Baltimore County (Maryland, USA) during summer 2009 and early spring 2010. A mass-balance approach was used to determ...

  11. Removal cross sections and total mass attenuation coefficients of fast neutrons and gamma rays for steel

    CERN Document Server

    Elsayed, A A

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties and determination of the cross sections of fast neutrons and gamma rays for structure steel used in different applications in nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, research reactors and different radiation attenuation fields. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted fast neutron and gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of steel (rho=7.87 gem sup - sup 3) of different thicknesses. A reactor collimated beam and neutron - gamma spectrometer with stiblbene scintillator were used for measurements. The pluse shape disriminate technique based on zero cross over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma ray pulses. Effective removal cross-section (sigma sub R) and total mass attenuation coefficient (mu) of neureons and gamma rays have been achieved using the attenuation relations. Microscopic removal cross sections sigma sup 9 sup 8 and mass removal cross sections sigma sub R sub / subrho of fast ne...

  12. The Outcome of Supernovae in Massive Binaries; Removed Mass, and its Separation Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, Ryosuke; Yamada, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    The majority of massive stars are formed in binary systems. It is hence reasonable to expect that most core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) take place in binaries and the existence of a companion star may leave some imprints in observed features. Having this in mind, we have conducted two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the collisions of CCSNe ejecta with the companion star in an almost-equal-mass ($\\sim 10M_\\odot$) binary to find out possible consequences of such events. In particular we pay attention to the amount of mass removed and its dependence on the binary separation. In contrast to the previous surmise, we find that the companion mass is stripped not by momentum transfer but by shock heating. Up to $25\\%$ of the original mass can be removed for the closest separations and the removed mass decreases as $M_{ub} \\propto a^{-4.2}$ with the binary separation $a$. By performing some experimental computations with artificially-modified densities of incident ejecta, we show that if the velocity of ejec...

  13. Arsenic removal in solution using non living bio masses of aquatic weed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is a metalloid considered among the most dangerous to health. The As maximum level allowed of drinkable water is 0.01 mg/L established by the Who. Several techniques have been proposed to remove arsenic from water, among which are the sorption processes in economic biological materials, which has advantages for its high efficiency in dilute toxic removing from contaminated water, for these reason it is necessary to study new bio sorbents materials which are economic, simple and easy to apply in the treatment of contaminated areas. The aim of this project was evaluate the removal of As (V) in solution using two non living aquatic plants: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), characterize these materials and compare the efficiency between both; the parameters evaluated were the As (V) initial concentration in solution, contact time, ph value and the amount of biomass in contact with them. It describes the method to prepare the non living plants. The physicochemical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis was made. The results shown that cellulose is the main component confirmed by the techniques above mentioned. Surface characterization of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor by specific surface area, shown 1.3521 m2/g and 0.6395 m2/g respectively, the hydration kinetic indicates that 24 h was the maximum hydration time for both plants; the point of zero charge determination by mass titration gives a ph=6.1 for the first plant and ph=7.1 for the second plant, finally the active site density obtained for the plants were of 8.57 sites/nm2 and 12.47 sites/nm2. The point of zero charge was analyzed for know the ph from which the As (V) species are removal preferably. Tested contact processes between bio sorbent-As (V) were performed to assess the ability of bio masses to removal As (V) from aqueous solutions, investigated parameters

  14. Mass removal and hole profile characteristics for drilling using continuous and pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an experimental study which was performed to compare the drilling effectiveness of using a 50 W CO2 laser in continuous and pulsed modes for drilling holes in methyl methacrylates. Various power levels and exposure times were used to drill into 1/2 inch samples. Drilling effectiveness was defined as the mass removal by vaporization per unit energy delivered to the material. Power levels and exposure times were measured and thermocouples were used to record plastic temperatures at the burn edge and behind the sample. Samples were weighed before and after irradiation to measure mass removal. After laser irradiation, the samples were cut and the hole depth and radius were measured to determine the hole profile

  15. Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, N; Scaife, A A

    2001-04-12

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), along with bromine compounds, have been unequivocally identified as being responsible for most of the anthropogenic destruction of stratospheric ozone. With curbs on emissions of these substances, the recovery of the ozone layer will depend on their removal from the atmosphere. As CFCs have no significant tropospheric removal process, but are rapidly photolysed above the lower stratosphere, the timescale for their removal is set mainly by the rate at which air is transported from the troposphere into the stratosphere. Using a global climate model we predict that, in response to the projected changes in greenhouse-gas concentrations during the first half of the twenty-first century, this rate of mass exchange will increase by 3% per decade. This increase is due to more vigorous extra-tropical planetary waves emanating from the troposphere. We estimate that this increase in mass exchange will accelerate the removal of CFCs to an extent that recovery to levels currently predicted for 2050 and 2080 will occur 5 and 10 years earlier, respectively. PMID:11298444

  16. Removal of mercury contamination on primary mass standards by hydrogen plasma and thermal desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, P.; Marti, K.; Russi, S.

    2013-02-01

    The removal of a high mercury contamination on a Pt reference mass by thermal desorption was studied directly by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Subsequently the contamination mechanism was investigated. Samples of PtIr and AuPt exposed to vapour of mercury in air were studied using XPS and gravimetric mass determination. We find an extremely rapid mercury contamination which takes place within minutes and reaches an initial equilibrium state after 2 h to 4 h. Roughly 1 to 2 monolayers of mercury adsorbs directly on the metal surface. A natural contamination of carbon and oxygen compounds is at the top. Due to the accumulation of mercury, we find a gain in mass which corresponds to 20 µg to 26 µg for a PtIr standard. XPS data from a historical Pt standard give strong evidence for further average mercury accumulation of (1.3 ± 0.1) µg/year during a period of more than a century. This can be explained by a two-step mechanism presented in this study. The speed of contamination depends on the initial surface conditions. Polishing activates the surface and results in an enhanced accumulation of mercury. Natural contamination by C and O can delay but not prevent contamination. We further demonstrate that the mercury contamination can be removed by both hydrogen plasma and thermal desorption. The removal of mercury by hydrogen plasma can directly be attributed to the synthesis of gaseous mercury dihydrides at low pressures.

  17. Removal cross sections and total mass attenuation coefficients of fast neutrons and gamma rays for steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties and determination of the cross sections of fast neutrons and gamma rays for structure steel used in different applications in nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, research reactors and different radiation attenuation fields. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted fast neutron and gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of steel (ρ=7.87 gem-3) of different thicknesses. A reactor collimated beam and neutron - gamma spectrometer with stiblbene scintillator were used for measurements. The pluse shape disriminate technique based on zero cross over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma ray pulses. Effective removal cross-section (σR) and total mass attenuation coefficient (μ) of neureons and gamma rays have been achieved using the attenuation relations. Microscopic removal cross sections σ98 and mass removal cross sections σR/ρ of fast neutrons have been evaluated based on measured results and definite energies. Also, total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/σ) of gamma rays have been evalusted and calculated using measured results and XCOM code respectively. Comparison between measured and calculated results shows a resonable agreement between the two

  18. Aggressive Angiomyxoma

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy, L.; L Lakshmana Rao; M Dhana Lakshmi; N Sylvester

    2014-01-01

    Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix. [1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence. [2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity.

  19. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  20. Investigating Effect of Conditioner Aggressiveness on Removal Rate during Interlayer Dielectric Chemical Mechanical Planarization through Confocal Microscopy and Dual Emission Ultraviolet-Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting Sun,; Len Borucki,; Yun Zhuang,; Yasa Sampurno,; Fransisca Sudargho,; Xiaomin Wei,; Sriram Anjur,; Ara Philipossian,

    2010-02-01

    The effect of conditioner aggressiveness is investigated in interlayer dielectric polishing on three types of pad. A method using confocal microscopy is used to analyze the effect of conditioner aggressiveness on pad-wafer contact. Results show that a more aggressive conditioner produces a higher interlayer dielectric polishing rate while at the same time a pad surface with fewer contacting summits and less contact area. It is found that the ratio of the contacting summit density to the contact area fraction is more important than either parameter measured separately since the ratio determines the mean real contact pressure. Modeling results based on contact area measurements agree well with experimental results. Moreover, it is found that a more aggressive disc also generates a thicker slurry film at the pad-wafer interface. This is in agreement with our general findings regarding pad asperity height distribution obtained using confocal microscopy.

  1. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Devi C; Aadithya B Urs; Puneet Ahuja; Seema Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, ...

  2. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi C Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of autotrophic N removal by a granule based bioreactor: Influence of mass transfer versus microbial kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist;

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive and global sensitivity analysis was conducted under a range of operating conditions. The relative importance of mass transfer resistance versus kinetic parameters was studied and found to depend on the operating regime as follows: Operating under the optimal loading ratio of 1.90 (g......O2/m3/d)/(gN/m3/d), the system was influenced by mass transfer (10% impact on nitrogen removal) and performance was limited by AOB activity (75% impact on nitrogen removal), while operating above, AnAOB activity was limiting (68% impact on nitrogen removal). The negative effect of oxygen mass...

  4. Mechanisms of material removal and mass transport in focused ion beam nanopore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kallol, E-mail: das7@illinois.edu; Johnson, Harley T., E-mail: htj@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Laboratory, MC-236, 104 South Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Despite the widespread use of focused ion beam (FIB) processing as a material removal method for applications ranging from electron microscope sample preparation to nanopore processing for DNA sequencing, the basic material removal mechanisms of FIB processing are not well understood. We present the first complete atomistic simulation of high-flux FIB using large-scale parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanopore fabrication in freestanding thin films. We focus on the root mechanisms of material removal and rearrangement and describe the role of explosive boiling in forming nanopores. FIB nanopore fabrication is typically understood to occur via sputter erosion. This can be shown to be the case in low flux systems, where individual ion impacts are sufficiently separated in time that they may be considered as independent events. But our detailed MD simulations show that in high flux FIB processing, above a threshold level at which thermal effects become significant, the primary mechanism of material removal changes to a significantly accelerated, thermally dominated process. Under these conditions, the target is heated by the ion beam faster than heat is conducted away by the material, leading quickly to melting, and then continued heating to nearly the material critical temperature. This leads to explosive boiling of the target material with spontaneous bubble formation and coalescence. Mass is rapidly rearranged at the atomistic scale, and material removal occurs orders of magnitude faster than would occur by simple sputtering. While the phenomenology is demonstrated computationally in silicon, it can be expected to occur at lower beam fluxes in other cases where thermal conduction is suppressed due to material properties, geometry, or ambient thermal conditions.

  5. Mass removal of chlorinated ethenes from rough-walled fractures using permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, B. S.; Thomson, N. R.

    2004-11-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) employing permanganate is an emerging technology that has been successful at enhancing mass removal from DNAPL source zones in unconsolidated media at the pilot-scale. The focus of this study was to evaluate the applicability of flushing a permanganate solution across two single vertical fractures in a laboratory environment to remove free phase DNAPL. The fracture experiments were designed to represent a portion of a larger fractured aquifer system impacted by a near-surface DNAPL spill over a shallow fractured rock aquifer. Each fracture was characterized by hydraulic and tracer tests, and the aperture field for one of the fractures was mapped using a co-ordinate measurement machine. Following DNAPL emplacement, a series of water and permanganate flushes were performed. To support observations from the fracture experiments, a set of batch experiments was conducted. The data from both fracture experiments showed that the post-oxidation effluent concentration was not impacted by the oxidant flush; however, changes in the aperture distribution, flow field, and flow rate were observed. These changes resulted in a significant decrease to the mass loading from the fractures, and were attributed to the build-up of oxidation by-products (manganese oxides and carbon dioxide) within the fracture which was corroborated by the batch experiment data and visual examination of the walls of one fracture. These results provide insight into the potential impact that a permanganate solution and oxidation by-products can have on the aperture distribution within a fracture and on DNAPL mass transfer rates. A permanganate flush or injection completed within a fractured rock aquifer may lead to the development of an insoluble product adjacent to the DNAPL which results in the reduction or complete elimination of advective regions near the DNAPL and reduces mass transfer rates. This outcome would have significant implications on the plume generating

  6. Unique applications of solvent removal in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, M.

    1997-01-10

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the technique of choice for rapid, high precision, semiquantitative elemental and isotopic analysis for over 70 elements. Less than 20 years after the first mass spectrum was obtained by ICP-MS, this technique has applications in clinical chemistry, geochemistry, the semiconductor industry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, and forensic chemistry. The determination of many elements, though, by ICP-MS is complicated by spectral interferences from background species, interelement spectral overlaps, and polyatomic ions of matrix elements. The emphasis of this thesis is the unique applications of solvent removal using cryogenic and membrane desolvation. Chapter 1 is a general introduction providing background information concerning the need for these methods and some information about the methods themselves. Chapter 5 discusses general conclusions and general observations pertaining to this work. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 have been processed separately for inclusion on the database. Chapter 2 describes a method to screen urine samples for vanadium using cryogenic desolvation. Chapter 3 compares solvent removal by cryogenic and membrane desolvation. Chapter 4 describes the use of cool plasma conditions for the determination of potassium in the presence of excess sodium by ICP-MS.

  7. Mass effect and Pu removal from rats with Ca- or Zn-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight percent of an intramuscular injection of 27.6 nCi of 237Pu(NO3)4 was retained by rats at the injection site, after 22 days. More than 30% is usually retained following injection of more massive quantities of 239Pu. Treatment with Ca- or Zn-DTPA showed the former to be more effective when treatments were initiated 1 hr after Pu administration. When treatments were begun 7 days after the Pu injection, 416 nmol Ca-DTPA/kg was more effective in removing Pu than 28.7 nmol/kg (human dose level) of Zn- or Ca-DTPA. Due to its high specific activity and ease of detection, 237Pu permits facile experimentation in small animals at Pu mass levels comparable to those encountered in most human exposures

  8. Enhanced mass removal due to phase explosion during high irradiance nanosecond laser ablation of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jong Hyun

    2000-05-20

    The morphology of craters resulting from high irradiance laser ablation of silicon was measured using a white light interferometry microscope. The craters show a dramatic increase in their depth and volume at a certain irradiance, indicating a change in the primary mechanism for mass removal. Laser shadowgraph imaging was used to characterize and differentiate the mass ejection processes for laser irradiances above and below the threshold value. Time-resolved images show distinct features of the mass ejected at irradiances above the threshold value including the presence of micron-sized particulates; this begins at approximately 300 {approx} 400 ns after the start of laser heating. The analysis of the phenomena was carried out by using two models: a thermal evaporation model and a phase explosion model. Estimation of the crater depth due to the thermally evaporated mass led to a large underestimation of the crater depth for irradiances above the threshold. Above the threshold irradiance, the possibility of phase explosion was analyzed. Two important results are the thickness of the superheated liquid layer that is close to the critical temperature and the time for vapor bubbles that are generated in the superheated liquid to achieve a critical size. After reaching the critical size, vapor bubbles can grow spontaneously resulting in a violent ejection of liquid droplets from the superheated volume. The effects of an induced transparency, i.e. of liquid silicon turning into an optically transparent liquid dielectric medium, are also introduced. The estimated time for a bubble to reach the critical size is in agreement with the delay time measured for the initiation of large mass ejection. Also, the thickness of the superheated liquid layer that is close to the critical temperature at the time of the beginning of the large mass ejection is representative of the crater depth at the threshold irradiance. These results suggest that phase explosion is a plausible thermal

  9. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  10. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  11. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  12. Session 6: High Throughput Screening of VOC Removal Catalysts in Scanning Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaccato, K.; Hagemeyer, A.; Lefort, L.; Turner, H.; Volpe, A.; Weinberg, H. [Symyx Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered an important group of air pollutants. We have targeted more efficient VOC removal catalysts with high activity for total combustion at low temperature, negligible organics slip, high selectivity to CO{sub 2} without production of intermediate CO, oxygenates or cracking products. Butane was used as the model feed for VOC in Symyx' high-throughput Scanning Mass Spectrometer. The screening protocol encompassed bulk (unsupported) mixed metal oxides calcined in air at 400 C. Transition metals M{sub 1} known to have some oxidation activity M{sub 1}=Ti, V, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Re, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Ag, were combined with each other into binaries as well as doped with M{sub 2} = K, Cs, Mg, Sr, Sc, Y, Ce, Sm, Zr, Nb, Ta, Zn, Cd, B, Al, In, Sn, Pb, P, Sb, Bi and Te, using 5- point compositional gradients (5 different compositions per binary). Five M/Z values were monitored, namely 44, 68, 70, 72 and 98. CO{sub 2} at M/Z equal to 44 is the dominant product, and only traces of oxygenates are formed. Co, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu are identified as the most active metals. Subsequently, CoCrM{sub 3} and CrZnM{sub 3} ternaries were synthesized and screened with M{sub 3} selected from M{sub 3} Li, K, Cs, Mg, Sr, Y, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ag, Zn, Al, Ga, In, Sn, Pb, P, Sb and Bi, (M{sub 3} {<=} 10%, 15 different compositions/ternaries; 3 copies: (a) unsupported, calcined at 400 C, (b) unsupported, calcined at 600 C, (c) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, calcined at 400 C). CoCr ternaries from Symyx' library archive were also screened. High CO{sub 2} production for the CoCr/400 C systems was observed. Catalyst compositions were then optimized in focus libraries. An example for a CoCrTi/CoVSi bis-ternary focus library will be discussed in detail. VPO catalysts were used as 'standards' to establish the correlation between primary and tertiary screening. High CO{sub 2} signals were also observed for Co-rich CoCr and CoCrTi systems. The best Co

  13. Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Goyal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence.

  14. Analytical model for non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters - III. Removing the hydrostatic mass bias

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xun; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters leads to underestimation of the mass of galaxy clusters based on hydrostatic equilibrium with thermal gas pressure. This occurs even for dynamically relaxed clusters that are used for calibrating the mass-observable scaling relations. We show that the analytical model for non-thermal pressure developed in Shi & Komatsu 2014 can correct for this so-called `hydrostatic mass bias', if most of the non-thermal pressure comes from bulk and turbulent motions of gas in the intracluster medium. Our correction works for the sample average irrespective of the mass estimation method, or the dynamical state of the clusters. This makes it possible to correct for the bias in the hydrostatic mass estimates from X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations that will be available for clusters in a wide range of redshifts and dynamical states.

  15. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...

  16. Mass Removal of Pest Fish From Five Waikato Lakes of 5 ha or Greater

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At least one mass harvesting system for pest fish has been tested. Biomass reductions achieved have been established, and environmental responses have been...

  17. Accidental Removal of a Carotid Endovascular Stent during Oropharyngeal Mass Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Charbel Rameh; Arnaud Deveze; Jean-Pierre Lavieille; Jacques Magnan; Melanie Sanjuan

    2010-01-01

    A 54-year-old male patient, with a history of a right mandibular adenocarcinoma, previously excised, and treated with post operative chemo- and radio-therapy, presented with a right oropharyngeal necrotic mass of several months duration. His history is pertinent for a right internal carotid endovascular stenting 2 years prior to presentation. During biopsy of his oropharyngeal lesion, a specimen of tissue was retrieved, with the carotid stent within. There was no bleeding. To the best of our ...

  18. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  19. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hayes, M.M. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, P.W. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Surgery, Radiation Oncology and Developmental Radiotherapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  20. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  1. Aggression on Roadways

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1989-01-01

    Aggression and the automobile have had a long standing association, yet research on aggressive behavior has neglected the roadway context. This chapter reviews existing work which has included archival analysis, field interview studies, personality research, and field experiments. Among the recurrent themes have been the relationship between aggressivity in driving to accident liability and to violence in the larger social context. Validity issues in road aggression research are discussed, an...

  2. Aggressive Fibromatosis in Neck.

    OpenAIRE

    Namita Kabdwal; Sanjeev Bhagat; Saurabh Varshney; Sampan Singh Bist; Sarita Mishra; Bhavna Singh

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a locally aggressive infiltrative low-grade benign tumor that accounts for approximately less than 3% of all soft tissue tumors. In the head and neck region this tumor tends to be more aggressive and associated with significant morbidity. Aggressive surgery is a viable management option and may be successfully used as a single modality treatment, or in combination with radiotherapy. We report a rare case of AF in a 38 year old female, who presented with a painl...

  3. Aggressive commercial practicies

    OpenAIRE

    Tomanová, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    Diploma thesis evaluates the effectiveness of legal instruments to prevent the use of aggressive commercial practices. Thesis is divided into two main chapters, the first is the protection against aggressive commercial practices in business to consumer market and the second part is dedicated to the protection against aggressive practices in the business to business market. Each section compares the European protection of aggressive commercial practices (and also through European legislation i...

  4. Mass of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed by Pump-and-Treat, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2011-01-01

    Pump and Treat (P&T) remediation is the primary technique used to contain and remove trichloroethylene (TCE) and its degradation products cis 1-2,dichloroethylene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) from groundwater at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, NJ. Three methods were used to determine the masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed from groundwater by the P&T system since it became fully operational in 1996. Method 1, is based on the flow volume and concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater that entered the P&T building as influent. Method 2 is based on withdrawal volume from each active recovery well and the concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in the water samples from each well. Method 3 compares the maximum monthly amount of TCE, cDCE, and VC from Method 1 and Method 2. The greater of the two values is selected to represent the masses of TCE, cDCE and VC removed from groundwater each month. Previously published P&T monthly reports used Method 1 to determine the mass of TCE, cDCE, and VC removed. The reports state that 8,666 pounds (lbs) of TCE, 13,689 lbs of cDCE, and 2,455 lbs of VC were removed by the P&T system during 1996-2010. By using Method 2, the mass removed was determined to be 8,985 lbs of TCE, 17,801 lbs of cDCE, and 3,056 lbs of VC removed, and Method 3, resulted in 10,602 lbs of TCE, 21,029 lbs of cDCE, and 3,496 lbs of VC removed. To determine the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater, the individual masses of TCE, cDCE, and VC (determined using Methods 1, 2, and 3) were converted to numbers of moles, summed, and converted to pounds of original TCE. By using the molar conversion the mass of original TCE removed from groundwater by Methods 1, 2, and 3 was 32,381 lbs, 39,535 lbs, and 46,452 lbs, respectively, during 1996-2010. P&T monthly reports state that 24,805 lbs of summed TCE, cDCE, and VC were removed from groundwater. The simple summing method underestimates the mass of original TCE removed by the P&T system.

  5. Research Paradigm of Displaced Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tanno, Syota

    2013-01-01

    A review of research paradigm of displaced aggression is presented. The author arranged the Japanese wording of displaced aggression, summarized the historical transition of research on displaced aggression, and reviewed research paradigm of displaced aggression.

  6. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlicchi, P., E-mail: paola.verlicchi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Al Aukidy, M., E-mail: mustafakether.alaukidi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Zambello, E., E-mail: elena.zambello@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an

  7. Normalization Approaches for Removing Systematic Biases Associated with Mass Spectrometry and Label-Free Proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, Stephen J.; Barry, Richard C.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Johnson, Ethan T.; Qian, Weijun; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2006-02-01

    Central tendency, linear regression, locally weighted regression, and quantile techniques were investigated for normalization of peptide abundance measurements obtained from high-throughput liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR MS). Arbitrary abundances of peptides were obtained from three sample sets, including a standard protein sample, two Deinococcus radiodurans samples taken from different growth phases, and two mouse striatum samples from control and methamphetamine-stressed mice (strain C57BL/6). The selected normalization techniques were evaluated in both the absence and presence of biological variability by estimating extraneous variability prior to and following normalization. Prior to normalization, replicate runs from each sample set were observed to be statistically different, while following normalization replicate runs were no longer statistically different. Although all techniques reduced systematic bias, assigned ranks among the techniques revealed significant trends. For most LC-FTICR MS analyses, linear regression normalization ranked either first or second among the four techniques, suggesting that this technique was more generally suitable for reducing systematic biases.

  8. Removing a Major Uncertainty in Mass and Age Determinations of Young Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Marcos; Hartigan, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Mass and age measurements of young stars rely on the stars' placement in an HR diagram relative to pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. Uncertainties in T_eff include a systematic error introduced by converting spectral types to T_eff according to a conversion scale derived from main-sequence stars. The advent of sophisticated synthetic spectra and modern molecular opacities offers us an opportunity to determine a new T_eff scale designed for young stars. We propose to measure T_eff for a large sample of non- accreting (weak-lined) T Tauri stars using low resolution red spectra on Goldcam. The resulting spectra will make it possible to estimate T_eff for any young star by simply finding the best spectral match with a star in our sample. This procedure will also work for accreting (classical) T Tauri stars, where weak-lined T Tauri stars are used as photospheric templates to distinguish stellar features from accretion signatures.

  9. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  10. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  11. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162.

  12. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  13. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  14. The perception of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P

    1997-01-01

    Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey a

  15. Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9−10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical...

  16. Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO2 from Air Using Water and NaOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Jackson, Yaminah Z.; Morin, Michael T.; Ferraro, Giacomo P.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and computer models for studying the mass transfer process of removing CO2 from air using water or dilute NaOH solution as absorbent are presented. Models tie experiment to theory and give a visual representation of concentration profiles and also illustrate the two-film theory and the relative importance of various…

  17. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. PMID:26158924

  18. The Efficacy of a Response Cost-Based Treatment Package for Managing Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Larissa Kern; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1997-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a response cost treatment package for improving the classroom behavior of four aggressive preschoolers. Teachers removed smiley faces and reprimanded children contingent on aggressive behavior. Results indicate that this method substantially decreased aggressive behavior and was a highly acceptable classroom treatment…

  19. Improved isotope ratio measurement performance in liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry by removing excess oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettmann, Elena; Brand, Willi A; Gleixner, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    A low dead volume oxygen scrubbing system was introduced in a commercially available liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) interface to enhance the analytical capability of the system. In the LC/IRMS interface carbon from organic samples is converted into CO(2) inside the mobile phase by wet chemical oxidation using peroxodisulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(8)). After passing the hot reaction zone, surplus oxygen (O(2)) remains dissolved in the liquid phase. Both CO(2) and O(2) diffuse through a transfer membrane into the helium carrier and are transferred to the mass spectrometer. The presence of O(2) in the ion source may have detrimental effects on measurement accuracy and precision as well as on filament lifetime. As a remedy, a new on-line O(2)-removing device has been incorporated into the system. The new O(2) scrubber consists of two parallel hot copper reduction reactors (0.8 mm i.d., active length 120 mm) and a switch-over valve between them. One reactor is regenerated using He/H(2) while the other is actively scavenging O(2) from the gas stream. The capacity of each reduction reactor, expressed as usage time, is between 40 and 50 min. This is sufficient for a single LC run for sugars and organic acids. A further increase of the reduction capacity is accompanied by a peak broadening of about 100%. After switching to a freshly reduced reactor the oxygen background and the delta(13)C values of the reference gas need up to 500 s to stabilize. For repeated injections the delta(13)C values of sucrose remain constant (+/-0.1 per thousand) for about 3000 s. The long-term stability for measurements of sucrose was 0.11 per thousand without the reduction oven and improved slightly to 0.08 per thousand with the reduction oven. The filament lifetime improved by more than 600%, thereby improving the long-term system stability and analytical efficiency. In addition the costs per analysis were reduced considerably. PMID:18041012

  20. [Analysis of rice leaves proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem, mass spectrometry based on the purification using a novel affinity detergent removal spin column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolin; Gong, Jiadi; Chen, Mingxue; Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Cao, Zhaoyun

    2014-11-01

    A purification method was established for the analysis of proteomes in rice leaves based on a novel detergent removal spin column (DRSC). The proteins were extracted by phenol protein extraction method followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) lysis. The lysate was purified by the detergent removal spin column and the enzymolytic peptides were detected by the nanoflow liquid chromatography-hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). In terms of SDS removal efficiencies and protein identification, the method of DRSC was compared with those of filter aided sample preparation (FASP) and acetone precipitation. As a result, there were good efficiencies ( > 95%) of SDS removal for the three methods. With the DRSC purification strategy, 563 proteins were identified from rice leaves, while only 196 and 306 proteins were identified by FASP and acetone precipitation procedures respectively, in spite of certain complementarities among these identified proteins by the three methods. DRSC is suitable for proteins with various relative molecular masses and pI values. However, there were similar losses of proteins with different relative molecular masses and pI values with the other two methods. Using the established method, 588 proteins were identified by once injection analysis. According to the molecular functions, 296 proteins with at least two identified peptides can be classified into eight categories with binding activity, enzyme activity, transporter activity, inhibitor activity, structural constitute, catalytic activity, other and unknown functions. The method provides technical reference for conducting rice proteomes.

  1. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  2. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  3. Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chithiika Ruby, V.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India); Chandrasekar, V. K. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401 (India)

    2015-01-15

    We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schrödinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering, we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and is also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

  4. Aggressive angiomyxoma in the vulva: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeh, Su Kyoung; Ku, Young Mi; Whang, In Yong; Kim, Ki Tae [Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign tumor that originates in the pelvic or perineal organs of women. We report a case of an aggressive angiomyxoma as a huge vulvar mass, and present its clinical and image characteristics with a review of the literatures.

  5. Aggressive angiomyxoma in the vulva: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign tumor that originates in the pelvic or perineal organs of women. We report a case of an aggressive angiomyxoma as a huge vulvar mass, and present its clinical and image characteristics with a review of the literatures

  6. Arsenic removal in solution using non living bio masses of aquatic weed; Remocion de As en solucion empleando biomasas no vivas de maleza acuatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A, M. J.

    2010-07-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid considered among the most dangerous to health. The As maximum level allowed of drinkable water is 0.01 mg/L established by the Who. Several techniques have been proposed to remove arsenic from water, among which are the sorption processes in economic biological materials, which has advantages for its high efficiency in dilute toxic removing from contaminated water, for these reason it is necessary to study new bio sorbents materials which are economic, simple and easy to apply in the treatment of contaminated areas. The aim of this project was evaluate the removal of As (V) in solution using two non living aquatic plants: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), characterize these materials and compare the efficiency between both; the parameters evaluated were the As (V) initial concentration in solution, contact time, ph value and the amount of biomass in contact with them. It describes the method to prepare the non living plants. The physicochemical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis was made. The results shown that cellulose is the main component confirmed by the techniques above mentioned. Surface characterization of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor by specific surface area, shown 1.3521 m{sup 2}/g and 0.6395 m{sup 2}/g respectively, the hydration kinetic indicates that 24 h was the maximum hydration time for both plants; the point of zero charge determination by mass titration gives a ph=6.1 for the first plant and ph=7.1 for the second plant, finally the active site density obtained for the plants were of 8.57 sites/nm{sup 2} and 12.47 sites/nm{sup 2}. The point of zero charge was analyzed for know the ph from which the As (V) species are removal preferably. Tested contact processes between bio sorbent-As (V) were performed to assess the ability of bio masses to removal As (V) from aqueous solutions

  7. Three-Dimensional Printing as an Interdisciplinary Communication Tool: Preparing for Removal of a Giant Renal Tumor and Atrium Neoplastic Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golab, Adam; Slojewski, Marcin; Brykczynski, Miroslaw; Lukowiak, Magdalena; Boehlke, Marek; Matias, Daniel; Smektala, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing involves preparing 3D objects from a digital model. These models can be used to plan and practice surgery. We used 3D printing to plan for a rare complicated surgery involving the removal of a renal tumor and neoplastic mass, which reached the heart atrium. A printed kidney model was an essential element of communication for physicians with different specializations. PMID:27585198

  8. Individual strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in encounters with trained aggressive residents

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, Rensina F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether individual differences in offensive behaviour are related to differences in defensive behaviour, the responses of male wild house mice, Mus domesticus, of an aggressive and a non-aggressive line to defeat by physically stronger residents were analysed. Individuals of the aggressive line engaged in more flight behaviour, whereas the males of the non-aggressive line predominantly showed immobility. The higher flight tendency of the aggressive intruders provoked more attacks...

  9. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    .      The three types of aggression: bullying, nasty teasing and violence at work seem to have much in common with regard to social climate at work, personal dispositions, the tendency of repeated exposure and the serious consequences on the victims' health and well being.      In conclusion the results...... of the present thesis show that a substantial number of employees reports exposure to different forms of aggression that may have serious short- and long-term impact on their health and well-being as well as a strong risk of recurrent exposure. Thus, it is very important to initiate research projects that aim......Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...

  10. Seasonal occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of 55 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kosma, Christina; Lambropoulou, Dimitra

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive study, which contains the seasonal occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of 55 multi-class pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), took place in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Volos, Greece. A one year monitoring study was performed and the samples were collected from the influent and the effluent of the WWTP. Solid phase extraction was used for the pre-concentration of the samples followed by an LC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Positive samples were further confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The maximum concentrations of the PPCPs varied between 21 ng/L and 15,320 ng/L in the influents and between 18 ng/L and 9965 ng/L in the effluents. The most commonly detected PPCPs were the diuretic furosemide, the beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol, the analgesics paracetamol, nimesulide, salicylic acid and diclofenac and the psychomotor stimulant caffeine. The removal efficiencies ranged between negative and high removal rates, demonstrating that the WWTP is not able to efficiently remove the complex mixture of PPCPs. The estimated mass loads ranged between 5.1 and 3513 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for WWTP influent and between 4.1 to 2141 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for WWTP effluent. Finally, environmental risk assessment has been regarded a necessary part of the general research. According to the results produced from the calculation of the risk quotient on three trophic levels, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the antibiotics, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, identified to be of high potential environmental risk for acute toxicity, while diclofenac also for chronic toxicity. PMID:26613513

  11. Are female CFOs less tax aggressive? Evidence from tax aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Francis , Bill B; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wu,Qiang; YAN Meng

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of CFO gender on corporate tax aggressiveness. Focusing on firms that experience a male-to-female CFO transition, the paper compares those firms’ degree of tax aggressiveness during the pre- and post-transition periods. Using the probability of tax sheltering, the predicted unrecognized tax benefits, and the discretionary permanent book-tax differences to measure tax aggressiveness, we find that female CFOs are associated with less tax aggressiveness as comp...

  12. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  13. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  14. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  15. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  16. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  17. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  18. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  19. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  20. Aggressive primary thyroid lymphoma: imaging features of two elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of aggressive thyroid lymphoma in elderly patients that presented as Epub ahead of print large infiltrative thyroid masses with extensive invasion to adjacent structures including trachea, esophagus, and common carotid artery. Ultrasonography displayed irregular shaped, heterogeneous hypoechoic mass, mimicking anaplastic carcinoma. Computed tomography showed heterogeneously enhancing mass compared to surrounding muscles without calcification and hemorrhage. After biopsy, the masses were histopathologically diagnosed as lymphoma. Aggressive primary thyroid lymphoma is rare; therefore, here we report its image features, with emphasis on ultrasonographic findings, and discuss its differential diagnosis.

  1. Aggressive primary thyroid lymphoma: imaging features of two elderly patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eu Hyun; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Tae Jung [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report two cases of aggressive thyroid lymphoma in elderly patients that presented as Epub ahead of print large infiltrative thyroid masses with extensive invasion to adjacent structures including trachea, esophagus, and common carotid artery. Ultrasonography displayed irregular shaped, heterogeneous hypoechoic mass, mimicking anaplastic carcinoma. Computed tomography showed heterogeneously enhancing mass compared to surrounding muscles without calcification and hemorrhage. After biopsy, the masses were histopathologically diagnosed as lymphoma. Aggressive primary thyroid lymphoma is rare; therefore, here we report its image features, with emphasis on ultrasonographic findings, and discuss its differential diagnosis.

  2. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  3. Mass transfer study on the electrochemical removal of copper ions from synthetic effluents using reticulated vitreous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto-Costa, Pedro H; Ruotolo, Luís Augusto M

    2013-01-01

    Porous electrodes have been successfully used for metal electrodeposition from diluted aqueous solution due to their high porosity and specific surface area, which lead to high mass transfer rates. This work studies the mass transfer of copper electrodeposition on reticulated vitreous carbon in a flow reactor without membrane. The flow configuration, otherwise the filter-press electrochemical reactors, was designed in order to minimize the pressure drop. The mass transfer coefficient was determined by voltammetric and galvanostatic electrodeposition. In the voltammetric experiments a Luggin capillary was used to measure the current-potential curves and to determine the limiting current (and, consequently, the mass transfer coefficient). In the galvanostatic experiments the concentration-time curves were obtained and considering a limiting current kinetics model, the mass transfer coefficient (k(m)) was determined for different flow velocities. The results showed that both methods give similar values of k(m), thus the voltammetric method can be recommended because it is faster and simpler. Finally, the reactor performance was compared with others from literature, and it was observed that the proposed reactor design has high Sherwood numbers similar to other reactor configurations using membranes and reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes.

  4. Aggressive drowsy cache cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, H. A.; El-Dib, D. A.; Abid, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An aggressive drowsy cache block management, where the cache block is forced into drowsy mode all the time except during write and read operations, is proposed. The word line (WL) is used to enable the normal supply voltage (V DD_high) to the cache line only when it is accessed for read or write whereas the drowsy supply voltage (V DD_low) is enabled to the cache cell otherwise. The proposed block management neither needs extra cycles nor extra control signals to wake the drowsy cache cell, thereby reducing the performance penalty associated with traditional drowsy caches. In fact, the proposed aggressive drowsy mode can reduce the total power consumption of the traditional drowsy mode by 13% or even more, depending on the cache access rate, access frequency and the CMOS technology used.

  5. Radiotherapy for aggressive fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate local control with radiotherapy for aggressive fibromatosis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with histologically confirmed aggressive fibromatosis were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Florida between March 1975 and June 1992. The minimum length of follow-up was 2 years; 88% of patients had follow-up for at least 5 years. Thirty-nine patients had lesions in an extremity and 14 patients had lesions in the trunk. Twenty-nine patients were treated for gross disease. Patients were treated with total doses between 35 Gy and 70 Gy; 83% of patients received 50 Gy to 60 Gy. Results: Local control was achieved in 23 of 29 patients (79%) treated for postoperative microscopic residual disease. Local control was achieved in 21 of 24 patients (88%) treated for gross disease; gross disease was controlled in 8 of 8 patients with previously untreated lesions, and in 13 of 16 patients treated for postoperative gross residual and recurrent disease. Overall, aggressive fibromatosis was locally controlled in 83% of treated patients. All 9 treatment failures occurred with extremity lesions 4 to 68 months after initiation of treatment. Of the 9 recurrences, 4 were out-of-field, 3 were in-field, and 4 occurred at the margin of the irradiated field. Salvage was successful in 8 of 9 patients in whom salvage was attempted with surgery alone or combined with postoperative radiotherapy. A functional limb was maintained in 38 of 39 patients with extremity or limb girdle lesions. The most serious complication of treatment was pathologic fracture, which occurred in 3 of 53 treated patients; all 3 fractures healed with conservative management. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is a valuable adjunct to surgery in the management of aggressive fibromatosis and can be used alone in patients with unresectable or inoperable disease

  6. Individual strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in encounters with trained aggressive residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, Rensina F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether individual differences in offensive behaviour are related to differences in defensive behaviour, the responses of male wild house mice, Mus domesticus, of an aggressive and a non-aggressive line to defeat by physically stronger residents were analysed. Individuals of the aggress

  7. Low levels of caries in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulugodu Ramachandra Srinivas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged <30 years (older individuals can also be affected and is characterized by a young age of onset, rapid rate of disease progression, and familial aggregation of cases. Dental caries is caused by the dissolution of enamel by acid-producing bacteria present in the plaque biofilm, especially when the biofilm reaches critical mass due to improper oral hygiene. The association between caries level and aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down’s syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.

  8. Aggressive angiomyxoma in the inguinal region: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare myxoid mesenchymal tumor of the pelvis and perineum, which occurs almost exclusively in adult women. The tumor is especially rare in men. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Japanese man with a slowly growing inguinal swelling. At surgery, a huge mass in the soft tissue of the inguinal region was found, not involving the adjacent organs. The morphologic picture was compatible with aggressive angiomyxoma of the inguinal region. Conclusions Aggressive angiomyxoma is a very rare, locally infiltrative neoplasm. Thus, after surgery, close follow-up is needed because of a high risk of local recurrence.

  9. Long-term observations of black carbon mass concentrations at Fukue Island, western Japan, during 2009-2015: constraining wet removal rates and emission strengths from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Pan, Xiaole; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Taketani, Fumikazu; Uno, Itsushi; Kondo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Long-term (2009-2015) observations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were performed using a continuous soot-monitoring system (COSMOS) at Fukue Island, western Japan, to provide information on wet removal rate constraints and the emission strengths of important source regions in East Asia (China and others). The annual average mass concentration was 0.36 µg m-3, with distinct seasonality; high concentrations were recorded during autumn, winter, and spring and were caused by Asian continental outflows, which reached Fukue Island in 6-46 h. The observed data were categorized into two classes, i.e., with and without a wet removal effect, using the accumulated precipitation along a backward trajectory (APT) for the last 3 days as an index. Statistical analysis of the observed ΔBC / ΔCO ratios was performed to obtain information on the emission ratios (from data with zero APT only) and wet removal rates (including data with nonzero APTs). The estimated emission ratios (5.2-6.9 ng m-3 ppb-1) varied over the six air mass origin areas; the higher ratios for south-central East China (30-35° N) than for north-central East China (35-40° N) indicated the relative importance of domestic emissions and/or biomass burning sectors. The significantly higher BC / CO emission ratios adopted in the bottom-up Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2 (8.3-23 ng m-3 ppb-1) over central East China and Korea needed to be reduced at least by factors of 1.3 and 2.8 for central East China and Korea, respectively, but the ratio for Japan was reasonable. The wintertime enhancement of the BC emission from China, predicted by REAS2, was verified for air masses from south-central East China but not for those from north-central East China. Wet removal of BC was clearly identified as a decrease in the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio against APT. The transport efficiency (TE), defined as the ratio of the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio with precipitation to that without precipitation, was

  10. Effects of Violent-Video-Game Exposure on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive-Thought Accessibility, and Aggressive Affect Among Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O; Hilgard, Joseph; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted the idea among some members of the public that exposure to violent video games can have a pronounced effect on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Empirical evidence for or against this claim has been missing, however. To address this issue, we assigned adults with and without ASD to play a violent or nonviolent version of a customized first-person shooter video game. After they played the game, we assessed three aggression-related outcome variables (aggressive behavior, aggressive-thought accessibility, and aggressive affect). Results showed strong evidence that adults with ASD, compared with typically developing adults, are not differentially affected by acute exposure to violent video games. Moreover, model comparisons provided modest evidence against any effect of violent game content whatsoever. Findings from this experiment suggest that societal concerns that exposure to violent games may have a unique effect on adults with autism are not supported by evidence. PMID:26113064

  11. Effects of Violent-Video-Game Exposure on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive-Thought Accessibility, and Aggressive Affect Among Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O; Hilgard, Joseph; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted the idea among some members of the public that exposure to violent video games can have a pronounced effect on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Empirical evidence for or against this claim has been missing, however. To address this issue, we assigned adults with and without ASD to play a violent or nonviolent version of a customized first-person shooter video game. After they played the game, we assessed three aggression-related outcome variables (aggressive behavior, aggressive-thought accessibility, and aggressive affect). Results showed strong evidence that adults with ASD, compared with typically developing adults, are not differentially affected by acute exposure to violent video games. Moreover, model comparisons provided modest evidence against any effect of violent game content whatsoever. Findings from this experiment suggest that societal concerns that exposure to violent games may have a unique effect on adults with autism are not supported by evidence.

  12. Aggressive HIV-1?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoek Lia; de Ronde Anthony; Berkhout Ben

    2005-01-01

    Abstract New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?

  13. Aggression as positive reinforcement in mice under various ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2009-03-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident-intruder model of aggression as a positive reinforcer. A nose poke response on an operant conditioning panel was reinforced under fixed-ratio (FR 8), fixed-interval (FI 5-min), progressive ratio (PR 2), or differential reinforcement of low rate behavior reinforcement schedules (DRL 40-s and DRL 80-s). In the FR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression and extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. There were long postreinforcement pauses followed by bursts of responses with short interresponse times (IRTs). In the FI conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, occurred more frequently as the interval elapsed, and extinguished when the contingency was removed. In the PR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, postreinforcement pauses increased as the ratio requirement increased, and responding was extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. In the DRL conditions, the nose poke rate decreased, while the proportional distributions of IRTs and postreinforcement pauses shifted toward longer durations as the DRL interval increased. However, most responses occurred before the minimum IRT interval elapsed, suggesting weak temporal control of behavior. Overall, the findings suggest aggression can be a positive reinforcer for nose poke responses in mice on ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules.

  14. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  15. Identity Development and Aggressive Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Khomyk, Volodymyr; Filippova, Inessa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The paper is an attempt to explain the aggressive lexicon of adolescents. This explanation was based on the constructive-developmental theory of R. Kegan. Comparison of empirical data meaning-making evolution of identity predisposed to aggression youths with displays of their aggressive lexicon in intense interpersonal interactions indicate that the lexicon spokesmen of the Imperial stage of development a common with others reality is not shared, meaning the voice of his «...

  16. Introduction to "Conflict and Aggression"

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Camilla; Farnicka, Marzanna; Liberska, Hanna; Ramirez, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    During the XXXVII CICA we will be talking about Developmental and Social Conditions of Conflict and Aggression. All participants will have the opportunity to listen to two keynote speakers, eight sessions of scientific presentations, one poster session and two panel discussions. All these kinds of activities will be focused on a variety of types of conditionings of aggression and violence, on methods to measure readiness for aggression and on the practical implications of this knowledge to be...

  17. Aggressiveness of childern at lower primary school

    OpenAIRE

    RUIBAROVÁ, Soňa

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor theses deals with the issue of aggression and aggressiveness of children at lower primary school. The teoretical part is aimed at description of the basic terms and at characteristics of aggression and aggressiveness. In detail it is focused on aggression´s manifestation and factors that influence children´s aggressiveness. Among other things prevention and correction of these issues are suggested. The practical part is analysing presence of aggression among children at the fourt...

  18. Aggression in Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Volavka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals diagnosed with a mental illness are not violent, but some mentally ill patients commit violent acts. PubMed database was searched for articles published between 1980 and November 2013 using the combination of key words “schizophrenia” or “bipolar disorder” with “aggression” or “violence.” In comparison with the general population, there is approximately a twofold increase of risk of violence in schizophrenia without substance abuse comorbidity and ninefold with such comorbidity. The risk in bipolar disorder is at least as high as in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow two distinct pathways: one associated with antisocial conduct and another associated with the acute psychopathology, particularly anger and delusions. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second most effective treatment. Treatment nonadherence greatly increases the risk of violent behavior, and poor insight as well as hostility is associated with nonadherence. Nonpharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone is not sufficient.

  19. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon D. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was performed. To date, 46 cases of adenohypophysial tumors that were treated with temozolomide, including 30 adenomas and 16 carcinomas, have been reported. Eighteen of the 30 (60% adenomas and 11 of the 16 (69% carcinomas responded favorably to treatment. One patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and an aggressive prolactin-producing adenoma was also treated and demonstrated a good response. No significant complications have been attributed to temozolomide therapy. Thus, temozolomide is an effective treatment for the majority of aggressive adenomas and carcinomas. Evidence indicates that there is an inverse correlation between levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression and therapeutic response. Alternatively, high-level O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression correlates with an unfavorable response. Here, we review the use of temozolomide for treating pituitary neoplasms.

  20. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment

  1. Simultaneous detection of perchlorate and bromate using rapid high-performance ion exchange chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and perchlorate removal in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Danielle M; Mu, Ruipu; Gamagedara, Sanjeewa; Ma, Yinfa; Adams, Craig; Eichholz, Todd; Burken, Joel G; Shi, Honglan

    2015-06-01

    Perchlorate and bromate occurrence in drinking water causes health concerns due to their effects on thyroid function and carcinogenicity, respectively. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to advance a sensitive method for simultaneous rapid detection of perchlorate and bromate in drinking water system, (2) to systematically study the occurrence of these two contaminants in Missouri drinking water treatment systems, and (3) to examine effective sorbents for minimizing perchlorate in drinking water. A rapid high-performance ion exchange chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPIC-MS/MS) method was advanced for simultaneous detection of perchlorate and bromate in drinking water. The HPIC-MS/MS method was rapid, required no preconcentration of the water samples, and had detection limits for perchlorate and bromate of 0.04 and 0.01 μg/L, respectively. The method was applied to determine perchlorate and bromate concentrations in total of 23 selected Missouri drinking water treatment systems during differing seasons. The water systems selected include different source waters: groundwater, lake water, river water, and groundwater influenced by surface water. The concentrations of perchlorate and bromate were lower than or near to method detection limits in most of the drinking water samples monitored. The removal of perchlorate by various adsorbents was studied. A cationic organoclay (TC-99) exhibited effective removal of perchlorate from drinking water matrices.

  2. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  3. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  4. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  5. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association

  6. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  7. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  8. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  10. Determining estrogenic steroids in Taipei waters and removal in drinking water treatment using high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents from metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan were tested for the presence of the pollutants estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) using a new methodology that involves high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The method was also used to investigate the removal of the analytes by conventional drinking water treatment processes. Without adjusting the pH, we extracted 1-L samples with PolarPlus C18 Speedisks under a flow rate exceeding 100 mL/min, in which six samples could be done simultaneously using an extraction station. The adsorbent was washed with 40% methanol/60% water and then eluted by 50% methanol/50% dichloromethane. The eluate was concentrated until almost dry and was reconstituted by 20 μL of methanol. Quantitation was done by LC-MS/MS-negative electrospray ionization in the selected reaction monitoring mode with isotope-dilution techniques. The mobile phase was 10 mM N-methylmorpholine aqueous solution/acetonitrile with gradient elution. Mean recoveries of spiked Milli-Q water were 65-79% and precisions were within 2-20% of the tested concentrations (5.0-200 ng/L). The method was validated with spiked upstream river water; precisions were most within 10% of the tested concentrations (10-100 ng/L) with most RSDs 1 and EE2 concentrations; disk overloading by water matrix may also impact analyte recoveries along with ion suppression. In the Taipei water study, the four steroid estrogens were detected in river samples (ca. 15 ng/L for E2 and EE2 and 35-45 ng/L for E1 and E3). Average levels of 19-26 ng/L for E1, E2, and EE2 were detected in most wastewater effluents, while only a single effluent sample contained E3. The higher level in the river was likely caused by the discharge of untreated human and farming waste into the water. In the drinking water treatment simulations, coagulation removed 20-50% of the estrogens. An

  11. Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in males and females. Results reveal high rates of aggression in both males and females in the sample. Self reported drug use, expressed hostility, and experiences of maladaptive parenting were correlated with proactive aggression for both genders. Hyperactive/impulsive behaviors were correlated with male reactive aggression. An early age of traumatic stress and a low verbal IQ were correlated with female proactive aggression. Gender differences in correlates of proactive and reactive aggression may provide possible targets for research, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on reducing maladaptive aggression in clinically referred youth. PMID:12723901

  12. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  13. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  14. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  15. Aggressive pigging of oil and gas production and gathering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotwin, B. [Pipetech Corp. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Production pipelines are vulnerable to internal corrosion, which can occur due to free water containing elements that form corrosive electrolytes; deposition of solids from laminar flow; acid producing and sulfate reducing bacteria; and the disruption of inhibitor films creating cathodic/anodic relationships. This presentation demonstrated that an aggressive pipeline pigging program is economical compared to the cost of repair, down time and environmental clean up. Aggressive pigging program remove scale and deposits that interfere with the contact and absorption of corrosion inhibitors. Hard and tenacious deposits require the use of aggressive brushes. Passive films like iron sulfide and paraffin can also provide an effective corrosion barrier. An effective pigging program can reduce corrosion failures and increase production rates. This presentation also included several photographs of system designs and listed the steps for starting an effective pigging program. figs.

  16. Mathematical Model of Age Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Golovinski, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...

  17. Why are small males aggressive?

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Lesley J.; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative o...

  18. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  19. Aggression, Pleasure, and Cognitive Dissonance

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; J. Martín Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between aggression, pleasure and decision-making is analyzed applying a mediation model of structural equation modeling (SEM). The study explored it in two samples of similar age: young offenders and university students. A close relationship between aggression and pleasure was found in both populations. But, whereas in the case of university students, this congruence leads to a normal or adjusted behavior, in the case of young offenders, however, a mismatched evaluation of c...

  20. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  1. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  2. Aggressive retinal astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomida M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Machiko Tomida,1 Yoshinori Mitamura,1 Takashi Katome,1 Hiroshi Eguchi,1 Takeshi Naito,1 Takayuki Harada21Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, 2Visual Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report the case of a patient with an aggressive retinal astrocytoma accompanied with macular edema and neovascular vessels, who was initially treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. A 24-year-old male presented to our clinic complaining of visual disturbance in his right eye. At 8 years of age, he had been diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis complex. Fundus examination demonstrated a retinal tumor accompanied with marked neovascular vessels on the surface, retinal hemorrhage, and macular edema. After six monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections, fundus examination demonstrated marked regression of the macular edema and neovascular vessels. Two months later, a vitreous hemorrhage developed which necessitated pars plana vitrectomy. After additional intravitreal bevacizumab injection for preventing intraoperative bleeding, vitrectomy with endophotocoagulation for the tumor was performed. The vitreous sample was obtained during vitrectomy, and we measured the vascular endothelial growth factor concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The surgically removed epiretinal neovascular membrane and biopsied retinal tumor expressed vascular endothelial growth factor, although several intravitreal bevacizumab injections led to a vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor concentration of undetectable levels. The clinical course and immunohistochemical analyses indicate that intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy may have been insufficient to treat the aggressive retinal astrocytoma with macular edema and that laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy for the tumor should be considered following intravitreal

  3. Inoperable aggressive mesenteric fibromatosis with ureteric fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our report is to illustrate an aggressive case of mesenteric fibromatosis in a 17-year-old girl with a ureteric fistula and to review imaging and pathological features, natural history and treatment options of this disease. Our patient underwent computed tomography that revealed a widespread intra-abdominal mass. The necrotic centre of this mass had a fistulous communication with the right ureter. Fibromatoses represent a spectrum of uncommon benign conditions characterised by proliferating fibrous tissue. The deep intra-abdominal form of mesenteric fibromatosis (MF), one of the rare subtypes of the 'fibromatoses' or 'desmoid tumours', grows rapidly and may become extensive. Surgery provides good results in limited disease and non-surgical modalities in cases of unresectable and residual disease

  4. Effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on reducing aggression in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Faramarzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students’ aggression at schoolshas attracted the attention of many professionals and researchers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the reduction of male secondary students' aggression in Kermanshah. Methods: In this experimental study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used. A total of 400 students were randomly selected from among the high school male students in Kermanshah using multistage sampling. Of these, 40 students who had a higher mean score were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy once a week for eight sessions. The subjects completed Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992 twice, one before treatment and another after treatment. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that after removing the effect of pretest, the experimental group indicated a significant reduction compared to the control group in the total aggression scale (F=1059.531; P<0.001. Also, after removing the effect of the pretest, the experimental group experienced a significant decrease compared to the control group at the micro scales of aggressive feeling (F=639.936; P<0.001, the subscales of aggressive thoughts (F=154.240; P<0.001, and aggressive behaviors (F=502.836; P<0.001,. Conclusion: This study showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduced aggression in all three components of aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings in the students.

  5. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  6. Restricted access supramolecular solvents for removal of matrix-induced ionization effects in mass spectrometry: Application to the determination of Fusarium toxins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fonseca, Sergio; Rubio, Soledad

    2016-02-01

    Ion suppression/enhancement caused by matrix effects continues being a major concern in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This research explores the ability of a supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of inverted hexagonal aggregates of oleic acid to behave as a liquid with restricted access properties (SUPRAS-RAM). Fusarium toxins in cereals were extracted with the oleic acid-based SUPRAS-RAM prior to their quantification by LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-ion trap-MS (LC-ESI-IT-MS) in order to investigate the capability of this solvent to remove or reduce ionization suppression and/or enhancement in the analysis of complex samples by MS. The method involved the vortex-shaking of 300 mg of cereal with 600 μL of the SUPRAS-RAM for 15 min, centrifugation for separation of the supernatant and quantitation by LC-ESI-IT-MS. Macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates were excluded from extraction by chemical and physical mechanisms. Extraction of analytes and sample clean-up were thus carried out in a single step. No evaporation of the extracts was needed. Method detection limits for the legislated Fusarium toxins [i.e. deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2)] were 15 μg kg(-1) for DON and ZEA and 8 μg kg(-1) for fumonisins. These values were far below the maximum levels set by the European Commission for these toxins in foodstuffs. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these toxins in wheat and maize harvested in the South of Spain. No contamination of Fusarium toxins was found in samples at detectable levels. Recoveries in spiked samples were in the range 87-105%, with relative standard deviations between 1 and 7%. The use of the oleic acid-based SUPRAS-RAM effectively removed matrix interferences and allowed reliable quantitation of Fusarium toxins in cereals using solvent-based calibration.

  7. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  8. Determining estrogenic steroids in Taipei waters and removal in drinking water treatment using high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-Y. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: dbms@ntu.edu.tw; Wen, T.-Y. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Wang, G.-S. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Cheng, H.-W. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-H. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China); Lien, G.-W. [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Hsu-Chou Road, Taipei (10055), Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-01

    River water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents from metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan were tested for the presence of the pollutants estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), and 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) using a new methodology that involves high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The method was also used to investigate the removal of the analytes by conventional drinking water treatment processes. Without adjusting the pH, we extracted 1-L samples with PolarPlus C{sub 18} Speedisks under a flow rate exceeding 100 mL/min, in which six samples could be done simultaneously using an extraction station. The adsorbent was washed with 40% methanol/60% water and then eluted by 50% methanol/50% dichloromethane. The eluate was concentrated until almost dry and was reconstituted by 20 {mu}L of methanol. Quantitation was done by LC-MS/MS-negative electrospray ionization in the selected reaction monitoring mode with isotope-dilution techniques. The mobile phase was 10 mM N-methylmorpholine aqueous solution/acetonitrile with gradient elution. Mean recoveries of spiked Milli-Q water were 65-79% and precisions were within 2-20% of the tested concentrations (5.0-200 ng/L). The method was validated with spiked upstream river water; precisions were most within 10% of the tested concentrations (10-100 ng/L) with most RSDs < 10%. LODs of the environmental matrixes were 0.78-7.65 ng/L. A pre-filtration step before solid-phase extraction may significantly influence the measurement of E{sub 1} and EE{sub 2} concentrations; disk overloading by water matrix may also impact analyte recoveries along with ion suppression. In the Taipei water study, the four steroid estrogens were detected in river samples (ca. 15 ng/L for E{sub 2} and EE{sub 2} and 35-45 ng/L for E{sub 1} and E{sub 3}). Average levels of 19-26 ng/L for E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}, and EE{sub 2} were detected in most wastewater effluents

  9. AGGRESSIVE ANGIOMYXOMA OF THE UTERUS - A RARE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aggressive Angiomyxoma is a rare myxoid mesenchyma l tumor of the pelvis and perineum, which occurs almost exclusively in adult women. It is a rare neoplasm with about 250 reported cases. To the best of our knowledge only o ne case of aggressive angiomyxoma of uterus arising from the uterine cavity and presenting as e ndometrial polyp has been reported . But angiomyxoma arising from body of uterus has never b een reported. We report a case of 45 year old lady with a huge mass arising from the uterus which on histopathological examination showed features of aggressive angiomyxoma. Complete excisi on is the treatment of choice because of its tendency to recur locally. So radical surgery, with wide margins is advised. Prognosis is very good. Only 2 cases with metastatic disease followed by de ath have been reported. Recurrence rate is 36- 70%

  10. Aggression by a female rat cohabiting with a sterile male declines within 27 h following ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1993-02-01

    Females that had become aggressive as a result of cohabiting with a sterile male were ovariectomized and implanted with empty Silastic tubes. Control groups were either sham ovariectomized or ovariectomized and implanted with Silastic tubes providing replacement levels of estradiol and testosterone. Twenty-seven hours following surgery, all animals were tested for aggressiveness toward an unfamiliar female rat. The aggression of ovariectomized females without hormone replacement declined to a minimal level postoperatively and was significantly lower than that of sham-ovariectomized females or ovariectomized females with estradiol and testosterone replacement. Both sham-ovariectomized females and ovariectomized females given hormone replacement displayed a level of aggression close to that observed preoperatively. The aggression of a female rat cohabiting with a sterile male appears to be highly sensitive to the removal of gonadal hormones. This corresponds with observations made on pregnant females and contrasts with those made on lactating females.

  11. Aggressive Jungen und gewalthaltige Computerspiele

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  12. Inverted Y incision and trans-sacral approach in retroperitoneal aggressive angiomyxoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Dae Gy; Chong, Gun Oh; Cho, Young Lae; Park, Il Soo; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Yoon Soon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare myxedematous mesenchymal tumor that mainly occurs in the female pelvis and perineum. The principle of treatment for aggressive angiomyxoma is surgical excision. The tumor can be removed by local excision alone when it occurs locally on the perineum. However, it cannot be completely excised by a perineal approach alone when it passes through the perineum and pelvic bone to extend into the retroperitoneal space. Case presentation A 34-year-old Asian...

  13. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  14. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  15. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  16. Malignant transformation of aggressive osteoblastoma to ostesarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgün, Ömer; Salduz, Ahmet; Kebudi, Rejin; Özger, Harzem; Bilgiç, Bilge

    2016-08-01

    Osteoblastoma is a rare, bone-forming tumor, characterized by osteoid and woven bone production. A 13-year-old boy patient presented to our clinic with complaint of pain in his left proximal tibia. We performed curettage and bone grafting for the lesion diagnosed as osteoblastoma. Two years later, the patient admitted to the hospital with a mass in the same region which was diagnosed by biopsy to be osteosarcoma. Patient was performed reconstruction operation with local resection and mega prosthesis. Fourteen months after termination of chemotherapy, lung metastasis developed and the patient died consequently. In this article, we reported a patient with aggressive osteoblastoma of the left proximal tibia which recurred as an osteosarcoma and discussed the difficulties in the histopathological diagnosis and management of these patients. As some other cases in the literature, our case indicates that osteoblastomas may undergo malignant transformation. PMID:27499324

  17. Aggressive Driving Behavior: Undergraduate Students Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rungson Chomeya

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The main purposes of this research were (1) to study the aggressive driving behavior of graduate students, (2) to develop aggressive driving behavior standard test, (3) to compare the aggressive driving behavior between gender, years of study, academic achievement, driving confidence and driving experience and (4) to study the relationship among aggressive driving behavior, driving confidence, driving experience and accident experience. Approach: The subjects consisted of 4...

  18. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043434

  19. Understanding and Preventing Aggressive Responses in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Jeannine

    1996-01-01

    Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…

  20. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and it

  1. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  2. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, T A; Cohen, P S

    1982-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian species engage in aggressive behavior toward animate and inanimate targets when exposed to intermittent access to a positive reinforcer. This behavior, called extinction- or schedule-induced aggression, typically includes a biting or striking topography that inflicts damage on a target. This paper critically reviews research and theoretical issues concerning such aggression and suggests directions for future investigation.

  3. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  4. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  5. Individual variation in sow aggressive behavior and its relationship with sow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, M; Morrison, R S; Rice, M; Hemsworth, P H

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between individual sow aggressive behavior and sow welfare, based on aggression, skin injuries, and stress, in a total of 275 pregnant domestic sows. Over 4 time replicates, sows were randomly mixed into groups of 10 (floor space of 1.8 m/sow) within 7 d of insemination in both their first and second gestations (200 sows per gestation with 126 sows observed in both gestations). Measurements were taken on aggression (both delivered and received) at feeding, skin injuries, and plasma cortisol concentrations at d 2, 9, and 51 after mixing. Live weight gain, nonreproductive removals, litter size (born alive, total born, and stillborn piglets), and farrowing rate were also recorded. In both the first and the second gestations, sows were classified at d 2 after mixing as "submissive" (delivered little or no aggression at feeding relative to aggression received), "subdominant" (received more aggression at feeding than delivered), and "dominant" (delivered more aggression at feeding than received). In both gestations, sows classified as dominant at d 2 subsequently delivered more (gestation 1, sows had the least skin injuries throughout gestation 1 ( = 0.04), and although submissive sows sustained the most skin injuries at d 9 and 51 of gestation 2, at d 2 the classifications did not differ in skin injuries ( sows had the highest cortisol concentrations at d 2 of gestation 2, but there were no differences between classifications at d 9 and 51 in either gestation (gestation 1, > 0.05; gestation 2, = 0.02). There were no significant relationships between aggression classification and reproduction and nonreproductive removals ( > 0.05). In conclusion, sows classified as dominant at feeding at d 2 subsequently received less aggression at feeding, sustained fewer skin injuries, and had higher live weight gain. Submissive and subdominant sows in groups are likely to benefit from the provision of increased resources such as space and access

  6. Aggression: peculiarities of manifestation and coping strategies in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Budykin A.V.; Budykin S.V.; Zhigachev A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aggression management is becoming increasingly important task in modern society, as the number of situations that provoke aggression increases. Particular attention should be paid to aggression in adolescence. The world economic crisis contributes to the increase in the level of aggressiveness. The incidence of auto-aggression also increases. Suppressed aggression leads to the development of psychosomatic disorders. Experts agree that aggression is bad, but just suppressing aggressive reactio...

  7. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  8. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  9. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  10. Tick Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  11. A rare case of aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas Namdevrao Kurude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, slow-growing soft tissue tumor developing from myxoid cells that usually arises in the pelvis and perineal regions of women in reproductive age, with a marked tendency to local recurrence but a low tendency to metastasize. It is often initially misdiagnosed because of its rarity. It has a marked tendency for local recurrence. Surgical resection is the treatment modality of choice for aggressive angiomyxoma. We describe a case of an aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva in a 75 year old postmenopausal woman with an asymptomatic mass on the genitalia since 3 years. Excision of the mass was done under local anaesthesia and the diagnosis was only made after histological examination. . The patient has been kept under follow-up. The etiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of this rare tumor are outlined. Angiomyxoma of vulva and vagina refers to a rare disease. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult due to rarity and absence of diagnostic features, but it should be considered in every mass in genital, perianal and pelvic region in a woman in the reproductive age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2844-2846

  12. Student nurses' perceptions of aggression: An exploratory study of defensive styles, aggression experiences, and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Hulya; Keser Ozcan, Neslihan; Tulek, Zeliha; Kaya, Fadime; Boyacioglu, Nur Elcin; Erol, Ozgul; Arguvanli Coban, Sibel; Pazvantoglu, Ozan; Gumus, Kubra

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the clinical learning process, nursing students' perception of aggression might have implications in terms of their future professional behavior toward patients. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, we investigated the relationships between student nurses' perceptions of aggression and their personal characteristics, defense styles, and a convenience sample of 1539 experiences of aggressive behavior in clinical practice. Information about the students' personal features, their clinical practice, and experiences of aggressive behavior was obtained by questionnaire. The Turkish version of the Perception of Aggression Scale and Defense Styles Questionnaire-40 were also used. Students were frequently exposed to verbal aggression from patients and their relatives. And perceived patient aggression negatively, perception of aggression were associated with sex, defense styles, feelings of safety, and experiences of aggressions during clinical practice. Of interest is the reality that student nurses should be prepared for untoward events during their training. PMID:26916604

  13. Influence of broadcasting on Aggressive Behaviour of Younger School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    RAJNOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at influence of broadcasting on the level of aggressive behaviour of younger school-aged children. The basic concepts are explained in general terms; the basic way aggressive behaviour and mass media can be divided is given; psyche of a younger school-aged child is explained; television violence, its forms and both negative and positive effects and health consequences of excessive television-watching are described and prevention of adverse ffects of TV programmes on childr...

  14. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  15. Modeling and simulation of VOCs removal by nonthermal plasma discharge with photocatalysis in a continuous reactor: Synergetic effect and mass transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Assadi, Aymen Amine; Bouzaza, Abdelkrim; Merabet, Smail; Wolbert, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper deals with photocatalysis (TiO2 + UV), nonthermal plasma (NTP) and their combinations. These processes have been widely studied for isovaleraldehyde (Isoval) treatment. Isoval removal, selectivity of CO2 and CO, and ozone formation are investigated in order to evaluate the performance of the combined process. The results show that the performance of the process has enhanced and a synergetic effect is observed. On the other hand, this work aims at investiga...

  16. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Murphy, Kelly R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

  17. Periodontal and space maintenance considerations for primary teeth presenting with aggressive periodontitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Zigdon, Hadar; Einy, Shmuel; Aizenbud, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is diagnosed mainly by clinical and radiographic examination. Diagnosis in the primary dentition indicates a choice between conservative and radical treatment that involves extractions, depending on the severity of the case. The purpose of this report was to present a case of aggressive periodontitis in a systemically healthy child and to discuss the periodontal and orthodontic aspects. A 7-year-old girl presented with bleeding on probing of approximately half of the dentition, deep periodontal pockets around all primary molars, and increased tooth mobility. An individual oral hygiene program was initiated. The primary maxillary right molar and all primary mandibular molars were extracted, and clear vacuum-formed removable retainers were fabricated and used as space maintainers. The patient was followed longitudinally for 2 years, and no space loss was recorded. Clear vacuum-formed removable retainers mainly involve occlusal crown attachment and, therefore, decrease the risk of plaque accumulation, gingival irritation, and aggressive periodontitis in the permanent dentition.

  18. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention a...

  19. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Masango

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that...

  20. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity classification

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Tereshchenko,; Yu. A. Belyy; M. S. Tereshchenkova; I. G. Trifanenkova

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Based on dynamic monitoring of 133 premature infants (266 eyes) with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), digital retinoscopy and computer morphometry the disease clinical and morphometric features were revealed and systematized, and their consecutive replacement was fixed. As a result the separate classification of aggressive posterior disease was worked up. In aggressive posterior ROP course the next consecutive stages were marked out: subclinical, early ...

  1. Neurobiological Basis of Reactive Aggression: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shiina A

    2015-01-01

    Reactive aggression is a response to salient threats that may have evolved as a strategy for survival. The likelihood of its outburst is mediated by several factors including the activity of serotonin and other neurotransmitters that regulate reactive aggression through the corticolimbic circuit. Specifically, this circuit is modulated by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) such that low levels of activity incline an animal to impulsive behavior. Evidence also indicates that aggressive ...

  2. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Justin M.; Murphy, Kelly R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, ...

  3. Prosocial video games reduce aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has shown that playing violent video games increased aggressive tendencies. However, as pointed out by the General Learning Model (GLM) (Buckley & Anderson, 2006), depending on their content, video games do not inevitably increase but may also decrease aggressive responses. Accordingly, the present research tested the hypothesis that playing prosocial video games decreases aggressive cognitions. In fact, playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video g...

  4. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  5. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  6. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  7. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  8. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene L; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale....... These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient...

  9. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  10. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354

  11. An incident of female-female aggression in the house wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alworth, T; Scheiber, IBR

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe one example of female-female aggression in the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). An intruding female usurped the resident female and paired with the resident male. House Wrens are known for committing infanticide as well as puncturing and removing eggs of conspecifics and oth

  12. Unusual Mediastinal Dumbbell Tumor Mimicking an Aggressive Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is known to affect all possible anatomical locations of the human body. However, the mediastinal localization is extremely rare. This benign, commonly asymptomatic and incidentally detected disease, at times may simulate an aggressive malignancy by its potential to cause osseous destruction and intraspinal extension. A young female, farmer by occupation, presented with complaints of left chest pain and monoparesis of the left lower limb. Radiograph followed by computed tomography (CT of the chest demonstrated a cystic mass within the posterior mediastinum, eroding and scalloping overlying ribs and extending into the spinal canal by causing destruction of adjoining vertebra, and assuming a dumbbell shape. The serology was positive for echinococcosis. The patient underwent surgery and the postoperative histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. The patient recovered with no complications or recurrence. Hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal cystic lesions, however aggressive the lessions may appear.

  13. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health...

  14. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocat...

  15. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way active shock avoidance paradigm. Overall, aggressive mice were found to be better active shock avoiders than non-aggressive animals, a finding that is consistent with our hypothesis. However, within ...

  16. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggres...

  17. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  18. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  19. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women. PMID:21046605

  20. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in response to inescapable shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1990-01-01

    The effect of exposure to inescapable long-duration shocks of moderate intensity on intershock activity and on subsequent escape or avoidance performance was studied in aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. The activity of the non-aggressive mice was severely suppressed during the inescapable sho

  1. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  2. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on sub

  3. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  4. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  5. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  6. Individualizing management of aggressive fibromatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine prognostic indicators in aggressive fibromatoses that may be used to optimize case-specific management strategy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven fibromatoses presenting between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. The following treatment modalities were utilized: (a) surgery alone for 51 tumors; (b) radiation alone for 15 tumors; and (c) radiation and surgery (combined modality) for 41 tumors. Outcome analysis was based on 5-year actuarial local control rates. Results: Control rates among surgery, radiation therapy, and combined modality groups were 69%, 93%, and 72%. Multivariate analysis identified age 60 Gy was seen in patients with unresected or gross residual disease. Of the patients, 23 with disease involving the plantar region had a control rate of 62%, with significantly worse outcomes in children. Conclusions: These results are consistent with those found in the relevent literature. They support primary resection with negative margins when feasible. Radiation is a highly effective alternative in situations where surgery would result in major functional or cosmetic defects. When negative surgical margins are not achieved in recurrent tumors, radiation is recommended. Perioperative radiation should be considered in other high-risk groups (recurrent disease, positive margins, and plantar tumors in young patients). Doses of 60-65 Gy for gross disease and 50-60 Gy for microscopic residual are recommended. Observation may be considered for primary tumors with disease remaining in situ when they are located such that progression would not cause significant morbidity. Although plantar lesions in children may represent a group at high risk for recurrence or aggressive behavior, the greater potential for radiation-induced morbidity in this group must also temper its use. Given the inconsistent nature and treatment response of this tumor, it is fundamental that treatment recommendations should be made based on the risk:benefit analysis for

  7. MRI diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the MRI features of aggressive fibromatosis (AF) in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy. Method: The clinical files and MRI appearances of 66 AF patients (primary 19 cases, recurrent 47 cases) were reviewed and compared with the postoperative pathological findings. Results: The median age of all patients was 31 years (-range, 11-60 years) with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1 : 3.4. Eighty tumors were discovered. There were 5 superficial fibromatosis and 75 deep fibromatosis in which 2 lesions were intraabdominal, 6 lesions in the abdominal wall and 67 lesions extraabdominal. The average long diameter of all lesions was (8.7±5.4) cm, of superficial lesions (5.7± 2.8)cm, of deep lesions (8.9±5.5) cm. Of the 80 tumors, 79 were displayed as space-occupying intramuscular lesions, 47 (58.8%) were ovoid or lobulated and 22 (27.5%) were infiltrative in shape; 48 (60%) lesions had a well-defined margin, of which 4 formed a pseudocapsule as they enlarged by compressing normal tissue. To compare with the muscle signal intensity on MRI, 75 lesions demonstrated isointensity, mild hyperintensity or hypointensity on T1WI , heterogeneous high intensity on T2WI, and avid heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration. There was no necrosis or surrounding edema in all lesions. Tumors destroyed bone in 2, cases. Conclusion: Aggressive fibromatosis has characteristic features on MRI, and MRI is valuable in diagnosing AF and evaluating the extend of lesion and involvement of adjacent structures. (authors)

  8. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  9. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  10. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  11. How food controls aggression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod S Lim

    Full Text Available How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs.

  12. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben;

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  13. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  14. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  15. Insight, psychosis and aggressive behaviour in mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Aggressiveness is a common component of manic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics associated with aggressive behaviour in bipolar patients with acute manic episodes. Methods: A study was carried out with 173 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for manic or mixed bipolar disorder. Clinical and demographic variables were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. Significance and independence of relevant variables were tested with regression models. Results: Forty percent of patients displayed aggressive behaviour. Involuntary nature of admission, positive psychotic symptoms and lack of insight were predictors of aggressive behaviour in manic patients. Conclusions: Aggressive behaviour during acute manic episodes appears to be related with the severity of the psychopathology, and particularly positive psychotic symptoms, involuntary admissions and lack of insight.

  16. Are Aggressive Cartoons Really Funnier? A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Montejo Hernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory were examined in a sample of 373 students of Medicine and Psychology in the city of Tunja in Colombia. In the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory, most common aggressive behaviors were verbal aggression and attitudes or rage gestures, with physical aggression, verbal aggression and threatening showing the highest correlations; most common situation were study problems, family and interpersonalrelations, and familiar or personal economy, no high correlationswere found among situations or situations with behaviors. In the Motives for Aggression Inventory, most common motives were rage, emotional discomfort, self-defense and defending values. A ronbach´s Alpha of 0.91 was obtained. Both of the questionnaires showed a single dimension (construct validity and satisfactory divergent validity, with the Psychopathy subscale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire by Krug (1987, and convergent validity, with the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992. Homogeneity coefficients were appropriated. Motives in the IMA, specially the pleasure of being aggressive, getting what you want, somethingmakes you feel bad, and valuing aggressive persons, were predictors of the behaviors in the ISCA.

  18. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  19. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  20. Tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal.

  1. Tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. PMID:21865802

  2. Reactive and proactive aggression and suicide attempts among criminal offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Outwardly-directed aggression is associated with suicide attempts, but aggression is a heterogeneous construct. Increased specificity in our understanding of the link between aggression and suicide attempts can be attained by examining subtypes of aggression. We studied the relationships of reactive and proactive aggression to history of a suicide attempt among 96 criminal offenders in a pretrial supervision program. Consistent with prior findings in non-offender samples, reactive aggression ...

  3. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  4. Nonsurgical treatment of aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J. (Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, TX (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck.

  5. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  6. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  7. Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney - a rare aggressive tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Shetty MV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney is a rare highly aggressive neoplasm of childhood. We present the case of a 18-months old girl presenting with decreased appetite, abdominal distention of 20 days duration and 3 episodes of haematuria. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy and histopathological examination of the excised specimen confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney. This case highlights the need to consider malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney of possibility young children in presenting with a renal mass.

  8. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

  9. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Fachinelli C.; Torrecillas M.; Rodríguez Echandía E.L.

    2004-01-01

    We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pai...

  10. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tereshchenko,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on dynamic monitoring of 133 premature infants (266 eyes with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, digital retinoscopy and computer morphometry the disease clinical and morphometric features were revealed and systematized, and their consecutive replacement was fixed. As a result the separate classification of aggressive posterior disease was worked up. In aggressive posterior ROP course the next consecutive stages were marked out: subclinical, early clinical appearances stage, manifestation stage, advanced, far-advanced and terminal stages. The peculiarity of early clinical appearances stage and manifestation stage is the presence of such course types: favorable and unfavorable.

  11. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  12. Friendship and Aggression in Elementary School. The friendships of aggressive children and the effects of having aggressive friends

    OpenAIRE

    Palmen, J.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of friendship for children’s adjustment (e.g., Ladd, 1990). However, some children may be less capable of maintaining satisfying relationships with their peers. Aggressive children have been found to experience peer relation difficulties (e.g., Dodge, Coie, Pettit, & Price, 1990). Most research on aggression and peer relations has focused on children’s status within the peer group (group interaction), rather than friendship (dyadic interaction). Group ...

  13. Aggressive malignant abdominal mesothelioma: Clinical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32-year-old Filipino female, working as an x-ray technician, presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with acute abdominal pain for one day. The pain was mainly on the left side and left hypochondrium. She had recurring abdominal pain before but not significant to worry her. She also complained of abdominal distension, which she noticed one week ago. Abdominal examination revealed fullness in the left hypochondrium with marked tenderness but negative rebound. Abdominal ultrasound (US) showed a huge mass mainly in the left hypochondrium. The origin of the mass cannot be identified by US. A computerized tomography scan showed a mass in the left side of the abdomen crossing the midline with a necrotic centre. The hospital course of the patient runs smoothly, and she was discharged after 7-days and referred to an Oncology Center. Abdominal mesothelioma is a neoplasm arising from the mesothelial surface lining the abdominal cavity. It is less frequent than that of the pleura. It is a rapidly growing and fatal malignancy with a median survival of less than 1-year. The relation between pleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos is well recognized since it was described in 19602 but implication of asbestos exposure in the etiology of the peritoneal type is less obvious. This patient history is giving no obvious exposure to asbestos but as she is working in the Radiology Department as an x-ray technician she is well exposed to x-ray, but the effect of radioactivity on induction of mesothelioma is still disputed.4 There are several reports linking malignant mesothelioma to radioactivity due to radiation therapy.The fibrous mesothelioma (sarcomatous), as in this case, which is difficult to diagnose microscopically, looks like a fibroma, unless helped by tissue culture. The treatment options of malignant mesothelioma include surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and whole abdominal radiation or multimodality therapy, which were suggested that might prolong the survival in

  14. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  16. Removal of high-salinity matrices through polymer-complexation-ultrafiltration for the detection of trace levels of REEs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hualing; Lin, Jijun; Gong, Zhenbin; Huang, Jiahua; Yang, Shifeng

    2015-10-01

    The polymer-complexation-ultrafiltration (PCUF) technique was applied to separate trace levels of rare earth elements (REEs), including scandium, yttrium and the lanthanides, from high-salinity matrices prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The REEs were converted into REE-polymer complexes using the water-soluble polymer polyacrylic acid (PAA) at a specified pH, retained on the ultrafiltration membrane of centrifugal filter units, and finally eluted using diluted nitric acid to achieve separation from matrices with relatively high levels of various inorganic ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and chlorine ions. Numerous factors affecting the PCUF efficiency were optimized. The optimal conditions included the addition of 30 mg L(-1) of PAA, a pH of 7.5, a reaction time of 40 min at room temperature, and 5.0 mL of 3% nitric acid (v/v) eluent. Under these conditions, the analytes were quantitatively separated and recovered, with a resulting relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 4.0% (0.05 µg L(-1), n=5) and standard addition recoveries between 89.2% (La) and 95.8% (Sm) for matrices of various salinities. The blank samples for the method ranged from 0.0003 µg L(-1) (Dy) to 0.0031 µg L(-1) (Sc), and the limits of quantification (LOQs, 10σ) were between 0.0006 µg L(-1) (Dy) and 0.0026 µg L(-1) (Sc). Furthermore, the salinity of the sample exhibited no effect on the REE-polymer complex formation process. Finally, the method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of dissolved Sc, Y, and lanthanides in coastal and estuarine seawater samples. PMID:26078161

  17. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). PMID:25582991

  18. 内镜辅助耳后发际入路上颈良性肿物切除术%Endoscope-assisted removal of upper neck benign masses via retroauricular hairline incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良嗣; 张思毅; 黄晓明; 詹建东; 罗小宁; 宋新汉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objectives ] To assess the feasibility, the indications, the risks and benefits of endoscope-assisted removal of upper neck benign masses via the restroauricular hairline incision (RAHI). [ Methods ] Eighteen patientswith benign masses of upper neck underwent endoscope-assisted excision via the RAHI approach. Preoperatively,sizes, locations and adjacency of all lesions were evaluated by imaging (CT or MRI). Pathologic diagnosis of all cases were identified as benign diseases by fine needle aspiration biopsy. [Results] All 18 operations were successfully performed with complete removal of the upper neck masses. 2 cases (11.1%) with temporary numbness of earlobe and 1 case (5.6%) with temporary marginal mandibular nerve paralysis were found postoperatively. There were no postoperative hemorrhage, flap necrosis, salivary fistula and so on. All the 18 patients were disease free with a follow-up from 6 months to 18 months (average 12 months). The mean subjective satisfaction score was 9.6 and all the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. [ Conclusion] Endoscope-assisted removal via RAHI is feasible and safe for upper neck benign masses. This approach can provide an invisible incision and exact cosmetic results without significant complications. This method may be an alternative option for patients with upper benign masses.%目的 探讨内镜辅助耳后发际入路上颈良性肿物切除的可行性、指征和利弊.方法 采用内镜辅助耳后发际入路对18例上颈良性肿物行手术治疗.术前行影像学(CT或MRI)评估病损大小、位置、毗邻,并行细针穿刺组织学活检明确病理.结果 18例患者均顺利完整切除肿物.术后2例(11.1%)出现暂时性耳垂麻木,1例(5.6%)出现暂时性面神经下颌缘支麻痹.所有病例无术后出血、无皮瓣坏死、无涎瘘等,随访6~18个月(平均12个月),未见复发.术后1个月所有患者客观美容满意度评分平均9.6分,对手

  19. VIOLENCE AND AGGRESSIVENESS IN SPORTS. ETIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria LULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the causes that lead to violent behaviour in sport (from the social, economic, biological and psychological factors to the violent patterns promoted by mass media and it identifies the measures that could be adopted for preventing and fighting against this widespread phenomenon in today’s society. The phenomenon of violence in sport appeared subsequent to the “Sport Revolution”, which occurred in the 19th century, when sport became a mass and democratic phenomenon. Today sport is accessible to all society members for whom it has acquired cultural and economic importance; however, it is generally agreed that sport events are more or less frequently accompanied by violent behaviour on the part of most or some of its supporters. This scientific article enumerates the causes that trigger violent behaviour in society: from the inner ones (tension, fear, lack of success, incapacity to the social, biological, psychological and economic ones (lack of education, illnesses, trauma and poverty. Similarly, the present article analyses the influence of mass media upon human behaviour while taking into consideration two paradigms: there is a former paradigm, according to which mass media strongly influence human behaviour, by inculcating upon people violent reactions; there is a latter paradigm, according to which the influence of mass media on human behaviour is relatively insignificant for it is the individual that controls this influence. In this paper I have also analysed the risk factors that trigger violence and aggressiveness on stadiums, according to the inquiries made by the Ministry of Administration and Domestic Affairs. As solutions for violence prevention and deterrence, I have suggested: - the implementation of the objectives promoted by the Olympic Movement, which may contribute to the formation of a better and more peaceful world through the education of the youth in accordance with the principles and values of

  20. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  1. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  2. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. DATA SOURCES: Clinical s...

  3. Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & Resources Featured Topic: Electronic Aggression Funded ...

  4. Antibiotics in the management of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Prakasam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis, although not rare, is a fairly unknown condition. Little is known about its optimal management. While majority of patients with common forms of periodontal disease respond predictably well to conventional therapy (oral hygiene instructions (OHI, non-surgical debridement, surgery, and Supportive Periodontal therapy (SPT, patients diagnosed with aggressive form of periodontal disease often do not respond predictably/favorably to conventional therapy owing to its complex multi-factorial etiology. Protocols for treating aggressive periodontitis are largely empirical. There is compelling evidence that adjunctive antibiotic treatment frequently results in more favorable clinical response than conventional therapy alone. This article mainly focuses on the role of adjunct use of pharmacological agents in improving the prognosis and treatment outcome of aggressive periodontitis patients.

  5. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  6. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings...

  7. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity ...

  8. Pigs’ aggressive temperament affects pre-slaughter mixing aggression, stress and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    D'Eath, Rick B.; Turner, S.P.; Kurt, E.; Evans, G; Thölking, L.; Looft, H.; Wimmers, K.; Murani, E.; Klont, R.; Foury, Aline; Ison, S.H.; Lawrence, A.B.; Mormède, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Pre-slaughter stress has a negative impact on animal welfare and on meat quality. Aggressive behaviour when pigs are mixed together for transportation to, or on arrival at, the abattoir is an important factor in pre-slaughter stress. Aggressiveness of pigs varies between individuals in the population, and this study investigated its effects on stress and meat quality at slaughter We mixed pigs at a young age to identify individuals of high (H) or low (L) aggressive temperament using the previ...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    OpenAIRE

    Kalashnikova A.S.,; Vasilenko T.G.

    2014-01-01

    problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences b...

  10. DECLARED AGGRESSION AND AGGRESSIVENESS IN HANDBALL PLAYERS IN COMPARISON WITH REFERENCE GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Jasiński, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was comparison of declared aggression and aggressiveness in boys training handball, where aggressive reactions not provided for in regulations are condemned and punished, with their level in schoolchildren participating only in the physical education lessons. The study involved altogether 146 male participants, aged between 12 to 33 years. The participants were divided into three groups. The first (G1) was formed out of sports club Orlen handball players (40 competitors). Re...

  11. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Rod S Lim; Eyrún Eyjólfsdóttir; Euncheol Shin; Pietro Perona; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social i...

  12. Hormones and aggression in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J. Martin

    2003-01-01

    This review is a survey on recent psychobiosocial studies on association between hormones and aggression/violence in children and adolescents, with a special focus on puberty, given the rapid changes in both hormones and behavior occurring during that developmental period. Since it cannot be assumed that all readers have much background knowledge, it inevitably begins with some comments about the concept and multifaceted nature of aggression, as well as with a brief reminding about hormone ca...

  13. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Aggression in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Haden, Sara Chiara

    2006-01-01

    Recently, models of aggressive behavior have begun to appreciate the influence of both psychological and biological predictors of maladaptive behavior. The aim of the current project was to clarify the roles that the noradrenergic system (i.e., norepinephrine metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyglycol [MHPG]) and characteristics of the rearing environment play in different expressions of aggression (i.e., hostile and instrumental). It was predicted that higher concentrations of MHPG would be...

  14. Insight, psychosis and aggressive behaviour in mania

    OpenAIRE

    Itxaso González-Ortega; Fernando Mosquera; Enrique Echeburúa; Ana González-Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Aggressiveness is a common component of manic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics associated with aggressive behaviour in bipolar patients with acute manic episodes. Methods: A study was carried out with 173 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for manic or mixed bipolar disorder. Clinical and demographic variables were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the...

  15. Nevus Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be fundamental to improving a patient’s overall psychosocial state. Other reasons to remove a nevus may ... This is not commonly done and presents many risks and challenges. Can’t they ... on all these same factors again. Different patients are more prone or less ...

  16. Psychoanalytic views of aggression: some theoretical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedder, J

    1992-06-01

    Various problems in relation to psychoanalytic theories of aggression are considered in a review which is by no means exhaustive but includes areas which have puzzled and interested the author. First to be considered is why the concept of aggression as a major drive was a relative late-comer in psychoanalysis; next the contentious concept of a 'death instinct' and some of the factors in Freud's lifetime which may have contributed to both. Then it is suggested that we seem to have theories of aggression which might be called primary or secondary in two different senses. First is the question whether aggression is innate or secondary to frustration. In another sense, primary and secondary theories of aggression seem to survive paralleling Freud's original primary and secondary theories of anxiety. In this sense the primary theory survives as an explanation of psychosomatic disorder. Lastly, the link between suicide and murder is considered and the turning of aggression against the self in depression and self-destructive attacks. PMID:1633126

  17. Hormone-dependent aggression in female rats: testosterone implants attenuate the decline in aggression following ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female rats were individually housed with a sterile male for a 4- to 5-week period. Each female was then tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female intruder at weekly intervals. Those females that displayed a high level of aggression on each of three weekly tests were ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of testosterone-filled tubes, ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of empty tubes, or sham-ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. These implants should produce a serum testosterone concentration of about 0.6 ng/ml, compared to 0.17 ng/ml in intact females. Beginning 1 week postoperatively, the aggression of each female was tested weekly for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized females with testosterone implants displayed a level of aggression significantly higher than that of ovariectomized females with empty implants on 3 of 4 weekly tests. The level of aggression by females with testosterone implants was not significantly different from that of sham-ovariectomized females on the first postoperative test. Additional observations showed that testosterone implants did not produce an increase in aggression in females whose preoperative level of aggression was low. Further, Silastic implants containing estrogen (1 to 2 mm long) sufficient to maintain a serum estrogen level of 20 to 30 pg/ml also attenuated the decline of aggression following ovariectomy. These results suggest that testosterone and estrogen may both contribute to the biological substrate of hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

  18. Periprostatic fat measured on computed tomography as a marker for prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G.H. van; Bol, G.H.; Witjes, J.A.; Ruud Bosch, J.L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Vulpen, M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several reports found that obesity was associated with prostate cancer (PC) aggressiveness among men treated with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Studies concerning this issue have basically relied on body mass index (BMI), as a marker for general obesity. Because visceral fat is t

  19. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  20. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  1. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Schumann, T.; Dambacher, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  2. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brugman; J. Lobbestael; A. Arntz; M. Cima; T. Schuhmann; F. Dambacher; A.T. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  3. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yves Chaput1, Lucie Beaulieu2, Michel Paradis3, Edith Labonté41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (presently in private practice; 2Department of Psychiatry, Haut Richelieu Hospital, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal; 4Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaIntroduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification.Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior, both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression.Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%. Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male, marital status (single/separated, education (high school or less, employment (none, judicial history (any type, substance abuse (prior or active, medication compliance (poor, type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord, reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol, diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders, and outcome (more frequently placed under

  4. Tachykinin expression levels correlate with caste-specific aggression in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHowe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tachykinins are a family of neuropeptides that influence a range of behavioral phenotypes in both vertebrates and invertebrates; they appear to have a conserved role in the processing of stimuli, and in the control of aggression in a wide range of animals. Expression of tachykinin in a cluster of neurons was recently shown to determine the stimulus response threshold for aggressive behavior in Drosophila (1. Varying response thresholds are often implicated in division of labor within social insect colonies, so we hypothesized that Tachykinin could play a role in the organization of colony defense by affecting individual response thresholds to non-nestmate stimuli. We used quantitative-PCR in combination with behavioral assays to test for associations between the expression of Tachykinin and its receptor, and the aggressive division of labor among the castes of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior, a species with multiple worker castes. After correction for differences in brain size among castes, we found that the most aggressive large worker caste had the highest Tachykinin expression levels, but that no such effect was apparent for breeding and virgin queens. To further evaluate these deviating results for the reproductive caste, we manipulated the aggression threshold of virgin-queens by removing their wings, which is known to make them express a soldier-like behavioral phenotype. Despite heightened aggression, expression levels of Tachykinin remained unaffected, suggesting that aggression levels in reproductive caste phenotypes are controlled by differential expression of other genes.

  5. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  6. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  7. Removal of

    OpenAIRE

    Roohan Rakhshaee; Zahra Zamiraee; Somaieh Baghipour; Mohammad Panahandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Azolla Filiculoides as a non-living fern was used in a batch system to remove "Basic Blue 3", which is a cationic dye and a carcinogenic agent.Materials and Methods: We used a batch system by applying certain concentrations of dye contaminant and in the presence of a certain amount of adsorbent under optimum conditions. The main groups presenting in the Azolla cell wall were evaluated by acidification and alkalization of Azolla's media and then potentiometric titrat...

  8. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths ...... treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices....... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...... systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type...

  9. Removal of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohan Rakhshaee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Azolla Filiculoides as a non-living fern was used in a batch system to remove "Basic Blue 3", which is a cationic dye and a carcinogenic agent.Materials and Methods: We used a batch system by applying certain concentrations of dye contaminant and in the presence of a certain amount of adsorbent under optimum conditions. The main groups presenting in the Azolla cell wall were evaluated by acidification and alkalization of Azolla's media and then potentiometric titration with standard basic and acidic solutions. Results: It was observed that the removal efficiency of dye using non-living Azolla in accordance with the Langmuir isotherms was 82% for the initial dye concentration of 200 mg/lit under reaction conditions consisting of contact time 6 h, pH= 6, temperature 25 ˚C, and dose 5 g/lit. Qmax (maximum uptake capacity by the activated Azolla at three temperatures 5, 25 and 50 ˚C was 0.732, 0.934, and 1.176 mmol/g respectively. ΔG (Gibbs free energy changes was obtained for these temperatures as -0.457, -0.762, and -1.185 kJ/mol respectively.Conclusion: Removal of basic blue 3 using Azolla is an economically and effective method.

  10. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  11. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  12. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  13. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  14. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Pozza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing’s disease, CD or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS. The remaining causes (20% are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”. Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors.

  15. Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Stephanie M Rollmann; Morgan, Theodore J.; Trudy F C Mackay

    2006-01-01

    Synopsis Aggressive behavior is a complex trait affected by numerous interacting genes whose expression depends on the environment. Aggression can be selectively advantageous in the pursuit of mates, territory, or food; however, excessive aggression may be deleterious. Pathological levels of aggression in humans create an enormous burden to society. Although dysfunction of the biogenic amine systems is often associated with alterations in aggressive behavior, this represents only the “tip of ...

  16. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Kalašová; Zuzana Krchová

    2011-01-01

    With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road...

  17. Aggression in humans: what is its biological foundation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1993-01-01

    Although human aggression is frequently inferred to parallel aggression based on testosterone in nonprimate mammals, there is little concrete support for this position. High- and low-aggression individuals do not consistently differ in serum testosterone. Aggression does not change at puberty when testosterone levels increase. Aggression does not increase in hypogonadal males (or females) when exogenous testosterone is administered to support sexual activity. Similarly, there are no reports that aggression increases in hirsute females even though testosterone levels may rise to 200% above normal. Conversely, castration or antiandrogen administration to human males is not associated with a consistent decrease in aggression. Finally, changes in human aggression associated with neuropathology are not consistent with current knowledge of the neural basis of testosterone-dependent aggression. In contrast, human aggression does have a substantial number of features in common with defensive aggression seen in nonprimate mammals. It is present at all age levels, is displayed by both males and females, is directed at both males and females, and is not dependent on seasonal changes in hormone levels or experiential events such as sexual activity. As would be expected from current knowledge of the neural system controlling defensive aggression, aggression in humans increases with tumors in the medial hypothalamus and septal region, and with seizure activity in the amygdala. It decreases with lesions in the amygdala. The inference that human aggression has its roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals is in general agreement with evidence on the consistency of human aggressiveness over age, with similarities in male and female aggressiveness in laboratory studies, and with observations that some neurological disturbances contribute to criminal violence. This evidence suggests that human aggression has its biological roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate

  18. Understanding Female Aggression In Situationally Violent Relationships: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adi, Samar G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to gather information about female aggression in situationally violent relationship. The interviews and surveys of four African-American couples were coded and analyzed to gather information about the impact of female aggression on the relationship, the contextual factors surrounding female aggression, and the motivations for female aggression. The results indicated that female aggression impacts the couple relationship in several ways. First,...

  19. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marke...

  20. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and la...

  1. Behavioural differences between artificially selected aggressive and non-aggressive mice : response to apomorphine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, Rensina F.; Bohus, Bela; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports a first attempt to unravel the neurochemical background that underlies the difference in behavioural profiles between aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. For this purpose two bidirectionally selected lines for attack latency (SAL and LAL) were used. In pursuit of anoth

  2. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way ac

  3. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  4. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  5. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  6. Rapid increase in aggressive behavior precedes the decrease in brain aromatase activity during socially mediated sex change in Lythrypnus dalli

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Michael P; Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Grober, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    In the bluebanded goby, Lythrypnus dalli, removal of the male from a social group results in a rapid behavioral response where one female becomes dominant and changes sex to male. In a previous study, within hours of male removal, aromatase activity in the brain (bAA) of dominant females was almost 50% lower than that of control females from a group in which the male had not been removed. For those females that displayed increased aggressive behavior after the male was removed, the larger the...

  7. A high aggression strategy for smaller males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Andreas Svensson

    Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.

  8. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, Jeff, E-mail: colgan@american.ed [International Relations, American University (United States)

    2011-03-15

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: {yields} A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. {yields} Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  9. Aggressive Marital Conflict, Maternal Harsh Punishment, and Child Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior: Evidence for Direct and Mediated Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Erath, Stephen A.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    Direct associations between aggressive marital conflict and child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home and school were explored in this cross-sectional study of 360 kindergarten children. In addition, mediated pathways linking aggressive marital conflict to maternal harsh punishment to child aggressive-disruptive behavior were examined. Moderation analyses explored how the overall frequency of marital disagreement might buffer or exacerbate the impact of aggressive marital conflict on mater...

  10. Partner Aggression among Men and Women in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Correlates of Psychological and Physical Aggression and Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan L.; Walton, Maureen A.; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-to-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proxima...

  11. Is aggressive gap arthroplasty essential in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis?-a prospective clinical study of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Lokesh; Jain, Manoj Kumar; Ramesh, C; Vinayaka, N

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this three-year, prospective, follow-up study was to evaluate whether aggressive gap arthroplasty is essential in the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients were treated by the creation of a minimal gap of 5-8mm and insertion of an interpositional gap arthroplasty using the temporalis fascia. Eleven patients had unilateral coronoidectomy and 4 bilateral coronoidectomy based on Kaban's protocol. Preoperative assessment included recording of history, clinical and radiological examinations, personal variables, the aetiology of the ankylosis, the side affected, and any other relevant findings. Patients were assessed postoperatively by a surgeon unaware of the treatment given for a minimum of 3 years, which included measurement of the maximal incisal opening, presence of facial nerve paralysis, recurrence, and any other relevant findings. Of the 15 patients (17 joints), 12 had unilateral and three had bilateral involvement, with trauma being the most common cause. The patients were aged between 7 and 29 years (mean (SD) age 20 (8) years). Preoperative maximal incisal opening was 0-2mm in 8 cases and 2-9mm in 9. Postoperatively adequate mouth opening of 30-40mm was achieved in all cases, with no recurrence or relevant malocclusion during 3-year follow up. However, patients will be followed up for 10 years. Aggressive gap arthroplasty is not essential in the management of ankylosis of the TMJ. Minimal gap interpositional arthroplasty with complete removal of the mediolateral ankylotic mass is a feasible and effective method of preventing recurrence. PMID:23219020

  12. Medea: Aggression im Dienste weiblicher Subjektivierung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gsell

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggression wurde in der Geschlechterforschung bisher meist nicht nur unter negativen Vorzeichen – nämlich als zerstörerische und fehlgeleitete Kraft – thematisiert und mit Gewalt in eins gesetzt, sondern darüberhinaus fast ausschließlich mit Männlichkeit konnotiert. Nur langsam setzt sich demgegenüber die Einsicht durch, dass Aggression zunächst einmal eine grundsätzlich positive Kraft ist, derer es zur Subjektivierung und Erlangung von Selbstbestimmung bedarf. Damit scheint nun auch eine fruchtbare Auseinandersetzung mit Weiblichkeit und Aggression möglich geworden zu sein. Ein lehrreicher Beitrag dazu ist Roxana Hidalgos Medea-Studie, gerade weil sie die eigentlich heiklen Fragen weder stellt noch beantwortet.

  13. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  14. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  15. Friendship and Aggression in Elementary School. The friendships of aggressive children and the effects of having aggressive friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, J.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of friendship for children’s adjustment (e.g., Ladd, 1990). However, some children may be less capable of maintaining satisfying relationships with their peers. Aggressive children have been found to experience peer relation difficulties (e.g., Dodge, Coie, P

  16. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression.

  17. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kristal E; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression. PMID:24204980

  18. Situation determinanty of display of aggression in sporting activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maystruk V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Situation pre-conditions of development of aggression are considered. Aggression within the limits of rules of competitions is the important element of successful activity of sportsman. Aspiring to victory requires a sporting aggressiveness. Sport is a comfortable model for the scientific experimental study of the phenomenon of aggression. Existing is studied типологии of aggressiveness in sporting activity. A reactive and instrumental aggressiveness is selected. Primary objective of first consists in causing of physical or psychological trauma. A friend is pursued by a purpose is a receipt of victory and not causing of harm to the competitor.

  19. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  20. The effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R C; Ghandour, M

    1984-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children. The sample consisted of 48 boys and 48 girls of Lebanese origin who were students in an elementary school in Beirut, Lebanon. After controlling for pre-experimental aggression, the subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: human-film aggression, cartoon-film aggression, neutral film, or real-life (act of war) aggression. The results indicated that boys as a group were more aggressive than girls and exhibited more imitative aggression after viewing both violent film and real-life violence. Girls were not more violent after viewing filmed aggression but were affected by the real-life violence. Comparisons of Bandura's work within the Lebanese culture are made. PMID:6470621

  1. Searching West Virginia for a Democratic Response to Mountaintop Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Mountaintop removal is an aggressive form of strip mining practiced almost exclusively in Central Appalachia, and since 1977 has been regulated by state and federal laws. Beginning in the late 1990s, considerable controversy erupted in coal mining states like West Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee over the adverse social and environmental impacts of the practice. The analysis of mountaintop removal presented here is restricted to its effects in West Virginia during roughly the last decade. Rel...

  2. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Vulva: A Bizarre Perineal Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamantia Zizi-Sermpetzoglou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, slowly growing, and benign tumour of mesenchymal origin, which affects women of reproductive age and is associated with a high risk of local recurrence. Case Presentation. A case of a 47-year-old white female is presented herein, with a large polypoid, gelatinous mass on the right labia majora, measuring 26 × 21 × 6 cm. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of spindle and stellate-shaped cells embedded in a myxoid matrix. Another specific feature was the presence of variable-sized thin-walled capillaries and thick-walled vascular channels. The patient underwent wide local excision of the tumour with clear margins and developed local recurrence 18 months later. Discussion. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva needs to be distinguished from benign myxoid tumors with a low risk of local recurrence as well as from malignant myxoid neoplasms. Usually wide local excision with tumour-free margins and occasionally hormonal manipulation is the treatment of choice.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  4. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  5. Aggression and Violence in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Adults who work in positions of authority with young people must be prepared for the possibility of conflict, which could lead to aggressive behavior. Incorrect handling of a crisis will produce a conflict cycle, the four stages of which are described. Legal issues surrounding physical intervention (in the United Kingdom) are summarized, and…

  6. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  7. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  8. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  9. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  10. Identifying and Intervening in Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or…

  11. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey;

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup is...

  12. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  13. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. PMID:26158956

  14. Electromagnetic Optimization Exploiting Aggressive Space Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, J. W.; Biernacki, R.; Chen, S.;

    1995-01-01

    We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We...

  15. Multi-modal human aggression detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. F. P.; Liem, M. C.; Krijnders, J. D.; Andringa, T. C.; Gavrila, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a smart surveillance system named CASSANDRA, aimed at detecting instances of aggressive human behavior in public environments. A distinguishing aspect of CASSANDRA is the exploitation of complementary audio and video cues to disambiguate scene activity in real-life environments.

  16. Nigerian dentists′ knowledge of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olusegun Nwhator

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the general knowledge of Nigerian dentists on aggressive periodontitis (AgP and specific knowledge of distinguishing between the clinical features of localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, non-random convenience survey was done on 200 dentists, in three geopolitical zones of Nigeria, using pre-tested, closed question– type questionnaires. Eventually, only 133 questionnaires were analyzed. Relationships between six outcome variables namely clinical features of LAP, clinical features of GAP, LAP oral hygiene, GAP oral hygiene, laser therapy option and type of laser therapy, and the explanatory variables of gender and experience were analyzed. Results: A total of 33.8% of the dentists had poor general knowledge, 16.5% had fair knowledge, 31.9% had good knowledge, while 10.5% had excellent knowledge. Gender- and experience-related differences were found, but they were not statistically signifi cant. Conclusion: Both the general and specifi c knowledge of aggressive periodontitis among Nigerian dentists is less than expected and needs improvement through targeted, continuing dental education.

  17. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  18. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  19. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of aggression among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years. The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.

  20. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour. PMID:25142712

  1. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  2. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more ... News) -- When it comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may ...

  3. Distinct characteristics of psychopathy relate to different subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Raine, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article both selectively reviews the evidence supporting the view that reactive and proactive aggression actually reflect related but separate constructs, and also investigates the selective relationship between these forms of aggression and psychopathic personality in 121 male prison inmates.

  4. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  5. Relations between key executive functions and aggression in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granvald, Viktor; Marciszko, Carin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between three key executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and mental set-shifting) and multiple types of aggression in a general population sample of 9-year-old children. One hundred and forty-eight children completed a battery of executive function tasks and were rated on aggression by their primary teachers. All executive function (EF) composites were related to a composite measure of aggression. Working memory (WM) was most consistently related to the different types of aggression (overt, relational, reactive, and proactive), whereas inhibition and mental set-shifting only were related to relational and reactive aggression, respectively. Specificity in relations (studied as independent contributions) was generally low with the exception of the relation between WM and relational aggression. Taken together, our results highlight the roles of WM and relational aggression in EF-aggression relations in middle childhood.

  6. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  7. Behavioural differences between artificially selected aggressive and non-aggressive mice: response to apomorphine

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, Rensina F.; Bohus, Bela; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports a first attempt to unravel the neurochemical background that underlies the difference in behavioural profiles between aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. For this purpose two bidirectionally selected lines for attack latency (SAL and LAL) were used. In pursuit of another approach, the susceptibility of individuals of both selection lines to the dopamine agonist apomorphine was measured. The apomorphine was injected subcutaneously at dose levels of 2.5 and 5.0 mg...

  8. Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tverdal Aage; Arnet Ellen; Bønsdorff Tina B; Våge Jørn; Lingaas Frode

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain pa...

  9. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], paggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], paggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed. PMID:27586070

  10. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats with testosterone implants: competitive experience activates aggression toward unfamiliar females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female hooded rats (250 to 325 g) were ovariectomized and bilaterally implanted with testosterone-filled or empty Silastic tubes. The testosterone-filled space in each tube was 10 mm long and this should produce a serum testosterone concentration 4 to 5 times that of an intact female, but well below that of a male. Three weeks following surgery, half of the animals with testosterone implants were housed with an animal with an empty implant and left for 6 weeks. The remaining animals were placed on a 23-hr food deprivation schedule, housed in testosterone implant/empty implant pairs, and then subjected to a series of food competition tests. Following the competition tests, all animals were individually tested in their living cage for aggression toward an unfamiliar female. In food competition, females with testosterone implants were more successful and more aggressive than their cagemates with empty implants. When tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar intruder, females with testosterone implants given competitive experience were more aggressive toward an intruder than were their cagemates with empty implants or females with testosterone implants not given the competitive experience. Females with testosterone implants but without competitive experience were not more aggressive toward an unfamiliar female than were their cagemates with empty implants. These results suggest that, in ovariectomized females with testosterone implants, hormone-dependent aggression fostered by a competitive situation is displayed toward unfamiliar females.

  11. Mutations in many genes affect aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zwarts Liesbeth; Edwards Alexis C; Yamamoto Akihiko; Callaerts Patrick; Mackay Trudy FC

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evolutionary forces that maintain variation for aggressive behavior in natural populations, and to develop therapeutic interventions to modulate extreme levels of aggressive behavior in humans. While the role of neurotransmitters and a few other molecules in mediating and mo...

  12. Overcoming aggression: musing on mindfulness and self-control

    OpenAIRE

    Yusainy, Cleoputri

    2013-01-01

    The ability to restrain oneself from acting on aggressive impulses is arguably a crucial aspect of human functioning and interaction. Yet growing evidence in the literature suggests that people’s self-control resources may be limited and, at times, self-controlled regulation could even increase the association between aggressive triggers and aggressive behaviour. As an alternative, mindfulness practices encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression-related thoughts and emotion...

  13. Juvenile aggressive cemento-ossifying fibroma. A case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil K; Mahima V; Balaji P

    2003-01-01

    Juvenile Aggressive Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma is a benign, fibro osseous neoplasm commonly affecting maxilla but also other bones including mandible, arising in children. It is considered to be a locally aggressive and quickly expansile lesion. Because of its aggressive nature and high recurrence rate, an early detection and a complete surgical excision is essential. A case of Juvenile Aggressive Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma in a 9 year old male child who visited the Department of Oral Medicine ...

  14. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much ...

  15. A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss ...

  16. Aggression and Peer Rejection among Children with Conduct Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Somaieh Salehi; Sidek Mohd Noah; Maznah Baba; Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    Children with Conduct Disorder suffer from aggression and peer difficulties. This study provides an overview of aggression and peer rejection among children with Conduct Disorder worldwide and in Iran. This study is based on researches from library archives specially focused on studies have been done in Iran. First Conduct Disorder, its’ prevalence, subtypes, and other comorbid disorders are explained. Next, studies regarding aggression among aggressive children and children with conduct prob...

  17. Facebook Addiction and Aggression: Is There a Profound Relation?

    OpenAIRE

    Arendain, Jonathan; Murcia, John Vianne

    2016-01-01

    The study intends to investigate the relation of Facebook addiction and aggression among college students, and to determine if there is gender specificity in their aggression levels. The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) by Andreassen et al. (2012), which measures Facebook addiction in the areas of salience, tolerance, mood modification, withdrawal, conflict and relapse, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) of Buss and Perry (1992), which measures four forms of aggression ...

  18. Intimate Partner Aggression Perpetration in Primary Care Chronic Pain Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Taft, Casey; Schwartz, Sonia; Liebschutz, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of partner aggression perpetration in 597 primary care chronic pain patients. Approximately 30% of participants reported perpetrating low-level aggression, 12% reported injuring their partner, and 5% reported engaging in sexual coercion. Women reported more low-level aggression perpetration than men, and men reported more engagement in sexual coercion than women. Substance use disorders (SUD) were associated with all outcomes, and both aggress...

  19. Inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Nathan B; Wey, Tina W; Exnicios, Megan; Benham, Caroline; Hinton, Mitchell G; Lantz, Samantha; Atherton, Carolyn; Forde, Debbie; Karubian, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W = 0.530, P captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs. PMID:26882002

  20. The use of visual barriers to reduce aggression among a group of marabou storks (Leptoptilos crumeniferus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuska, Annie J; Leighty, Katherine A; Schutz, Paul J; Ferrie, Gina M; Sky, Christy C; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2013-01-01

    Marabou storks are one of the most commonly held birds in zoos, but the captive population faces challenges related to high mortality. One of the most common causes of death among captive marabou storks is conspecific aggression. There is a pressing need to better understand how to manage this aggression. One method that has been used successfully to reduce aggression in other species is the addition of visual barriers to the enclosure, though there are no published studies on their effect on storks. We studied the behavioral changes in a group of 2.2 marabou storks following the addition of two shade cloth barriers to their enclosure; we documented all occurrences of aggressive behavior, as well as time spent proximate to the barriers (or the space between barrier posts, when the shade cloth was removed) and time spent using the barriers to block the view of other storks. The presence of the shade cloth did not change the amount of time storks spent proximate to the barriers, nor did they spend more than 2% of their time using the barriers to block other storks, but the presence of the barriers significantly reduced displacement activity. Barriers may afford captive marabou storks an important means of escaping conflict, as flight-restriction and housing in an enclosure can limit their opportunities to give a signal of retreat or submission. PMID:24105900

  1. The Early Socialization of Aggressive Victims of Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Studied early family experiences of boys who later emerged as both aggressive and bullied during middle childhood. Found that aggressive victims had experienced more punitive, hostile, and abusive family treatment than others. Nonvictimized aggressors had greater exposure to adult aggression, but not victimization, than the normative group,…

  2. Exploring Parental Aggression toward Teachers in a Public School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, David C.; Johnson, Jerry; Chen, Yanfen; Hutchinson, Lisa; Ricketts, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the extant research examining aggressive activity uses data from student populations. In this study, we extend that literature by examining teacher perceptions of parental aggression in public schools in Kentucky. Using data from a sample of 5,971 public school teachers, we determine that parental aggression directed at public school…

  3. Determinants of Seclusion After Aggression in Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vruwink, F.J.; Noorthoorn, E.O.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Hox, J.J.C.M.; Mulder, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    ome aggressive incidents in psychiatric wards result in seclusion, whereas others do not. We used the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised and the mental health trust's database to identify determinants that predicted seclusion after aggression. These consisted of demographic, diagnostic, cont

  4. Social Networks and Aggressive Behavior: Peer Support or Peer Rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied the aggressive behavior in school of two cohorts of boys and girls in the fourth and seventh grades. Highly aggressive subjects were usually solid members of peer clusters and typically had a network of friends. Aggressive patterns and correlated behaviors provided a basis for social cohesion and commonalities in friendships for both boys…

  5. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  6. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  7. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  8. Pharmacotherapy and aggressive behaviour in psychiat r ic pat ients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhard, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is an important problem in mental health care. Aggressive behaviour does not only affect staff and other patients, but also has a negative impact on the patient himself. Studies have shown that aggressive patients are admitted on psychiatric wards longer compared to non-aggressi

  9. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N.; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selectiv

  10. 10 CFR 15.20 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity. 15.20 Section 15.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.20 Aggressive agency collection activity. (a) The NRC shall take aggressive action to collect...

  11. 14 CFR 1261.406 - Aggressive collection action; documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive collection action; documentation... Activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) § 1261.406 Aggressive collection action; documentation. (a) NASA shall take aggressive action, on a timely basis with effective...

  12. HIPPOCAMPAL MESSY FIBER DISTRIBUTIONS IN MICE SELECTED FOR AGGRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLUYTER, F; JAMOT, L; VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; CRUSIO, WE

    1994-01-01

    The sizes of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal messy fiber terminal fields (IIPMF) of mice from two lines bidirectionally selected for attack latency were measured. Aggressive males possess smaller IIPMF than do non-aggressive ones. We hypothesize that both differences in aggression and size

  13. Relationship between team identification and trait aggression: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L; Shelton, Sarah; Smith, Tony; Walker, Rhonda

    2002-04-01

    Research yielded no significant relationship between sport fandom and trait aggression. The current study replicated previous efforts using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, an updated version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. In contrast to past work, the current study did yield a significant relationship between fandom and aggression for men. PMID:12027356

  14. The Development of Sex Differences in Aggression: A Revised Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet S.; Schuck, John R.

    In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…

  15. Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa M. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression vic...

  16. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

  17. Shared Targets for Aggression by Early Adolescent Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2006-01-01

    Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends …

  18. Marital Aggression Predicts Infant Orienting toward Mother at Six Months

    OpenAIRE

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    Links between marital aggression and infant orienting toward mother in fearful and frustrating contexts were examined in 92 mother-infant dyads when infants were 6 months. Results demonstrated that marital aggression was linked with less orienting toward mothers in frustrating situations, in fearful situations marital aggression was linked with less orienting among infants who were high on fear reactivity only.

  19. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ae-Na Choi; Myeong Soo Lee; Jung-Sook Lee

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-...

  1. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the predict

  2. Psychological Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Injury in Nonpartner Relationships Among Men and Women in Treatment for Substance-Use Disorders*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348

  3. The Effects of Online Discussion Forum Aggressive Messages and Cognitive Distortion on Users' Negative Affect and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01

    This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…

  4. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered. PMID:26415598

  5. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. PMID:23606625

  6. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered.

  7. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva.

  8. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Shyam; Dwarakanath, C D

    2013-01-01

    Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva.

  9. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: dramatic response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Danesh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that usually arises within the perineum. It often occurs as a vulvar mass and clinically simulates a Bartholin's gland cyst. Most patients are in the second or third decade of life, but some cases have also been reported in children. This is the report of a 21 year old woman with 4.5 × 3 × 1.5 cm mass in right labia major. The patient underwent wide local excision surgical treatment. Histological examination showed high vascular myxoid tumor containing spindle cells. Immunohistochemical study of cells showed positive reaction to estrogen and progesterone and negative reaction to S100, SMA and desmin. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to deal with residual tumor and prevent local recurrence for 6 months.
    KEY WORDS: Aggressive angiomyxoma, vulva, pregnancy, Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist.

  10. Emotionsregulationsstrategien und aggressives Verhalten im Kindergartenalter

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsen, Johanna; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Studie (N = 193) wurde untersucht, ob sich körperlich und relational aggressive Kinder im Kindergartenalter (mittleres Alter: 55 Monate) in ihren Emotionsregulationsstrategien von ihren unauffälligen Altersgenossen unterscheiden. Zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation wurde eine strukturierte, videografierte Verhaltensbeobachtung durchgeführt, in der gezielt Frustration ausgelöst wurde. Anschließend wurden Regulationsstrategien in sieben verschiedenen Kategorien ausgewertet. ...

  11. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Mitchell; J. Meirion Thomas; Harmer, Clive L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that th...

  12. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Chaput; Lucie Beaulieu; Michel Paradis; et al, ...

    2011-01-01

    Yves Chaput1, Lucie Beaulieu2, Michel Paradis3, Edith Labonté41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (presently in private practice); 2Department of Psychiatry, Haut Richelieu Hospital, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal; 4Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaIntroduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward ...

  13. Androgen Receptors, Sex Behaviour, and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviours, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviours is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens’ effects on behaviours through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and...

  14. Aggressive events in adolescent dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pamela; Risko, Judy; Heckman, Terri; Sheehan, Denice; Perkins, Shannon; Washington, Kalisha; Cook, Christina; Ferguson, Candice

    2010-09-01

    This purpose of this paper is to present a typology of common aggressive events that occur in the context of adolescent dating violence. The typology is based on 42 transcripts of interviews with young adults, ages 18 to 21, who described dating violence they had experienced when adolescents (ages 13-18). One-hundred and eighty-four text units that contained a description of an event involving aggression or violence between the participant and a dating partner were extracted from the transcripts. Cross-case analysis was used to create categories of events that shared similar characteristics. The analysis yielded eight types of aggressive events: (a) tumultuous, (b) explosive, (c) scuffling, (d) violating, (e) threatening, (f) controlling, (g) disparaging, and (h) rejecting, ignoring, or disrespecting. The typology can provide a foundation for further research on adolescent dating violence from a situational perspective and can be used as a tool to promote discussion of dating violence with victimized or at-risk youth. PMID:20701423

  15. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304

  16. Identification of Markers Associated with Highly Aggressive Metastatic Phenotypes Using Quantitative Comparative Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Mikkel Green; Lund, Rikke Raaen; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    phenotypes. To identify proteins associated with cancer cell aggressiveness, we used comparative quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteome analysis of a unique metastasis model comprised of three isogenic human breast cancer cell lines that are equally tumorigenic in...... per se. Our study provides novel insights into key proteins associated with the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells and identified LRRC59, CD59 and CSPG4 as candidates that merit further study....

  17. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  18. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  19. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  20. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression. PMID:22486899

  1. Does humor explain why relationally aggressive adolescents are popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-08-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  2. Medea: Aggression im Dienste weiblicher Subjektivierung Medea: How aggression works for female subjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gsell

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggression wurde in der Geschlechterforschung bisher meist nicht nur unter negativen Vorzeichen – nämlich als zerstörerische und fehlgeleitete Kraft – thematisiert und mit Gewalt in eins gesetzt, sondern darüberhinaus fast ausschließlich mit Männlichkeit konnotiert. Nur langsam setzt sich demgegenüber die Einsicht durch, dass Aggression zunächst einmal eine grundsätzlich positive Kraft ist, derer es zur Subjektivierung und Erlangung von Selbstbestimmung bedarf. Damit scheint nun auch eine fruchtbare Auseinandersetzung mit Weiblichkeit und Aggression möglich geworden zu sein. Ein lehrreicher Beitrag dazu ist Roxana Hidalgos Medea-Studie, gerade weil sie die eigentlich heiklen Fragen weder stellt noch beantwortet.So far, gender studies have tended to thematise aggression not only as a destructive, misdirected force, but one that is regarded almost without exception as masculine. Slowly, though, understanding is growing that aggresion should be viewed in principle as a positive force that is vital for the process of gaining subjectivity and self-determination. This insight seems to have opened the potential to discuss femininity and aggression in new and fruitful ways. Roxana Hidalgos’s study of Medea is an instructive contribution to this discussion – especially/above all because the author neither asks nor answers the really tricky questions.

  3. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  4. The dark side of forgiveness: the tendency to forgive predicts continued psychological and physical aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K

    2011-06-01

    Despite a burgeoning literature that documents numerous positive implications of forgiveness, scholars know very little about the potential negative implications of forgiveness. In particular, the tendency to express forgiveness may lead offenders to feel free to offend again by removing unwanted consequences for their behavior (e.g., anger, criticism, rejection, loneliness) that would otherwise discourage reoffending. Consistent with this possibility, the current longitudinal study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between spouses' reports of their tendencies to express forgiveness to their partners and those partners' reports of psychological and physical aggression. Specifically, although spouses who reported being relatively more forgiving experienced psychological and physical aggression that remained stable over the first 4 years of marriage, spouses who reported being relatively less forgiving experienced declines in both forms of aggression over time. These findings join just a few others in demonstrating that forgiveness is not a panacea.

  5. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407

  6. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:21274855

  7. Performing aggressive code optimization with an ability to rollback changes made by the aggressive optimizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-07-23

    Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.

  8. The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, David R; Deban, Stephen M; Otterstrom, Jason

    2002-06-01

    'Forehead to forehead I meet thee, this third time, Moby Dick!' [Ahab (Melville, 1851)] Herman Melville's fictional portrayal of the sinking of the Pequod was inspired by instances in which large sperm whales sank whaling ships by ramming the ships with their heads. Observations of aggression in species of the four major clades of cetacean and the artiodactyl outgroup suggest that head-butting during male-male aggression is a basal behavior for cetaceans. We hypothesize that the ability of sperm whales to destroy stout wooden ships, 3-5 times their body mass, is a product of specialization for male-male aggression. Specifically, we suggest that the greatly enlarged and derived melon of sperm whales, the spermaceti organ, evolved as a battering ram to injure an opponent. To address this hypothesis, we examined the correlation between relative melon size and the level of sexual dimorphism in body size among cetaceans. We also modeled impacts between two equal-sized sperm whales to determine whether it is physically possible for the spermaceti organ to function as an effective battering ram. We found (i) that the evolution of relative melon size in cetaceans is positively correlated with the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size and (ii) that the spermaceti organ of a charging sperm whale has enough momentum to seriously injure an opponent. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spermaceti organ has evolved to be a weapon used in male-male aggression. PMID:12042334

  9. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachinelli C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  10. A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss and Perry (The aggression questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459, 1992. The survey distributes 50 questionnaire consists of different questions based on Likert scale among 25 female and 25 male students. The questionnaire consists of various questions including anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility. The results indicate that while there is no meaningful difference between aggression attitudes of female and male students (with p-value<0.001, the aggressive attitudes increases among older male students but this aggressive reduces among female students as they get older.

  11. STRUCTURE OF AGGRESSION OF STUDENTS OF PEDAGOGICAL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Azifovich Bajguzhin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal features of structure of aggression of students of pedagogical university as at future teachers.Methodology. 330 students of the III-IV courses which are training at pedagogical university took part in inspection. Structure of aggression estimated by results of the analysis of the data obtained by means of test Buss-Durkey. Research of interrelation of studied indicators of aggression made by means of the correlation analysis.Results. Specifics of structure of aggression are defined by the compensatory relations of its components (physical, indirect, verbal aggression, irritability and the indicators constraining aggression and substituting it (negativism, offense, suspiciousness. The main correlation loading is born by an «irritability» indicator. High rates of verbal aggression are accompanied by an indicator of indirect aggression, the average which level of manifestation is shown by 60,1% of students. Features of structure of aggression at groups of students with extreme options of manifestation of aggression and hostility are presented.Practical implications. Results of research can be applied in practice of vocational guidance and selection by experts in the field of differential psychophysiology and work psychology.

  12. Sex differences in aggression: a rejoinder and reprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, E E; Jacklin, C N

    1980-12-01

    A meta analysis of observational studies of peer-directed aggression by children aged 6 and younger yields a highly significant sex difference. Out of 32 studies, z values reflected higher male aggression in 24, no difference in 8, higher female aggression in none. Furthermore, boys' aggression is most often displayed in the presence of male partners. Evidence is presented that the sex difference is probably not merely an artifact of higher rates of male activity or social interaction. Existing cross-cultural evidence also shows higher rates of male aggression, as does most of the work on free-living primates. Specifically, the 3 observational studies of chimpanzees show considerably more aggression in males. Evidence for a hormonal contribution to male aggression is clear in animals and inconclusive in human beings, although the existing human findings are consistent with such a contribution. Recent evidence on the differential socialization of boys and girls supports our earlier view: that boys do not receive more reinforcement for aggression than girls, and that rates of punishment are also similar once the differential base rates in aggression are taken into account. The role of self-socialization (including choice of same-sex models) is discussed, and the view is expressed that this probably depends upon the development of certain cognitions about sex identity which normally do not develop until a later age than the age at which a consistent sex difference in aggression first appears.

  13. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes.

  15. Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms. PMID:26615980

  16. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  17. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Curtis Craig; Randy W. Overbeek; Miles V. Condon; Shannon B. Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the National Football League (NFL). Methods: Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results: The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion: These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.

  18. Violent Video Games and Children’s Aggressive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Milani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Northern Italy. Variables measured were externalization, quality of interpersonal relationships, aggression, quality of coping strategies, and parental stress. Participants who preferred violent games showed higher scores for externalization and aggression. The use of violent video games and age were linked to higher levels of aggression, coping strategies, and the habitual video game weekly consumption of participants. Our data confirm the role of violent video games as risk factors for problems of aggressive behavior and of externalization in childhood and early adolescence.

  19. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  20. Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children during early grade school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, G W; Burgess, K B

    1999-01-01

    The premises examined in this longitudinal investigation were that specific behavioral characteristics place children at risk for relationship maladjustment in school environments, and that multiple behavioral risks predispose children to the most severe and prolonged difficulties. Aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children were compared to normative and matched control groups on teacher and peer relationship attributes, loneliness, and social satisfaction from kindergarten (M age = 5 years, 7 months; n = 250) through grade 2 (M age = 8.1; n = 242). Children's withdrawn behavior was neither highly stable nor predictive of relational difficulties, as their trajectories resembled the norm except for initially less close and more dependent relationships with teachers. Aggressive behavior was fairly stable, and associated with early-emerging, sustained difficulties including low peer acceptance and conflictual teacher-child relationships. Aggressive/withdrawn children evidenced the most difficulty: compared to children in the normative group, they were consistently more lonely, dissatisfied, friendless, disliked, victimized, and likely to have maladaptive teacher-child relationships. Findings are discussed with respect to recent developments in two prominent literatures: children at-risk and early relationship development. PMID:10446726

  1. The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

  2. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: First Stage in a Study of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)

  3. Variation and Transgression of Aggressiveness Among Two Gibberella Zeae Crosses Developed from Highly Aggressive Parental Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...

  4. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  5. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  6. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  7. Reputation, loneliness, satisfaction with life and aggressive behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Buelga Vasquez, Sofia; Musuti, Gonzalo; Murgui Perez, Sergio; Pons Diez, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses the relationship between adolescents’ perception of reputation and aggressive behavior among peers. The sample is made up of 1319 adolescents aged 11 to 16 years old. Statistical analyses with structural equation modeling were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effect of perception of reputation (real and ideal) on aggressive behavior. Results indicate that adolescents’ real and ideal reputations are related both directly and indirectly to aggressive beh...

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J.; Rebok, George W.; Montague, David R.

    2009-01-01

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between ...

  9. Clozapine for treatment of aggression in non-psychotic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Kathpal, Archana; Demer, James

    2016-08-01

    Use of Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs) in children and adolescents has grown more significantly in recent years. Clozapine has shown good results for the treatment of aggression in adult population but no case has been reported about the use of clozapine for treatment of aggression in non-psychotic adolescents. We present cases of 2 adolescents in which clozapine was used primarily to treat their aggressive behavior and suicidal ideation. PMID:27520908

  10. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. PMID:23501053

  11. Differentially expressed genes for aggressive pecking behaviour in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen Peter; Janss Luc; Hedegaard Jakob; Buitenhuis Bart

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. ResultsA total of 60 hens from a...

  12. Forgiveness and Consideration of Future Consequences in Aggressive Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger express...

  13. The experience of aggressive outbursts in intermittent explosive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kulper, Daniel A.; Kleiman, Evan M.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Berman, Mitchell E.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptualizations of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) have suffered from a scarcity of research investigating the subjective experience and phenomenology of the aggressive outbursts among those with IED relative to those who partake in more normative forms of aggression. Furthermore, though some studies have shown that individuals with IED are more impaired and have a poorer quality of life, few studies looked at negative outcomes specific to an individual with IED’s aggressive behavior...

  14. Procrastination and Aggression for Mental Disorders in Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Zvereva M. V.; Yenikolopov S.N.,; Oleichik I. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression i...

  15. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided. PMID:24766702

  16. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva presenting as a pedunculated swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Shramana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally aggressive soft tissue tumor that has high propensity for local recurrence. It involves mainly the pelvis, vulva, perineum, vagina and urinary bladder in adult women in the reproductive age. Considering its locally aggressive nature, appropriate management and long-term follow-up is necessary. We describe a case of a 22-year-old young pregnant patient presenting with a large pedunculated swelling on the left labia majora.

  17. Human Aggression Across the Lifespan: Genetic Propensities and Environmental Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental fa...

  18. Influence of the Bullying Victim Position on Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huseynova E.A.,; Yenikolopov S.N.,

    2014-01-01

    In a study involving 150 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years the emphasis was placed on the connection of the bullying victim position and level of aggressiveness. The following methods were used: a questionnaire, a method of sociometry, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Bass-Perry aggressive behavior diagnosis questionnaire. We tested the assumption that the people occupying the bullying victim position, have a high level of aggression. Analysis of the results showed that the greatest number of subje...

  19. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistent...

  20. Tax aggressiveness in private family firms: An agency perspective

    OpenAIRE

    STEIJVERS, Tensie; Niskanen, Mervi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates, from an agency perspective, whether private family firms, compared to private nonfamily firms, are more tax aggressive. Moreover, for private family firms, the effect of the extent of separation between ownership and management on tax aggressiveness is studied. Additionally, we verify whether effective board monitoring moderates this relationship. Using Finnish survey data, results show that private family firms are less tax aggressive than nonfamily firms. For the ...

  1. Genetics of aggressive behaviour in Golden Retriever dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, L. van den

    2006-01-01

    Dogs have been living in close proximity to humans since the last Ice Age. Like their progenitor the grey wolf, dogs may respond with aggressive behaviour to certain stimuli. This is natural behaviour in the majority of cases. However, canine aggression can develop into a dangerous problem. There is individual variation in the tendency of dogs to display aggressive behaviour. This variation is the result of a complex system of interacting genes and environmental factors, which is poorly under...

  2. Manifestation and coping aggressiveness in the pre-school age

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis occupies with manifestation of aggressive behaviour in kindergartens and designs ways how to prevent their implications. Theoretical part is about aggressiveness as a problem of present society with accent to the pre-school and primary school age, to its manifestations, implications and presumption to its coping. Practical part contains observation of aggressiveness in the kindergarten by pre-school teachers, development is made as a question {--} form. It contains games and a...

  3. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided.

  4. Trajectories of Physical and Emotional Marital Aggression in Midlife Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2008-01-01

    This study uses three-level generalized Hierarchical Linear Modeling to examine trajectories of husbands’ and wives’ physical and emotional aggression over three assessments and the effects of years since marriage. In this community sample of 118 couples, physical aggression significantly decreased over time (43% per year). Emotional aggression did not significantly change over time, but trajectories significantly differed for husbands (3% increase) versus wives (10% decrease). Longer duratio...

  5. Light Quark Mass Reweighting

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qi; Jung, Chulwoo

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effectiveness of light quark mass reweighting. This method allows a single lattice QCD ensemble, generated with a specific value of the dynamical light quark mass, to be used to determine results for other, nearby light dynamical quark masses. We study two gauge field ensembles generated with 2+1 flavors of dynamical domain wall fermions with light quark masses m_l=0.02 (m_\\pi=620 MeV) and m_l=0.01 (m_\\pi=420 MeV). We reweight each ensemble to determine results which could be computed directly from the other and check the consistency of the reweighted results with the direct results. The large difference between the 0.02 and 0.01 light quark masses suggests that this is an aggressive application of reweighting as can be seen from fluctuations in the magnitude of the reweighting factor by four orders of magnitude. Never-the-less, a comparison of the reweighed topological charge, average plaquette, residual mass, pion mass, pion decay constant, and scalar correlator between ...

  6. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene with prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dapeng; Yu, Hongjie; Sun, Jielin; Qi, Jun; Liu, Qiang; Li, Ruipeng; Zheng, Siqun Lily; Xu, Jianfeng; Kang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), encoded by the TERT gene, is an essential component of telomerase, essential for the maintenance of telomere DNA length, chromosomal stability and cellular immortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between common genetic variations across the TERT gene region and prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness in a Chinese population. A total of 12 TERT tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped on the Sequenom Mass-ARRAY iPLEX® platform in a case-case study with 1,210 Chinese patients with PCa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to investigate the association of genotypes with PCa aggressiveness, Gleason grade and risk of developing early-onset PCa. It was observed that the C allele of the TERT intron 2 SNP (rs2736100) was significantly associated with reduced risk of PCa aggressiveness [odds ratio (OR)=0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.99; P=0.037]. This allele was also significantly correlated with a reduced risk of developing a tumor with a high Gleason score (>7; OR=0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.99; P=0.039). The T allele of the intron 4 SNP (rs10069690) was found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk for an aggressive form of PCa (OR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.59-0.97; P=0.030). In addition, the A allele of rs10078761 located at the 3' end of the TERT gene exhibited a statistically significant association with the reduced risk of developing a higher grade disease (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.28-0.81; P=0.006). However, no association between TERT polymorphisms and age at diagnosis was observed in the present study. The present findings demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that genetic variations across the TERT gene are associated with PCa aggressiveness in a Chinese Han population. PMID:25738283

  7. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  8. Adrenal lymphangioma removed by a retroperitoneoscopic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Li, Yanyuan; Wang, Shuo

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of an adrenal lymphangioma removed by retroperitoneal laparoscopy. A 45-year-old female was referred to the urological ward for an adrenal mass that was incidentally detected by ultrasound examination one month earlier. An abdominal ultrasonography (US) scan revealed a 3.0 cm anechoic cystic mass, while a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 3.0×2.7 cm left adrenal cystic mass, which was suspected to be an adrenal cyst. The patient underwent retroperitoneoscopic removal of the tumor. Pathological evaluation revealed a cystic lymphangioma in the left adrenal gland.

  9. Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-02-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views. PMID:15013259

  10. Vertebral column aggressive osteoblastoma: two cases report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoblastoma is a bone neoplasy that in most circumstances present a low aggressive aspect on radiographic studies, but in some cases may acquire an aggressive pattern, rupturing the bone cortex and invading nearby structures. Most cases occur on the vertebral column, especially at the posterior arch and occasionally involving the vertebral body. Differential diagnosis of the aggressive form is made with osteosarcomas. This review reports two cases of osteoblastomas involving vertebral column, with an aggressive pattern on radiologic studies, and their histologic confirmation. (author)

  11. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:25929138

  12. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  13. Political skill: A proactive inhibitor of workplace aggression exposure and an active buffer of the aggression-strain relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqing E; Yang, Liu-Qin; Spector, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    In the current study we examined the role of 4 dimensions of political skill (social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability, and apparent sincerity) in predicting subsequent workplace aggression exposure based on the proactive coping framework. Further, we investigated their buffering effects on the negative outcomes of experienced workplace aggression based on the transactional stress model. Data were collected from nurses at 3 time points: before graduation (Time 1, n = 346), approximately 6 months after graduation (Time 2, n = 214), and approximately 12 months after graduation (Time 3, n = 161). Results showed that Time 1 interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity predicted subsequent physical aggression exposure. Exposure to physical and/or psychological workplace aggression was related to increased anger and musculoskeletal injury, and decreased job satisfaction and career commitment. Further, all dimensions of political skill but networking ability buffered some negative effects of physical aggression, and all dimensions but social astuteness buffered some negative effects of psychological aggression. PMID:25798720

  14. Media violence and the self: The impact of personalized gaming characters in aggressive video games on aggressive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A recent development in video games is that players can design and personalize their own in-game characters. It was predicted that this innovation could lead to elevations in the intensity of the psychological effects of video games. The present study confirmed this hypothesis, revealing that participants who played an aggressive video game using their own, personalized character exhibited higher levels of aggressive behavior than participants who played an aggressive game...

  15. The Aggression Observation Short Form Identified Episodes Not Reported on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the underreporting of violence and aggression on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) when compared to a simpler assessment: the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS). During a period of one year, two open and two closed wards gathered...... for open wards and for patients with short admission lengths. Standard instruments such as the SOAS-R underreport aggressive episodes by 45% or more. Underreporting can be reduced by introducing shorter instruments, but it cannot be completely eliminated....

  16. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  17. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  18. The analysis of the types of aggressiveness at preadolescents from urban and rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losîi Elena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In last year’s the study of aggressive behaviour became widespread and dynamic, and also remains a challenge for psychology. The evolution of aggressiveness phenomenon led to the it’s refinement based on different practices and mechanisms of aggressiveness appearance. In phylogentic evolution remains constantly especially among children. The types and forms of aggressive behaviour are becoming more numerous and various. Aggressive behaviour knows a multitude of faces and can be expressed in a variety of ways. The given article is dedicated to the research of aggressive and types of aggressive behaviour at preadolescents. Our study included 100 preadolescents from urban and rural environments. The hostility, physical aggression, indirect aggression, nervousness, negativity, verbal aggression and guilt were tested with Buss - Durkee Hostility Inventory. As consequences we can mention that aggressive behaviour is largely specific to contemporary preadolescents. Also we can underline that aggressive behaviour and types of aggressive behaviour depends on gender and environment of preadolescents.

  19. Cognitive Tempo, Violent Video Games, and Aggressive Behavior in Young Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, A. Roland; Gross, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    Assesses interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects in a free-play setting where children played video games. Results indicated that subjects who played video games with aggressive content exhibited more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal aggression during the frustrating situation than youngsters who…

  20. Nitrogen Removal from Molten Steel under Argon DC Glow Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ming-shan; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang

    2005-01-01

    Under argon DC glow plasma, the nitrogen removal from molten steel was studied. The experimental result showed that nitrogen mass percent could be reduced to 0.000 8%. The change of polarity had no impact on nitrogen removal when the nitrogen mass percent was low. The mechanism of denitrogenation of molten steel under argon DC glow plasma was discussed.

  1. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, S Jay

    2014-01-01

    In the context of a homogeneous universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions covering several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available...

  2. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna;

    2016-01-01

    reports for duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine obtained from the European and UK drug regulators, and summary trial reports for duloxetine and fluoxetine from Eli Lilly's website.Eligibility criteria for study selection Double blind placebo controlled trials that contained any....... These trials had limitations in the study design and discrepancies in reporting, which may have led to serious under-reporting of harms. For example, some outcomes appeared only in individual patient listings in appendices, which we had for only 32 trials, and we did not have case report forms for any......Objective To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Main outcome measures Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia.Data sources Clinical study...

  3. Sexual aggression toward women: reducing the prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Gwendolyn L; Cherneski, Lindsay

    2006-11-01

    Date rape or acquaintance rape is far more common than rape by strangers and can lead to serious health and adjustment problems for girls and women. Research has found women and men to be similar in many of their views about sexual assault. However, studies on attribution of blame have highlighted differences in the ways in which men and women attribute blame in sexual assault. Men attribute less blame to perpetrators of sexual assault than do women, regardless of whether the perpetrator is female or male. This suggests that men identify with the power associated with the role of perpetrator. Ways of reducing the prevalence of men's sexual aggressiveness toward women are addressed. PMID:17189496

  4. Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

  5. The Influence of Sex Variables on Aggressive behavior of Sportsperson

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Bashir; Rajkumar . P. Malipatil

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:The paper is an empirical attempt to explore the significant influence on the aggressive behavior of the sportsperson. A sample of 400 sportsperson in the age group of 19 to 25 years studied by using semi-structured interview schedule. It is explored that the sex variables of the sports person has something to do with the aggressive behavior of sportsperson.

  6. Environmental Influences, the Developing Brain, and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudley, Cynthia; Novac, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors review research on highly stressful environments that are known to support the development and display of aggressive behavior in childhood, adolescence, and beyond. They also examine some of the mechanisms through which such stressful environments may influence adolescents' aggressive behavior. The review concentrates…

  7. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  8. Violent images, anger and physical aggression among male forensic inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Gondan, Matthias; Novaco, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The present study of forensic hospital patients examined whether their imagination of violence is related to self-reported anger, psychological distress, and to staff observations of aggressive behaviour in hospital. In view of the relevance of psychological trauma for anger and aggression...

  9. A.R.T. – Aggression Replacement Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker; Domben, Eskil

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder en kort introduktion, eksemplificeret ved case, af det manualbaserede program til behandling af udadreagerende unge Aggression Replacement Training.......Artiklen indeholder en kort introduktion, eksemplificeret ved case, af det manualbaserede program til behandling af udadreagerende unge Aggression Replacement Training....

  10. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  11. Fear and Aggression in German Shepherd, Boxer and Rottweiler Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassimira Uzunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of long-term active fear, variable moods can occur – howling, whimpering, crying, tremor, tics, manias, depressions, etc. It is now acknowledged that fear and aggression are closely related. It is also known that the different dog breeds manifest a various extent of fear and aggression. The study aimed to provide answers to two questions - classification of factors invoking fear and aggression according to their significance and which of investigated dog breeds – German Shepherd, Rottweiler or Boxer is the most resistant to fear and aggression episodes? The exclusion of all factors on the cultivation of three breeds of dogs / they complied with the norms / found that the causes of fear aggressive conditions are listed as follows – first of fear and aggression depend on the temperament of the dog and on the second place of the breed origin, growing conditions and the associated level of primary and secondary socialization. Fear aggressive manifestations occur at least in dogs with sanguine and choleric temperament. Representatives of the breed "Boxer" and "German Shepherd" are at the same level on the manifestations of fear and aggression. Rottweiler breed is in third place in this direction.

  12. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  13. The role of attractiveness and aggression in high school popularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, C.; Hyde, A.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the in

  14. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  15. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  16. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this pa

  17. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Gavin M.; Meiden, Laura Vander

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good. PMID:26982704

  18. 22 CFR 213.11 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation. 213.11 Section 213.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.11 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) USAID takes actions and...

  19. 41 CFR 105-55.009 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to collect the debt or terminate collection action. See 31 CFR 285.12 (Transfer of Debts to Treasury... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aggressive agency... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.009 Aggressive agency collection...

  20. 7 CFR 3.10 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity. 3.10 Section 3.10 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards for the Administrative Collection and Compromise of Claims § 3.10 Aggressive agency collection activity. An agency...

  1. 40 CFR 13.10 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation. 13.10 Section 13.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.10 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) EPA takes...

  2. 31 CFR 901.1 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... debt or terminate collection action. See 31 CFR 285.12 (Transfer of Debts to Treasury for Collection... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity... ADMINISTRATIVE COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 901.1 Aggressive agency collection activity. (a) Federal agencies...

  3. The Impact of High School Teacher Behaviors on Student Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive student behaviors are of concern to every school in the nation. Discovering ways to help teachers prevent and/or respond to such student behavior is of great importance. This reported research sought to discover if and how teacher behaviors impact student aggression in the classroom. In doing so, the researcher did not set out to blame…

  4. Patient aggression in clinical psychiatry: perceptions of mental health nurses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, E.J.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Steenhuis, I.H.; Oud, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    Mental health nurses are faced with an increasing number of aggressive incidents during their daily practice. The coercive intervention of seclusion is often used to manage patient aggression in the Netherlands. However, GGZ Nederland, the Dutch association of service providers for mental health and

  5. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  6. Amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gundannavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents two female patients whose chief complaint was discoloration of teeth. On careful clinical examination it was found that the patients had features of amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis. This article will give an insight of clinical and radiographic features of amelogenesis imperfecta with localised aggressive periodontitis, which is a rare clinical entity.

  7. Aggressive granular cell ameloblastoma: Report of a rare case

    OpenAIRE

    N Aravindha Babu; S Leena Sankari; Anitha, N.; Gouse Mohideen

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is a slow growing odontogenic ectodermal tumor. The tumor shows typical ameloblastoma with the cells showing eosinophilic granularity. This variant of ameloblastoma is aggressive with high recurrence rates. We report a case of aggressive ameloblastoma of granular cell variant

  8. Associations among Empathy, Social Competence, & Reactive/Proactive Aggression Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between proactive and reactive aggression subtypes on self-reported measures of empathy, social competence, and expectation for reward were examined among 433 middle school students (65.4% White, 33.9% Black). As hypothesized, males scored higher on proactive and reactive aggression scales and lower on empathy measures than females.…

  9. Popularity Differentially Predicts Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, Sabine E.M.J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van den Berg, Yvonne; Gommans, R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive

  10. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Gommans, R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive

  11. Aggression and aspects of impulsivity in wild-type rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2014-01-01

    Aggression is closely related to impulsive behavior both in humans and in animals. To avoid potential negative consequences, aggressive behavior is kept in control by strong inhibitory mechanisms. Failure of these inhibitory mechanisms results in violent behavior. In the present experiments, we inve

  12. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  13. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  14. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  15. Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

  16. Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Lyle Light; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Study explored leadership, cohesion, and demographic variables in relation to team norms about cheating and aggression. Surveys of high school and college ball players indicated that older age, higher year in school, and more years playing ball correlated positively with expectations of peer cheating and aggression. (SM)

  17. Aggressive angiomyxoma in female pelvic cavity : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare neoplasm occuring in the female pelvic cavity or perineum, and tends to recur. The radiographic findings of angiomyxoma have not been previously reported in Korea; we describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma in the female pelvic cavity, with emphasis on the pathologic and radiologic findings, and review the literature. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. Aggressive angiomyxoma in female pelvic cavity : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eo, Geun; Hwang, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jang Min; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Don Young [Kwangmyung Sungae Hospital, Kwangmyung (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare neoplasm occuring in the female pelvic cavity or perineum, and tends to recur. The radiographic findings of angiomyxoma have not been previously reported in Korea; we describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma in the female pelvic cavity, with emphasis on the pathologic and radiologic findings, and review the literature. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Aggression predicts Cortisol Awakening Response in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sariñana-González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It seems that aggressive behavior is negatively related to cortisol (C, but this relationship has been established considering the evening C levels. On the other hand, the relationship with the C awakening response (CAR and the influence of gender and menstrual cycle phase are not well understood. This study analyzed this relationship in 83 women (38 in the luteal and 45 in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and 20 men. CAR was assessed by measuring salivary free cortisol levels in samples taken immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60 minutes later. Additionally, participants completed a self-report of aggression. Men presented lower CAR than women in the luteal phase. Moreover, they also had higher levels of physical aggression than women, independently of their menstrual phase. Regarding the relationships between variables, in men general aggression and verbal aggression predicted the CAR. In women, verbal aggression predicted the CAR during the follicular phase, whereas anger and physical aggression were predictors during the luteal phase. Our data support the view that there is a negative relationship between C and aggressive behavior, even during the morning, this relationship being moderated by gender and menstrual cycle phase in the women. These findings may help improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in violence.

  20. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Craig

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.

  1. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  2. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Reactive versus Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Perusse, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the contribution of genes and environment to teacher-rated reactive and proactive aggression in 6-year-old twin pairs (172 pairs: 55 monozygotic girls, 48 monozygotic boys, 33 dizygotic girls, 36 dizygotic boys). Genetic effects accounted for 39% of the variance of reactive aggression and for 41% of the variance of proactive…

  3. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  4. Associations between Parental Control and Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment…

  5. Associations between parental control and children's overt and relational aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In lin

  6. Aggression detection in speech using sensor and semantic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing a multimodal (audio-visual) database with aggressive incidents in trains, we have observed that there are no trivial fusion algorithms to successfully predict multimodal aggression based on unimodal sensor inputs. We proposed a fusion framework that contains a set of intermediate level

  7. The Effect of Aggressive Cartoons: Children's Interpersonal Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapkiewicz, Walter G.; Roden, Aubrey H.

    Sixty second grade children were randomly assigned to same sex pairs and each pair was randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: aggressive cartoon, nonaggressive cartoon, and no cartoon. Results indicated that there was no difference among the groups on measures of interpersonal aggression although boys exhibited significantly more…

  8. Family Conflict and Childhood Aggression: The Role of Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiho; Raishevich, Natoshia; Scarpa, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Family conflict and childhood anxiety has been implicated in the development of aggressive behaviors, but the nature of these relationships has not been fully explored. Thus, the present study examined the role of anxiety in moderating the relationship between family conflict and childhood aggression in 50 children aged 7 to 13 years.…

  9. Parent-child interactions and relational aggression in peer relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provid

  10. A Hybrid Aggressive Space Mapping Algorithm for EM Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M.; Bandler, J. W.; Georgieva, N.;

    1999-01-01

    We present a novel, Hybrid Aggressive Space Mapping (HASM) optimization algorithm. HASM is a hybrid approach exploiting both the Trust Region Aggressive Space Mapping (TRASM) algorithm and direct optimization. It does not assume that the final space-mapped design is the true optimal design...

  11. Relations between Childraising Styles and Aggressiveness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…

  12. Is the Aggression Questionnaire Bias Free? A Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.

    2007-01-01

    Buss and Perry (1992) developed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) to assess aggressiveness as a personality trait in high school and college samples. The AQ has been used by researchers in United States, Italy, Germany, Netherland, Japan, Canada, and Greece. The present study is reported on an Arabic adapted version of the AQ among a sample of 510…

  13. Schoolyard Corner Society: Relating Membership to Reactive and Proactive Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Svein; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether secondary schools in Norway had deviant subcultures, which could be labelled "schoolyard corner society", and how gender and age were related to membership. We also studied levels of reactive and proactive aggressiveness in students, and the relationship between these types of aggressiveness and participation in…

  14. A Hybrid Aggressive Space Mapping Algorithm for EM Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, Mohamed H.; Bandler, John W.; Georgieva, N.;

    1999-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid aggressive space-mapping (HASM) optimization algorithm. HASM exploits both the trust-region aggressive space-mapping (TRASM) strategy and direct optimization. Severe differences between the coarse and fine models and nonuniqueness of the parameter extraction procedure may...

  15. Person x Context Effects on Anticipated Moral Emotions Following Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Salmivalli, Christina; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated person (sex, aggression level), context (witness type, victim reactions), and person x context effects on children's anticipated moral emotions following hypothetical acts of aggression against a peer. Children (N = 378, mean age = 11.3 years) were presented a series of hypothetical vignettes in which the presence of witnesses (no…

  16. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Gavin M; Meiden, Laura Vander

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  17. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Annegret L; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu

    2016-04-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat-provoking cues. Although several brain areas have been implicated in the generation of attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or 'voluntary' aggression-seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilized an aggression-seeking task in which male mice self-initiated aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they could attack. In males that exhibited rapid task learning, we found that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, was essential for aggression-seeking. Using both single-unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we found that VMHvl neurons became active during aggression-seeking and that their activity tracked changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduced aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerated moment-to-moment aggression-seeking and intensified future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack.

  18. Selective Exposure to Televised Aggression. Report No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    This 2-wave panel survey of young people was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and viewing over time, examining aggressiveness and viewing of programs portraying physical and verbal aggression. Questionnaires were administered to 227 children in the fourth, sixth, and eighth grades in 1976 and again one year later. The…

  19. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…

  20. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  1. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  2. Physical Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…

  3. Reactive Aggression among Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, Miia; Puura, Kaija; Helminen, Mika; Salmelin, Raili; Pelkonen, Erja; Juujärvi, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-seven boys and eight girls with ASD and thirty-five controls matched for gender, age and total score intelligence were studied to ascertain whether boys and girls with ASD display stronger reactive aggression than boys and girls without ASD. Participants performed a computerized version of the Pulkkinen aggression machine that examines the…

  4. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Vulva: a Distinct Clinical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Bakaris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchmal tumour arising from connective tissue of the perineum or the lower pelvis, and affect predominantly young women. Our case was 20-year-old female who was operated for a vulvar mass clinically misdiagnosed as Polyp . Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed, haphazardly scattered spindle or stellate shaped mesenchymal cells and vessels of medium size having dilated lumens within a loose hyposellular myxoid stroma No mitoses were evident.The spindle-or stellate-shaped tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin, but negative for cytokeratin, S-100 protein, and myoglobin and and #945;-smooth muscle actin by immunohistochemistry. These histologic and immunohistochemical findings were compatible with diagnosis of AA. Clinically AA is mixed with Bartholin's duct cyst, vulvar abscess, lipoma, vaginal cysts in diagnosis AA of the vulva must be distinguished from the more common benign and malignant myxoid tumors including myxoma, myxoid neurofibroma, pseudosarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, myxoid leiomyosarcoma and other soft tissue tumors with secondary myxoid changes. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 803-806

  5. Aggressive Recurrence of Primary Hepatic Epithelioid Haemangioendothelioma after Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusay A. Abdoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HEHE is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin that occurs in the liver; UNOS reported a favorable outcome after liver transplantation in 110 patients with 1-year and 5-year survival of 80% and 64%. Case Report. A 40-year-old lady presented with a three-month history of right upper abdominal pain with nausea, vomiting, and significant loss of weight associated with scleral icterus and progressive abdominal distension. Examination revealed jaundice, hepatomegaly, and ascites. Serum bilirubin was 26.5 mg/dL and ALP was 552 CT. Abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse infiltrative neoplastic process of the liver with a mass effect and stretching of the hepatic and portal veins, in addition to bile duct dilatation. Viral hepatitis markers were negative and serum alpha fetoprotein was within reference range. Liver biopsy was consistent with HEHE, with positive endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, and factor VIII-related antigen. She underwent living related liver transplantation on June 2013 and was discharged after 20 days with normal liver enzymes. Four months later, she presented with diffuse disease recurrence. Liver biopsy confirmed disease recurrence; she received supportive treatment and unfortunately she died 2 weeks later. Conclusion. HEHE can have rapid and aggressive recurrence after liver transplantation.

  6. Brain Monoamine Oxidase-A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression: Brain MAO A predicts aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W.; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2008-01-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A, an enzyme which breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine) produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, MIM 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and vio...

  7. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  8. Forgiveness and consideration of future consequences in aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R

    2008-09-01

    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger expression was evaluated among 316 college student volunteers. Hierarchical multiple regressions permitted an analysis of the incremental validity of these constructs beyond respondent gender, age, miles driven per week, and driving anger. Both forgiveness and consideration of future consequences contributed to the prediction of aggressive driving and driving anger expression, independent of driving anger. Research on aggressive driving may be enhanced by greater attention to adaptive, potentially risk-reducing traits. Moreover, forgiveness and consideration of future consequences may have implications for accident prevention.

  9. The effect of video games on feelings of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D

    1995-03-01

    Fueled by the media, the controversy over whether playing popular arcade/computer games increases aggressiveness has only been compounded by inconsistencies within empirical research. This experiment, conducted with university students in Scotland, was designed to explore some of these inconsistencies. Aggressiveness was manipulated as the independent variable. As dependent variables, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (Buss & Durkee, 1957) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) were used. There was no linear pattern in aggressive affect change across three games that contained varying levels of violence. Results are discussed in terms of the general lack of support for the commonly held view that playing aggressive computer games causes an individual to feel more aggressive.

  10. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  11. The effect of video games on feelings of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D

    1995-03-01

    Fueled by the media, the controversy over whether playing popular arcade/computer games increases aggressiveness has only been compounded by inconsistencies within empirical research. This experiment, conducted with university students in Scotland, was designed to explore some of these inconsistencies. Aggressiveness was manipulated as the independent variable. As dependent variables, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (Buss & Durkee, 1957) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) were used. There was no linear pattern in aggressive affect change across three games that contained varying levels of violence. Results are discussed in terms of the general lack of support for the commonly held view that playing aggressive computer games causes an individual to feel more aggressive. PMID:7760289

  12. Psychosexual Characteristics of Women Reporting Sexual Aggression Against Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-09-01

    Sexual aggression as committed by women has been the target of little empirical research and is still regarded as a myth by many people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosexual profile of young and educated women reporting sexual aggression against men. This is a cross-sectional study; a total of 260 female college students answered to an online survey. Among them, 93 (35.8%) reported having committed some form of sexual aggression against men: 46.2% of sexually aggressive women fell into the category of sexual coercion, 34.1% fell into the category of sexual abuse, and 19.8% reported having used physical force. Findings revealed that sexually aggressive women reported significantly higher levels of sociosexuality, sexual fantasies of dominance and submission, sexual compulsivity, sexual excitation, and sexual inhibition due to the threat of sexual performance failure. Data are expected to affect prevention strategies for a relevant yet understudied social concern. PMID:25854587

  13. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  14. Differential role of the 5-HT1A receptor in aggressive and non-aggressive mice : An across-strain comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caramaschi, Doretta; de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2007-01-01

    Differential role of the 5-HT1A receptor in aggressive and non-aggressive mice: an across-strain comparison. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2006. According to the serotonin (5-HT)-deficiency hypothesis of aggression, highly aggressive individuals are characterized by low brain 5-HT neurotransmission.

  15. An Initial Evaluation of a Culturally-Adapted Social Problem Solving and Relational Aggression Prevention Program for Urban African American Relationally Aggressive Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Leff, Stephen S.; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Jawad, Abbas F.; Grossman, Michael; Munro, Melissa A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research demonstrating that relational aggression is associated with peer relationship difficulties, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, social processing deficits, and possibly later mental health disorders among girls has emphasized the need to address the unique expression of aggression amongst females. Despite these findings, almost all aggression interventions have been directed towards physically aggressive boys. In the current manuscript, authors describe the acceptabilit...

  16. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard D Caroline

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus, emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding

  17. Aggressiveness across development and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls, and to examine males and females separately with regard to level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects. Participants were classified into 5 groups: depressed suicide attempters (DSA; n = 339), depressed non-suicide attempters (DNSA; n = 92), psychiatric controls who had attempted suicide (PSA; n = 188), psychiatric controls who had not attempted suicide (PNSA; n = 222), and normal controls (NC; n = 532). The level of aggressiveness across development in the different groups was examined using a 5 (DSA vs. DNSA vs. PSA vs. PNSA vs. NC)×3 (Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood) MANCOVA. Adjusted and separate models for males and females were conducted. Depressed subjects differed in severity of aggressiveness. The level of aggressiveness in individuals in the NC group remained stable across development, while subjects in the DSA and DNSA groups showed significantly higher levels of aggressiveness. This finding was also observed in subjects of the PSA and PNSA groups. The level of aggressiveness in males with depression significantly increased over time. In women, increasing levels of aggressiveness across development were only observed in depressed suicide attempters. Limitations of this study included use of semi-structured interview for the assessment of risk factors. We found significant differences in severity and in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls. In addition, sex differences regarding level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects were found.

  18. A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2008-07-01

    Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers' ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

  19. Interplay between Friends' Aggression and Friendship Quality in the Development of Child Aggression during the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Lacourse, Eric; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unique and combined role of friendship quality and friends' aggression in regard to the persistence of young children's physical aggression from kindergarten to grade 2. The sample included 1555 children (808 girls) assessed annually using teacher ratings. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., the social…

  20. Tryptophan via serotonin/kynurenine pathways abnormalities in a large cohort of aggressive inmates: markers for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, Pmental diseases. PMID:27117820