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Sample records for aggregates by shape and surface texture

  1. Capturing the surface texture and shape of pollen: a comparison of microscopy techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayandi Sivaguru

    Full Text Available Research on the comparative morphology of pollen grains depends crucially on the application of appropriate microscopy techniques. Information on the performance of microscopy techniques can be used to inform that choice. We compared the ability of several microscopy techniques to provide information on the shape and surface texture of three pollen types with differing morphologies. These techniques are: widefield, apotome, confocal and two-photon microscopy (reflected light techniques, and brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC (transmitted light techniques. We also provide a first view of pollen using super-resolution microscopy. The three pollen types used to contrast the performance of each technique are: Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae, Mabea occidentalis (Euphorbiaceae and Agropyron repens (Poaceae. No single microscopy technique provided an adequate picture of both the shape and surface texture of any of the three pollen types investigated here. The wavelength of incident light, photon-collection ability of the optical technique, signal-to-noise ratio, and the thickness and light absorption characteristics of the exine profoundly affect the recovery of morphological information by a given optical microscopy technique. Reflected light techniques, particularly confocal and two-photon microscopy, best capture pollen shape but provide limited information on very fine surface texture. In contrast, transmitted light techniques, particularly differential interference contrast microscopy, can resolve very fine surface texture but provide limited information on shape. Texture comprising sculptural elements that are spaced near the diffraction limit of light (~250 nm; NDL presents an acute challenge to optical microscopy. Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy provides data on the NDL texture of A. repens that is more comparable to textural data from scanning electron microscopy than any other optical

  2. Variation in Texture and Lankford Value of 1070 Aluminum Sheet Rolled by Cone-shaped Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasumasa Chino; Xinsheng Huang; Kazutaka Suzuki; Mamoru Mabuchi

    2013-01-01

    A rolling with cone-shaped roll,the diameter of which continuously varies along the axial direction,has been proposed as a new shear rolling for controlling the texture of an aluminum alloy sheet.In this study,variations in the texture and Lankford value of a 1070 aluminum sheet rolled by the cone-shaped roll were investigated.Rolling with the cone-shaped roll was found to impose intense shear strain at the edges of the specimen,specifically near the surface.The shear directions in the left and right portions of the specimen were opposite to each other.The surface and middle layer of the specimen rolled by the cone-shaped roll and the reference specimen were characterized by a shear texture and typical recrystallization texture components,respectively.Notably,the specimen rolled by the cone-shaped roll exhibited smaller texture intensity than the reference specimen,especially at the surface,and the shear texture-components were observed at relatively deeper positions.As a result of Lankford value measurements,the specimen rolled with the cone-shape roll exhibited a smaller planar anisotropy than the reference specimen and an average Lankford value close to unity,which are likely due to the texture modifications introduced during rolling with the cone-shaped roll.

  3. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2014-04-01

    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One of the key tools used for texture segmentation is local invariant descriptors. Texture consists of textons, the basic building block of textures, that may vary by small nuisances like illumination variation, deformations, and noise. Local invariant descriptors are robust to these nuisances making them beneficial for texture segmentation. However, grouping dense descriptors directly for segmentation presents a problem: existing descriptors aggregate data from neighborhoods that may contain different textured regions, making descriptors from these neighborhoods difficult to group, leading to significant errors in segmentation. This work addresses this issue by proposing dense local descriptors, called Shape-Tailored Features, which are tailored to an arbitrarily shaped region, aggregating data only within the region of interest. Since the segmentation, i.e., the regions, are not known a-priori, we propose a joint problem for Shape-Tailored Features and the regions. We present a framework based on variational methods. Extensive experiments on a new large texture dataset, which we introduce, show that the joint approach with Shape-Tailored Features leads to better segmentations over the non-joint non Shape-Tailored approach, and the method out-performs existing state-of-the-art.

  4. Conveying the 3D Shape of Transparent Surfaces Via Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interrante, Victoria; Fuchs, Henry; Pizer, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Transparency can be a useful device for depicting multiple overlapping surfaces in a single image. The challenge is to render the transparent surfaces in such a way that their three-dimensional shape can be readily understood and their depth distance from underlying structures clearly perceived. This paper describes our investigations into the use of sparsely-distributed discrete, opaque texture as an 'artistic device' for more explicitly indicating the relative depth of a transparent surface and for communicating the essential features of its 3D shape in an intuitively meaningful and minimally occluding way. The driving application for this work is the visualization of layered surfaces in radiation therapy treatment planning data, and the technique is illustrated on transparent isointensity surfaces of radiation dose. We describe the perceptual motivation and artistic inspiration for defining a stroke texture that is locally oriented in the direction of greatest normal curvature (and in which individual strokes are of a length proportional to the magnitude of the curvature in the direction they indicate), and discuss several alternative methods for applying this texture to isointensity surfaces defined in a volume. We propose an experimental paradigm for objectively measuring observers' ability to judge the shape and depth of a layered transparent surface, in the course of a task relevant to the needs of radiotherapy treatment planning, and use this paradigm to evaluate the practical effectiveness of our approach through a controlled observer experiment based on images generated from actual clinical data.

  5. Microstructure and texture of electroformed copper liners of shaped charges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures of copper liners of shaped charges prepared by electroforming technique were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the orientations distributing of thegrains in the electroformed copper liners of shaped charges was examined by the electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern (EBSP) technique. TEM observations have revealed that these electroformed copper liners of shaped charges have the grain size of about 1-3 m and the grains have a preferential orientation distribution along the growth direction.EBSP analysis has demonstrated that the as-formed copper liners of shaped charges exhibit a micro-texture, i.e. one type of fiber texture, and the preferred growth direction is normal to the surface of the liners.

  6. Unsupervised Skin cancer detection by combination of texture and shape features in dermoscopy images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed aghapanah rudsari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel unsupervised feature extraction method for detection of melanoma in skin images is presented. First of all, normal skin surrounding the lesion is removed in a segmentation process. In the next step, some shape and texture features are extracted from the output image of the first step: GLCM, GLRLM, the proposed directional-frequency features, and some parameters of Ripplet transform are used as texture features; Also, NRL features and Zernike moments are used as shape features. Totally, 63 texture features and 31 shape features are extracted. Finally, the number of extracted features is reduced using PCA method and a proposed method based on Fisher criteria. Extracted features are classified using the Perceptron Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, 4-NN, and Naïve Bayes. The results show that SVM has the best performance. The proposed algorithm is applied on a database that consists of 160 labeled images. The overall results confirm the superiority of the proposed method in both accuracy and reliability over previous works.

  7. CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING DOMINANT COLOR, TEXTURE AND SHAPE

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    M.BABU RAO,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In these days people are interested in using digital images. So the size of the image database is increasing enormously. Lot of interest is paid to find images in the database. There is a great need for developing an efficient technique for finding the images. In order to find an image, image has to be represented with certain features. Color, texture and shape are three important visual features of an image. In this paper we propose an efficient image retrieval technique which uses dynamic dominant color, texture and shape features of an image. An image is uniformly divided into 8 coarse partitions as a first step. After the above coarse partition, thecentroid of each partition (“color Bin” in MPEG-7 is selected as its dominant color. Texture of an image is obtained by using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM. Color and texture features are normalized. Shape information is captured in terms of edge images computed using Gradient Vector Flow fields. Invariant moments are then used to record the shape features. The combination of the color and texture features of an image in conjunction with the shape features provide a robust feature set for image retrieval.Weighted Euclidean distance of color, texture and shape features is used in retrieving the similar images. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with the results.

  8. Influence of Polyethylene Glycol on Asphaltic Concrete for Cubical and Rod shaped Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principle material in pavement construction. Conventional road aggregates in India are natural aggregates obtained by crushing rocks. Aggregate characteristics such as particle size, shape, and texture etc.., influence the performance and serviceability of pavement. Pavements laid with polymer modified asphalt exhibits greater resistance to rutting, thermal cracking and fatigue damages and hence these were used at locations of higher stress. The present work concentrates on aggregate characteristics which include the shape indices. The particle shapes namely Cubical and Rod are being used in the study. The study shows the behavior of the two shapes of aggregate in terms of Penetration, Ductility, Softening Point and Marshall Stability tests with varying percentages of asphalt and also with varying the percentages of PEG. The results of unmodified asphalt mix are compared with the modified asphalt mix against some critical Marshall Mix parameters.

  9. Comparing the role of shape and texture on staging hepatic fibrosis from medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Louie, Ryan; Liu, Brent J.; Gao, Xin; Tan, Xiaomin; Qu, Xianghe; Long, Liling

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of shape and texture in the classification of hepatic fibrosis by selecting the optimal parameters for a better Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. 10 surface shape features are extracted from a standardized profile of liver; while15 texture features calculated from gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) are extracted within an ROI in liver. Each combination of these input subsets is checked by using support vector machine (SVM) with leave-one-case-out method to differentiate fibrosis into two groups: normal or abnormal. The accurate rate value of all 10/15 types number of features is 66.83% by texture, while 85.74% by shape features, respectively. The irregularity of liver shape can demonstrate fibrotic grade efficiently and texture feature of CT image is not recommended to use with shape feature for interpretation of cirrhosis.

  10. Texture- and deformability-based surface recognition by tactile image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnobish, Anwesha; Pal, Monalisa; Tibarewala, D N; Konar, Amit; Pal, Kunal

    2016-08-01

    Deformability and texture are two unique object characteristics which are essential for appropriate surface recognition by tactile exploration. Tactile sensation is required to be incorporated in artificial arms for rehabilitative and other human-computer interface applications to achieve efficient and human-like manoeuvring. To accomplish the same, surface recognition by tactile data analysis is one of the prerequisites. The aim of this work is to develop effective technique for identification of various surfaces based on deformability and texture by analysing tactile images which are obtained during dynamic exploration of the item by artificial arms whose gripper is fitted with tactile sensors. Tactile data have been acquired, while human beings as well as a robot hand fitted with tactile sensors explored the objects. The tactile images are pre-processed, and relevant features are extracted from the tactile images. These features are provided as input to the variants of support vector machine (SVM), linear discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour (kNN) for classification. Based on deformability, six household surfaces are recognized from their corresponding tactile images. Moreover, based on texture five surfaces of daily use are classified. The method adopted in the former two cases has also been applied for deformability- and texture-based recognition of four biomembranes, i.e. membranes prepared from biomaterials which can be used for various applications such as drug delivery and implants. Linear SVM performed best for recognizing surface deformability with an accuracy of 83 % in 82.60 ms, whereas kNN classifier recognizes surfaces of daily use having different textures with an accuracy of 89 % in 54.25 ms and SVM with radial basis function kernel recognizes biomembranes with an accuracy of 78 % in 53.35 ms. The classifiers are observed to generalize well on the unseen test datasets with very high performance to achieve efficient material

  11. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  12. Synthesis and texturization processes of (super)-hydrophobic fluorinated surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Hubert, Julie; Dufour, Thierry; Vandencasteele, Nicolas; Reniers, François; Viville, Pascal; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Raes, M; Terryn, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and texturization processes of fluorinated surfaces by means of atmospheric plasma are investigated and presented through an integrated study of both the plasma phase and the resulting material surface. Three methods enhancing the surface hydrophobicity up to the production of super-hydrophobic surfaces are evaluated: (i) the modification of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface, (ii) the plasma deposition of fluorinated coatings and (iii) the incorporation of nanoparticles into those fluorinated films. In all the approaches, the nature of the plasma gas appears to be a crucial parameter for the desired property. Although a higher etching of the PTFE surface can be obtained with a pure helium plasma, the texturization can only be created if O2 is added to the plasma, which simultaneously decreases the total etching. The deposition of CxFy films by a dielectric barrier discharge leads to hydrophobic coatings with water contact angles (WCAs) of 115{\\textdegree}, but only the filamentary argon d...

  13. Image Mining Using Texture and Shape Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Rupali Sawant

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovering knowledge from data stored in typical alphanumeric databases, such as relational databases, has been the focal point of most of the work in database mining. However, with advances in secondary and tertiary storage capacity, coupled with a relatively low storage cost, more and more non standard data (in the form of images is being accumulated. This vast collection of image data can also be mined to discover new and valuable knowledge. During theprocess of image mining, the concepts in different hierarchiesand their relationships are extracted from different hierarchies and granularities, and association rule mining and concept clustering are consequently implemented. The generalization and specialization of concepts are realized in different hierarchies, lower layer concepts can be upgraded to upper layer concepts, and upper layer concepts guide the extraction of lower layer concepts. It is a process from image data to image information, from image information to imageknowledge, from lower layer concepts to upper layer concept lattice and cloud model theory is proposed. The methods of image mining from image texture and shape features are introduced here, which include the following basic steps: firstly pre-process images secondly use cloud model to extract concepts, lastly use concept lattice to extracta series of image knowledge.

  14. Effect of strontium tantalate surface texture on nickel nanoparticle dispersion by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compean-González, C.L. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Arredondo-Torres, V.M. [Facultad de Químico Farmacobiología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Tzintzuntzan #173, Col. Matamoros, Morelia, Michoacán C.P. 58240 (Mexico); Zarazúa-Morin, M.E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Figueroa-Torres, M.Z., E-mail: m.zyzlila@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Efficient short-time procedure for nickel nanoparticles dispersion by electroless. • Nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. • Influence of surface texture on deposition temperature and time was observed. • Nickel deposition can be done below 50 °C. - Abstract: The present work studies the effect of smooth and porous texture of Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} on its surface modification with nickel nanoparticles through electroless deposition technique. The influence of temperature to control Ni nanoparticles loading amount and dispersion were analyzed. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to examine surface texture characteristics. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (MEB) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometry system (EDS), which was used to determine the amount of deposited Ni. The material with smooth texture (SMT) consists of big agglomerates of semispherical shape particles of 400 nm. Whilst the porous texture (PRT) exhibit a pore-wall formed of needles shape particles of around 200 nm in size. Results indicated that texture characteristics strongly influence the deposition reaction rate; for PRT oxide, Ni deposition can be done from 20 °C while for SMT oxide deposition begins at 40 °C. Analysis of Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} surface indicated that in both textures, Ni nanoparticles with spherical shape in the range of 10–20 nm were obtained.

  15. An Approach to 3d Digital Modeling of Surfaces with Poor Texture by Range Imaging Techniques. `SHAPE from Stereo' VS. `SHAPE from Silhouette' in Digitizing Jorge Oteiza's Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, J.; Álvaro Tordesillas, A.; Barba, S.

    2015-02-01

    Despite eminent development of digital range imaging techniques, difficulties persist in the virtualization of objects with poor radiometric information, in other words, objects consisting of homogeneous colours (totally white, black, etc.), repetitive patterns, translucence, or materials with specular reflection. This is the case for much of the Jorge Oteiza's works, particularly in the sculpture collection of the Museo Fundación Jorge Oteiza (Navarra, Spain). The present study intend to analyse and asses the performance of two digital 3D-modeling methods based on imaging techniques, facing cultural heritage in singular cases, determined by radiometric characteristics as mentioned: Shape from Silhouette and Shape from Stereo. On the other hand, the text proposes the definition of a documentation workflow and presents the results of its application in the collection of sculptures created by Oteiza.

  16. SHAPE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATES USED FOR CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine aggregate is one of the essential components in concrete and significantly influences the material properties. As parts of natures, physical characteristics of fine aggregate are highly relevant to its behaviors in concrete. The most of previous studies are mainly focused on the physical properties of coarse aggregate due to the equipment limitations. In this paper, two typical fine aggregates, i.e. river sand and crushed rock, are selected for shape characterization. The new developed digital image analysis systems are employed as the main approaches for the purpose. Some other technical methods, e.g. sieve test, laser diffraction method are also used for the comparable references. Shape characteristics of fine aggregates with different origins but in similar size ranges are revealed by this study. Compared with coarse aggregate, fine grains of different origins generally have similar shape differences. These differences are more significant in surface texture properties, which can be easily identified by an advanced shape parameter: bluntness. The new image analysis method is then approved to be efficient for the shape characterization of fine aggregate in concrete.

  17. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  18. Shape and Texture Based Classification of Fish Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a case study of ¯sh species classi- fication based on shape and texture. We consider three fish species: cod, haddock, and whiting. We derive shape and texture features from an appearance model of a set of training data. The fish in the training images were manual outlined...... to discriminate between the fish types, as well as conducted a preliminary classfication. In a linear discrimant analysis based on the two best combined modes of variation we obtain a resubstitution rate of 76 %...

  19. Analysis of Surface Texturization of Solar Cells by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

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    Hsiao-Yen Chung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple new model, based on the classic molecular dynamics simulation (MD, alternative to complex electron-photon interactions to analyze the surface texturization of solar cells. This methodology can easily propose the absorptance differences between texturing and nontexturing solar cells. To verify model feasibility, this study simulates square, pyramidal, and semicircular texturization surfaces. Simulations show that surface texturization effectively increases the absorptance of incident light for solar cells, and this paper presents optimal texturization shapes. The MD model can also be potentially used to predict the efficiency promotion in any optical reflection-absorption cases.

  20. Texture development and anisotropic behaviour in a Ti-45Ni-5Cu (AT.%) shape memory alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Lie

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between texture development and anisotropy of shape memory properties. A commercial Ti-45Ni-5Cu (at.%) shape memory alloy was selected. Textures were developed by controlling rolling parameters, such as rolling temperature, intermediate an

  1. Evolution of texture and microstructure in pulsed electro-deposited Cu treated by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonde, Romain [LETAM, CNRS 3143, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Chan, Hoi-Lam [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Allain-Bonasso, Nathalie [LETAM, CNRS 3143, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Bolle, Bernard [LETAM, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Grosdidier, Thierry [LETAM, CNRS 3143, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Lu, Jian, E-mail: mmmelu@inet.polyu.edu.h [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the microstructure and texture evolution in pulsed electro-deposited copper samples and the additional effect of the Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT), which were analyzed by means of electron backscattering and X-ray diffractions. A transition in the microstructure was observed as the thickness of the deposit increased: from randomly oriented equiaxed (3D) nanograins at the beginning of the deposition process towards elongated (2D) nanograins having a strong <1 1 0> fibre texture. Meanwhile, the SMAT treatment is shown to randomize the strong texture of the electrodeposits.

  2. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  3. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-08-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed.

  4. Lubrication of textured surfaces: a general theory for flow and shear stress factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaraggi, Michele

    2012-08-01

    We report on a mean field theory of textured surface lubrication. We study the fluid flow dynamics occurring at the interface as a function of the texture characteristics, e.g. texture area density, shape and distribution of microstructures, and local slip lengths. The present results may be very important for the investigation of tailored microtextured surfaces for low-friction hydrodynamic applications.

  5. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  6. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of mineralogy, texture and mechanical properties of anti-skid and asphalt aggregates on urban dust

    OpenAIRE

    RÀisÀnen, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Tervahattu, H.

    2003-01-01

    In northern latitudes mineral dust is formed when cars use studded tyres and roads are sanded to obtain more traction on the icy surfaces. Anti-skid and asphalt aggregates with different textural, mineralogical and mechanical properties were tested with an indoor road simulator fitted with studded and friction tyres. The particle size distribution and proportions of dust from pavement and anti-skid aggregate were analyzed using SEM-EDX. The wear on the road pavement...

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Chong; Siedlecki, Christopher A

    2014-06-01

    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  9. Cooling Enhancement by Drop Impact and Pool Boiling on Nano-textured Surfaces Under Normal Gravity Conditions and at Zero and Increased Gravity in Parabolic Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarin, Alexander; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Jun, Seongchul

    2014-03-01

    The earth experiments with drop impact onto metal-plated electrospun nanofiber mats encompass a single drop, or drop trains or jets impacts. The results on drop cooling and pool boiling on nano-textured surface were obtained during the parabolic flights supported by NASA and ESA. Pool boiling on nano-textured surfaces was studied for ethanol and water as working fluids. The nano-textured surfaces were copper platelets covered with copper-plated electrospun nanofibers. The results revealed that the heat flux in boiling on the nano-textured surfaces was about 3-8 times higher than that on the bare copper. This stems from the fact that nano-textured surfaces promote bubble growth by increasing the average temperature of fluid surrounding growing bubbles. Nano-textured surfaces facilitated bubble growth rate and increase bubble detachment frequency. On the other hand, the critical heat flux (CHF) on the nano-textured surfaces was found to be very close to its counterpart on the bare copper surfaces. However, the heat flux on the nano-textured surfaces in transition boiling was significantly higher than on the bare copper ones, since the presence of nanofibers prevented bubble merging and delayed formation of vapor film.

  10. The Friction Reducing Effect of Square-Shaped Surface Textures under Lubricated Line-Contacts—An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing has been shown to be an effective modification approach for improving tribological performance. This study examined the friction reduction effect generated by square dimples of different sizes and geometries. Dimples were fabricated on the surface of ASP2023 steel plates using femtosecond laser-assisted surface texturing techniques, and reciprocating sliding line contact tests were carried out on a Plint TE77 tribometer using a smooth 52100 bearing steel roller and textured ASP2023 steel plates. The tribological characterization of the friction properties indicated that the textured samples had significantly lowered the friction coefficient in both boundary (15% improvement and mixed lubrication regimes (13% improvement. Moreover, the high data sampling rate results indicated that the dimples work as lubricant reservoirs in the boundary lubrication regime.

  11. Discrepancies over the onset of surfactant monomer aggregation interpreted by fluorescence, conductivity and surface tension methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Carvalho Costa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular probe techniques have made important contributions to the determination of microstructure of surfactant assemblies such as size, stability, micropolarity and conformation. Conductivity and surface tension were used to determine the critical aggregation concentration (cac of polymer-surfactant complexes and the critical micellar concentration (cmc of aqueous micellar aggregates. The results are compared with those of fluorescent techniques. Several surfactant systems were examined, 1-butanol-sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS mixtures, solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide-SDS, poly(vinylpyrrolidone-SDS and poly(acrylic acid-alkyltrimethylammonium bromide complexes. We found differences between the cac and cmc values obtained by conductivity or surface tension and those obtained by techniques which use hydrophobic probe.

  12. Monitoring soil aggregates dynamics at a plot scale using multitemporal image texture and colour analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ymeti, Irena; van der Werff, Harald; van der Meer, Freek; Jetten, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of soil aggregate breakdown remains, even at the micro-plot scale, a challenge. Remote sensing has shown its potential to assess many different soil properties and is a fast and non-destructive method to investigate soil susceptibility to water erosion. We designed an outdoor experiment to monitor soil aggregates breakdown under natural rainfall at a micro-plot scale using a regular camera. Five soils susceptible to detachment (silty loam with various organic matter content, loam and sandy loam) were photographed once per day. We collected images and rainfall data from November 2014 until February 2015. Considering that the soil surface roughness causes shadow cast, the blue/red band ratio is used to observe the soil aggregates changes. In addition, a Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to extract the image texture entropy which reflects the process of soil aggregates breakdown. In our research the entropy calculated at 135 degrees along the direction of shadows gives best results. Our results show that both entropy and shadow index follow the wetting and drying cycles with a decrease due to a rain event. This decrease is small due to low rainfall intensity (< 2.5 mmh-1) for the entire period that the experiment ran. However, the biggest rain event of 20 mmday-1 resulted in a decrease in entropy, meaning that sufficient rainfall energy was present to trigger the soil aggregates break down. This research concludes that both entropy and shadow index obtained with a regular camera enable the monitoring of soil aggregate breakdown at a high spatial resolution.

  13. Fabrication of broadband antireflective black metal surfaces with ultra-light-trapping structures by picosecond laser texturing and chemical fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Buxiang; Wang, Wenjun; Jiang, Gedong; Mei, Xuesong

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid method consisting of ultrafast laser-assisted texturing and chemical fluorination treatment was applied for efficiently enhancing the surface broadband antireflection to fabricate black titanium alloy surface with ultra-light-trapping micro-nanostructure. Based on the theoretical analysis of surface antireflective principle of micro-nanostructures and fluoride film, the ultra-light-trapping micro-nanostructures have been processed using a picosecond pulsed ultrafast laser on titanium alloy surfaces. Then fluorination treatment has been performed by using fluoroalkyl silane solution. According to X-ray diffraction phase analysis of the surface compositions and measurement of the surface reflectance using spectrophotometer, the broadband antireflective properties of titanium alloy surface with micro-nano structural characteristics were investigated before and after fluorination treatment. The results show that the surface morphology of micro-nanostructures processed by picosecond laser has significant effects on the antireflection of light waves to reduce the surface reflectance, which can be further reduced using chemical fluorination treatment. The high antireflection of over 98 % in a broad spectral range from ultraviolet to infrared on the surface of metal material has been achieved for the surface structures, and the broadband antireflective black metal surfaces with an extremely low reflectance of ultra-light-trapping structures have been obtained in the wavelength range from ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared, middle-wave infrared. The average reflectance of microgroove groups structured surface reaches as low as 2.43 % over a broad wavelength range from 200 to 2600 nm. It indicates that the hybrid method comprising of picosecond laser texturing and chemical fluorination can effectively induce the broadband antireflective black metal surface. This method has a potential application for fabricating antireflective surface used to improve the

  14. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  15. Texture development and slip systems in bridgmanite and bridgmanite + ferropericlase aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, L.; Wenk, H.-R.

    2016-09-01

    Bridgmanite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and ferropericlase (Mg,Fe)O are the most abundant phases in the lower mantle and localized regions of the D″ layer just above the core mantle boundary. Seismic anisotropy is observed near subduction zones at the top of the lower mantle and in the D″ region. One source of anisotropy is dislocation glide and associated texture (crystallographic preferred orientation) development. Thus, in order to interpret seismic anisotropy, it is important to understand texture development and slip system activities in bridgmanite and bridgmanite + ferropericlase aggregates. Here we report on in situ texture development in bridgmanite and bridgmanite + ferropericlase aggregates deformed in the diamond anvil cell up to 61 GPa. When bridgmanite is synthesized from enstatite, it exhibits a strong (4.2 m.r.d.) 001 transformation texture due to a structural relationship with the precursor enstatite phase. When bridgmanite + ferropericlase are synthesized from olivine or ringwoodite, bridgmanite exhibits a relatively weak 100 transformation texture (1.2 and 1.6 m.r.d., respectively). This is likely due to minimization of elastic strain energy as a result of Young's modulus anisotropy. In bridgmanite, 001 deformation textures are observed at pressures 55 GPa a change in texture to a 100 maximum is observed, consistent with slip on the (100) plane. Ferropericlase, when deformed with bridgmanite, does not develop a coherent texture. This is likely due to strain heterogeneity within the softer ferropericlase grains. Thus, it is plausible that ferropericlase is not a significant source of anisotropy in the lower mantle.

  16. Correlation between gloss reflectance and surface texture in photographic paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessot, Kevin; Messier, Paul; Hyde, Joyce M; Brown, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Surface textures of a large collection of photographic papers dating from 1896 to the present were measured using a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) with four different objective lenses. Roughness characterization parameters were calculated from the texture measurements and were compared with gloss measurements. Characterization by the area-scale fractal dimension (Das) and the area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc) provided the strongest correlations between gloss reflectance and surface texture. The measurements with the 5× and 10× objectives, which contained many large-scale, spiky measurement artifacts that distorted the measurement, resulted in the strongest correlations (R(2)  > 0.8) compared to the 20× and 50× (R(2)  < 0.5). The presence of spiky artifacts in the measurements, which increases when the magnification of the objective lens is decreased, appears to amplify surface features in such a way to improve the correlations.

  17. Holographic microscopy and microfluidics platform for measuring wall stress and 3D flow over surfaces textured by micro-pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Castillo, Luciano; Sheng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how fluid flow interacts with micro-textured surfaces is crucial for a broad range of key biological processes and engineering applications including particle dispersion, pathogenic infections, and drag manipulation by surface topology. We use high-speed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in combination with a correlation based de-noising algorithm to overcome the optical interference generated by surface roughness and to capture a large number of 3D particle trajectories in a microfluidic channel with one surface patterned with micropillars. It allows us to obtain a 3D ensembled velocity field with an uncertainty of 0.06% and 2D wall shear stress distribution at the resolution of ~65 μPa. Contrary to laminar flow in most microfluidics, we find that the flow is three-dimensional and complex for the textured microchannel. While the micropillars affect the velocity flow field locally, their presence is felt globally in terms of wall shear stresses at the channel walls. These findings imply that micro-scale mixing and wall stress sensing/manipulation can be achieved through hydro-dynamically smooth but topologically rough micropillars.

  18. Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Texture Color Shape and Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamad Shirazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interests to accurately retrieve required images from databases of digital images are growing day by day. Images are represented by certain features to facilitate accurate retrieval of the required images. These features include Texture, Color, Shape and Region. It is a hot research area and researchers have developed many techniques to use these feature for accurate retrieval of required images from the databases. In this paper we present a literature survey of the Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR techniques based on Texture, Color, Shape and Region. We also review some of the state of the art tools developed for CBIR.

  19. Aggregation of surface mine soil by interaction between VAM fungi and lignin degradation products of lespedeza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, F.M. (USDA Forest Service, Berea, KY (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory)

    1984-01-01

    The external mycelium of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus was effective in aggregating a sandy loam minesoil. The polysaccharide nature of the soil binding agent on hyphal surfaces and on the surfaces of sand particles in contact with the hyphae within the aggregate was demonstrated with the periodic acid-Schiff reagent staining reaction. A possible stabilizing mechanism for macroaggregates was proposed that involves a coupling reaction between glucosamines in the hyphal walls of the fungus with phenolic compounds released during lignin degradation of sericea lespedeza root tissue. 28 refs.

  20. Using information theory to determine optimum pixel size and shape for ecological studies: Aggregating land surface characteristics in arctic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoy, P.C.; Williams, M.; Spadavecchia, L.; Bell, R.A.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Evans, J.G.; Wijk, van M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying vegetation structure and function is critical for modeling ecological processes, and an emerging challenge is to apply models at multiple spatial scales. Land surface heterogeneity is commonly characterized using rectangular pixels, whose length scale reflects that of remote sensing meas

  1. Laser textured surface gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a novel technique for fabricating surfaces with roughness and wettability gradients and their subsequent applications for chemical sensors. Surface roughness gradients on brass sheets are obtained directly by nanosecond laser texturing. When these structured surfaces are exposed to air, their wettability decreases with time (up to 20 days) achieving both spatial and temporal wettability gradients. The surfaces are responsive to organic solvents. Contact angles of a series of dilute isopropanol solutions decay exponentially with concentration. In particular, a fall of 132° in contact angle is observed on a surface gradient, one order of magnitude higher than the 14° observed for the unprocessed surface, when the isopropanol concentration increased from 0 to 15.6 wt%. As the wettability changes gradually over the surface, contact angle also changes correspondingly. This effect offers multi-sensitivity at different zones on the surface and is useful for accurate measurement of chemical concentration.

  2. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  3. A Finger-Shaped Tactile Sensor for Fabric Surfaces Evaluation by 2-Dimensional Active Sliding Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sliding tactile perception is a basic function for human beings to determine the mechanical properties of object surfaces and recognize materials. Imitating this process, this paper proposes a novel finger-shaped tactile sensor based on a thin piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film for surface texture measurement. A parallelogram mechanism is designed to ensure that the sensor applies a constant contact force perpendicular to the object surface, and a 2-dimensional movable mechanical structure is utilized to generate the relative motion at a certain speed between the sensor and the object surface. By controlling the 2-dimensional motion of the finger-shaped sensor along the object surface, small height/depth variation of surface texture changes the output charge of PVDF film then surface texture can be measured. In this paper, the finger-shaped tactile sensor is used to evaluate and classify five different kinds of linen. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is utilized to get original attribute data of surface in the frequency domain, and principal component analysis (PCA is used to compress the attribute data and extract feature information. Finally, low dimensional features are classified by Support Vector Machine (SVM. The experimental results show that this finger-shaped tactile sensor is effective and high accurate for discriminating the five textures.

  4. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Bacterial Aggregates in Biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Melaugh, Gavin; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Steve P; Gordon, Vernita; Allen, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase meaning it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the role of aggregate shape, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play a key role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the...

  5. Scale Space Graph Representation and Kernel Matching for Non Rigid and Textured 3D Shape Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, Valeria; Giachetti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel framework for 3D object retrieval that relies on tree-based shape representations (TreeSha) derived from the analysis of the scale-space of the Auto Diffusion Function (ADF) and on specialized graph kernels designed for their comparison. By coupling maxima of the Auto Diffusion Function with the related basins of attraction, we can link the information at different scales encoding spatial relationships in a graph description that is isometry invariant and can easily incorporate texture and additional geometrical information as node and edge features. Using custom graph kernels it is then possible to estimate shape dissimilarities adapted to different specific tasks and on different categories of models, making the procedure a powerful and flexible tool for shape recognition and retrieval. Experimental results demonstrate that the method can provide retrieval scores similar or better than state-of-the-art on textured and non textured shape retrieval benchmarks and give interesting insights on effectiveness of different shape descriptors and graph kernels.

  6. SHAPE CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  7. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  8. Surface classification and detection of latent fingerprints based on 3D surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Stefan; Fischer, Robert; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-06-01

    In the field of latent fingerprint detection in crime scene forensics the classification of surfaces has importance. A new method for the scientific analysis of image based information for forensic science was investigated in the last years. Our image acquisition based on a sensor using Chromatic White Light (CWL) with a lateral resolution up to 2 μm. The used FRT-MicroProf 200 CWL 600 measurement device is able to capture high-resolution intensity and topography images in an optical and contact-less way. In prior work, we have suggested to use 2D surface texture parameters to classify various materials, which was a novel approach in the field of criminalistic forensic using knowledge from surface appearance and a chromatic white light sensor. A meaningful and useful classification of different crime scene specific surfaces is not existent. In this work, we want to extend such considerations by the usage of fourteen 3D surface parameters, called 'Birmingham 14'. In our experiment we define these surface texture parameters and use them to classify ten different materials in this test set-up and create specific material classes. Further it is shown in first experiments, that some surface texture parameters are sensitive to separate fingerprints from carrier surfaces. So far, the use of surface roughness is mainly known within the framework of material quality control. The analysis and classification of the captured 3D-topography images from crime scenes is important for the adaptive preprocessing depending on the surface texture. The adaptive preprocessing in dependency of surface classification is necessary for precise detection because of the wide variety of surface textures. We perform a preliminary study in usage of these 3D surface texture parameters as feature for the fingerprint detection. In combination with a reference sample we show that surface texture parameters can be an indication for a fingerprint and can be a feature in latent fingerprint detection.

  9. Medical image retrieval based on texture and shape feature co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yixiao; Huang, Yan; Ling, Haibin; Peng, Jingliang

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid development and wide application of medical imaging technology, explosive volumes of medical image data are produced every day all over the world. As such, it becomes increasingly challenging to manage and utilize such data effectively and efficiently. In particular, content-based medical image retrieval has been intensively researched in the past decade or so. In this work, we propose a novel approach to content-based medical image retrieval utilizing the co-occurrence of both the texture and the shape features in contrast to most previous algorithms that use purely the texture or the shape feature. Specifically, we propose a novel form of representation for the co-occurrence of the texture and the shape features in an image, i.e., the gray level and edge direction co-occurrence matrix (GLEDCOM). Based on GLEDCOM, we define eleven features forming a feature vector that is used to measure the similarity between images. As a result, it consistently yields outstanding performance on both images rich in texture (e.g., image of brain) and images with dominant smooth regions and sharp edges (e.g., image of bladder). As demonstrated by experiments, the mean precision of retrieval with GLEDCOM algorithm outperforms a set of representative algorithms including the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based, the Hu's seven moment invariants (HSMI) based, the uniformity estimation method (UEM) based and the the modified Zernike moments (MZM) based algorithms by 10%-20%.

  10. Comparing Shape and Texture Features for Pattern Recognition in Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsam, S; Kamath, C

    2004-12-10

    Shape and texture features have been used for some time for pattern recognition in datasets such as remote sensed imagery, medical imagery, photographs, etc. In this paper, we investigate shape and texture features for pattern recognition in simulation data. In particular, we explore which features are suitable for characterizing regions of interest in images resulting from fluid mixing simulations. Three texture features--gray level co-occurrence matrices, wavelets, and Gabor filters--and two shape features--geometric moments and the angular radial transform--are compared. The features are evaluated using a similarity retrieval framework. Our preliminary results indicate that Gabor filters perform the best among the texture features and the angular radial transform performs the best among the shape features. The feature which performs the best overall is dependent on how the groundtruth dataset is created.

  11. Effects of texture component orientation on orientation flow visibility for 3-D shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Michelle L; Li, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In images of textured 3-D surfaces, orientation flows created by the texture components parallel to the surface slant play a critical role in conveying the surface slant and shape. This study examines the visibility of these orientation flows in complex patterns. Specifically, we examine the effect of orientation of neighboring texture components on orientation flow visibility. Complex plaids consisting of gratings equally spaced in orientation were mapped onto planar and curved surfaces. The visibility of the component that creates the orientation flows was quantified by measuring its contrast threshold (CT) while varying the combination of neighboring components present in the pattern. CTs were consistently lowest only when components closest in orientation to that of the orientation flows were subtracted from the pattern. This finding suggests that a previously reported frequency-selective cross-orientation suppression mechanism involved with the perception of 3-D shape from texture is affected by proximity in orientation of concurrent texture components.

  12. Effects of texture component orientation on orientation flow visibility for 3-D shape perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Fowler

    Full Text Available In images of textured 3-D surfaces, orientation flows created by the texture components parallel to the surface slant play a critical role in conveying the surface slant and shape. This study examines the visibility of these orientation flows in complex patterns. Specifically, we examine the effect of orientation of neighboring texture components on orientation flow visibility. Complex plaids consisting of gratings equally spaced in orientation were mapped onto planar and curved surfaces. The visibility of the component that creates the orientation flows was quantified by measuring its contrast threshold (CT while varying the combination of neighboring components present in the pattern. CTs were consistently lowest only when components closest in orientation to that of the orientation flows were subtracted from the pattern. This finding suggests that a previously reported frequency-selective cross-orientation suppression mechanism involved with the perception of 3-D shape from texture is affected by proximity in orientation of concurrent texture components.

  13. Shape and scale dependent diffusivity of colloidal nanoclusters and aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcanzare, M. M. T.; Ollila, S. T. T.; Thakore, V.; Laganapan, A. M.; Videcoq, A.; Cerbelaud, M.; Ferrando, R.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-07-01

    The diffusion of colloidal nanoparticles and nanomolecular aggregates, which plays an important role in various biophysical and physicochemical phenomena, is currently under intense study. Here, we examine the shape and size dependent diffusion of colloidal nano- particles, fused nanoclusters and nanoaggregates using a hybrid fluctuating lattice Boltzmann-Molecular Dynamics method. We use physically realistic parameters characteristic of an aqueous solution, with explicitly implemented microscopic no-slip and full-slip boundary conditions. Results from nanocolloids below 10 nm in radii demonstrate how the volume fraction of the hydrodynamic boundary layer influences diffusivities. Full-slip colloids are found to diffuse faster than no-slip particles. We also characterize the shape dependent anisotropy of the diffusion coefficients of nanoclusters through the Green-Kubo relation. Finally, we study the size dependence of the diffusion of nanoaggregates comprising N ≤ 108 monomers and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient approaches the continuum scaling limit of N-1/3.

  14. Modification of Activated Carbon by Means of Microwave Heating and Its Effects on the Pore Texture and Surface Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of typical Activated Carbons (coal based AC and coconut shell based AC were modified in a flow of N0 gas has been carried out using a microwave device operating at 2450 MHz and different input power, instead of a conventional furnace. The samples were analyzed by means of low temperatureN0 adsorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration. The results show that microwave heating is an effective means of activated carbon modification. The temperature of activated carbon increases rapidly under microwave heating and then gradual increase to a quasi-stationary temperature. The pore texture of activated carbon changes slightly after microwave treatment and the two activated carbons still keep rich pore structure. The oxygen functional groups decompose and evolve with the form of CO and CO2. This in turn gives rise to a significant decrease in oxygen content. These changes of oxygen contents increase as the microwave input power increases. During microwave treatment, a gradual decrease in the surface acidic functional groups is observed. More important, with the removal of the surface acidic groups, the number of the basic group increased gradually, the activated carbon with oxygen functional groups become basic properties material.

  15. Modification of Activated Carbon by Means of Microwave Heating and Its Effects on the Pore Texture and Surface Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of typical activated carbons (coal based AC and coconut shell based AC were modified in a flow of N2 gas has been carried out using a microwave device operating at 2450 MHz and different input power, instead of a conventional furnace. The samples were analyzed by means of low temperature N2 adsorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration. The results show that microwave heating is an effective means of activated carbon modification. The temperature of activated carbon increases rapidly under microwave heating and then gradual increase to a quasi-stationary temperature. The pore texture of activated carbon changes slightly after microwave treatment and the two activated carbons still keep rich pore structure. The oxygen functional groups decompose and evolve with the form of CO and CO2. This in turn gives rise to a significant decrease in oxygen content. These changes of oxygen contents increase as the microwave input power increases. During microwave treatment, a gradual decrease in the surface acidic functional groups is observed. More important, with the removal of the surface acidic groups, the number of the basic group increased gradually, the activated carbon with oxygen functional groups become basic properties material.

  16. Color appearance of familiar objects: effects of object shape, texture, and illumination changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-05-26

    People perceive roughly constant surface colors despite large changes in illumination. The familiarity of colors of some natural objects might help achieve this feat through direct modulation of the objects' color appearance. Research on memory colors and color appearance has yielded controversial results and due to the employed methods has often confounded perceptual with semantic effects. We studied the effect of memory colors on color appearance by presenting photographs of fruit on a monitor under various simulated illuminations and by asking observers to make either achromatic or typical color settings without placing demands on short-term memory or semantic processing. In a control condition, we presented photographs of 3D fruit shapes without texture and 2D outline shapes. We found that (1) achromatic settings for fruit were systematically biased away from the gray point toward the opposite direction of a fruit's memory color; (2) the strength of the effect depended on the degree of naturalness of the stimuli; and (3) the effect was evident under all tested illuminations, being strongest for illuminations whose chromaticity was closest to the stimulus chromaticity. We conclude that the visual identity of an object has a measurable effect on color perception, and that this effect is robust under illuminant changes, indicating its potential significance as an additional mechanism for color constancy.

  17. Measurement of aggregate cohesion by tissue surface tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christine M; Foty, Ramsey A

    2011-04-08

    Rigorous measurement of intercellular binding energy can only be made using methods grounded in thermodynamic principles in systems at equilibrium. We have developed tissue surface tensiometry (TST) specifically to measure the surface free energy of interaction between cells. The biophysical concepts underlying TST have been previously described in detail. The method is based on the observation that mutually cohesive cells, if maintained in shaking culture, will spontaneously assemble into clusters. Over time, these clusters will round up to form spheres. This rounding-up behavior mimics the behavior characteristic of liquid systems. Intercellular binding energy is measured by compressing spherical aggregates between parallel plates in a custom-designed tissue surface tensiometer. The same mathematical equation used to measure the surface tension of a liquid droplet is used to measure surface tension of 3D tissue-like spherical aggregates. The cellular equivalent of liquid surface tension is intercellular binding energy, or more generally, tissue cohesivity. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that tissue surface tension (1) predicts how two groups of embryonic cells will interact with one another, (2) can strongly influence the ability of tissues to interact with biomaterials, (3) can be altered not only through direct manipulation of cadherin-based intercellular cohesion, but also by manipulation of key ECM molecules such as FN and 4) correlates with invasive potential of lung cancer, fibrosarcoma, brain tumor and prostate tumor cell lines. In this article we will describe the apparatus, detail the steps required to generate spheroids, to load the spheroids into the tensiometer chamber, to initiate aggregate compression, and to analyze and validate the tissue surface tension measurements generated.

  18. Texture and Strain Measurements from Bending of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Matthew; Zhang, Baozhuo; Young, Marcus L.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a new generation of materials that exhibit unique nonlinear deformations due to a phase transformation which allows the material to return to its original shape after removal of stress or a change in temperature. These unique properties are the result of a martensitic/austenitic phase transformation through the application of temperature changes or applied stress. Many technological applications of austenitic SMAs involve cyclical mechanical loading and unloading in order to take advantage of pseudoelasticity, but are limited due to poor fatigue life. In this paper, commercial pseudoelastic NiTi SMA wires (50.7 at.% Ni) were placed under different bending strains and examined using scanning electron microscopy and high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). By observing the microstructure, phase transformation temperatures, surface texture and diffraction patterns along the wire, it is shown that the wire exhibits a strong anisotropic behavior whether on the tensile or compressive side of the bending axis and that the initiation of micro-cracks in the wires is localized on the compression side, but that crack propagation will still happen if the wire is reloaded in the opposite direction. In addition, lattice strains are examined for both the austenite and martensite phases.

  19. Texture and Strain Measurements from Bending of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Matthew; Zhang, Baozhuo; Young, Marcus L.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a new generation of materials that exhibit unique nonlinear deformations due to a phase transformation which allows the material to return to its original shape after removal of stress or a change in temperature. These unique properties are the result of a martensitic/austenitic phase transformation through the application of temperature changes or applied stress. Many technological applications of austenitic SMAs involve cyclical mechanical loading and unloading in order to take advantage of pseudoelasticity, but are limited due to poor fatigue life. In this paper, commercial pseudoelastic NiTi SMA wires (50.7 at.% Ni) were placed under different bending strains and examined using scanning electron microscopy and high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). By observing the microstructure, phase transformation temperatures, surface texture and diffraction patterns along the wire, it is shown that the wire exhibits a strong anisotropic behavior whether on the tensile or compressive side of the bending axis and that the initiation of micro-cracks in the wires is localized on the compression side, but that crack propagation will still happen if the wire is reloaded in the opposite direction. In addition, lattice strains are examined for both the austenite and martensite phases.

  20. Surface Modification of Textured Dielectrics and Their Wetting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Dhillon, Ajaypal Singh; Sharma, Niti Nipun

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the wettability on dielectric materials is a classical topic in surface engineering. Surface texturing and deposition of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are major approaches to achieve lower or higher water contact angle ( θ c) and thereby making surface less or more wettable (more hydrophobic). Dielectric surfaces wetting has been engineered by surface modification and has been shown to achieve θ c to a maximum of 120° ± 5°. Further improvement in θ c to an extent greater than 150° ± 5° is desired to render the surface superhydrophobic. We report in this work an achievement of θ c > 150° ± 5° by combining the plasma-treated surface and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAMs deposition on dielectrics, and this had been shown on dielectric ranging from low- k to high- k values. The improvement in wetting behavior and quality of dielectric surface with monolayer on plasma-treated surfaces are (is) investigated and characterized using atomic-force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle goniometer, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and are compared with untreated dielectric surface with OTS monolayers.

  1. Surface Modification of Textured Dielectrics and Their Wetting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Dhillon, Ajaypal Singh; Sharma, Niti Nipun

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the wettability on dielectric materials is a classical topic in surface engineering. Surface texturing and deposition of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are major approaches to achieve lower or higher water contact angle (θ c) and thereby making surface less or more wettable (more hydrophobic). Dielectric surfaces wetting has been engineered by surface modification and has been shown to achieve θ c to a maximum of 120° ± 5°. Further improvement in θ c to an extent greater than 150° ± 5° is desired to render the surface superhydrophobic. We report in this work an achievement of θ c > 150° ± 5° by combining the plasma-treated surface and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAMs deposition on dielectrics, and this had been shown on dielectric ranging from low-k to high-k values. The improvement in wetting behavior and quality of dielectric surface with monolayer on plasma-treated surfaces are (is) investigated and characterized using atomic-force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle goniometer, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and are compared with untreated dielectric surface with OTS monolayers.

  2. Photogrammetry of the three-dimensional shape and texture of a nanoscale particle using scanning electron microscopy and free software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, Lionel C; Schierholz, Roland; Yu, Shicheng; Cintas, Jesús; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2016-10-01

    We apply photogrammetry in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the three-dimensional shape and surface texture of a nanoscale LiTi2(PO4)3 particle. We highlight the fact that the technique can be applied non-invasively in any SEM using free software (freeware) and does not require special sample preparation. Three-dimensional information is obtained in the form of a surface mesh, with the texture of the sample stored as a separate two-dimensional image (referred to as a UV Map). The mesh can be used to measure parameters such as surface area, volume, moment of inertia and center of mass, while the UV map can be used to study the surface texture using conventional image processing techniques. We also illustrate the use of 3D printing to visualize the reconstructed model.

  3. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V surfaces texturized by laser engraving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Amador, A.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar Rivero, P.; Peña Ballesteros, D. Y.; Estupiñán Duran, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    The cell adhesion of the implant is determinate by the chemical composition, topography, wettability, surface energy and biocompatibility of the biomaterial. In this work the interaction between human osteosarcoma HOS cells and textured Ti6Al4V surfaces were evaluated. Ti6Al4V surfaces were textured using a CO2 laser in order to obtain circular spots on the surfaces. Test surfaces were uncoated (C1) used as a control surface, and surfaces with points obtained by laser engraving, with 1mm spacing (C2) and 0.5mm (C3). The HOS cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. No cells toxicity after one month incubation time occurred. The increased cell adhesion and cell spreading was observed after 1, 3 and 5 days without significant differences between the sample surfaces (C2 and C3) and control (uncoated) at the end of the experiment.

  4. SHAPE FROM TEXTURE USING LOCALLY SCALED POINT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Didden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape from texture refers to the extraction of 3D information from 2D images with irregular texture. This paper introduces a statistical framework to learn shape from texture where convex texture elements in a 2D image are represented through a point process. In a first step, the 2D image is preprocessed to generate a probability map corresponding to an estimate of the unnormalized intensity of the latent point process underlying the texture elements. The latent point process is subsequently inferred from the probability map in a non-parametric, model free manner. Finally, the 3D information is extracted from the point pattern by applying a locally scaled point process model where the local scaling function represents the deformation caused by the projection of a 3D surface onto a 2D image.

  5. Fabrication, surface properties, and origin of superoleophobicity for a model textured surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Law, Kock-Yee; Sambhy, Varun

    2011-05-17

    Inspired by the superhydrophobic effect displayed in nature, we set out to mimic the interplay between the chemistry and physics in the lotus leaf to see if the same design principle can be applied to control wetting and adhesion between toners and inks on various printing surfaces. Since toners and inks are organic materials, superoleophobicity has become our design target. In this work, we report the design and fabrication of a model superoleophobic surface on silicon wafer. The model surface was created by photolithography, consisting of texture made of arrays of ∼3 μm diameter pillars, ∼7 μm in height with a center-to-center spacing of 6 μm. The surface was then made oleophobic with a fluorosilane coating, FOTS, synthesized by the molecular vapor deposition technique with tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane. Contact angle measurement shows that the surface exhibits super repellency toward water and oil (hexadecane) with a water and hexadecane contact angles at 156° and 158°, respectively. Since the sliding angles for both liquids are also very small (∼10°), we conclude that the model surface is both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic. By comparing with the contact angle data of the bare silicon surfaces (both smooth and textured), we also conclude that the superoleophobicity is a result of both surface texturing and fluorination. Results from investigations of the effects of surface modification and pillar geometry indicate that both surface oleophobicity and pillar geometry are contributors to the superoleophobicity. More specifically, we found that superoleophobicity can only be attained on our model textured surface when the flat surface coating has a relatively high oleophobicity (i.e., with a hexadecane contact angle of >73°). SEM examination of the pillars with higher magnification reveals that the side wall in each pillar is not smooth; rather it consists of a ∼300 nm wavy structure (due to the Bosch etching process

  6. Depletion induced encapsulation by dumbbell-shaped patchy colloids stabilize microspheres against aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Joost Robert; Verweij, Joanne E; Avvisati, Guido; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kegel, Willem K

    2017-03-08

    In this paper, we demonstrate the stabilization of polystyrene microspheres by encapsulating them with dumbbell-shaped colloids with a sticky and a non-sticky lobe. Upon adding a depletant, an effective short ranged attraction is induced between the microspheres and the smaller, smooth lobes of the dumbbells, making those specifically sticky, whereas the interaction with the larger lobes of the dumbbells is considerably less attractive due to their rough surface, which reduces the overlap volume and leaves them non-sticky. The encapsulation of the microspheres by these rough-smooth patchy dumbbells is investigated using a combination of experiments and computer simulations, both resulting in partial coverage of the template particles. For larger microspheres, the depletion attraction is stronger, resulting in a larger fraction of dumbbells that are attached with both lobes to the surface of microspheres. We thus find a template curvature dependent orientation of the dumbbells. In the Monte Carlo simulations, the introduction of such a small, curvature dependent attraction between the rough lobes of the dumbbells resulted in an increased coverage. However, kinetic constraints imposed by the dumbbell geometry seem to prevent optimal packing of the dumbbells on the template particles under all investigated conditions in experiments and simulations. Despite the incomplete coverage, the encapsulation by dumbbell particles does prevent aggregation of the microspheres, thus acting as a colloid-sized steric stabilizer.

  7. Enhancement and suppression of surface plasmon resonance in Ag aggregate by optical gain and absorption in surrounding dielectric medium

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, M A; Bahoura, M; Drachev, V P; Ritzo, B A; Shalaev, V M; Small, C; Zhu, G

    2005-01-01

    We have observed the compensation of loss in metal by gain in interfacing dielectric in the mixture of aggregated silver nanoparticles and rhodamine 6G dye. The demonstrated six-fold enhancement of the Rayleigh scattering is the evidence of the increase of the quality factor of the surface plasmon (SP) resonance. The reported experimental observation paves the road to many practical applications of nanoplasmonics. We have also predicted and experimentally observed a suppression of the surface SP resonance in metallic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host with absorption.

  8. Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithms...

  9. Shapes of krill swarms and fish schools emerge as aggregation members avoid predators and access oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Cox, Martin J

    2010-10-12

    Many types of animals exhibit aggregative behavior: birds flock, bees swarm, fish shoal, and ungulates herd. Terrestrial and aerial aggregations can be observed directly, and photographic techniques have provided insights into the behaviors of animals in these environments and data against which behavioral theory can be tested. Underwater, however, limited visibility can hamper direct observation, and understanding of shoaling remains incomplete. We used multibeam sonar to observe three-dimensional structure of Antarctic krill shoals acoustically. Shoal size and packing density varied greatly, but surface area:volume ratios (roughnesses) were distributed narrowly about ∼3.3 m(-1). Shoals of clupeid fish (e.g., sardine, anchovy) from geographically and oceanographically diverse locations have very similar roughnesses. This common emergent shape property suggests common driving forces across diverse ecosystems. Group behavior can be complex, but a simple tradeoff--that we model--in which individual fish and krill juggle only their access to oxygen-replete water and exposure to predation can explain the observed shoal shape. Decreasing oxygen availability in a warming world ocean may impact shoal structure: because structure affects catchability by predators and fishers, understanding the response will be necessary for ecological and commercial reasons.

  10. Cell Surface Binding and Internalization of Aβ Modulated by Degree of Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Bateman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid peptides, Aβ40 and Aβ42, are generated through endoproteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Here we have developed a model to investigate the interaction of living cells with various forms of aggregated Aβ40/42. After incubation at endosomal pH 6, we observed a variety of Aβ conformations after 3 (Aβ3, 24 (Aβ24, and 90 hours (Aβ90. Both Aβ4224 and Aβ4024 were observed to rapidly bind and internalize into differentiated PC12 cells, leading to accumulation in the lysosome. In contrast, Aβ40/4290 were both found to only weakly associate with cells, but were observed as the most aggregated using dynamic light scattering and thioflavin-T. Internalization of Aβ40/4224 was inhibited with treatment of monodansylcadaverine, an endocytosis inhibitor. These studies indicate that the ability of Aβ40/42 to bind and internalize into living cells increases with degree of aggregation until it reaches a maximum beyond which its ability to interact with cells diminishes drastically.

  11. Pedestrian detection and tracking using a mixture of view-based shape-texture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munder, S.; Schnörr, C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust multicue approach to the integrated detection and tracking of pedestrians in a cluttered urban environment. A novel spatiotemporal object representation is proposed, which combines a generative shape model and a discriminative texture classifier, both of which are compos

  12. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar Alizadeh; Vaibhav Bahadur; Sheng Zhong; Wen Shang; Ri Li; James Ruud; Masako Yamada; Liehi Ge; Ali Dhinojwala; Manohar S Sohal (047160)

    2012-03-01

    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially for hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-structure interaction at various temperatures.

  13. Laser surface texturing: chosen problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogdan; Sek, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In modern machines for realization of goals like lubrication intesyfication, heat flow intensyfiacation, microflow simulation; more and more often surface texturing is used. It became possible due to develepment of technologies that use sources of concentrated energy stream like microlasers. The paper shows results of experimental investigation on seal rings made of silicon carbide. Experiments were conducted using seal rings without surface modifications and a seal rings with a geometrical surface textures made with Nd:Yag laser.

  14. Moving Object Segmentation Using Level Set Method with Shape Prior, Color and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the combination of different feature cues in a level set based moving object segmentation framework. To distinguish object from background, motion detection is firstly adopted to locate object position and obtain coarse shape prior. Moreover, the color and texture feature descriptors that represent object contour are designed in this dissertation. Then the finer segmentation solution based on the color and texture difference between the object and background is proposed, which avoids the invalid feature components to hamper segmentation and improves the accuracy. Extensive experiments have been carried out on surveillance video sequences to validate the proposed method

  15. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-01-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 microns, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 microns), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 micron-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale- Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11micron and 23 micron crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial transport models of our protoplanetary disk.

  16. Relationship between soil aggregate strength, shape and porosity for soils under different long-term management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard J; Deen, Bill;

    2016-01-01

    Soil aggregate properties, such as strength, shape and porosity, influence a range of essential soil functions and there is a need for more detailed understanding of the effect of soil management on these aggregate properties. There is also a need for improved knowledge on the link between aggreg...

  17. In vitro platelet activation, aggregation and platelet-granulocyte complex formation induced by surface modified single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, János; Bihari, Péter; Vippola, Minnamari; Sarlin, Essi; Lakatos, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Surface modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) such as carboxylation, amidation, hydroxylation and pegylation is used to reduce the nanotube toxicity and render them more suitable for biomedical applications than their pristine counterparts. Toxicity can be manifested in platelet activation as it has been shown for SWCNTs. However, the effect of various surface modifications on the platelet activating potential of SWCNTs has not been tested yet. In vitro platelet activation (CD62P) as well as the platelet-granulocyte complex formation (CD15/CD41 double positivity) in human whole blood were measured by flow cytometry in the presence of 0.1mg/ml of pristine or various surface modified SWCNTs. The effect of various SWCNTs was tested by whole blood impedance aggregometry, too. All tested SWCNTs but the hydroxylated ones activate platelets and promote platelet-granulocyte complex formation in vitro. Carboxylated, pegylated and pristine SWCNTs induce whole blood aggregation as well. Although pegylation is preferred from biomedical point of view, among the samples tested by us pegylated SWCNTs induced far the most prominent activation and a well detectable aggregation of platelets in whole blood.

  18. HEp-2 Cell Classification via Fusing Texture and Shape Information

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xianbiao; Zhao, Guoying; Li, Chun-Guang; Guo, Jun; Pietikäinen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) HEp-2 cell image is an effective evidence for diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Recently computer-aided diagnosis of autoimmune diseases by IIF HEp-2 cell classification has attracted great attention. However the HEp-2 cell classification task is quite challenging due to large intra-class variation and small between-class variation. In this paper we propose an effective and efficient approach for the automatic classification of IIF HEp-2 cell image by fusing ...

  19. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J

    2009-12-14

    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments.

  20. Molecular kinetic theory of boundary slip on textured surfaces by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiYa; Wang, FengChao; Yang, FuQian; Wu, HengAn

    2014-11-01

    A theoretical model extended from the Frenkel-Eyring molecular kinetic theory (MKT) was applied to describe the boundary slip on textured surfaces. The concept of the equivalent depth of potential well was adopted to characterize the solid-liquid interactions on the textured surfaces. The slip behaviors on both chemically and topographically textured surfaces were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The extended MKT slip model is validated by our MD simulations under various situations, by constructing different complex surfaces and varying the surface wettability as well as the shear stress exerted on the liquid. This slip model can provide more comprehensive understanding of the liquid flow on atomic scale by considering the influence of the solid-liquid interactions and the applied shear stress on the nano-flow. Moreover, the slip velocity shear-rate dependence can be predicted using this slip model, since the nonlinear increase of the slip velocity under high shear stress can be approximated by a hyperbolic sine function.

  1. Molecular kinetic theory of boundary slip on textured surfaces by molecular dynamics simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LiYa; WANG FengChao; YANG FuQian; WU HengAn

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model extended from the Frenkel-Eyring molecular kinetic theory (MKT) was applied to describe the boundary slip on textured surfaces.The concept of the equivalent depth of potential well was adopted to characterize the solid-liquid interactions on the textured surfaces.The slip behaviors on both chemically and topographically textured surfaces were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.The extended MKT slip model is validated by our MD simulations under various situations,by constructing different complex surfaces and varying the surface wettability as well as the shear stress exerted on the liquid.This slip model can provide more comprehensive understanding of the liquid flow on atomic scale by considering the influence of the solid-liquid interactions and the applied shear stress on the nano-flow.Moreover,the slip velocity shear-rate dependence can be predicted using this slip model,since the nonlinear increase of the slip velocity under high shear stress can be approximated by a hyperbolic sine function.

  2. Iron oxide porous nanorods with different textural properties and surface composition: Preparation, characterization and electrochemical lithium storage capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartaj, Pedro; Amarilla, Jose M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Campus Universitario de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We here report a method for the facile and large scale preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes based on {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite) nanorods with different textural characteristics and surface composition. The method combines electrostatically driven self-assembly approaches with specific adsorption and magnetically easy to disrupt soft aggregates. Special emphasis has been set to correlate the textural characteristics (porosity) and surface composition (core, core-nanoshell and core-double nanoshells) of nanorods with their electrochemical response. Thus, we have shown that nanorods present a nanophase whose specific capacity strongly depends on the lithium transport distances (nanorods with slit-shape mesopores running along their long axis vs. non-porous or surface blocked nanorods). We have also shown that the capacity retention of this nanophase after several charge-discharge processes depends on maintaining the structural integrity of the nanorods. Essential for the success of this latter study has been the use of nanorods that offer a simple tool (oriented X-ray line broadening) to follow their electrochemical grinding. Our data suggest that {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mesoporous nanorods could both operate at a voltage and retain a capacity similar to that of nanostructured lithium titanates anodes if actions are taken to prevent electrochemical grinding. (author)

  3. Comparative Study of Leaf Surface Texture and Ability to Expand of Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohr R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco leaf texture, appreciated by the difference of surface roughness of cured leaves, is studies with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leaf texture is obviously determined by the presence or absence of conical cellular protuberances on the adaxial side of the leaf. Considering the anatomic point of view, the leaf thickness, always more important when the leaf texture is open, is the only objective criterion which could be associated to the texture. The ultra-structural study with SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM demonstrates that the expansion capacity of tobacco doesn't rely on cytological factors such as cellular reserves or debris. The expansion capacity could be inversely proportional with the relative importance of the mesophyll comparing to palisade parenchyma. On the studied material, no direct relation between the leaf texture and the expansion capacity has been noticed.

  4. Systems and Methods of Laser Texturing of Material Surfaces and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mool C. (Inventor); Nayak, Barada K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The surface of a material is textured and by exposing the surface to pulses from an ultrafast laser. The laser treatment causes pillars to form on the treated surface. These pillars provide for greater light absorption. Texturing and crystallization can be carried out as a single step process. The crystallization of the material provides for higher electric conductivity and changes in optical and electronic properties of the material. The method may be performed in vacuum or a gaseous environment. The gaseous environment may aid in texturing and/or modifying physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. This method may be used on various material surfaces, such as semiconductors, metals and their alloys, ceramics, polymers, glasses, composites, as well as crystalline, nanocrystalline, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, and amorphous phases.

  5. SOFT COMPUTING BASED MEDICAL IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING SHAPE AND TEXTURE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mary Helta Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval is a challenging and important research applications like digital libraries and medical image databases. Content-based image retrieval is useful in retrieving images from database based on the feature vector generated with the help of the image features. In this study, we present image retrieval based on the genetic algorithm. The shape feature and morphological based texture features are extracted images in the database and query image. Then generating chromosome based on the distance value obtained by the difference feature vector of images in the data base and the query image. In the selected chromosome the genetic operators like cross over and mutation are applied. After that the best chromosome selected and displays the most similar images to the query image. The retrieval performance of the method shows better retrieval result.

  6. Learning Shape and Texture Characteristics of CT Tree-in-Bud Opacities for CAD Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Ulas; Caban, Jesus; Suffredini, Anthony F; Palmore, Tara N; Mollura, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Although radiologists can employ CAD systems to characterize malignancies, pulmonary fibrosis and other chronic diseases; the design of imaging techniques to quantify infectious diseases continue to lag behind. There exists a need to create more CAD systems capable of detecting and quantifying characteristic patterns often seen in respiratory tract infections such as influenza, bacterial pneumonia, or tuborculosis. One of such patterns is Tree-in-bud (TIB) which presents \\textit{thickened} bronchial structures surrounding by clusters of \\textit{micro-nodules}. Automatic detection of TIB patterns is a challenging task because of their weak boundary, noisy appearance, and small lesion size. In this paper, we present two novel methods for automatically detecting TIB patterns: (1) a fast localization of candidate patterns using information from local scale of the images, and (2) a M\\"{o}bius invariant feature extraction method based on learned local shape and texture properties. A comparative evaluation of the pr...

  7. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2016-07-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  8. Effect of surface penetrating sealant on surface texture and microhardness of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M F; Leforestier, E; Muller, M; Lupi-Pégurier, L; Bolla, M

    2000-01-01

    The application of Fortify (Bisco, Lombard, IL), an unfilled resin, to the surface of composite resin restorations is intended to fill in defects in the surface that persist despite polishing, improve marginal integrity, and increase these materials' resistance to abrasion. The aim of this study was to observe the surface texture by scanning electron microscopy and measure the microhardness of the surface. For each sample of composite resin covered with glaze, 40 measurements were made of the thickness of the resin. Measurements of the Vickers microhardness included three samples of composite resin, three samples of glaze, and six samples of composite resin covered with glaze. A relationship was established between microhardness and thickness. Scanning electron microscopy showed a noticeable improvement in the surface texture. Nevertheless, areas were seen in which glaze seemed very thin or even completely absent. Measurements of the thickness ranged from 0-70 microm. The mean microhardness of composite resin was 65.8 +/- 0.7, while the mean hardness of glaze was 7.3 +/- 0.7. The microhardness of the double layer was reduced, depending on the thickness of the glazing resin. The capacity of glaze to mask surface defects of composite resin was shown, but it was difficult to obtain a regular surface with liquid resin. The application of this product caused a decrease of the microhardness of the composite resin's surface.

  9. Use of Textured Surfaces to Mitigate Sliding Friction and Wear of Lubricated and Non-Lubricated Contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    If properly employed, the placement of three-dimensional feature patterns, also referred to as textures, on relatively-moving, load-bearing surfaces can be beneficial to their friction and wear characteristics. For example, geometric patterns can function as lubricant supply channels or depressions in which to trap debris. They can also alter lubricant flow in a manner that produces thicker load-bearing films locally. Considering the area occupied by solid areas and spaces, textures also change the load distribution on surfaces. At least ten different attributes of textures can be specified, and their combinations offer wide latitude in surface engineering. By employing directional machining and grinding procedures, texturing has been used on bearings and seals for well over a half century, and the size scales of texturing vary widely. This report summarizes past work on the texturing of load-bearing surfaces, including past research on laser surface dimpling of ceramics done at ORNL. Textured surfaces generally show most pronounced effects when they are used in conformal or nearly conformal contacts, like that in face seals. Combining textures with other forms of surface modification and lubrication methods can offer additional benefits in surface engineering for tribology. As the literature and past work at ORNL shows, texturing does not always provide benefits. Rather, the selected pattern and arrangement of features must be matched to characteristics of the proposed application, bearing materials, and lubricants.

  10. Biologically Inspired Model for Inference of 3D Shape from Texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Olman; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    A biologically inspired model architecture for inferring 3D shape from texture is proposed. The model is hierarchically organized into modules roughly corresponding to visual cortical areas in the ventral stream. Initial orientation selective filtering decomposes the input into low-level orientation and spatial frequency representations. Grouping of spatially anisotropic orientation responses builds sketch-like representations of surface shape. Gradients in orientation fields and subsequent integration infers local surface geometry and globally consistent 3D depth. From the distributions in orientation responses summed in frequency, an estimate of the tilt and slant of the local surface can be obtained. The model suggests how 3D shape can be inferred from texture patterns and their image appearance in a hierarchically organized processing cascade along the cortical ventral stream. The proposed model integrates oriented texture gradient information that is encoded in distributed maps of orientation-frequency representations. The texture energy gradient information is defined by changes in the grouped summed normalized orientation-frequency response activity extracted from the textured object image. This activity is integrated by directed fields to generate a 3D shape representation of a complex object with depth ordering proportional to the fields output, with higher activity denoting larger distance in relative depth away from the viewer.

  11. Aesthetics by numbers:Links between perceived texture qualities and computed visual texture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed – and presumably for this reason– the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and apparent relevance, only recently the relationships between texture features and high-level judgments have captured the interest of mainstream science, despite long-standing indications for such relationships. In this study, we explore such relationships, as these might be used to predict perceived texture qualities. This is relevant, not only from a psychological/neuroscience perspective, but also for more applied fields such as design, architecture, and the visual arts. In two separate experiments, observers judged various qualities of visual textures such as beauty, roughness, naturalness, elegance, and complexity. Based on factor analysis, we find that in both experiments, ~75% of the variability in the judgments could be explained by a two-dimensional space, with axes that are closely aligned to the beauty and roughness judgments. That a two-dimensional judgment space suffices to capture most of the variability in the perceived texture qualities suggests that observers use a relatively limited set of internal scales on which to base various judgments, including aesthetic ones.Finally, for both of these judgments, we determined the relationship with a large number of texture features computed for each of the texture stimuli. We find that the presence of lower spatial frequencies, oblique orientations, higher intensity variation, higher saturation, and redness correlates with higher beauty ratings. Features that captured image intensity and uniformity correlated with roughness ratings. Therefore, a number of computational texture features are predictive of these judgments. This suggests that perceived texture qualities – including the aesthetic

  12. Analysis of Pyramidal Surface Texturization of Silicon Solar Cells by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yen Chung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relations between surface texturization and absorptance of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a simple new model, based on the classic molecular (MD dynamics simulation, alternative to complex electron-photon interactions to analyze the surface texturization of solar cells. In this study, the large tilted angle leads to the lower efficiency of solar cell. To consider the effect of incident angle, a range of high efficiency exists due to the increasing probability of second reflection. Furthermore, the azimuth angle of incident light also affects the efficiency of solar cells. Our results agree well with previous studies. This MD model can potentially be used to predict the efficiency promotion in any optical reflection-absorption cases.

  13. A numerical investigation of grain shape and crystallographic texture effects on the plastic strain localization in friction stir weld zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, V.; Balokhonov, R.; Batukhtina, E.; Shakhidjanov, V.

    2015-10-01

    Crystal plasticity approaches were adopted to build models accounting for the microstructure and texture observed in different friction stir weld zones. To this end, a numerical investigation of crystallographic texture and grain shape effects on the plastic strain localization in a friction stir weld of an aluminum-base alloy was performed. The presence of texture was found to give rise to pronounced mesoscale plastic strain localization.

  14. Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  15. Experimental research of surface roughness and surface texture after laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przestacki, Damian; Majchrowski, Radomir; Marciniak-Podsadna, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the investigation was to identify surface integrity of machined parts after laser cladding. Surface analysis was made by using novel metrology methods: auto correlation and gradient distributions. An Infinite Focus Measurement Machine (IFM) has been used for the surface texture analysis. The study has been performed within a production facility during the prototyping process of new products. There are many methods available for geometric and surface topography measurements: contact and non-contact, micro and nanoscale approaches. An optical method based on the measurement of light reflected or scattered from the surface of an examined object can be used for this purpose. We have tested the application of an advanced 3D scanner for this purpose - optical scanner ATOS II. The scanner ATOS II represents the optical method, i.e. the digital light projection (DLP) method. The system consists of a projector and two digital cameras capable of supplying 1.4 million of measuring points per second. This method enables to scan elements from a few millimeters to a several dozen of meters in size. The roughness analysis is based on 2D measurements, which gave two-dimensional characteristics of the surface. In last decades, the metrology of the surface layer notes dynamical development as a science. During the last decades, many scientists and constructors became convinced that the third dimension should be added to the surface analysis. At present, 3D analysis of the surface geometry is widely accepted. In order to complete the topography analysis of the surface texture after laser cladding, our team worked out original program for 2D and 3D surface analysis. It was called TAS (topography analysis and simulation) and was based on Matlab software. Four modules were developed: the initial data processing module, basic parameters calculating module, data visualization module, and digital filtration module.

  16. Self-similarity Based Editing of 3D Surface Textures Using Height and Albedo Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Junyu; REN Jing; CHEN Guojiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an inexpensive method for self-similarity based editing of real-world 3D surface textures by using height and albedo maps. Unlike self-similarity based 2D texture editing approaches which only make changes to pixel color or intensity values, this technique also allows surface geometry and reflectance of the captured 3D surface textures to be edited and relit using illumination conditions and viewing angles that differ from those of the original. A single editing operation at a given location affects all similar areas and produces changes on all images of the sample rendered under different conditions. Since surface height and albedo maps can be used to describe seabed topography and geologic features, which play important roles in many oceanic processes, the proposed method can be effectively employed in applications regarding visualization and simulation of oceanic phenomena.

  17. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement...

  18. Effect of surface texture and working gap on the braking performance of the magnetorheological fluid brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Li, Dong Heng; Li Song, Wan; Chao Xiu, Shi; Zhi Meng, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of the surface textures of braking disc on the braking performance is experimentally investigated under the conditions of different working gaps and applied currents. For this purpose, a new configuration of magnetorheological fluid brake (MRB) with adjustable working gap is developed to improve the manufacturing accuracy and cost, and to reduce the problem of replacing the braking disc. In addition, the braking discs with three types of surface texture are designed and machined. Based on the test bed developed for the proposed MRB, a series of experiments are carried out on the manufactured prototype and the results are presented to obtain the relationship among the surface texture of the braking disc, applied current, working gap and the braking performance. The results show that the braking torque is significantly influenced by the working gap and surface texture of the braking disc, and the maximum braking torque is obtained on the conditions of 0.25 mm working gap and the braking disc with square surface texture.

  19. Measurement of shape by ultrasonic waves and surface inspection of the cold neutron source vertical hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kook Nam; Choi, Chang Oong; Sim, Cheul Mu; Choi, Young Hyun; Koo, Kil Mo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Considerations in design of CNS containment, which will be put into the CNS installation hole, should be taken into obtaining the maximum gain by minimizing thickness of water film existing between walls of CN hole and the inserted containment and easy maintenance of the in-pile structures including the containment. In this experiment, inside diameter and thickness of the CN hole were measured and the possibility of the surface degradation was inspected in Hanaro which has been operated for about 4 years since its criticality in Feb, 1995. The result will be used in the design of containment. The data were obtained by measuring inside diameter and thickness for 550 points of CN hole using 2 channels of ultrasonic sensor. The result showed that the thickness is in the range of 3.3 {approx} 6.7 mm and inside diameter is in the range of {phi} 156 {approx} {phi} 165 mm. And this result was analyzed using plots and tables for making the visual shape understood better. Status of surface treatment and corrosion during 4 years of operation in highly radiated water was investigated through the surface inspection and the result was recorded on video-tape. This report will be used in design of the CNS containment, and the experiment for inserting the containment model will be followed next year. The 4-axis measuring manipulator developed in this measurement will be used for measuring shape of other experimental holes of Hanaro reactor, and also for detecting some indications in the radiation zone. This device will be applied in the other useful inspections in pool water during Hanaro ISI(In-service Inspection) after introducing automatic system for acquisition of ultrasonic signals. The 4-axis measuring manipulator will be applied for a patent with ultrasonic measuring system. (author). 19 refs., 99 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. MICROSTRUCTURAL AND TEXTURE STUDY IN Fe43.5Mn34Al15Ni7.5 SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Vallejos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fe alloy 43.5Mn34Al15Ni7.5 recently discovered, has pseudoplastic behavior in a wide temperature range. This characteristic is attractive for automobile, space, cryogenic and seismic applications. Currently there is no comprehensive analysis of the phases generated by heat treatments in the alloy and the influence of textures in shape memory properties. generated in the alloy with heat treatment and the influence of the textures on the properties of shape memory. The material studied was hot rolled at a temperature of 1000 ° C and then heat treated at different temperatures in order to analyse the phases present, microstructure and crystal orientations. The studies show that the martensitic phase (γ is achieved with quenching in water at temperatures over 1200ºC. Furthermore, heat treatments above 1000ºC generate grain sizes in α phase close to a millimeter. This grains growth would improve pseudoelastic properties of the alloy.

  1. Surface texture and percolation effects in microporous oriented films of polyolefins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, D. V.; Kuryndin, I. S.; Bukošek, V.; Elyashevich, G. K.

    2012-11-01

    The surface structure of polypropylene and polyethylene microporous films prepared by the extrusion of the polymer melt with the subsequent stages of annealing, uniaxial extension, and thermal fixation of the samples has been analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. It has been shown that percolation through pores corresponds to the axial texture of the surface with the channel structure described by the fractal cluster model. The transition from open pores (through-flow channels) to closed pores leads to the formation of surface regions with a biaxial texture. An increase in the density of the solid phase cluster is accompanied by the formation of a homogeneous biaxial texture with a period of alternation of the density in two mutually perpendicular directions, one of which coincides with the direction of orientation of the films.

  2. Geometric and Texture Inpainting by Gibbs Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-01-01

    This paper discuss a method suitable for inpainting both large scale geometric structures and more stochastic texture components. Image inpainting concerns the problem of reconstructing the intensity contents inside regions of missing data. Common techniques for solving this problem are methods...

  3. Dynamics of aggregate size and shape properties under sequenced flocculation in a turbulent Taylor-Couette reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Léa; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole; Liné, Alain; Frances, Christine

    2017-04-01

    This paper concerns experimental investigation of the sequenced flocculation of latex particles in a Taylor-Couette reactor. The aim of this work was to investigate the evolution of both the size and the shape of aggregates under sequenced hydrodynamics. A number of studies have focused on the evolution of the aggregate size or size distribution during steps of growth-breakage-regrowth, but aggregates generally experience steps of breakage-regrowth on repeated occasions in real operating conditions (passages near the impeller or during the transfer processes, for example). The experiments conducted in this work consisted thus of an alternation of six steps with alternately low and high shear rates under turbulent conditions. The particle size distributions were monitored throughout the sequencing, and the circularity and convexity (shape parameters) distributions were measured, enabling a more precise description of the entire floc population, rather than a fractal dimension. While the aggregate size distribution was clearly controlled by hydrodynamics, the shape distributions continuously evolved during the sequencing. The main new finding of our work notes the independence between the aggregate shape and hydrodynamics. Indeed, after multiples steps of breakage-regrowth, regardless of the aggregate size distribution and hydrodynamics, the aggregate shape seemed to reach a unique steady-state morphological distribution.

  4. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures.

  5. A semi-automatic multiple view texture mapping for the surface model extracted by laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Huang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Fan; Chang, Yongmin; Li, Deren

    2008-12-01

    Laser scanning is an effective way to acquire geometry data of the cultural heritage with complex architecture. After generating the 3D model of the object, it's difficult to do the exactly texture mapping for the real object. we take effort to create seamless texture maps for a virtual heritage of arbitrary topology. Texture detail is acquired directly from the real object in a light condition as uniform as we can make. After preprocessing, images are then registered on the 3D mesh by a semi-automatic way. Then we divide the mesh into mesh patches overlapped with each other according to the valid texture area of each image. An optimal correspondence between mesh patches and sections of the acquired images is built. Then, a smoothing approach is proposed to erase the seam between different images that map on adjacent mesh patches, based on texture blending. The obtained result with a Buddha of Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes is presented and discussed.

  6. Surface texture and priming play important roles in predator recognition by the red-backed shrike in field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Michal; Syrová, Michaela; Dokoupilová, Lenka; Veselý, Petr; Šmilauer, Petr; Landová, Eva; Lišková, Silvie; Fuchs, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We compared the responses of the nesting red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio) to three dummies of a common nest predator, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), each made from a different material (stuffed, plush, and silicone). The shrikes performed defensive behaviour including attacks on all three dummies. Nevertheless, the number of attacks significantly decreased from the stuffed dummy through the plush dummy and finally to the silicone dummy. Our results show that wild birds use not only colours but also other surface features as important cues for recognition and categorization of other bird species. Moreover, the silicone dummy was attacked only when presented after the stuffed or plush dummy. Thus, we concluded that the shrikes recognized the jay only the stuffed (with feathered surface) and plush (with hairy surface) dummies during the first encounter. Recognition of the silicon dummy (with glossy surface) was facilitated by previous encounters with the more accurate model. This process resembles the effect of perceptual priming, which is widely described in the literature on humans.

  7. Spatial Arrangement in Texture Discrimination and Texture Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Vancleef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of spatial arrangement of texture elements in three psychophysical experiments on texture discrimination and texture segregation. In our stimuli, oriented Gabor elements formed an iso-oriented and a randomly oriented texture region. We manipulated (1 the orientation similarity in the iso-oriented region by adding orientation jitter to the orientation of each Gabor; (2 the spatial arrangement of the Gabors: quasi-random or regular; and (3 the shape of the edge between the two texture regions: straight or curved. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated an iso-oriented stimulus from a stimulus with only randomly oriented elements. Experiment 2 required texture segregation to judge the shape of the texture edge. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 with Gabors of a smaller spatial extent in a denser arrangement. We found comparable performance levels with regular and quasi-random Gabor positions in the discrimination task but not in the segregation tasks. We conclude that spatial arrangement plays a role in a texture segregation task requiring shape discrimination of the texture edge but not in a texture discrimination task in which it is sufficient to discriminate an iso-oriented region from a completely random region.

  8. Cell surface alterations during blood-storage characterized by artificial aggregation of washed red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, E; Lerche, D

    1985-01-01

    Aggregation measurement of washed human erythrocytes (RBC) were carried out in a NaCl-PBS solution under laminar shear conditions. Artificial aggregation of fresh and stored erythrocytes was caused by decreased pH and reduced ionic strength and characterized by collision efficiency alpha. Generally, the collision efficiency alpha of stored erythrocytes rises with the increased storage time. Such an aggregation technique might be useful to detect and quantify changes of the membrane and/or the surface structure due to aging and/or storage.

  9. Fabrication of Micro/Nano-textured Titanium Alloy Implant Surface and Its Inlfuence on Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui; WAN Yi; AI Xing; MEN Bo; WANG Teng; LIU Zhanqiang; ZHANG Dong

    2016-01-01

    We put forward a protocol combining laser treatment and acid etching to obtain multiscale micro/nano-texture surfaces of titanium alloy implant. Firstly, the operational parameters of the laser were optimized to obtain an optimum current. Secondly, the laser with the optimum operational parameters was used to fabricate micro pits. Thirdly, multiple acid etching was used to clean the clinkers of micro pits and generate submicron and nanoscale structures. Finally, the bioactivity of the samples was measured in a simulated body lfuid. The results showed that the micropits with a diameter of 150 μm and depth of 50 μm were built successfully with the optimized working current of 13 A. In addition, submicron and nanoscale structures, with 0.5-2 μm microgrooves and 10-20 nm nanopits, were superimposed on micro pits surface by multiple acid etching. There was thick and dense HA coating only observed on the multiscale micro/nano-textured surface compared with polished and micro-textured surface. This indicated that the multiscale micro/nano-texture surface showed better ability toward HA formation, which increased the bioactivity of implants.

  10. Relation between light trapping and surface topography of plasma textured crystalline silicon wafers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souren, F. M. M.; Rentsch, J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the photovoltaic industry, wet chemical etching technologies are used for saw damage removal and surface texturing. Alternative to wet chemical etching is plasma etching. However, as for example, the linear microwave plasma technique, developed by Roth&Rau, has not been implemented

  11. Nucleation and growth of copper phthalocyanine aggregates deposited from solution on planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Fatemeh [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gojzewski, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.gojzewski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Riegler, Hans [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copper phthalocyanine deposited on planar surfaces by 3 solution process methods. • Aggregate morphology examined for coverage extending over 3 orders of magnitude. • Morphologies vary from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. • Nucleation and growth model explains the observed deposit morphologies. - Abstract: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is deposited on solid SiO{sub 2} surfaces by solvent evaporation. The deposited CuPc aggregates are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CuPc deposits were prepared by spin casting, dip coating, and spray deposition. Depending on the amount of deposited CuPc the aggregate morphology ranges from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. Each domain/layer consists of many parallel stacks of CuPc molecules with the square, plate-like molecules piled face-wise within each stack. The parallel stacks are attached sideways (i.e., edgewise attachment molecularly) to the substrate forming “nanoribbons” with uniform thickness of about 1 nm and varying width. The thickness reflects the length of a molecular edge, the width the number of stacks. A nucleation and growth model is presented that explains the observed aggregate and multilayer morphologies as result of the combination of nucleation, transport processes and a consequence of the anisotropic intermolecular interactions due to the shape of the CuPc molecule.

  12. Surface micro- and nano-texturing of stainless steel by femtosecond laser for the control of cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Calderon, M.; Manso-Silván, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; García-Ruiz, J. P.; Olaizola, S. M.; Martín-Palma, R. J.

    2016-11-01

    The precise control over the interaction between cells and the surface of materials plays a crucial role in optimizing the integration of implanted biomaterials. In this regard, material surface with controlled topographic features at the micro- and nano-scales has been proved to affect the overall cell behavior and therefore the final osseointegration of implants. Within this context, femtosecond (fs) laser micro/nano machining technology was used in this work to modify the surface structure of stainless steel aiming at controlling cell adhesion and migration. The experimental results show that cells tend to attach and preferentially align to the laser-induced nanopatterns oriented in a specific direction. Accordingly, the laser-based fabrication method here described constitutes a simple, clean, and scalable technique which allows a precise control of the surface nano-patterning process and, subsequently, enables the control of cell adhesion, migration, and polarization. Moreover, since our surface-patterning approach does not involve any chemical treatments and is performed in a single step process, it could in principle be applied to most metallic materials.

  13. Geometry- and Length Scale-Dependent Deformation and Recovery on Micro- and Nanopatterned Shape Memory Polymer Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei Li; Low, Hong Yee

    2016-03-01

    Micro- and nanoscale surface textures, when optimally designed, present a unique approach to improve surface functionalities. Coupling surface texture with shape memory polymers may generate reversibly tuneable surface properties. A shape memory polyetherurethane is used to prepare various surface textures including 2 μm- and 200 nm-gratings, 250 nm-pillars and 200 nm-holes. The mechanical deformation via stretching and recovery of the surface texture are investigated as a function of length scales and shapes. Results show the 200 nm-grating exhibiting more deformation than 2 μm-grating. Grating imparts anisotropic and surface area-to-volume effects, causing different degree of deformation between gratings and pillars under the same applied macroscopic strain. Full distribution of stress within the film causes the holes to deform more substantially than the pillars. In the recovery study, unlike a nearly complete recovery for the gratings after 10 transformation cycles, the high contribution of surface energy impedes the recovery of holes and pillars. The surface textures are shown to perform a switchable wetting function. This study provides insights into how geometric features of shape memory surface patterns can be designed to modulate the shape programming and recovery, and how the control of reversibly deformable surface textures can be applied to transfer microdroplets.

  14. Investigations of OTR screen surfaces and shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, C P; Lefèvre, T

    2006-01-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) has proven to be a flexible and effective tool for measuring a wide range of beam parameters, in particular the beam divergence and the transverse beam profile. It is today an established and widely used diagnostic method providing linear real-time measurements. Measurements in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) showed that the performance of the present profile monitors is limited by the optical acceptance of the imaging system. In this paper, two methods to improve the systems' performance are presented and results from measurements are shown. First, the influence of the surface quality of the OTR screen itself is addressed. Several possible screen materials have been tested to which different surface treatment techniques were applied. Results from the measured optical characteristics are given. Second, a parabolic-shaped screen support was investigated with the aim of providing an initial focusing of the emitted radiation and thus to reduce the problem of aperture limitation.

  15. Optical design and laser ablation of surface textures: demonstrating total internal reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Hans; Booij, Silvia; Pijlman, Fetze; Krijn, Marcel; de Zwart, Siebe; Sepkhanov, Ruslan; Beaumont, Dave; van der Schaft, Hans; Sanders, Rene

    2015-09-01

    In lighting applications key drivers for optical design of surface textures are integration of optical elements, the disentanglement of optical functionality and appearance and late stage configuration. We investigated excimer laser ablation as a mastering technology for micro textured surfaces, where we targeted an increase in correspondence between surface design and ablated surface for high aspect ratio structures. To achieve this we have improved the photo mask design using a heuristic algorithm that corrects for the angular dependence of the ablation process and the loss of image resolution at ablation depths that exceed the depth of field. Using this approach we have been able to demonstrate close correspondence between designed and ablated facet structures up to 75° inclination at 75 μm depth. These facet design parameters allow for total internal reflection (TIR) as a means of beam deflection which is demonstrated in a range of mono shaped cone arrays in hexagonal tessellation. BSDF analysis was used to characterize the narrow TIR deflection beams that matched the peak positions of the design down to 28° apex. In addition, a single surface TIR-Fresnel lens design with focal distance 5 mm has been manufactured using this photo mask design algorithm and beam collimation up to 12° beam angle and 32° field angle is shown. These outcomes demonstrate that the laser ablation process intrinsically yields sufficient small dispersion in structure and fillet radii for lighting applications.

  16. Fabrication of friction-reducing texture surface by selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjian; Liu, Junyan; Wang, Yang; Fu, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a process of selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs) for the fabrication of full dense Cu friction-reducing texture on the metallic surface in ambient condition. This technique synthesizes pure Cu by chemical reduction route using an organic solvent during laser melting in the atmosphere environment, and provides a flexible additive manufacture approach to form complex friction-reduction texture on the metallic surface. Microtextures of ring and disc arrays have been fabricated on the stainless steel surface by SLM-IP Cu NPs. The friction coefficient has been measured under the lubricating condition of the oil. Disc texture surface (DTS) has a relatively low friction coefficient compared with ring texture surface (RTS), Cu film surface (Cu-FS) and the untreated substrate. The study suggests a further research on SLM-IP approach for complex microstructure or texture manufacturing, possibly realizing its advantage of flexibility.

  17. Web Based Image Retrieval System Using Color, Texture and Shape Analysis: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Bhagat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The internet is one of the best media to disseminate scientific and technological research results [1, 2, 6]. It deals with the implementation of a web-based extensible architecture that is easily integral with applications written in different languages and linkable with different data sources. This paper work deals with developing architecture which is expandable and modular; its client–server functionalities permit easily building web applications that can be run using any Internet browser without compatibility problems regarding platform, program and operating system installed. This paper presents the implementation of Content Based Image Retrieval using different methods of color, texture and shape analysis. The primary objective is to compare the different methods of image analysis.

  18. Laser textured superhydrophobic surfaces and their applications for homogeneous spot deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports the laser surface modification of 304S15 stainless steel to develop superhydrophobic properties and the subsequent application for homogeneous spot deposition. Superhydrophobic surfaces, with steady contact angle of ∼154° and contact angle hysteresis of ∼4°, are fabricated by direct laser texturing. In comparison with common pico-/femto-second lasers employed for this patterning, the nanosecond fiber laser used in this work is more cost-effective, compact and allows higher processing rates. The effect of laser power and scan line separation on surface wettability of textured surfaces are investigated and optimized fabrication parameters are given. Fluid flows and transportations of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles suspension droplets on the processed surfaces and unprocessed wetting substrates are investigated. After evaporation is complete, the coffee-stain effect is observed on the untextured substrates but not on the superhydrophobic surfaces. Uniform deposition of PS particles on the laser textured surfaces is achieved and the deposited material is confined to smaller area.

  19. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.;

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...... characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters...... and quantification methods in terms of functional correlations, and it addresses the need for reducing the large number of existing parameters. The review considers the present situation and gives suggestions for future activities....

  20. Surface morphology of highly ordered nanotube formed and laser textured beta titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Un; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to produce and characterize a well-controlled surface texture on Ti-35Nb-xHf alloys to promote osseointegration. Ti-35Nb-xHf (x = 0, 3, 7 and 15 wt.%) alloys were prepared by arc melting and heat treated for 12 hr at 1000 degrees C in an argon atmosphere and then water quenching. For surface texturing, an amplified Ti: sapphire laser system was used for generating 184 femtosecond (FS, 10(-15) sec) laser pulses with the pulse energy over 30 mJ at a 1 kHz repetition rate with a central wavelength of 800 nm. The nanotube formation was achieved by anodizing a Ti-35Nb-xHf alloy in H3PO4 electrolytes containing 0.8 wt.% NaF at room temperature. The surface morphology of nano/micro structure will enhance osseointegration and cell adhesion.

  1. Modification of Activated Carbon by Means of Microwave Heating and Its Effects on the Pore Texture and Surface Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Two kinds of typical activated carbons (coal based AC and coconut shell based AC) were modified in a flow of N2 gas has been carried out using a microwave device operating at 2450 MHz and different input power, instead of a conventional furnace. The samples were analyzed by means of low temperature N2 adsorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration. The results show that microwave heating is an effective means of activated carbon modification. The temperature of activated carbon increases ...

  2. Mathematical and computer modeling of component surface shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashkov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The process of shaping technical surfaces is an interaction of a tool (a shape element) and a component (a formable element or a workpiece) in their relative movements. It was established that the main objects of formation are: 1) a discriminant of a surfaces family, formed by the movement of the shape element relatively the workpiece; 2) an enveloping model of the real component surface obtained after machining, including transition curves and undercut lines; 3) The model of cut-off layers obtained in the process of shaping. When modeling shaping objects there are a lot of insufficiently solved or unsolved issues that make up a single scientific problem - a problem of qualitative shaping of the surface of the tool and then the component surface produced by this tool. The improvement of known metal-cutting tools, intensive development of systems of their computer-aided design requires further improvement of the methods of shaping the mating surfaces. In this regard, an important role is played by the study of the processes of shaping of technical surfaces with the use of the positive aspects of analytical and numerical mathematical methods and techniques associated with the use of mathematical and computer modeling. The author of the paper has posed and has solved the problem of development of mathematical, geometric and algorithmic support of computer-aided design of cutting tools based on computer simulation of the shaping process of surfaces.

  3. EDTA enhances high-throughput two-dimensional bioprinting by inhibiting salt scaling and cell aggregation at the nozzle surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzel, Cheryl A; Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy; Groff, Richard E; Burg, Karen J L

    2009-06-01

    Tissue-engineering strategies may be employed in the development of in vitro breast tissue models for use in testing regimens of drug therapies and vaccines. The physical and chemical interactions that occur among cells and extracellular matrix components can also be elucidated with these models to gain an understanding of the progression of transformed epithelial cells into tumours and the ultimate metastases of tumour cells. The modified inkjet printer may be a useful tool for creating three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models, because it offers an inexpensive and high-throughput solution to microfabrication, and because the printer can be easily manipulated to produce varying tissue attributes. We hypothesized, however, that when ink is replaced with a biologically based fluid (i.e. a 'bio-ink'), specifically a serum-free cell culture medium, printer nozzle failure can result from salt scale build-up as fluid evaporates on the printhead surface. In this study, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) was used as a culture medium additive to prevent salt scaling and cell aggregation during the bioprinting process. The results showed that EDTA, at a concentration typically found in commercially available trypsin solutions (0.53 mM), prevented nozzle failure when a serum-free culture medium was printed from a nozzle at 1000 drops/s. Furthermore, increasing concentrations of EDTA appeared to mildly decrease aggregation of 4T07 cells. Cell viability studies were performed to demonstrate that addition of EDTA did not result in significant cell death. In conclusion, it is recommended that EDTA be incorporated into bio-ink solutions containing salts that could lead to nozzle failure.

  4. Shape and texture based novel features for automated juxtapleural nodule detection in lung CTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşcı, Erdal; Uğur, Aybars

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the types of cancer with highest mortality rate in the world. In case of early detection and diagnosis, the survival rate of patients significantly increases. In this study, a novel method and system that provides automatic detection of juxtapleural nodule pattern have been developed from cross-sectional images of lung CT (Computerized Tomography). Shape-based and both shape and texture based 7 features are contributed to the literature for lung nodules. System that we developed consists of six main stages called preprocessing, lung segmentation, detection of nodule candidate regions, feature extraction, feature selection (with five feature ranking criteria) and classification. LIDC dataset containing cross-sectional images of lung CT has been utilized, 1410 nodule candidate regions and 40 features have been extracted from 138 cross-sectional images for 24 patients. Experimental results for 10 classifiers are obtained and presented. Adding our derived features to known 33 features has increased nodule recognition performance from 0.9639 to 0.9679 AUC value on generalized linear model regression (GLMR) for 22 selected features and being reached one of the most successful results in the literature.

  5. Surface passivation of nano-textured fluorescent SiC by atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas;

    2016-01-01

    Nano-textured surfaces have played a key role in optoelectronic materials to enhance the light extraction efficiency. In this work, morphology and optical properties of nano-textured SiC covered with atomic layer deposited (ALD) TiO2 were investigated. In order to obtain a high quality surface fo...

  6. Surface fractal dimensions and textural properties of mesoporous alkaline-earth hydroxyapatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilchis-Granados, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandón, Delegación Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801, México, DF (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Química, Av. Paseo Colón esquina con Paseo Tollocan s/n Toluca, México (Mexico); Granados-Correa, F., E-mail: francisco.granados@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandón, Delegación Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801, México, DF (Mexico); Barrera-Díaz, C.E. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Química, Av. Paseo Colón esquina con Paseo Tollocan s/n Toluca, México (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    This work examines the surface fractal dimensions (D{sub f}) and textural properties of three different alkaline-earth hydroxyapatites. Calcium, strontium and barium hydroxyapatite compounds were successfully synthesized via chemical precipitation method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and N{sub 2}-physisorption measurements. Surface fractal dimensions were determined using single N{sub 2}-adsorption/desorption isotherms method to quantify the irregular surface of as-prepared compounds. The obtained materials were also characterized through their surface hydroxyl group content, determined by the mass titration method. It was found that the D{sub f} values for the three materials covered the range of 0.77 ± 0.04–2.33 ± 0.11; these results indicated that the materials tend to have smooth surfaces, except the irregular surface of barium hydroxyapatite. Moreover, regarding the synthesized calcium hydroxyapatite exhibited better textural properties compared with the synthesized strontium and barium hydroxyapatites for adsorbent purposes. However, barium hydroxyapatite shows irregular surface, indicating a high population of active sites across the surface, in comparison with the others studied hydroxyapatites. Finally, the results showed a linear correlation between the surface hydroxyl group content at the external surface of materials and their surface fractal dimensions.

  7. Separation Surfaces in the Spectral TV Domain for Texture Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Dikla; Gilboa, Guy

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel notion of separation surfaces for image decomposition. A surface is embedded in the spectral total-variation (TV) three dimensional domain and encodes a spatially-varying separation scale. The method allows good separation of textures with gradually varying pattern-size, pattern-contrast or illumination. The recently proposed total variation spectral framework is used to decompose the image into a continuum of textural scales. A desired texture, within a scale range, is found by fitting a surface to the local maximal responses in the spectral domain. A band above and below the surface, referred to as the \\textit{Texture Stratum}, defines for each pixel the adaptive scale-range of the texture. Based on the decomposition an application is proposed which can attenuate or enhance textures in the image in a very natural and visually convincing manner.

  8. Lizard-Skin Surface Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The south polar region of Mars is covered seasonally with translucent carbon dioxide ice. In the spring gas subliming (evaporating) from the underside of the seasonal layer of ice bursts through weak spots, carrying dust from below with it, to form numerous dust fans aligned in the direction of the prevailing wind. The dust gets trapped in the shallow grooves on the surface, helping to define the small-scale structure of the surface. The surface texture is reminiscent of lizard skin (figure 1). Observation Geometry Image PSP_003730_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 14-May-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 248.5 km (155.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.9 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:04 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 69 degrees, thus the sun was about 21 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 237.5 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  9. AUTO-SHAPE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE TEXTURES IN FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the velocity of fatigue crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR from the texture in SEM images of crack surfaces. A simple and quick method is based on fitting training images as a linear combination of several small subimages selected from the images themselves. The size of basic subimages is derived from autocorrelation functions of the image in row and column direction. The selection of basic subimages is based on two indicators: "appeal" evaluating their shape content, and mutual coefficient of correlation. The method is easy to implement and quick in computations, while results of testing application are fully comparable with best ones obtained within textural fractography of fatigue failures.

  10. Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, C; Fahr, S; Bittkau, K; Beckers, T; Carius, R; Haug, F-J; Söderström, T; Ballif, C; Lederer, F

    2010-09-13

    Using rigorous diffraction theory we investigate the scattering properties of various random textures currently used for photon management in thin-film solar cells. We relate the haze and the angularly resolved scattering function of these cells to the enhancement of light absorption. A simple criterion is derived that provides an explanation why certain textures operate more beneficially than others. Using this criterion we propose a generic surface profile that outperforms the available substrates. This work facilitates the understanding of the effect of randomly textured surfaces and provides guidelines towards their optimization.

  11. Optical simulation of surface textured TCO using FDTD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elviyanti, I. L.; Purwanto, H.; Kusumandari

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is simulating the transmittance of surface textured transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) application. The simulation based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) was performed using the MatLab software for flat and pyramid surface textured TCO. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) were used as TCO material. The transmittance simulation of flat TCO was compared to UV-Vis spectrophotometer measurement of real TCO to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Then, the transmittance simulation of pyramid surface textures of TCO is higher than a flat one. It suggested that surface texturing enhance the path of light through dispersion and reflectance light by the pattern of the surface. This result indicates that surface textured increasing the transmittance of TCO through a complex light trapping mechanism which might be used to increase the light harvesting for DSSC application.

  12. Self-adaptive surface texture design for friction reduction across the lubrication regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Zhao, Fei

    2016-03-01

    Surface texturing has been shown to reduce friction and improve durability in mechanical face seals and metal forming operations, and lightly loaded thrust bearings. However, the success has been limited to conformal contacts and low load high speed operating conditions, i.e. hydrodynamic lubrication dominated regime. Both experiments and numerical simulations have shown that textural patterns, under higher loading and/or slower speeds may increase friction and even cause the lubrication film collapse. Specific designs of surface texture pattern, as its shape, depth and density, are required for different lubrication regimes. Our own study has shown (Hsu et al 2014 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 335307) that large/shallow dimple reduces friction in hydrodynamic lubrication regime, whereas small/deep dimple shows benefit in mixed/boundary lubrication regimes (if the textural designs can provides hydrodynamic/hydrostatic lift forces to reduce the machine loading). In considering an engine component typically experiences duty cycles that may cross various lubrication regimes, a multiscale surface texture design appears attractive. This type of mixed shape texturing combines textures designed for low load, high speed operating conditions and the textures that are designed for high load, low speed operations. In this paper, two types of multiscale surface texture designs are presented. Ball-on-three-flats (BOTF) wear tester (under high loading conditions) is used to evaluate the performance of these multiscale texture designs along with the baselines of un-textured surfaces under the same surface preparation procedures. Two texture designs with only a single shape dimples are included in the study. Results suggest that multiscale surface texture design not only further reduces friction in comparison to the textures with single shape dimples, but also shows the effectiveness across hydrodynamic regimes to the mixed lubrication regimes.

  13. HIGH AND LOW RESOLUTION TEXTURED MODELS OF COMPLEX ARCHITECTURAL SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Stathopoulou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years it has become obvious that 3D technology, applied mainly with the use of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS is the most suitable technique for the complete geometric documentation of complex objects, whether they are monuments or architectural constructions in general. However, it is rather a challenging task to convert an acquired point cloud into a realistic 3D polygonal model that can simultaneously satisfy high resolution modeling and visualization demands. The aim of the visualization of a simple or complex object is to create a 3D model that best describes the reality within the computer environment. This paper is dedicated especially in the visualization of a complex object's 3D model, through high, as well as low resolution textured models. The object of interest for this study was the Almoina (Romanesque Door of the Cathedral of Valencia in Spain.

  14. High and Low Resolution Textured Models of Complex Architectural Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Valanis, A.; Lerma, J. L.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2011-09-01

    During the recent years it has become obvious that 3D technology, applied mainly with the use of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) is the most suitable technique for the complete geometric documentation of complex objects, whether they are monuments or architectural constructions in general. However, it is rather a challenging task to convert an acquired point cloud into a realistic 3D polygonal model that can simultaneously satisfy high resolution modeling and visualization demands. The aim of the visualization of a simple or complex object is to create a 3D model that best describes the reality within the computer environment. This paper is dedicated especially in the visualization of a complex object's 3D model, through high, as well as low resolution textured models. The object of interest for this study was the Almoina (Romanesque) Door of the Cathedral of Valencia in Spain.

  15. Rational design of organic semiconductors for texture control and self-patterning on halogenated surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jeremy W.

    2014-05-15

    Understanding the interactions at interfaces between the materials constituting consecutive layers within organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is vital for optimizing charge injection and transport, tuning thin-film microstructure, and designing new materials. Here, the influence of the interactions at the interface between a halogenated organic semiconductor (OSC) thin film and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer on the formation of the crystalline texture directly affecting the performance of OTFTs is explored. By correlating the results from microbeam grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (μGIWAXS) measurements of structure and texture with OTFT characteristics, two or more interaction paths between the terminating atoms of the semiconductor and the halogenated surface are found to be vital to templating a highly ordered morphology in the first layer. These interactions are effective when the separating distance is lower than 2.5 dw, where dw represents the van der Waals distance. The ability to modulate charge carrier transport by several orders of magnitude by promoting "edge-on" versus "face-on" molecular orientation and crystallographic textures in OSCs is demonstrated. It is found that the "edge-on" self-assembly of molecules forms uniform, (001) lamellar-textured crystallites which promote high charge carrier mobility, and that charge transport suffers as the fraction of the "face-on" oriented crystallites increases. The role of interfacial halogenation in mediating texture formation and the self-patterning of organic semiconductor films, as well as the resulting effects on charge transport in organic thin-film transistors, are explored. The presence of two or more anchoring sites between a halogenated semiconductor and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer, closer than about twice the corresponding van der Waals distance, alter the microstructure and improve electrical properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Not just fractal surfaces, but surface fractal aggregates: Derivation of the expression for the structure factor and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besselink, R.; Stawski, T. M.; Van Driessche, A. E. S.; Benning, L. G.

    2016-12-01

    Densely packed surface fractal aggregates form in systems with high local volume fractions of particles with very short diffusion lengths, which effectively means that particles have little space to move. However, there are no prior mathematical models, which would describe scattering from such surface fractal aggregates and which would allow the subdivision between inter- and intraparticle interferences of such aggregates. Here, we show that by including a form factor function of the primary particles building the aggregate, a finite size of the surface fractal interfacial sub-surfaces can be derived from a structure factor term. This formalism allows us to define both a finite specific surface area for fractal aggregates and the fraction of particle interfacial sub-surfaces at the perimeter of an aggregate. The derived surface fractal model is validated by comparing it with an ab initio approach that involves the generation of a "brick-in-a-wall" von Koch type contour fractals. Moreover, we show that this approach explains observed scattering intensities from in situ experiments that followed gypsum (CaSO4 ṡ 2H2O) precipitation from highly supersaturated solutions. Our model of densely packed "brick-in-a-wall" surface fractal aggregates may well be the key precursor step in the formation of several types of mosaic- and meso-crystals.

  17. Effects of texture on the damping characteristics of cold-rolled and annealed Ti50Ni40Cu10 shape memory alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold-rolled and annealed Ti50Ni40Cu10 shape memory alloy possesses a major (110[001] texture along the rolling direction and a minor {111} γ-fiber texture along the normal direction. The damping capacity of the B2→B19 and B19→B2 martensitic transformation internal friction peaks for the Ti50Ni40Cu10 shape memory alloy was more pronounced in the rolling direction than in the transverse direction due to the effects of the cold-rolled and annealed textures. The damping capacity of the B19→B19’ and B19’→B19 martensitic transformation internal friction peaks was not noticeable affected by the orientation of the specimen.

  18. Aesthetics by Numbers : Links between Perceived Texture Qualities and Computed Visual Texture Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Haak, Koen V.; Thumfart, Stefan; Renken, Remco; Henson, Brian; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2016-01-01

    Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed-and presumably for this reason-the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and appar

  19. (100)-textured self-assembled square-shaped polycrystalline silicon grains by multiple shot excimer laser crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, M.; Ishihara, R.; Metselaar, W.; Beenakker, K.

    2006-01-01

    Strong preference for (100) surface and in-plane orientations has been observed in polycrystalline silicon film on SiO2 after crystallization with multiple excimer laser pulses. Laser induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) is developed in the film, constructing self-assembled square-shaped grain

  20. The effect of controlled microrobotized blasting on implant surface texturing and early osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luiz F; Marin, Charles; Teixeira, Hellen; Marão, Heloisa F; Tovar, Nick; Khan, Rehan; Bonfante, Estevam A; Janal, Malvin; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-02-01

    Surface topography modifications have become a key strategy for hastening the host-to-implant response to implantable materials. The present study evaluated the effect of three different carefully controlled surface texture patterns achieved through microrobotized blasting (controlled to high, medium and low roughness) relative to a larger scale blasting procedure (control) in early osseointegration in a canine model. Four commercially pure grade 2 titanium alloy implants (one of each surface) were bilaterally placed in the radii of six beagle dogs and allowed end points of 1 and 6 weeks in vivo. Following sacrifice, implants in bone were non-decalcified processed for bone morphologic and histometric (bone-to-implant contact; bone area fraction occupancy) evaluation. Surface topography was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical interferometry. Results showed initial osteogenic tissue interaction at one week and new bone in intimate contact with all implant surfaces at 6 weeks. At 1 and 6 weeks in vivo, higher bone-to-implant and bone area fraction occupancy were observed for the high texture pattern microrobotized blasted surface relative to others.

  1. Texture development during progressive deformation of hematite aggregates: Constraints from VPSC models and naturally deformed iron oxides from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Filippe; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Oliveira, Claudinei G. de; Barbosa, Paola; Ávila, Carlos; Cavalcante, Geane C. G.

    2016-09-01

    We show that naturally-deformed hematite from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Province, Minas Gerais, Brazil, develops CPOs by dislocation creep, strongly influenced by basal plane parallel glide, even when this is not the favored slip system. Characterization of microstructure and texture, particularly intragranular misorientations, of naturally deformed hematite aggregates by EBSD allowed us to determine the importance of different slip systems, and confirm dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. Viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) models were constructed to constrain the slip systems required to operate for the observed CPO to develop, and its rheological implications. Changes in the CRSS ratio of hematite prism and basal slip systems and deformation regime lead to the development of distinct patterns of hematite crystallographic orientations. The basal slip-dominated simple shear model is the only one that can develop quasi-single-crystal CPO of the kind observed in highly deformed rocks from Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Comparison between naturally deformed hematite aggregates and VPSC models shows that CPO development of hematite is strongly influenced by a highly viscoplastic anisotropy through dislocation creep on hematite basal plane. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that even the unfavorable slip systems should be regarded when the bulk rheology of mineral aggregates is evaluated.

  2. Highly textured Gd2Zr2O7 films grown on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates by solution deposition route: Growth, texture evolution, and microstructure dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Napari, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Growth, texture evolution and microstructure dependency of solution derived Gd2Zr2O7 films deposited on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates have been extensively studied. Influence of processing parameters, in particular annealing temperature and dwell time, as well as thickness effect on film texture....... Fully covered films with a broad thickness range exhibit a high degree of biaxial orientation, similar surface morphology with crack free and nano-size grains microstructure, seemingly independent of neither heat treatment nor thickness. Particularly, we compared the porosity of the film surface...... and body according to surface or cross-sectional observation and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry analysis, pointing to inhomogeneous structure through film thickness, i.e., dense in the surface layer but porous in the body. This is attributed to trapped gas generated during either decomposition...

  3. What Controls the Sizes and Shapes of Volcanic Ash? Integrating Morphological, Textural and Geochemical Ash Properties to Decipher Eruptive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, E. J.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic ash particles encompass a diverse spectrum of shapes as a consequence of differences in the magma properties and the magma ascent and eruption conditions. We show how the quantitative analysis of ash particle shapes can be a valuable tool for deciphering magma fragmentation and transport processes. Importantly, integrating morphological data with ash texture (e.g. bubble and crystal sizes) and dissolved volatile data provides valuable insights into the physical and chemical controls on the resulting ash deposit. To explore the influence of magma-water interaction (MWI) on fine ash generation, we apply this multi-component characterisation to tephra from the 2500BC Hverfjall Fires, Iceland. Here, coeval fissure vents spanned sub-aerial to shallow lacustrine environments. Differences in the size and morphology of pyroclasts thus reflect fragmentation mechanisms under different near-surface conditions. Using shape parameters sensitive to both particle roughness and internal vesicularity, we quantify the relative proportions of dense fragments, bubble shards, and vesicular grains from 2-D SEM images. We show that componentry (and particle morphology) varies as a function of grain size, and that this variation can be related back to the bubble size distribution. Although both magmatic and hydromagmatic deposits exhibit similar component assemblages, they differ in how these assemblages change with grain size. These results highlight the benefits of characterising ash deposits over a wide range of grain sizes, and caution against inferring fragmentation mechanism from a narrow grain size range. Elevated matrix glass S concentrations in hydromagmatic ash (600-1500 ppm) compared to those in magmatic ash and scoria lapilli (200-500 ppm) indicate interrupted vesiculation. In contrast to the subaerial 'dry' deposits, fragmentation during MWI likely occurred over a greater range of depths with quench rates sufficient to prevent post-fragmentation degassing. High

  4. Numerical analysis of monocrystalline silicon solar cells with fine nanoimprinted textured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Seiya; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Araki, Shinji; Honda, Tatsuki; Jiang, Yunjiang; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the surface reflectance of nanoimprinted textures on silicon. Zirconium oxide, which is a wide-bandgap inorganic dielectric material, was used as the texturing material. We performed several calculations to optimize the textures for the production of high-efficiency bulk-type monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Our analysis revealed that nanoimprinted textured solar cells exhibit a lower reverse saturation current density than a solar cell with a conventional etched texture. It was also confirmed that the photocarrier generation rate for a solar cell with a submicron-scale nanoimprinted texture has little dependence on the texture shape. Furthermore, the weighted average reflectance of an optimized nanoimprinted textured solar cell was substantially reduced to 3.72%, suggesting that texture formation by nanoimprint lithography is an extremely effective technology for producing high-efficiency solar cells at a low cost.

  5. Texturing of UHMWPE surface via NIL for low friction and wear properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustandi, Tanu Suryadi; Low, Hong Yee [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Choo, Jian Huei; Sinha, Sujeet K, E-mail: hy-low@imre.a-star.edu.s, E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.s [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2010-01-13

    Wear is a major obstacle limiting the useful life of implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) components in total joint arthroplasty. It has been a continuous effort in the implant industry to reduce the frictional wear problem of UHMWPE by improving the structure, morphology and mechanical properties of the polymer. In this paper, a new paradigm that utilizes nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in producing textures on the surface of UHMWPE is proposed to efficiently improve the tribological properties of the polymer. Friction and wear experiments were conducted on patterned and controlled (non-patterned) UHMWPE surfaces using a commercial tribometer, mounted with a silicon nitride ball, under a dry-sliding condition with normal loads ranging from 60 to 200 mN. It has been shown that the patterned UHMWPE surface showed a reduction in the coefficient of friction between 8% and 35% as compared with the controlled (non-patterned) surface, depending on the magnitude of the normal load. Reciprocating wear experiments also showed that the presence of surface textures on the polymer resulted in lower wear depth and width, with minimal material transfer to the sliding surface.

  6. A 2-year report on maxillary and mandibular fixed partial dentures supported by Astra Tech dental implants. A comparison of 2 implants with different surface textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, U; Gotfredsen, K; Olsson, C

    1998-01-01

    In 50 partially edentulous patients, 133 (48 maxillary; 85 mandibular) Astra Tech dental implants of 2 different surface textures (machined; TiO-blasted) were alternately installed, supporting 52 fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Before abutment connection 2 machined implants (1 mandibular; 1...... maxillary) were found to be non-osseointegrated and were replaced. Another implant could not be restored due to a technical complication. Two FPDs were remade because of technical complications, both because of abutment fractures. Thus, after 2 years in function, the cumulative survival rates were 97.......7% and 95.7% for implants and prostheses, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between the 2 types of implants, 100% (TiO-blasted) vs 95.3% (machined), P = 0.24. After 2 years in function, when both jaw and type of implants were combined, the mean (SD) marginal...

  7. Femtosecond pulsed laser textured titanium surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-jia; Li, Huang; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Kong, Xia

    2016-12-01

    A facile and highly-efficient laser scanning process coupled with a simple silanization modification was used to prepare textured titanium (Ti) surfaces with stable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity. Femtosecond pulsed laser scanning along two mutually perpendicular directions led to the formation of binary structures featuring micrometer-scale spikes covered with nanometer-scale ripples. The period of the spikes significantly increased and the period of the ripples irregularly changed in the narrow range of 550-600 nm with the increase of laser fluence. The obtained laser-textured Ti surfaces were hydrophilic or even superhydrophilic, and the superhydrophilic laser-textured Ti surface using a laser fluence of 1.5 J/cm2 was observed to retain its wetting property after 30 days of storage in ambient atmosphere. After silanization, all the laser-textured Ti surfaces exhibited high hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity, and the superhydrophobic laser-textured Ti surfaces using laser fluences of 1.5 and 1.8 J/cm2 remained stable when stored in air for over 30 days. The results imply the potential applications of these surfaces in a variety of fields.

  8. Textural evidence for jamming and dewatering of a sub-surface, fluid-saturated granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, T. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Sand injectites are spectacular examples of large-scale granular flows involving migration of hundreds of cubic meters of sand slurry over hundreds of meters to kilometers in the sub-surface. By studying the macro- and microstructural textures of a kilometer-scale sand injectite, we interpret the fluid flow regimes during emplacement and define the timing of formation of specific textures in the injected material. Fluidized sand sourced from the Santa Margarita Fm., was injected upward into the Santa Cruz Mudstone, Santa Cruz County, California. The sand injectite exposed at Yellow Bank Beach records emplacement of both hydrocarbon and aqueous sand slurries. Elongate, angular mudstone clasts were ripped from the wall rock during sand migration, providing evidence for high velocity, turbid flow. However, clast long axis orientations are consistently sub-horizontal suggesting the slurry transitioned to a laminar flow as the flow velocity decreased in the sill-like intrusion. Millimeter to centimeter scale laminations are ubiquitous throughout the sand body and are locally parallel to the mudstone clast long axes. The laminations are distinct in exposure because alternating layers are preferentially cemented with limonite sourced from later groundwater infiltration. Quantitative microstructural analyses show that the laminations are defined by subtle oscillations in grain alignment between limonite and non-limonite stained layers. Grain packing, size and shape distributions do not vary. The presence of limonite in alternating layers results from differential infiltration of groundwater, indicating permeability changes between the layers despite minimal grain scale differences. Convolute dewatering structures deform the laminations. Dolomite-cemented sand, a signature of hydrocarbon saturation, forms irregular bodies that cross-cut the laminations and dewatering structures. Laminations are not formed in the dolomite-cemented sand. The relative viscosity difference

  9. Method of Direct Texture Synthesis on Arbitrary Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Li Wu; Chun-Hui Mei; Jiao-Ying Shi

    2004-01-01

    A direct texture synthesis method on arbitrary surfaces is proposed in this paper. The idea is to recursively map triangles on surface to texture space until the surface is completely mapped. First, the surface is simplified and a tangential vector field is created over the simplified mesh. Then, mapping process searches for the most optimal texture coordinates in texture sample for each triangle, and the textures of neighboring triangles are blended on the mesh. All synthesized texture triangles are compressed to an atlas. Finally, the simplified mesh is subdivided to approach the initial surface. The algorithm has several advantages over former methods:it synthesizes texture on surface without local parameterization; it does not need partitioning surface to patches;and it does not need a particular texture sample. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm is applicable to a wide variety of texture samples and any triangulated surfaces.

  10. Hydration and diffusion processes shape microbial community organization and function in model soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Or, Dani

    2015-12-01

    The constantly changing soil hydration status affects gas and nutrient diffusion through soil pores and thus the functioning of soil microbial communities. The conditions within soil aggregates are of particular interest due to limitations to oxygen diffusion into their core, and the presence of organic carbon often acting as binding agent. We developed a model for microbial life in simulated soil aggregates comprising of 3-D angular pore network model (APNM) that mimics soil hydraulic and transport properties. Within these APNM, we introduced individual motile (flagellated) microbial cells with different physiological traits that grow, disperse, and respond to local nutrients and oxygen concentrations. The model quantifies the dynamics and spatial extent of anoxic regions that vary with hydration conditions, and their role in shaping microbial community size and activity and the spatial (self) segregation of anaerobes and aerobes. Internal carbon source and opposing diffusion directions of oxygen and carbon within an aggregate were essential to emergence of stable coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic communities (anaerobes become extinct when carbon sources are external). The model illustrates a range of hydration conditions that promote or suppress denitrification or decomposition of organic matter and thus affect soil GHG emissions. Model predictions of CO2 and N2O production rates were in good agreement with limited experimental data. These limited tests support the dynamic modeling approach whereby microbial community size, composition, and spatial arrangement emerge from internal interactions within soil aggregates. The upscaling of the results to a population of aggregates of different sizes embedded in a soil profile is underway.

  11. Hybrid micro/nano-structure formation by angular laser texturing of Si surface for surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaichen; Zhang, Chentao; Zhou, Rui; Ji, Rong; Hong, Minghui

    2016-05-16

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has drawn much research interest in the past decades as an efficient technique to detect low-concentration molecules. Among many technologies, which can be used to fabricate SERS substrates, laser ablation is a simple and high-speed method to produce large-area SERS substrates. This work investigates the angular texturing effect by dynamic laser ablation and its influence on SERS signals. By tuning the angle between the Si surface and laser irradiation, the distributions and sizes of laser induced hybrid micro/nano-structures are studied. By decorating with a silver film, plenty of hot spots can be created among these structures for SERS. It is found that when the incident laser angle is 15° at the laser fluence of 16.0 J/cm2, the SERS performance is well optimized. This work realizes antisymmetric distribution of nanoparticles deposited on Si surface, which provides a flexible tuning of the hybrid micro/nano-structures' fabrication with high controllability for practical applications.

  12. Characteristics of laser textured silicon surface and effect of mud adhesion on hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ali, H. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khaled, M. [CHEM Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Aqeeli, N.; Abu-Dheir, N. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Varanasi, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Laser treatment increases surface microhardness and slightly lowers surface fracture toughness. • Residual stress formed is compressive and self-annealing effect of laser tracks lowers residual stress. • Nitride species lowers surface energy and adhesion work required to remove dust. • Mud residues do not have notable effect on fracture toughness and microhardness of treated surface. • Mud residues lower surface hydrophobicity. - Abstract: Laser gas assisted texturing of silicon wafer surface is carried out. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the laser treated surface are measured using the indentation technique while residual stress formed is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. The hydrophobicity of the textured surfaces are assessed incorporating the contact angle data and compared with those of as received workpiece surfaces. Environmental dust accumulation and mud formation, due to air humidity, at the laser treated and as received workpiece surfaces are simulated and the effect of the mud residues on the properties of the laser treated surface are studied. The adhesion work due to the presence of the mud on the laser treated surface is also measured. It is found that laser textured surface composes of micro/nano poles and fibers, which in turn improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly. In addition, formation of nitride species contributes to microhardness increase and enhancement of surface hydrophobicity due to their low surface energy. The mud residues do not influence the fracture toughness and microhardness of the laser textured surface; however, they reduced the surface hydrophobicity significantly.

  13. Heritability of audiometric shape parameters and familial aggregation of presbycusis in an elderly Flemish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Kelly; van Wieringen, Astrid; Hendrickx, Jan-jaap; Topsakal, Vedat; Huyghe, Jeroen; Fransen, Erik; Van Laer, Lut; Van Camp, Guy; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2010-06-14

    This study describes the heritability of audiometric shape parameters and the familial aggregation of different types of presbycusis in a healthy, otologically screened population between 50 and 75 years old. About 342 siblings of 64 families (average family-size: 5.3) were recruited through population registries. Audiometric shape was mathematically quantified by objective parameters developed to measure size, slope, concavity, percentage of frequency-dependent and frequency-independent hearing loss and Bulge Depth. The heritability of each parameter was calculated using a variance components model. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs). Estimates of sibling recurrence risk ratios (lambda(s)) are also provided. Heritability estimates were generally higher compared to previous studies. ORs and lambda(s) for the parameters Total Hearing Loss (size), Uniform Hearing Loss (percentage of frequency-dependent hearing loss) and Bulge Depth suggest a higher heredity for severe types of presbycusis compared to moderate or mild types. Our results suggest that the separation of the parameter 'Total Hearing Loss' into the two parameters 'Uniform Hearing Loss' and 'Non-uniform Hearing Loss' could lead to the discovery of different genetic subtypes of presbycusis. The parameter 'Bulge Depth', instead of 'Concavity', seemed to be an important parameter for classifying subjects into 'susceptible' or 'resistant' to societal or intensive environmental exposure.

  14. Segmentation of Natural Images by Texture and Boundary Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Mobahi, Hossein; Yang, Allen Y; Sastry, Shankar S; Ma, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for segmentation of natural images that harnesses the principle of minimum description length (MDL). Our method is based on observations that a homogeneously textured region of a natural image can be well modeled by a Gaussian distribution and the region boundary can be effectively coded by an adaptive chain code. The optimal segmentation of an image is the one that gives the shortest coding length for encoding all textures and boundaries in the image, and is obtained via an agglomerative clustering process applied to a hierarchy of decreasing window sizes as multi-scale texture features. The optimal segmentation also provides an accurate estimate of the overall coding length and hence the true entropy of the image. We test our algorithm on the publicly available Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. It achieves state-of-the-art segmentation results compared to other existing methods.

  15. Silicon solar cells textured by reactive ion etching and processed with screen printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgers, A.R.; Tool, C.J.J.; Hylton, J.D.; Weeber, A.W. [ECN Solar and Wind, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Verholen, A.G.B.J.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; De Boer, M.J.; Elwenspoek, M.C. [MESA Research Institute for Micro Electronics, Materials- and Molecular Engineering, and Sensors and Actuators, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) can texture multicrystalline silicon wafers very well. RIE has the advantage over alkaline etches that it is not sensitive to the crystallographic orientation. RIE has the advantage over acid etches that it can be controlled much better. This work describes multicrystalline silicon solar cells textured by RIE and processed with an industrial process sequence consisting of mainly screen-printing steps. We also made mini-modules of the RIE textured cells. The RIE texturing parameters can be varied to give different textures. Care must be taken that the texture is sufficiently rough to give a low encapsulated reflectance but not so rough that carriers generated by light absorbed in the texture recombine at the surface and cannot be collected at the p-n junction. The screen printing on RIE textured cells was successful. We were able to make cells with both low reflectance and good quantum efficiency. Due to encapsulation problems we were not able to demonstrate an efficiency gain yet. 10 refs.

  16. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size (P1- coarsest → P8 - finest. Halva prototypes (25g / piece, including also an industrial sample (H0, were obtained at laboratory scale by mixing the nougat with tahini. The texture was evaluated on Stable micro systems TA.HD Plus texture analyzer equipped either with a cylinder probe or with a blade set. All samples were stored for 60 days at 4°C, room temperature (~25°C or 40°C. During storage, the colloidal stability of all samples was assessed by a gravimetric technique. Tahini samples P6 → P8 were not suitable for halva production while due to the low viscosities, the product was impossible to be shaped. Among obtained sunflower halva prototypes (H1 → H5 it was shown that decreasing tahini particle size decreased sunflower halva hardness and stability. For each sample, the increase of storage temperature decreased sunflower halva stability. Sunflower halva H3 was the most efficient, while was more stable and showed smaller hardness values than H0.

  17. A synergetic effect of surface texture and field-effect passivations on improving Si solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Wang, Liangxing; Hao, Hongchen; Shi, Wei; Lu, Ming

    2015-07-01

    P-type Si substrate based solar cells were prepared with indium-tin-oxide thin films as the front top electrodes and Al layers as the rear ones. A synergetic effect of surface texture and field-effect passivations on improving Si solar cell performance was investigated. The surface texture was conducted by NaOH etching of Si, and field-effect passivations were performed by introducing SiO2 and Al2O3 thin film layers at the front and rear sides of the Si solar cell, respectively. The surface texture treatment makes the Si solar cell efficiency increase from 9.81% to 11.08%. After the synergetic treatments of surface texture and field-effect passivations, the efficiency further increased to 15.04%, that is, a more than 50% relative efficiency enhancement was obtained. This work demonstrates the significant effectiveness and facile applicability of the synergetic effect of surface texture and field-effect passivations on improving Si solar cell performance.

  18. Effect of texture on phase-transformation strain in CuZnAl shape memory sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈甫法; 袁文庆

    2002-01-01

    The textured shape memory alloys exhibits anisotropic because the property of single crystal is strongly orientation-dependent. The effect of texture on phase-transformation strain in CuZnAl shape memory sheets was investigated. The texture of parent austenite was measured by X-ray goniometer and analyzed by the orientation distribution function. Subsequently, using the texture parameters and single crystal properties, the phase transformation strains at the different directions of rolling plane by the statistically averaging method were calculated. It was showed that the experimental results are agreeable with the calculated ones. It is well explained that this anisotropy of phase-transformation strain is mainly caused by the crystallographic texture of the rolled sheets.

  19. Effect of surface properties of elastomer colloids on their coalescence and aggregation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Cornelius; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2009-10-20

    We study the aggregation kinetics of two elastomer colloids with similar bulk polymer properties but with different surface charge groups in order to understand the role of the surface properties in particle coalescence during aggregation. It is confirmed that clusters of the elastomer particles stabilized purely by ionic surfactants coalesce in both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited aggregation (RLCA and DLCA) regimes and that the coalescence is independent of the coagulant type. On the other hand, clusters formed by elastomer particles stabilized by charged polymer end groups, which are fixed on the particle surface, are fractal objects with a fractal dimension of 1.7 in the DLCA and 2.1 in the RLCA regime. This indicates insignificant cluster coalescence during aggregation, most likely due to a hindrance effect of the fixed charges.

  20. High friction on ice provided by elastomeric fiber composites with textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, R.; Naguib, H.; Fernie, G.; Dutta, T.

    2015-03-01

    Two main applications requiring high friction on ice are automobile tires and footwear. The main motivation behind the use of soft rubbers in these applications is the relatively high friction force generated between a smooth rubber contacting smooth ice. Unfortunately, the friction force between rubber and ice is very low at temperatures near the melting point of ice and as a result we still experience automobile accidents and pedestrian slips and falls in the winter. Here, we report on a class of compliant fiber-composite materials with textured surfaces that provide outstanding coefficients of friction on wet ice. The fibrous composites consist of a hard glass-fiber phase reinforcing a compliant thermoplastic polyurethane matrix. The glass-fiber phase is textured such that it is aligned transversally and protruding out of the elastomer surface. Our analysis indicates that the exposed fiber phase exhibits a "micro-cleat" effect, allowing for it to fracture the ice and increase the interfacial contact area thereby requiring a high force to shear the interface.

  1. Conglomeration of Hand Shapes and Texture Information for Recognizing Gestures of Indian Sign Language Using Feed forward Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.V.Kishore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper highlights the use of shape and texture information for recognizing gestures of Indian sign language. The proposed method involves extracting the hand segments from theoriginal color gesture images and subjecting them to further processing. In the next stage texture information of the hands in extracted using gabor filter. Again from the segmented hand portions shape is modeled using Chan-Vese(CV active contour model. Finally both the shape and texture information are merged together to produce a feature vector that essentially represents a sign in Indian SignLanguage. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature matrix principle component analysis is applied on the feature matrix. The obtained feature matrix will train a artificial neural network the learns using error back propagation algorithm. Indian sign language database was created for around 36 signs with 10 different signers. For training 4 sets gesture images were used and the remaining 6 sets were used for testing. After extensive testing under various conditions the average recognition rate stands at 98.2%.

  2. Formations of Bacteria-like Textures by dynamic reactions in Meteorite and Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.

    2009-05-01

    1. Introduction Spherule texture can be formed in dynamic reaction during meteoritic impact in air. However, there are no reports on nano-bacteria-like (i.e. spherule-chained) textures with iron (and Nickel) oxides (with chlorine) in composition and micro-texture with 100nm order [1] in meteorite and synthetic experiment. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate spherule-chained texture with micro-texture of 100nm in order found in the Kuga iron meteorite, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, Japan, and its first artificial synthesis in laboratory. 2. Two textures in the Kuga meteorite: The Kuga iron meteorite found in Kuga, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, Japan reveals spherule-chained texture with Fe, Ni-rich composition with 10μm in size, where each spherule contained "long micro-texture in 100nm in size"[1,2]. The complex texture of flow and chained shapes can be found only in the fusion crust of the meteorite formed by quenched and random processes with vapor-melting process in air of the Earth. The FE-ASEM with EDX analyses by an in-situ observation indicate that the matrix of the spherule-chained texture with Fe, Ni, O-rich (with minor Cl) composition is carbon-rich composition formed by impact reactions in air. 3. Comparison with Martian meteorite Remnant of life in ocean can be found by mineralized fossil, which can be found in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 as bacteria-like chained texture of magnetite in composition (in 100nm order) around carbonate spherules [3]. Similarity of bacteria-like texture of the ALH84001 compared with the Kuga meteorites in this study are composition of Fe-rich, C-bearing, and chained texture of small size replaced by Fe and O-rich composition in air. Major difference of these textures is no carbonates minerals in the Kuga meteorite at dynamic reaction in air [1, 2, 3]. 4. First synthesis of bacteria- like akaganeite: A bacteria-like texture with Fe oxides (with minor chlorine as akaganeite-like compositions) is synthesized by chlorine and water

  3. Differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using structural MRI cortical thickness, hippocampal shape, hippocampal texture, and volumetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauge Sørensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brain T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI biomarker that combines several individual MRI biomarkers (cortical thickness measurements, volumetric measurements, hippocampal shape, and hippocampal texture. The method was developed, trained, and evaluated using two publicly available reference datasets: a standardized dataset from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI and the imaging arm of the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle flagship study of ageing (AIBL. In addition, the method was evaluated by participation in the Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Dementia (CADDementia challenge. Cross-validation using ADNI and AIBL data resulted in a multi-class classification accuracy of 62.7% for the discrimination of healthy normal controls (NC, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. This performance generalized to the CADDementia challenge where the method, trained using the ADNI and AIBL data, achieved a classification accuracy 63.0%. The obtained classification accuracy resulted in a first place in the challenge, and the method was significantly better (McNemar's test than the bottom 24 methods out of the total of 29 methods contributed by 15 different teams in the challenge. The method was further investigated with learning curve and feature selection experiments using ADNI and AIBL data. The learning curve experiments suggested that neither more training data nor a more complex classifier would have improved the obtained results. The feature selection experiment showed that both common and uncommon individual MRI biomarkers contributed to the performance; hippocampal volume, ventricular volume, hippocampal texture, and parietal lobe thickness were the most important. This study highlights the need for both subtle, localized measurements and global measurements in order to discriminate NC, MCI, and AD simultaneously based on a single

  4. Shape-tailored local descriptors and their application to segmentation and tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2015-06-07

    We propose new dense descriptors for texture segmentation. Given a region of arbitrary shape in an image, these descriptors are formed from shape-dependent scale spaces of oriented gradients. These scale spaces are defined by Poisson-like partial differential equations. A key property of our new descriptors is that they do not aggregate image data across the boundary of the region, in contrast to existing descriptors based on aggregation of oriented gradients. As an example, we show how the descriptor can be incorporated in a Mumford-Shah energy for texture segmentation. We test our method on several challenging datasets for texture segmentation and textured object tracking. Experiments indicate that our descriptors lead to more accurate segmentation than non-shape dependent descriptors and the state-of-the-art in texture segmentation.

  5. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Y Simha; Anirudhan Pottirayil; Pradeep L Menezes; Satish V Kailas

    2008-06-01

    Directionality of grinding marks influences the coefficient of friction during sliding. Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduction tensor in anisotropic media. This implies that there exists two principal friction coefficients $\\mu_{1,2}$ analogous to the principal conductivities $k_{1,2}$. For symmetrically textured surfaces the principal directions are orthogonal with atleast one plane of symmetry. However, in the case of polished single crystalline solids in relative sliding motion, crystallographic texture controls the friction tensor.

  6. Texture Segmentation by Contractive Decomposition and Planar Grouping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Bogunovich, Peter; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Image segmentation has long been an important problem in the computer vision community. In our recent work we have addressed the problem of texture segmentation, where we combined top-down and bottom-up views of the image into a unified procedure. In this paper we extend our work by proposing...

  7. Combined Effect of Surface Tension, Gravity and van der Waals Force Induced by a Non-Contact Probe Tip on the Shape of Liquid Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nan; BAI Yi-Long; XIA Meng-Fen; KE Fu-Jiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Aiming at understanding how a liquid film on a substrate affects the atomic force microscopic image in experiments, we present an analytical representation of the shape of liquid surface under van der Waals interaction induced by a non-contact probe tip. The analytical expression shows good consistence with the corresponding numerical results. According to the expression, we find that the vertical scale of the liquid dome is mainly gov erned by a combination of van der Waals force, surface tension and probe tip radius, and is weekly related to gravity. However, its horizontal extension is determined by the capillary length.

  8. Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Duong V.; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates superhydrophobic behavior on nanosecond laser patterned copper and brass surfaces. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such texturing, infrared nanosecond fiber lasers offer a lower cost and more robust system combined with potentially much higher processing rates. The wettability of the textured surfaces develops from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity over time when exposed to ambient conditions. The change in the wetting property is attributed to the partial deoxidation of oxides on the surface induced during laser texturing. Textures exhibiting steady state contact angles of up to ∼152° with contact angle hysteresis of around 3-4° have been achieved. Interestingly, the superhydrobobic surfaces have the self-cleaning ability and have potential for chemical sensing applications. The principle of these novel chemical sensors is based on the change in contact angle with the concentration of methanol in a solution. To demonstrate the principle of operation of such a sensor, it is found that the contact angle of methanol solution on the superhydrophobic surfaces exponentially decays with increasing concentration. A significant reduction, of 128°, in contact angle on superhydrophobic brass is observed, which is one order of magnitude greater than that for the untreated surface (12°), when percent composition of methanol reaches to 28%.

  9. Determination of the Dissolution Slowness Surface by Study of Etched Shapes: II. Comparison of 2D Experimental and Theoretical Etching Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, T.; Tellier, C. R.; Messaoudi, T.

    1997-03-01

    The anisotropic etching behavior of quartz crystal in concentrated ammonium bifluoride solution is studied and analyzed in the framework of a tensorial model. This model allows to simulate bi- or three-dimensional etching shapes from the equation for the representative surface of the dissolution slowness. In this paper, we present experimental results such as surface profile and initially circular cross-sectional profiles of differently singly- or doubly-rotated cuts. The polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness vector in several planes are deduced from experimental data. The comparison between predicted surface and cross-sectional profiles and experimental results is detailed and shows a good agreement. In particular, several examples give evidence that the final etched shapes are correlated to the extrema of the dissolution slowness. However, in several cases, experimental shapes cannot be simply correlated to the presence of extrema. Simulation gives effectively evidence for an important role played by more progressive changes in the curvature of the slowness surface. Consequently, analysis of data merits to be treated carefully. Nous nous proposons d'étudier et d'analyser à l'aide du modèle tensoriel de la dissolution l'attaque chimique anisotrope du cristal de quartz dans une solution concentrée de bifluorure d'ammonium. Ce modèle permet de simuler des formes usinées à deux ou trois dimensions à partir de l'équation de la surface représentative de la lenteur de dissolution du cristal de quartz. Dans cet article, nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux concernant des profils de surface et des sections initialement cylindriques de coupes à simple et double rotation. Les diagrammes polaires du vecteur lenteur de dissolution dans différents plans sont déduits de données expérimentales. La comparaison entre les profils de surface et de section théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux est détaillée et montre un bon accord. En

  10. Simulating the Effect of Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking On Surface Texture and Chip Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.S.; McFarland, J.T.; Tursky, D. A.; Assaid, T. S.; Barkman, W. E.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.

    2010-04-30

    One method for creating broken chips in turning processes involves oscillating the cutting tool in the feed direction utilizing the CNC machine axes. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the Y-12 National Security Complex have developed and are refining a method to reliably control surface finish and chip length based on a particular machine's dynamic performance. Using computer simulations it is possible to combine the motion of the machine axes with the geometry of the cutting tool to predict the surface characteristics and map the surface texture for a wide range of oscillation parameters. These data allow the selection of oscillation parameters to simultaneously ensure broken chips and acceptable surface characteristics. This paper describes the machine dynamic testing and characterization activities as well as the computational method used for evaluating and predicting chip length and surface texture.

  11. Femtosecond laser surface texturing of titanium as a method to reduce the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Alexandre; Elie, Anne-Marie; Plawinski, Laurent; Serro, Ana Paula; Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria; Almeida, Amélia; Urdaci, Maria C.; Durrieu, Marie-Christine; Vilar, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the possibility of using femtosecond laser surface texturing as a method to reduce the colonization of Grade 2 Titanium alloy surfaces by Staphylococcus aureus and the subsequent formation of biofilm. The laser treatments were carried out with a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system with a central wavelength of 1030 nm and a pulse duration of 500 fs. Two types of surface textures, consisting of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and nanopillars, were produced. The topography, chemical composition and phase constitution of these surfaces were investigated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Surface wettability was assessed by the sessile drop method using water and diiodomethane as testing liquids. The response of S. aureus put into contact with the laser treated surfaces in controlled conditions was investigated by epifluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy 48 h after cell seeding. The results achieved show that the laser treatment reduces significantly the bacterial adhesion to the surface as well as biofilm formation as compared to a reference polished surfaces and suggest that femtosecond laser texturing is a simple and promising method for endowing dental and orthopedic titanium implants with antibacterial properties, reducing the risk of implant-associated infections without requiring immobilized antibacterial substances, nanoparticles or coatings.

  12. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model.

  13. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Antiferromagnetic textures and dynamics on the surface of a heavy metal

    OpenAIRE

    Zarzuela, Ricardo; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the formation and dynamics of spin textures in antiferromagnetic insulators adjacent to a heavy-metal substrate with strong spin-orbit interactions. Exchange coupling to conduction electrons engenders an effective anisotropy, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, and a magnetoelectric effect for the N\\'{e}el order, which can conspire to produce nontrivial antiferromagnetic textures. Current-driven spin transfer enabled by the heavy metal, furthermore, triggers ultrafast (THz) osc...

  15. Optical and Electrical Performance of ZnO Films Textured by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Chuan HER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO films were prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering on the glass substrate as transparent conductive oxide films. For silicon solar cells, a proper surface texture is essential to introduce light scattering and subsequent light trapping to enhance the current generation. In this study, the magnetron-sputtered ZnO films were textured by wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl for better light scattering. The diffuse transmittance of the surface textured ZnO films was measured to evaluate the light scattering. The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of the surface-textured ZnO film was investigated. The ZnO film etched in 0.05M HCl solution for 30 s exhibited average diffuse transmittance in the visible wavelength range of 9.52 % and good resistivity of 1.10 x 10-3 W×cm while the as-deposited ZnO film had average diffuse transmittance of 0.51 % and relatively high resistivity of 5.84 x 10-2 W×cm. Experimental results illustrated that the optical and electrical performance of ZnO films can be significantly improved by introducing the surface texture through the wet-chemical etching process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9624

  16. Mean shift texture surface detection based on WT and COM feature image selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yan-fang; SHI Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Mean shift is a widely used clustering algorithm in image segmentation. However, the segmenting results are not so good as expected when dealing with the texture surface due to the influence of the textures. Therefore, an approach based on wavelet transform (WT), co-occurrence matrix (COM) and mean shift is proposed in this paper. First, WT and COM are employed to extract the optimal resolution approximation of the original image as feature image. Then, mean shift is successfully used to obtain better detection results. Finally, experiments are done to show this approach is effective.

  17. Regenerated collagen fibers with grooved surface texture: Physicochemical characterization and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Chen; Jin, Xiangyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel type of protein fibers, regenerated collagen fibers (RC) from cattle skin, was prepared through wet-spinning. Due to the combined effect of solvent exchange and subsequent drawing process, the fibers were found to have a grooved surface texture. The grooves provided not only ordered topographical cues, but also increased surface area. Protein content of the RC fibers was confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ninhydrin color reaction. The fibers could be readily fabricated into nonwovens or other textiles, owning to their comparable physical properties to other commercialized fibers. Cell growth behavior on RC nonwovens suggested both early adhesion and prompt proliferation. The high moisture regain, good processability, along with the excellent cytocompatibility indicated that the RC fibers and nonwovens developed in this study might offer a good candidate for biomedical and healthcare applications.

  18. Effect of surface free energy of ceramic glaze on oil droplet shape and its behavior in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jin-sheng; MENG Jun-ping; LIANG Guang-chuan; WANG Li-juan; ZHANG Jin; LI Ji-yuan

    2006-01-01

    A super-hydrophilic functional ceramic was prepared by adjusting the chemical components of ceramic glaze. Effect of surface free energy of ceramic glaze on oil droplet shape and its behavior in water were studied. The results show that water can spread on ceramic surface with high surface free energy,and oil droplet can aggregate rapidly and separate from the ceramic surface in water. For the ceramic with lower surface free energy,the polar shares are dependant on its easy-cleaning property. The higher the polar shares,the better the easy-cleaning property,and the easier the droplet separates from the ceramic surface in water.

  19. Drops bouncing off macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Moqaddam, Ali Mazloomi; Karlin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments with droplets impacting a macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces revealed new regimes of bouncing with a remarkable reduction of the contact time. We present here a comprehensive numerical study that reveals the physics behind these new bouncing regimes and quantify the role played by various external and internal forces that effect the dynamics of a drop impacting a complex surface. For the first time, three-dimensional simulations involving macro-textured surfaces are performed. Aside from demonstrating that simulations reproduce experiments in a quantitative manner, the study is focused on analyzing the flow situations beyond current experiments. We show that the experimentally observed reduction of contact time extends to higher Weber numbers, and analyze the role played by the texture density. Moreover, we report a non-linear behavior of the contact time with the increase of the Weber number for application relevant imperfectly coated textures, and also study the impact on tilted sur...

  20. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5–2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  1. Comparative study of shape, intensity and texture features and support vector machine for white blood cell classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Habibzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete blood count (CBC is widely used test for counting and categorizing various peripheral particles in the blood. The main goal of the paper is to count and classify white blood cells (leukocytes in microscopic images into five major categories using features such as shape, intensity and texture features. The first critical step of counting and classification procedure involves segmentation of individual cells in cytological images of thin blood smears. The quality of segmentation has significant impact on the cell type identification, but poor quality, noise, and/or low resolution images make segmentation less reliable. We analyze the performance of our system for three different sets of features and we determine that the best performance is achieved by wavelet features using the Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT which is based on multi-resolution characteristics of the image. These features are combined with the Support Vector Machine (SVM which classifies white blood cells into their five primary types. This approach was validated with experiments conducted on digital normal blood smear images with low resolution.

  2. Textural, surface, thermal and sorption properties of the functionalized activated carbons and carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowicki Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two series of functionalised carbonaceous adsorbents were prepared by means of oxidation and nitrogenation of commercially available activated carbon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The effect of nitrogen and oxygen incorporation on the textural, surface, thermal and sorption properties of the adsorbents prepared was tested. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis, low-temperature nitrogen sorption, thermogravimetric study and determination of the surface oxygen groups content. Sorptive properties of the materials obtained were characterized by the adsorption of methylene and alkali blue 6B as well as copper(II ions. The final products were nitrogen- and oxygen-enriched mesoporous adsorbents of medium-developed surface area, showing highly diverse N and O-heteroatom contents and acidic-basic character of the surface. The results obtained in our study have proved that through a suitable choice of the modification procedure of commercial adsorbents it is possible to produce materials with high sorption capacity towards organic dyes as well as copper(II ions.

  3. Determination of crystal grain orientations by optical microscopy at textured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lausch, D.; Gläser, M.; Hagendorf, C. [Team Mikrostrukturdiagnostik und Analytik, Fraunhofer-Center für Silizium-Photovoltaik CSP, Walter-Hülse-Straße 1 Halle (Saale), Sachsen-Anhalt D-06120 (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    In this contribution, a new method to determine the crystal orientation with the example of chemical treated silicon wafers by means of optical microscopy has been demonstrated. The introduced procedure represents an easy method to obtain all relevant parameters to describe the crystal structure of the investigated material, i.e., the crystal grain orientation and the grain boundary character. The chemical treatment is a standard mono-texture for solar cells, well known in the solar industry. In general, this concept can also be applied to other crystalline materials, i.e., GaAs, SiC, etc., the only thing that needs to be adjusted is the texturing method to reveal specific crystal planes and the calculation model. In conclusion, an application of this method is shown with the example of the defect classification of recombination active defects in mc-Si solar cell. The introduced method demonstrates a simple and quick opportunity to improve the crystallization process and the quality of electronic devices by means of an optical microscope and a chemical treatment of the material.

  4. Surface nano-texturing of silicon by picosecond laser irradiation through TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. E. Sarath Raghavendra; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan

    2015-10-01

    This article presents, nano-texturing of crystalline silicon by irradiating picosecond laser with variable spatial intensity, caused by optically non-linear TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTA). Along with micro-scale surface structure, highly ordered laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was observed at nano-scale. The periodicity (Λ) of the LIPSS generated was near to the laser wavelength (532 nm). Surface morphology at micro-level was characterized by optical microscopy (OM) and white light interferometer (WLI) and at the nano-scale by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results highlight the potential use of TNTA as a single step process to produce micro/nanostructures without any gas/liquid medium under ambient condition.

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors of cattle aggregate on the surface of gonadotrophs and are increased by elevated GnRH concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Pandey, Kiran; Nahar, Asrafun; Nakamura, Urara; Rudolf, Faidiban O

    2014-11-30

    The presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (GnRHRs) on gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary (AP) is an important factor for reproduction control. However, little is known regarding GnRHR gene expression in gonadotrophs of cattle owing to the lack of an appropriate anti-GnRHR antibody. Therefore, an anti-GnRHR antibody for immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry assays was developed to characterize GnRHR gene expression in gonadotrophs. The anti-GnRHR antibody could suppress GnRH-induced LH secretion from cultured AP cells of cattle. The GnRHR, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the AP tissue was analyzed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The GnRHRs were aggregated on a limited area of the cell surface of gonadotrophs, possibly localized to lipid rafts. The LH secretion was stimulated with increasing amounts of GnRH; however, excessive concentrations (> 1 nM) resulted in a decrease in LH secretion. A novel method to purify gonadotrophs was developed using the anti-GnRHR antibody and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Flow cytometric analysis using the anti-GnRHR antibody for cultured bovine AP cells, however, failed to support the hypothesis that GnRH induces GnRHR internalization and decreases GnRHR on the surface of GnRHR-positive AP cells. In contrast, immunocytochemistry using primary antibodies for cultured bovine AP cells showed that 10 nM (P < 0.05) and 100 nM (P < 0.01) GnRH, but not 0.01-1 nM GnRH, increased GnRHR in the cytoplasm of LH-positive cells. In conclusion, these data suggested that GnRHRs were aggregated on the surface of gonadotrophs and GnRHR inside gonadotrophs increased with elevated concentrations of GnRH.

  6. The infrared emission spectra of compositionally inhomogeneous aggregates composed of irregularly shaped constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Min, M; Waters, L B F M; De Koter, A

    2008-01-01

    In order to deduce properties of dust in astrophysical environments where dust growth through aggregation is important, knowledge of the way aggregated particles interact with radiation, and what information is encoded in the thermal radiation they emit, is needed. The emission characteristics are determined by the size and structure of the aggregate and the composition and shape of the constituents. We thus aim at performing computations of compositionally inhomogeneous aggregates composed of irregularly shaped constituents. In addition we aim at developing an empirical recipe to compute the optical properties of such aggregates in a fast and accurate manner. We performed CDA computations for aggregates of irregularly shaped particles with various compositions. The constituents of the aggregate are assumed to be in the Rayleigh regime, and in addition we assume that the dominant interaction of the aggregate constituents is through dipole-dipole interactions. We computed the spectral structure of the emission...

  7. Investigation of mechanical responses to the tactile perception of surfaces with different textures using the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tactile perception is essential for humans to perceive the world, and it usually results in mechanical responses from the finger. In this study, a nonlinear, viscoelastic, and multilayered finite element model of the finger was developed. The relationship between the mechanical responses within the finger and tactile perception while the finger scanned different surface textures was studied. The results showed that the sensitivity of tactile perception is affected by the peak value of von Mises stress, which is itself determined by the shape and density of a given texture. The von Mises stress varies periodically with time, and this variation depends on the periodicity of the texture. Displacement signals around Pacinian corpuscles have periodic variation. The period of displacement decreases as the density of the texture increases. The spectral centroid increases as the spacing of the texture decreases. The related mechanisms are discussed in this article.

  8. Blurred face recognition by fusing blur-invariant texture and structure features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengyu; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Xie, Xiaokang

    2015-10-01

    Blurred face recognition is still remaining as a challenge task, but with wide applications. Image blur can largely affect recognition performance. The local phase quantization (LPQ) was proposed to extract the blur-invariant texture information. It was used for blurred face recognition and achieved good performance. However, LPQ considers only the phase blur-invariant texture information, which is not sufficient. In addition, LPQ is extracted holistically, which cannot fully explore its discriminative power on local spatial properties. In this paper, we propose a novel method for blurred face recognition. The texture and structure blur-invariant features are extracted and fused to generate a more complete description on blurred image. For texture blur-invariant feature, LPQ is extracted in a densely sampled way and vector of locally aggregated descriptors (VLAD) is employed to enhance its performance. For structure blur-invariant feature, the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) is used. To further enhance its blur invariance, we improve HOG by eliminating weak gradient magnitude which is more sensitive to image blur than the strong gradient. The improved HOG is then fused with the original HOG by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). At last, we fuse them together by CCA to form the final blur-invariant representation of the face image. The experiments are performed on three face datasets. The results demonstrate that our improvements and our proposition can have a good performance in blurred face recognition.

  9. Classification of esophagitis grade by neural network and texture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kwang Wook; Min, Byeong Ro; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Dae Weon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So Yeon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Esophagitis is divided into four grades according to the progress degree of disease by the LA classification method. This research was carried out on image processing with endoscope images for quantifying the four grades under the LA Classification. In a previous paper, which presented our work, the algorithm for detecting abnormal parts from one image was developed. This paper was conducted to classify esophagitis grade of one image itself. Whole 30 images were used in an experiment and included normal images and abnormal images with four grades. GLCM (gray level cooccurrence matrices) factors were extracted. The distributions of the texture image histogram were analyzed from each image for texture images. The algorithm to determine esophagitis grade used BPN (Back propagation network) that was composed of the texture histogram distribution for input data. It learned 20 images and verified with 10 images to diagnose under the LA classification system. Recognition ratio of learning result was 93.0% and verification result 77.0%. With features of the neural network, the success rate could be improved with this result by learning the data which were errors. Consequently, the recognition success rate appeared at 96% by total re-learned 30 images in addition to 10 images

  10. Optimization of hybrid antireflection structure integrating surface texturing and multi-layer interference coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shigeru; Kanomata, Kensaku; Suzuki, Takahiko; Hirose, Fumihiko

    2014-10-01

    The antireflection structure (ARS) for solar cells is categorized to mainly two different techniques, i.e., the surface texturing and the single or multi-layer antireflection interference coating. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid ARS, which integrates moth eye texturing and multi-layer coat, for application to organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Using optical simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we conduct nearly global optimization of the geometric parameters characterizing the hybrid ARS. The proposed optimization algorithm consists of two steps: in the first step, we optimize the period and height of moth eye array, in the absence of multi-layer coating. In the second step, we optimize the whole structure of hybrid ARS by using the solution obtained by the first step as the starting search point. The methods of the simple grid search and the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search are used for global and local searches, respectively. In addition, we study the effects of deviations in the geometric parameters of hybrid ARS from their optimized values. The design concept of hybrid ARS is highly beneficial for broadband light trapping in OPVs.

  11. Coupling between elytra of some beetles: Mechanism, forces and effect of surface texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight materials, structures and coupling mechanisms are very important for realizing advanced flight vehicles. Here, we obtained the geometric structures and morphologies of the elytra of beetles and ascertained its coupling zone by using the histological section technique and SEM. We set up a three-dimensional motion observing system to monitor the opening and closing behaviour of elytra in beetles and to determine the motion mechanism. We constructed a force measuring system to measure the coupling forces between elytra. The results show that elytra open and close by rotating about a single axle, where the coupling forces may be as high as 160 times its own bodyweight, the elytra coupling with the tenon and mortise mechanism, surface texture and opening angle between elytra heavily influence the coupling forces. These results may provide insights into the design mechanism and structure for future vehicles of flight.

  12. Ultrafast exciton migration in an HJ-aggregate: Potential surfaces and quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Robert; Polkehn, Matthias; Ma, Tianji; Burghardt, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dynamical and electronic structure calculations are combined to investigate the mechanism of exciton migration in an oligothiophene HJ aggregate, i.e., a combination of oligomer chains (J-type aggregates) and stacked aggregates of such chains (H-type aggregates). To this end, a Frenkel exciton model is parametrized by a recently introduced procedure [Binder et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014101 (2014)] which uses oligomer excited-state calculations to perform an exact, point-wise mapping of coupled potential energy surfaces to an effective Frenkel model. Based upon this parametrization, the Multi-Layer Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method is employed to investigate ultrafast dynamics of exciton transfer in a small, asymmetric HJ aggregate model composed of 30 sites and 30 active modes. For a partially delocalized initial condition, it is shown that a torsional defect confines the trapped initial exciton, and planarization induces an ultrafast resonant transition between an HJ-aggregated segment and a covalently bound "dangling chain" end. This model is a minimal realization of experimentally investigated mixed systems exhibiting ultrafast exciton transfer between aggregated, highly planarized chains and neighboring disordered segments.

  13. The effect of surface texture on the kinetic friction of a nanowire on a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtao; Mead, James; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2017-01-01

    The friction between Al2O3 nanowires and silicon substrates of different surface textures was characterised by use of optical manipulation. It was found that surface textures had significant effect on both the friction and the effective contact area between a nanowire and a substrate. A genetic algorithm was developed to determine the effective contact area between the nanowire and the textured substrate. The frictional force was found to be nearly proportional to the effective contact area, regardless of width, depth, spacing and orientation of the surface textures. Interlocking caused by textured grooves was not observed in this study. PMID:28322351

  14. Fabrication of honeycomb texture on poly-Si by laser interference and chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bogeum; Lee, Myeongkyu, E-mail: myeong@yonsei.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a laser-interference method to fabricate honeycomb textures on poly-Si wafer for reflection reduction. When exposed to three interfering pulsed laser beams at 532 nm, the Si surface was periodically melted in accordance with the interference pattern. As a result, concave holes were generated on the surface because the melted material overflowed and condensed at the periphery. Subsequent acid etching revealed uniform and clean honeycomb textures. The texture depth could be controlled by varying the irradiation condition and a minimum reflectance of 10% was obtained. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that no irradiation-induced damage remained after etching. This approach can be a cost-effective alternative to lithographic processes for fabricating high-efficiency poly-Si solar cells.

  15. Surface Perception from Local Analysis of Texture and Contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Gibson, 1971; Kennedy, 19741 or a learned skill of interpretation analogous to reading, subject to cultural convention (e.g., [ Arnheim , 19541...contours, highlights, and shading edges tell us of the local Gaussian curvature in some cases. 4 t . SStevens I102 References REFERENCES Arnheim . R

  16. Influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of particles in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; McFarlane, Joanna; Tsouris, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity can influence surface interactions, but its effects on particle aggregation kinetics have not been included in transport modeling of radioactive particles. In this research, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to investigate the influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of radioactive particles in the atmosphere. Radioactivity-induced charging mechanisms have been investigated at the microscopic level, and heterogeneous surface potential caused by radioactivity is reported. The radioactivity-induced surface charging is highly influenced by several parameters, such as rate and type of radioactive decay. A population balance model, including interparticle forces, has been employed to study the effects of radioactivity on particle aggregation kinetics in air. It has been found that radioactivity can hinder aggregation of particles because of similar surface charging caused by the decay process. Experimental and theoretical studies provide useful insights into the understanding of transport characteristics of radioactive particles emitted from severe nuclear events, such as the recent accident of Fukushima or deliberate explosions of radiological devices.

  17. Surface molecular aggregation structure and surface physicochemical properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, K; Yamaguchi, H; Takahara, A [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Kobayashi, M [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Morita, M [Fundamental Research Department, Chemical Division, Daikin Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Nishi Hitotsuya, Settsu-shi, Osaka 566-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: takahara@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2008-03-15

    Effect of side chain length on the molecular aggregation states and surface properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s [PFA-C{sub y}, where y is fluoromethylene number in R{sub f} group] thin films were systematically investigated. Spin-coated PFA-C{sub y} thin films were characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The receding contact angles showed small values for PFA-C{sub y} with short side chain (y{<=}6) and increased above y{>=}8. GIXD revealed that fluoroalkyl side chain of PFA-C{sub y} with y{>=}8 was crystallized and formed ordered structures at the surface region as well as bulk one. These results suggest that water repellent mechanism of PFA-C{sub y} can be attributed to the presence of highly ordered fluoroalkyl side chains at the outermost surfaces. The results of XPS in the dry and hydrated states and contact angle measurement in water support the mechanism of lowering contact angle for water by exposure of carbonyl group to the water interface through reorientation of short fluoroalkyl chains. The surface nanotextured PFA-C{sub 8} through imprinting of anodic aluminum oxide mold showed extremely high hydrophobicity as well as high oleophobicity.

  18. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  19. Surface molecular aggregation structure and surface physicochemical properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Morita, M.; Takahara, A.

    2008-03-01

    Effect of side chain length on the molecular aggregation states and surface properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s [PFA-Cy, where y is fluoromethylene number in Rf group] thin films were systematically investigated. Spin-coated PFA-Cy thin films were characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The receding contact angles showed small values for PFA-Cy with short side chain (y=8. GIXD revealed that fluoroalkyl side chain of PFA-Cy with y>=8 was crystallized and formed ordered structures at the surface region as well as bulk one. These results suggest that water repellent mechanism of PFA-Cy can be attributed to the presence of highly ordered fluoroalkyl side chains at the outermost surfaces. The results of XPS in the dry and hydrated states and contact angle measurement in water support the mechanism of lowering contact angle for water by exposure of carbonyl group to the water interface through reorientation of short fluoroalkyl chains. The surface nanotextured PFA-C8 through imprinting of anodic aluminum oxide mold showed extremely high hydrophobicity as well as high oleophobicity.

  20. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential (low organic soils with n > 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  1. Texturing of the Silicon Substrate with Nanopores and Si Nanowires for Anti-reflecting Surfaces of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Druzhinin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the prospects of obtaining a functional multi-layer anti-reflecting coating of the front surface of solar cells by texturing the surface of the silicon by electrochemical etching. The physical model of the "Black Si" coating with discrete inhomogeneity of the refractive index and technological aspects of producing of "Black Si" functional anti-reflecting coatings were presented. The investigation results of the spectral characteristics of the obtained multilayer multiporous "Black Si" coatings for silicon solar cells made by electrochemical etching are presented. The possibility of creating the texture on a silicon wafer surface using silicon nanowires and ordered nanopores obtained by metal-assisted chemical etching was shown.

  2. Aging and the haptic perception of 3D surface shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J Farley; Kappers, Astrid M L; Beers, Amanda M; Scott, A Kate; Norman, Hideko F; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-04-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of older and younger adults to perceive the three-dimensional (3D) shape of object surfaces from active touch (haptics). The ages of the older adults ranged from 64 to 84 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 18 to 27 years. In Experiment 1, the participants haptically judged the shape of large (20 cm diameter) surfaces with an entire hand. In contrast, in Experiment 2, the participants explored the shape of small (5 cm diameter) surfaces with a single finger. The haptic surfaces varied in shape index (Koenderink, Solid shape, 1990; Koenderink, Image and Vision Computing, 10, 557-564, 1992) from -1.0 to +1.0 in steps of 0.25. For both types of surfaces (large and small), the participants were able to judge surface shape reliably. The older participants' judgments of surface shape were just as accurate and precise as those of the younger participants. The results of the current study demonstrate that while older adults do possess reductions in tactile sensitivity and acuity, they nevertheless can effectively perceive 3D surface shape from haptic exploration.

  3. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  4. Effects of textural and surface characteristics of microporous activated carbons on the methane adsorption capacity at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos-Neto, M. [Grupo de Pesquisas em Separacoes por Adsorcao (GPSA), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus Universitario do Pici, Bl 709 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canabrava, D.V. [Grupo de Pesquisas em Separacoes por Adsorcao (GPSA), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus Universitario do Pici, Bl 709 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Torres, A.E.B. [Grupo de Pesquisas em Separacoes por Adsorcao (GPSA), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus Universitario do Pici, Bl 709 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia (Unidad Asociada al ICP-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Jimenez-Lopez, A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia (Unidad Asociada al ICP-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Azevedo, D.C.S. [Grupo de Pesquisas em Separacoes por Adsorcao (GPSA), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus Universitario do Pici, Bl 709 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: diana@gpsa.ufc.br; Cavalcante, C.L. [Grupo de Pesquisas em Separacoes por Adsorcao (GPSA), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus Universitario do Pici, Bl 709 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2007-04-30

    The objective of this study is to relate textural and surface characteristics of selected microporous activated carbons to their methane storage capacity. In this work, a magnetic suspension balance (Rubotherm, Germany) was used to measure methane adsorption isotherms of several activated carbon samples. Textural characteristics were assessed by nitrogen adsorption on a regular surface area analyzer (Autosorb-MP, by Quantachrome, USA). N{sub 2} adsorption was analysed by conventional models (BET, DR, HK) and by Monte Carlo molecular simulations. Elemental and surface analyses were performed by X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) for the selected samples. A comparative analysis was then carried out with the purpose of defining some correlation among the variables under study. For the system under study, pore size distribution and micropore volume seem to be a determining factor as long as the solid surface is perfectly hydrophobic. It was concluded that the textural parameters per se do not unequivocally determine natural gas storage capacities. Surface chemistry and methane adsorption equilibria must be taken into account in the decision-making process of choosing an adsorbent for gas storage.

  5. Polarimetry of light scattered by surface roughness and textured films and periodic structures in nanotechnologies: a new challenge in instrumentation and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrieu. F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive studies in the literature detail the Mueller matrices properties through decomposition, optical entropy and depolarization formalism. It has been applied for many years in rather different fields. In radar polarimetry, mathematical basis of depolarizing systems, have been first developed. In the visible range optics, standard diattenuation and retardance, decomposition is currently used in turbid organic media. The optical entropy concept, developed by S.R. Cloude, provides a very powerful analysis technique yielding important surface parameters such as depolarization, correlation and roughness. Complementary applications exist in scatterometry, for thin periodic grating films. With high capability polarimeters, such as the next generation of angle resolved polarimeters instruments, Polarimetry opens new fields of investigation for nanotechnologies materials as well as for gratings and photonics structures analysis: a program presently developed through a national consortium ANR08-NANO-020-03. With this instrumentation progress, simulation remains a key point to overpass as a challenge between future instruments. The theories for surfaces spectral power density (PSD and the random coupled wave approximation (RCWA in periodic structures are widely described in the literature. The implementation of some of these codes is described here for surface analysis and lithography scatterometry structures: grating overlay or double patterning.

  6. Comment on "Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications" by Duong V. Ta, Andrew Dunn, Thomas J. Wasley, Robert W. Kay, Jonathan Stringer, Patrick J. Smith, Colm Connaughton, Jonathan D. Shephard (Appl. Surf. Sci. 357 (2015) 248-254)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, L. B.; Emelyanenko, A. M.; Emelyanenko, K. A.; Domantovsky, A. G.; Shiryaev, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays the problem of design of durable ecologically friendly superhydrophobic surfaces is of great importance for science and technology. A recent paper in Applied Surface Science reports the method of fabricating the superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by infrared nanosecond laser surface texturing without using hydrophobic agents. Since this method of surface texturing can be considered as one of the most suitable for various industrial applications, the nature of superhydrophobic state of surfaces produced by laser texturing in the abovementioned paper deserves to be analyzed in detail. Authors of the commented paper attributed the change in wettability to the partial deoxidation of CuO into Cu2O on the surface during storage in atmosphere. However, such interpretation of the results contradicts to the basic notions in the theory of wetting and to more accurate and detailed data. In our Comment we discuss these contradictions point by point.

  7. A modified Cassie-Baxter relationship to explain contact angle hysteresis and anisotropy on non-wetting textured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjae; Tuteja, Anish; Mabry, Joseph M; Cohen, Robert E; McKinley, Gareth H

    2009-11-01

    The Cassie-Baxter model is widely used to predict the apparent contact angles obtained on composite (solid-liquid-air) superhydrophobic interfaces. However, the validity of this model has been repeatedly challenged by various research groups because of its inherent inability to predict contact angle hysteresis. In our recent work, we have developed robust omniphobic surfaces which repel a wide range of liquids. An interesting corollary of constructing such surfaces is that it becomes possible to directly image the solid-liquid-air triple-phase contact line on a composite interface, using an electron microscope with non-volatile organic liquids or curable polymers. Here, we fabricate a range of model superoleophobic surfaces with controlled surface topography in order to correlate the details of the local texture with the experimentally observed apparent contact angles. Based on these experiments, in conjunction with numerical simulations, we modify the classical Cassie-Baxter relation to include a local differential texture parameter which enables us to quantitatively predict the apparent advancing and receding contact angles, as well as contact angle hysteresis. This quantitative prediction also allows us to provide an a priori estimation of roll-off angles for a given textured substrate. Using this understanding we design model substrates that display extremely small or extremely large roll-off angles, as well as surfaces that demonstrate direction-dependent wettability, through a systematic control of surface topography and connectivity.

  8. Automated volumetric breast density derived by shape and appearance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r2 = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  9. Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate By Laterite Stone and Fine Aggregate by Quarry Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concrete mix with partial replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust and simultaneous partial replacement of coarse aggregate by laterite stone aggregate respectively on compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and workability of concrete. Concrete mixes containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 25 % and 30%, replacement (by weight of fine aggregate with quarry dust and simultaneously 25% replacement of coarse aggregate (by weight with laterite stone were casted in lab and checked for compressive strength, split tensile strength ,flexure strength and workability .This replacement results in making the concrete more economically available.

  10. Interpretation of Wild 2 Dust Fine Structure: Comparison of Stardust Aluminium Foil Craters to the Three-Dimensional Shape of Experimental Impacts by Artificial Aggregate Particles and Meteorite Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Burchell, M J; Price, M C; Graham, G A; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Cole, M J; Foster, N J; Teslich, N

    2009-12-10

    New experimental results show that Stardust crater morphology is consistent with interpretation of many larger Wild 2 dust grains being aggregates, albeit most of low porosity and therefore relatively high density. The majority of large Stardust grains (i.e. those carrying most of the cometary dust mass) probably had density of 2.4 g cm{sup -3} (similar to soda-lime glass used in earlier calibration experiments) or greater, and porosity of 25% or less, akin to consolidated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and much lower than the 80% suggested for fractal dust aggregates. Although better size calibration is required for interpretation of the very smallest impacting grains, we suggest that aggregates could have dense components dominated by {micro}m-scale and smaller sub-grains. If porosity of the Wild 2 nucleus is high, with similar bulk density to other comets, much of the pore-space may be at a scale of tens of micrometers, between coarser, denser grains. Successful demonstration of aggregate projectile impacts in the laboratory now opens the possibility of experiments to further constrain the conditions for creation of bulbous (Type C) tracks in aerogel, which we have observed in recent shots. We are also using mixed mineral aggregates to document differential survival of pristine composition and crystalline structure in diverse fine-grained components of aggregate cometary dust analogues, impacted onto both foil and aerogel under Stardust encounter conditions.

  11. Regenerated collagen fibers with grooved surface texture: Physicochemical characterization and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wu, Tong [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Wei [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Huang, Chen, E-mail: hc@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Jin, Xiangyu [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-01-01

    A novel type of protein fibers, regenerated collagen fibers (RC) from cattle skin, was prepared through wet-spinning. Due to the combined effect of solvent exchange and subsequent drawing process, the fibers were found to have a grooved surface texture. The grooves provided not only ordered topographical cues, but also increased surface area. Protein content of the RC fibers was confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ninhydrin color reaction. The fibers could be readily fabricated into nonwovens or other textiles, owning to their comparable physical properties to other commercialized fibers. Cell growth behavior on RC nonwovens suggested both early adhesion and prompt proliferation. The high moisture regain, good processability, along with the excellent cytocompatibility indicated that the RC fibers and nonwovens developed in this study might offer a good candidate for biomedical and healthcare applications. - Highlights: • Wet-spun regenerated collagen fibers having aligned surface grooves • Comparable physiochemical properties to commercialized fibers • Readily processed into nonwovens • Excellent cytocompatibility with prompt cell adhesion and proliferation.

  12. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults.

  13. Development of low friction snake-inspired deterministic textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, P.; López, D. A.; Cano, J. P.; Sánchez, J. C.; Rudas, S.; Estupiñán, H.; Toro, A.; Abdel-Aal, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    The use of surface texturization to reduce friction in sliding interfaces has proved successful in some tribological applications. However, it is still difficult to achieve robust surface texturing with controlled designer-functionalities. This is because the current existing gap between enabling texturization technologies and surface design paradigms. Surface engineering, however, is advanced in natural surface constructs especially within legless reptiles. Many intriguing features facilitate the tribology of such animals so that it is feasible to discover the essence of their surface construction. In this work, we report on the tribological behavior of a novel class of surfaces of which the spatial dimensions of the textural patterns originate from micro-scale features present within the ventral scales of pre-selected snake species. Mask lithography was used to produce implement elliptical texturizing patterns on the surface of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) pins. To study the tribological behavior of the texturized pins, pin-on-disc tests were carried out with the pins sliding against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene discs with no lubrication. For comparison, two non-texturized samples were also tested under the same conditions. The results show the feasibility of the texturization technique based on the coefficient of friction of the textured surfaces to be consistently lower than that of the non-texturized samples.

  14. Influence of ceramic surface texture on the wear of gold alloy and heat-pressed ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ceramic surface texture on the wear of rounded rod specimens. Plate specimens were fabricated from zirconia (ZrO2), feldspathic porcelain, and lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDG ceramics). Plate surfaces were either ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens with a 2.0-mm-diameter were fabricated from type 4 gold alloy and heat-pressed ceramics (HP ceramics). Wear testing was performed by means of a wear testing apparatus under 5,000 reciprocal strokes of the rod specimen with 5.9 N vertical loading. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric procedure. The gold alloy showed the maximal height loss (90.0 µm) when the rod specimen was abraded with ground porcelain, whereas the HP ceramics exhibited maximal height loss (49.8 µm) when the rod specimen was abraded with ground zirconia. There was a strong correlation between height loss of the rod and surface roughness of the underlying plates, for both the gold alloy and HP ceramics.

  15. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...... of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces...

  16. Detection of Veneer Moisture Content by Surface-circle-shaped Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa Chao; Du Hongbo; Zhang Biguang; Wang Guozhu

    2003-01-01

    This paper, with veneer as a particularly detected target, deals with a new method for detecting veneer moisture content. Surface resistance is measured by the fixed pressure, circle-shaped point and surface-touched detector. With the help of the computer, the veneer moisture and its distribution will be detected in a faster way with no harm to the veneer surface.

  17. Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone: Composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Tan, Zhi; Gao, Yifan; Zhan, Zhiwei; Chen, Qiuqiang; Cai, Liqi

    2017-03-01

    While large quantities of studies on microplastics in the marine environment have been widely carried out, few were available in the freshwater environment. The occurrence and characteristics, including composition, abundance, surface texture and interaction with heavy metals, of microplastics in the surface sediments from Beijiang River littoral zone were investigated. The concentrations of microplastics ranged from 178 ± 69 to 544 ± 107 items/kg sediment. SEM images illustrated that pits, fractures, flakes and adhering particles were the common patterns of degradation. Chemical weathering of microplastics was also observed and confirmed by μ-FTIR. EDS spectra displayed difference in the elemental types of metals on the different surface sites of individual microplastic, indicating that some metals carried by microplastics were not inherent but were derived from the environment. The content of metals (Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ti) in microplastics after ultrasonic cleaning has been analyzed by ICP-MS. Based on data from the long-term sorption of metals by microplastics and a comparison of metal burden between microplastics, macroplastics and fresh plastic products, we suggested that the majority of heavy metals carried by microplastics were derived from inherent load.

  18. Texture Evolution and Phase Transformation in Titanium Investigated by In-Situ Neutron Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Dong [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Yang, Ling [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Mills, Rebecca A [ORNL; Skorpenske, Harley David [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We report in-situ neutron diffraction studies of texture evolution and the (hcp) (bcc) phase transformation in commercially pure cold-drawn titanium upon continuous heating and cooling, complemented by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. We show that the recrystallization of the phase at elevated temperature enhanced the preexisting fiber texture, which eventually facilitated the nucleation and growth of the phase favored by the Burgers orientation relationship, i.e., {0001} //{110} . More strikingly, upon completion of the transformation, the {110} texture (or preferred orientation) in was eliminated immediately by the rapid grain growth of intergranular allotriomorphs. This resulted in the loss of the original -texture when Ti was transformed back to from to upon subsequent cooling, distinct from the known texture memory effect for rolling textures in titanium. Our present work provides useful experimental results for understanding the mechanisms of texture evolution and phase transformation in titanium and its alloys and, by and large, low-symmetry alloys such as zirconium.

  19. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  20. Controlling the Transient Interface Shape and Deposition Profile Left by Desiccation of Colloidal Droplets on Multiple Polymer Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter David

    . Implementation of this technique requires that the colloidal droplet be separated from the active electrode by a dielectric layer to prevent electrolysis. A variety of polymer layers have been used in EWOD devices for a variety of applications. In applications that involve desiccation of colloidal suspensions, the material for this layer should be chosen carefully as it can play an important role in the resulting deposition pattern. An experimental method to monitor the transient evolution of the shape of an evaporating colloidal droplet and optically quantify the resultant deposition pattern is presented. Unactuated colloidal suspensions will be desiccated on a variety of substrates commonly used in EWOD applications. Transient image profiles and particle deposition patterns are examined for droplets containing fluorescent micro-particles. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of these results will be used to compare multiple different cases in an effort to provide insight into the effects of polymer selection on the drying dynamics and resultant deposition patterns of desiccated colloidal materials. It was found that the equilibrium and receding contact angles between the surface and the droplet play a key role in the evaporation dynamics and the resulting deposition patterns left by a desiccated colloidal suspension. The equilibrium contact angle controls the initial contact diameter for a droplet of a given volume. As a droplet on a surface evaporates, the evolution of the interface shape and the contact diameter can generally be described by three different regimes. The Constant Contact Radius (CCR) regime occurs when the contact line is pinned while the contact angle decreases. The Constant Contact Angle (CCA) regime occurs when the contact line recedes while the contact angle remains constant. The Mixed regime occurs when the contact radius and angle both reduce over time. The presence of the CCA regime allows the contact line to recede creating a more uniform

  1. Effect of fingerprints orientation on skin vibrations during tactile exploration of textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Prevost, Alexis; Debrégeas, Georges

    2009-01-01

    In humans, the tactile perception of fine textures is mediated by skin vibrations when scanning the surface with the fingertip. These vibrations are encoded by specific mechanoreceptors, Pacinian corpuscules (PCs), located about 2 mm below the skin surface. In a recent article, we performed experiments using a biomimetic sensor which suggest that fingerprints (epidermal ridges) may play an important role in shaping the subcutaneous stress vibrations in a way which facilitates their processing by the PC channel. Here we further test this hypothesis by directly recording the modulations of the fingerpad/substrate friction force induced by scanning an actual fingertip across a textured surface. When the fingerprints are oriented perpendicular to the scanning direction, the spectrum of these modulations shows a pronounced maximum around the frequency v/lambda, where v is the scanning velocity and lambda the fingerprints period. This simple biomechanical result confirms the relevance of our previous finding for hu...

  2. Effect of fingerprints orientation on skin vibrations during tactile exploration of textured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Alexis; Scheibert, Julien; Debrégeas, Georges

    2009-09-01

    In humans, the tactile perception of fine textures is mediated by skin vibrations when scanning the surface with the fingertip. These vibrations are encoded by specific mechanoreceptors, Pacinian corpuscules (PCs), located about 2 mm below the skin surface. In a recent article, we performed experiments using a biomimetic sensor which suggest that fingerprints (epidermal ridges) may play an important role in shaping the subcutaneous stress vibrations in a way which facilitates their processing by the PC channel. Here we further test this hypothesis by directly recording the modulations of the fingerpad/substrate friction force induced by scanning an actual fingertip across a textured surface. When the fingerprints are oriented perpendicular to the scanning direction, the spectrum of these modulations shows a pronounced maximum around the frequency v/lambda, where v is the scanning velocity and lambda the fingerprints period. This simple biomechanical result confirms the relevance of our previous finding for human touch.

  3. Surface texture and some properties of acrylic resins submitted to chemical polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, K O; Mello, J A N; Rached, R N; Del Bel Cury, A A

    2003-01-01

    The effects of chemical polishing on dental acrylic resin properties are not well clarified. This study evaluated the effect of chemical and mechanical polishing on the residual monomer release (RM), Knoop hardness (KH), transverse strength (TS) and surface texture (ST) of a heat- and self-cured acrylic resin. Four groups were formed: GI-self-cured resin/mechanical polishing; GII-self-cured resin/chemical polishing; GIII-heat-cured resin/mechanical polishing; GIV-heat-cured resin/chemical polishing. Following the polishing procedures, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The KH and RM measurements were taken after 1, 2, 8 and 32 days of storage, and TS after 2, 8 and 32 days. Surface texture was observed under SEM evaluation. Results were compared statistically at a confidence level of 95%. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) regardless of the acrylic resin and the period of analysis, chemical polishing increased RM levels, reduced KH, and did not affect TS significantly; (2) water storage increased the surface hardness of GII and GIV; (3) GII and GIV showed a smooth and wavy surface under SEM evaluation.

  4. Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.

    2009-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

  5. Scatterometry—fast and robust measurements of nano-textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal Madsen, Morten; Hansen, Poul-Erik

    2016-06-01

    Scatterometry is a fast, precise and low cost way to determine the mean pitch and dimensional parameters of periodic structures with lateral resolution of a few nanometer. It is robust enough for in-line process control and precise and accurate enough for metrology measurements. Furthermore, scatterometry is a non-destructive technique capable of measuring buried structures, for example a grating covered by a thick oxide layer. As scatterometry is a non-imaging technique, mathematical modeling is needed to retrieve structural parameters that describe a surface. In this review, the three main steps of scatterometry are discussed: the data acquisition, the simulation of diffraction efficiencies and the comparison of data and simulations. First, the intensity of the diffracted light is measured with a scatterometer as a function of incoming angle, diffraction angle and/or wavelength. We discuss the evolution of the scatterometers from the earliest angular scatterometers to the new imaging scatterometers. The basic principle of measuring diffraction efficiencies in scatterometry has remained the same since the beginning, but the instrumental improvements have made scatterometry a state-of-the-art solution for fast and accurate measurements of nano-textured surfaces. The improvements include extending the wavelength range from the visible to the extreme ultra-violet range, development of Fourier optics to measure all diffraction orders simultaneously, and an imaging scatterometer to measure area of interests smaller than the spot size. Secondly, computer simulations of the diffraction efficiencies are discussed with emphasis on the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method. RCWA has, since the mid-1990s, been the preferred method for grating simulations due to the speed of the algorithms. In the beginning the RCWA method suffered from a very slow convergence rate, and we discuss the historical improvements to overcome this challenge, e.g. by the introduction of Li

  6. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface texture and friction resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassy, Mona Aly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dunnett's t-test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05). Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of fluoride application and type of wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05). Results: Ni-Ti wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro, P < 0.05. Fluoride application did not significantly affect the friction resistance of the tested wires in situ, P < 0.05. SEM observation revealed deterioration of the surface texture of the Ni-Ti wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ. Conclusions: The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires. PMID:27843886

  7. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  8. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 bares the characteristics of both enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga...

  9. Texture and Wettability of Metallic Lotus Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Frankiewicz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of sup...

  10. Effect of surface texturing on superoleophobicity, contact angle hysteresis, and "robustness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Law, Kock-Yee

    2012-10-23

    Previously, we reported the creation of a fluorosilane (FOTS) modified pillar array silicon surface comprising ~3-μm-diameter pillars (6 μm pitch with ~7 μm height) that is both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic, with water and hexadecane contact angles exceeding 150° and sliding angles at ~10° owing to the surface fluorination and the re-entrant structure in the side wall of the pillar. In this work, the effects of surface texturing (pillar size, spacing, and height) on wettability, contact angle hysteresis, and "robustness" are investigated. We study the static, advancing, and receding contact angles, as well as the sliding angles as a function of the solid area fraction. The results reveal that pillar size and pillar spacing have very little effect on the static and advancing contact angles, as they are found to be insensitive to the solid area fraction from 0.04 to ~0.4 as the pillar diameter varies from 1 to 5 μm and the center-to-center spacing varies from 4.5 to 12 μm. On the other hand, sliding angle, receding contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis are found to be dependent on the solid area fraction. Specifically, receding contact angle decreases and sliding angle and hysteresis increase as the solid area fraction increases. This effect can be attributable to the increase in pinning as the solid area fraction increases. Surface Evolver modeling shows that water wets and pins the pillar surface whereas hexadecane wets the pillar surface and then penetrates into the side wall of the pillar with the contact line pinning underneath the re-entrant structure. Due to the penetration of the hexadecane drop into the pillar structure, the effect on the receding contact angle and hysteresis is larger relative to that of water. This interpretation is supported by studying a series of FOTS pillar array surfaces with varying overhang thickness. With the water drop, the contact line is pinned on the pillar surface and very little overhang thickness effect

  11. Atomically flat surface of (0 0 1) textured FePt thin films by residual stress control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. H.; Hsiao, S. N.; Chou, C. L.; Chen, S. K.; Lee, H. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Single-layered Fe52Pt48 films with thickness of 10 nm were sputter-deposited on glass substrates. Rapid thermal annealing with different heating rates (10-110 K/s) was applied to transform as-deposited fcc phase into L10 phase and meanwhile to align [0 0 1]-axis of L10 crystal along plane normal direction. Based on X-ray diffractometry using synchrotron radiation source, the texture coefficient of (0 0 1)-plane increases with increasing heating rate from 10 to 40 K/s, which is correlated with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and in-plane tensile stress analyzed by asymmetric sin2 ψ method. Furthermore, it was revealed by atomic force microscopy that the dewetting process occurred as heating rate was raised up to 80 K/s and higher. The change in the microstructure due to stress relaxation leads to the degradation of (0 0 1) orientation and magnetic properties. Surface roughness is closely related to the in-plane tensile stress. Enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and atomically flat surface were achieved for the samples annealed at 40 K/s, which may be suitable for further practical applications. This work also suggests a feasible way for surface engineering by controlling internal stress of the FePt without introducing cap layer.

  12. Microbial properties of soil aggregates created by earthworms and other factors: spherical and prismatic soil aggregates from unreclaimed post-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouz, J.; Kristufek, V.; Liveckova, M.; van Loo, D.; Jacobs, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L. [Charles University of Prague, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Environmental Studies

    2011-01-15

    Soil aggregates between 2 and 5 mm from 35- and 45-year-old unreclaimed post-mining sites near Sokolov (Czech Republic) were divided into two groups: spherical and prismatic. X-ray tomography indicated that prismatic aggregates consisted of fragments of claystone bonded together by amorphous clay and roots while spherical aggregates consisted of a clay matrix and organic fragments of various sizes. Prismatic aggregates were presumed to be formed by plant roots and physical processes during weathering of Tertiary mudstone, while earthworms were presumed to contribute to the formation of spherical aggregates. The effects of drying and rewetting and glucose addition on microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and counts of bacteria in these aggregates were determined. Spherical aggregates contained a greater percentage of C and N and a higher C-to-N ratio than prismatic ones. The C content of the particulate organic matter was also higher in the spherical than in the prismatic aggregates. Although spherical aggregates had a higher microbial respiration and biomass, the growth of microbial biomass in spherical aggregates was negatively correlated with initial microbial biomass, indicating competition between bacteria. Specific respiration was negatively correlated with microbial biomass. Direct counts of bacteria were higher in spherical than in prismatic aggregates. Bacterial numbers were more stable in the center than in the surface layers of the aggregates. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that bacteria often occurred as individual cells in prismatic aggregates but as small clusters of cells in spherical aggregates. Ratios of colony forming units (cultivatable bacteria) to direct counts were higher in spherical than in prismatic aggregates. Spherical aggregates also contained faster growing bacteria.

  13. Controlling microstructure and texture in magnesium alloy sheet by shear-based deformation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagapuram, Dinakar

    Application of lightweight Mg sheet is limited by its low workability, both in production of sheet (typically by multistep hot and cold-rolling) and forming of sheet into components. Large strain extrusion machining (LSEM), a constrained chip formation process, is used to create Mg alloy AZ31B sheet in a single deformation step. The deformation in LSEM is shown to be intense simple shear that is confined to a narrow zone, which results in significant deformation-induced heating up to ~ 200°C and reduces the need for pre-heating to realize continuous sheet forms. This study focuses on the texture and microstructure development in the sheet processed by LSEM. Interestingly, deep, highly twinned steady-state layer develops in the workpiece subsurface due to the compressive field ahead of the shear zone. The shear deformation, in conjunction with this pre-deformed twinned layer, results in tilted-basal textures in the sheet with basal planes tilted well away from the surface. These textures are significantly different from those in rolled sheet, where basal planes are nearly parallel to the surface. By controlling the strain path, the basal plane inclination from the surface could be varied in the range of 32-53°. B-fiber (basal plane parallel to LSEM shear plane), associated with basal slip, is the major texture component in the sheet. An additional minor C2-fiber component appears above 250°C due to the thermal activation of pyramidal slip. Together with these textures, microstructure ranges from severely cold-worked to (dynamically) recrystallized type, with the corresponding grain sizes varying from ultrafine- (~ 200 nm) to fine- (2 mum) grained. Small-scale limiting dome height (LDH) confirmed enhanced formability (~ 50% increase in LDH) of LSEM sheet over the conventional rolled sheet. Premature, twinning-driven shear fractures are observed in the rolled sheet with the basal texture. In contrast, LSEM sheet with a tilted-basal texture favorably oriented for

  14. Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menut, Laurent; PéRez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, StéPhane

    2013-06-01

    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  15. Composite fillings microleakage after TEM00 Er: YAG laser texturing of human tooth enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Fedotov, D. Y.

    2010-11-01

    The results of comparative investigation of methylene-blue microleakage between tooth enamel surface and light-cure composites various fluidity are presented. An enamel surface was treated by traditional methods or laser method (laser texturing). The role of adhesive systems is investigated at enamel texturing by the TEM00 Er: YAG radiation. It is shown, that microleakage was not observed when enamel was textured by the TEM00 Er: YAG laser radiation and covered with flowable composite "Revolution" (Kerr) without adhesive system. It is established, that for laser textured surfaces methylene-blue microleakage depends on distance between microcraters.

  16. Separate processing of texture and form in the ventral stream: evidence from FMRI and visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavina-Pratesi, C; Kentridge, R W; Heywood, C A; Milner, A D

    2010-02-01

    Real-life visual object recognition requires the processing of more than just geometric (shape, size, and orientation) properties. Surface properties such as color and texture are equally important, particularly for providing information about the material properties of objects. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that geometric and surface properties are dealt with separately within the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) and the collateral sulcus (CoS), respectively. Here we compared objects that differed either in aspect ratio or in surface texture only, keeping all other visual properties constant. Results on brain-intact participants confirmed that surface texture activates an area in the posterior CoS, quite distinct from the area activated by shape within LOC. We also tested 2 patients with visual object agnosia, one of whom (DF) performed well on the texture task but at chance on the shape task, whereas the other (MS) showed the converse pattern. This behavioral double dissociation was matched by a parallel neuroimaging dissociation, with activation in CoS but not LOC in patient DF and activation in LOC but not CoS in patient MS. These data provide presumptive evidence that the areas respectively activated by shape and texture play a causally necessary role in the perceptual discrimination of these features.

  17. Land surface temperature shaped by urban fractions in megacity region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Fan, Yanguo; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhu, Yuxiang

    2017-02-01

    Large areas of cropland and natural vegetation have been replaced by impervious surfaces during the recent rapid urbanization in China, which has resulted in intensified urban heat island effects and modified local or regional warming trends. However, it is unclear how urban expansion contributes to local temperature change. In this study, we investigated the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) change and the increase of urban land signals. The megacity of Tianjin was chosen for the case study because it is representative of the urbanization process in northern China. A combined analysis of LST and urban land information was conducted based on an urban-rural transect derived from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and QuickBird images. The results indicated that the density of urban land signals has intensified within a 1-km2 grid in the urban center with an impervious land fraction >60 %. However, the construction on urban land is quite different with low-/mid-rise buildings outnumbering high-rise buildings in the urban-rural transect. Based on a statistical moving window analysis, positive correlation ( R 2 > 0.9) is found between LST and urban land signals. Surface temperature change (ΔLST) increases by 0.062 °C, which was probably caused by the 1 % increase of urbanized land (ΔIF) in this case region.

  18. Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-03-01

    Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.

  19. Influence of surface texture on the galling characteristics of lean duplex and austenitic stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Eriksen, J.; Olsson, M.;

    2010-01-01

    of sheet materials and lubricants. The strip reduction test, a severe sheet forming tribology test was used to simulate the conditions during ironing. This investigation shows that the risk of galling is highly dependent on the surface texture of the duplex steel. Trials were also performed......Two simulative test methods were used to study galling in sheet forming of two types of stainless steel sheet: austenitic (EN 1.4301) and lean duplex LDX 2101 (EN 1.4162) in different surface conditions. The pin-on-disc test was used to analyse the galling resistance of different combinations...... in an industrial tool used for high volume production of pump components, to compare forming of LDX 2101 and austenitic stainless steel with equal thickness. The forming forces, the geometry and the strains in the sheet material were compared for the same component. It was found that LDX steels can be formed...

  20. Combining Spectral and Texture Features Using Random Forest Algorithm: Extracting Impervious Surface Area in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Song, Yang; Peng, Minjun

    2016-06-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) is one of the most important indicators of urban environments. At present, based on multi-resolution remote sensing images, numerous approaches have been proposed to extract impervious surface, using statistical estimation, sub-pixel classification and spectral mixture analysis method of sub-pixel analysis. Through these methods, impervious surfaces can be effectively applied to regional-scale planning and management. However, for the large scale region, high resolution remote sensing images can provide more details, and therefore they will be more conducive to analysis environmental monitoring and urban management. Since the purpose of this study is to map impervious surfaces more effectively, three classification algorithms (random forests, decision trees, and artificial neural networks) were tested for their ability to map impervious surface. Random forests outperformed the decision trees, and artificial neural networks in precision. Combining the spectral indices and texture, random forests is applied to impervious surface extraction with a producer's accuracy of 0.98, a user's accuracy of 0.97, and an overall accuracy of 0.98 and a kappa coefficient of 0.97.

  1. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chi...

  2. Texture mechanisms and microstructure of biaxial thin films grown by oblique angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A. [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    In order to understand the texture formation mechanism in thin films grown under oblique angle deposition (OAD), TiAlN films were deposited at room temperature (RT) under various incident angles. We show that both in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations respond strongly to the deposition angle. For {alpha} = 0 , the pole figures show a (111) and (200) mixed out-of-plane orientation with random in-plane alignment. In contrast, under OAD, inclined textures are observed with the (111) direction moving toward the incident flux direction and the (200) moving away, showing substantial in-plane alignment. This observation suggests that TiAlN crystals prefer to grow with the (200) direction perpendicular to the substrate while maintaining the minimization of the surface free energy by maximizing the (111) surface area toward the incident flux. The in-plane texture, which is randomly oriented at normal incidence, gives rise to two preferred orientations under oblique angles - one along the direction of flux and other away from the deposition source. The biaxial texture results from a competition among texture mechanism related to surface mobilities of adatoms, geometrical and directional effects. The surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OAD films develop a kind of smooth tiles of a roof structure, with no faceted crystallites. The columns of these films were tilted toward the direction of incident flux. The dependence of (111) texture tilt angle and column angle {beta} on the incidence flux angle {alpha} is evaluated using four well-known models. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study reveals a voided, intercolumnar structure with oblique growth toward the flux direction. The selected area diffraction pattern (SAED) pattern supports the pole figure observations. Measurements of the nanoindentation test were performed in order to discuss the change of mechanical properties as a function of incident

  3. Identifying Differences and Similarities in Static and Dynamic Contact Angles between Nanoscale and Microscale Textured Surfaces Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Mitchell R; Shirts, Michael R

    2015-07-28

    We quantify some of the effects of patterned nanoscale surface texture on static contact angles, dynamic contact angles, and dynamic contact angle hysteresis using molecular dynamics simulations of a moving Lennard-Jones droplet in contact with a solid surface. We observe static contact angles that change with the introduction of surface texture in a manner consistent with theoretical and experimental expectations. However, we find that the introduction of nanoscale surface texture at the length scale of 5-10 times the fluid particle size does not affect dynamic contact angle hysteresis even though it changes both the advancing and receding contact angles significantly. This result differs significantly from microscale experimental results where dynamic contact angle hysteresis decreases with the addition of surface texture due to an increase in the receding contact angle. Instead, we find that molecular-kinetic theory, previously applied only to nonpatterned surfaces, accurately describes dynamic contact angle and dynamic contact angle hysteresis behavior as a function of terminal fluid velocity. Therefore, at length scales of tens of nanometers, the kinetic phenomena such as contact line pinning observed at larger scales become insignificant in comparison to the effects of molecular fluctuations for moving droplets, even though the static properties are essentially scale-invariant. These findings may have implications for the design of highly hierarchical structures with particular wetting properties. We also find that quantitatively determining the trends observed in this article requires the careful selection of system and analysis parameters in order to achieve sufficient accuracy and precision in calculated contact angles. Therefore, we provide a detailed description of our two-surface, circular-fit approach to calculating static and dynamic contact angles on surfaces with nanoscale texturing.

  4. Nanosecond laser texturing of uniformly and non-uniformly wettable micro structured metal surfaces for enhanced boiling heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Matevž; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok

    2017-03-01

    Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20-40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.

  5. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  6. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces.

  7. β-Synuclein suppresses both the initiation and amplification steps of α-synuclein aggregation via competitive binding to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James W. P.; Buell, Alexander K.; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Meisl, Georg; Carozza, Jacqueline; Flagmeier, Patrick; Vendruscolo, Michele; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Galvagnion, Céline

    2016-11-01

    α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein that is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease through the processes involved in the formation of amyloid fibrils. α and β-synuclein are homologous proteins found at comparable levels in presynaptic terminals but β-synuclein has a greatly reduced propensity to aggregate and indeed has been found to inhibit α-synuclein aggregation. In this paper, we describe how sequence differences between α- and β-synuclein affect individual microscopic processes in amyloid formation. In particular, we show that β-synuclein strongly suppresses both lipid-induced aggregation and secondary nucleation of α-synuclein by competing for binding sites at the surfaces of lipid vesicles and fibrils, respectively. These results suggest that β-synuclein can act as a natural inhibitor of α-synuclein aggregation by reducing both the initiation of its self-assembly and the proliferation of its aggregates.

  8. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, David

    2002-07-01

    the CSC have been determined for mixtures of cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to {approx}10's {mu}m in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)

  9. Correlation between macro texture measures carried out by the volumetric method and by different laser texture meter; Correlacion de medidas de macrotextura tomadas con el metodo volumetrico y con diferentes texturometros lasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Ruiz, L.; Yanguas Gonzalez, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    The reference value for the measurement of surface macro texture in the Spanish Main Road Network is the MTD or Mean Texture Depth (PMT, Profundidad Media de Textura), obtained by means of the volumetric methods, in accordance with the standard UNE EN 13036-1:12010. The fact that it is a spot measurement that requires road closures makes it an expensive procedure as well as slow and dangerous. In addition to this, the test results are relatively sensitive to the operator, being the procedure not too suitable for systematic surveys. These are some of the reasons that have contributed to the development of texture meter laser devices that can be assembled on board of vehicles, circulating without interfering with the normal traffic flow and providing a parameter named the MPD (Mean Depth Profile). According to the standard UNE-EN ISO 13473-1:2006, it is possible to estimate the texture obtained by volumetric methods, with the parameter ETD (Estimated Texture Depth) through the equation: ETD=0,8 x MPD+0.2 In 2008 CEDEX conducted a study that correlated macro texture measures obtained by means of the volumetric method with such carried out by different laser texture meters. The equations yield a better relation between MPD and MTD were dependent on the measurement device used and were not linear equations type, as is it indicated in the standard, but exponential type equations. (Author) 6 refs.

  10. Shape-adaptive discrete wavelet transform for coding arbitrarily shaped texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shipeng; Li, Weiping

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a shape adaptive discrete wavelet transform (SA-DWT) scheme for coding arbitrarily shaped texture. The proposed SA-DWT can be used for object-oriented image coding. The number of coefficients after SA-DWT is identical to the number of pels contained in the arbitrarily shaped image objects. The locality property of wavelet transform and self-similarity among subbands are well preserved throughout this process.For a rectangular region, the SA-DWT is identical to a standard wavelet transform. With SA-DWT, conventional wavelet based coding schemes can be readily extended to the coding of arbitrarily shaped objects. The proposed shape adaptive wavelet transform is not unitary but the small energy increase is restricted at the boundary of objects in subbands. Two approaches of using the SA-DWT algorithm for object-oriented image and video coding are presented. One is to combine scalar SA-DWT with embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding technique, the other is an extension of the normal vector wavelet coding (VWC) technique to arbitrarily shaped objects. Results of applying SA-VWC to real arbitrarily shaped texture coding are also given at the end of this paper.

  11. Object detection approach using generative sparse, hierarchical networks with top-down and lateral connections for combining texture/color detection and shape/contour detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiton, Dylan M.; Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; Schultz, Peter F.; George, John S.

    2016-10-25

    An approach to detecting objects in an image dataset may combine texture/color detection, shape/contour detection, and/or motion detection using sparse, generative, hierarchical models with lateral and top-down connections. A first independent representation of objects in an image dataset may be produced using a color/texture detection algorithm. A second independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a shape/contour detection algorithm. A third independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a motion detection algorithm. The first, second, and third independent representations may then be combined into a single coherent output using a combinatorial algorithm.

  12. Object detection approach using generative sparse, hierarchical networks with top-down and lateral connections for combining texture/color detection and shape/contour detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiton, Dylan M.; Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; Schultz, Peter F.; George, John S.

    2015-07-28

    An approach to detecting objects in an image dataset may combine texture/color detection, shape/contour detection, and/or motion detection using sparse, generative, hierarchical models with lateral and top-down connections. A first independent representation of objects in an image dataset may be produced using a color/texture detection algorithm. A second independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a shape/contour detection algorithm. A third independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a motion detection algorithm. The first, second, and third independent representations may then be combined into a single coherent output using a combinatorial algorithm.

  13. Light capsules shaped by curvilinear meta-surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Naserpour, Mahin; Zakery, A; Miret, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple yet efficient method for generating in-plane hollow beams with a nearly-full circular light shell without the contribution of backward propagating waves. The method relies on modulating the phase in the near field of a centro-symmetric optical wavefront, such as that from a high-numericalaperture focused wave field. We illustrate how beam acceleration may be carried out by using an ultranarrow non-flat meta-surface formed by engineered plasmonic nanoslits. A mirrorsymmetric, with respect to the optical axis, circular caustic surface is numerically demonstrated that can be used as an optical bottle.

  14. The textural properties and microstructure of konjac glucomannan - tungsten gels induced by DC electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Li, Jingliang; Pang, Jie; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-12-01

    Konjac glucomannan - tungsten (KGM-T) gels were successfully prepared under DC electric fields, in the presence of sodium tungstate. The textural properties and microstructure of the gels were investigated by Texture Analyzer, Rheometer and SEM. Based on the response surface methodology (RSM) results, the optimum conditions for KGM-T gel springiness is 0.32% sodium tungstate concentration, 0.54% KGM concentration, 24.66V voltage and 12.37min treatment time. Under these conditions, the maximum springiness value of KGM-T gel is 1.21mm. Steady flow measurement indicated that KGM-T gel showed characteristic non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, with low flow behaviour indexes in the shear thinning region. SEM demonstrated the porosity of the freeze-dried samples. These findings may pave the way to use DC electric fields for the design and development of KGM gels and to apply KGM gels for practical applications.

  15. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhen-bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100 °C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100 °C. With increasing laser--texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150 °C but increased at 60 and 100 °C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures.

  16. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhen-bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100°C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100°C. With increasing laser—texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150°C but increased at 60 and 100°C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures. PMID:27054762

  17. Aggregate distribution and associated organic carbon influenced by cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Irene; García-González, Irene; Benito, Marta; Gabriel, Jose Luis; Quemada, Miguel; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow with cover crops during the non-cropping period seems to be a good alternative to diminish soil degradation by enhancing soil aggregation and increasing organic carbon. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of replacing fallow by different winter cover crops (CC) on the aggregate distribution and C associated of an Haplic Calcisol. The study area was located in Central Spain, under semi-arid Mediterranean climate. A 4-year field trial was conducted using Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) as CC during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.) under irrigation. All treatments were equally irrigated and fertilized. Maize was directly sown over CC residues previously killed in early spring. Composite samples were collected at 0-5 and 5-20 cm depths in each treatment on autumn of 2010. Soil samples were separated by wet sieving into four aggregate-size classes: large macroaggregates ( >2000 µm); small macroaggregates (250-2000 µm); microaggregates (53-250 µm); and Organic carbon associated to each aggregate-size class was measured by Walkley-Black Method. Our preliminary results showed that the aggregate-size distribution was dominated by microaggregates (48-53%) and the cover crops increased aggregate size resulting in a higher MWD (0.28 mm) in comparison with fallow (0.20 mm) in the 0-5 cm layer. Barley showed a higher MWD than fallow also in 5-20 cm layer. Organic carbon concentrations in aggregate-size classes at top layer followed the order: large macroaggregates > small macroaggregates > microaggregates > silt + clay size. Treatments did not influence C concentration in aggregate-size classes. In conclusion, cover crops improved soil structure increasing the proportion of macroaggregates and MWD being Barley more effective than Vetch at subsurface layer.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Guo, Yang-Yu; Tan, He-Ping; Li, Yao; Xie, Gong-Nan

    2016-09-01

    The studies of shark skin textured surfaces in flow drag reduction provide inspiration to researchers overcoming technical challenges from actual production application. In this paper, three kinds of infinite parallel plate flow models with microstructure inspired by shark skin were established, namely blade model, wedge model and the smooth model, according to cross-sectional shape of microstructure. Simulation was carried out by using FLUENT, which simplified the computation process associated with direct numeric simulations. To get the best performance from simulation results, shear-stress transport k-omega turbulence model was chosen during the simulation. Since drag reduction mechanism is generally discussed from kinetics point of view, which cannot interpret the cause of these losses directly, a drag reduction rate was established based on the second law of thermodynamics. Considering abrasion and fabrication precision in practical applications, three kinds of abraded geometry models were constructed and tested, and the ideal microstructure was found to achieve best performance suited to manufacturing production on the basis of drag reduction rate. It was also believed that bionic shark skin surfaces with mechanical abrasion may draw more attention from industrial designers and gain wide applications with drag-reducing characteristics.

  19. [Lysophosphatidic acid and human erythrocyte aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet'ev, Iu A; Popovicheva, A N; Levin, G Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the morphology and aggregation of human erythrocytes has been studied. Morphology of erythrocytes and their aggregates were studied by light microscopy. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid changes the shape of red blood cells: diskocyte become echinocytes. Aggregation of red blood cells (rouleaux) was significantly reduced in autoplasma. At the same time there is a strong aggregation of echinocytes. This was accompanied by the formation of microvesicles. Adding normal plasma to echinocytes restores shape and aggregation of red blood cells consisting of "rouleaux". A possible mechanism of action of lysophosphatidic acid on erythrocytes is discussed.

  20. The Application of Marker Based Segmentation for Surface Texture Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Pin Nuraini binti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured surfaces have been increasingly used in industry for a variety of applications, including improving the tribological properties of the surfaces. Surface metrology plays an important role in this discipline since with the help of surface metrology technology, surface texture can be measured, visualize and quantified. Traditional surface texture parameters, such as roughness and waviness, cannot be related to the function for structured surfaces due to the less statistical description and little information. Therefore, a new approaches based on characterizing the structured surface is introduces where this paper focus on type of edges grain surface. To identify features, it is a must to detect the location of the edges and segmented the features based on the detected edges. Hence characterization of surface texture segmentation based on the edges detection is developing using Marker Based segmentation and it is prove that this method is possible to be used in order to characterize the structured surface.

  1. Aging and the haptic perception of 3D surface shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norman, J.F.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Beers, A.M.; Scott, A.K.; Norman, H.F.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of older and younger adults to perceive the three-dimensional (3D) shape of object surfaces from active touch (haptics). The ages of the older adults ranged from 64 to 84 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 18 to 27 years. In Experiment 1, the p

  2. Aging and the haptic perception of 3D surface shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norman, J.F.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Beers, A.M.; Scott, A.K.; Norman, H.F.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of older and younger adults to perceive the three-dimensional (3D) shape of object surfaces from active touch (haptics). The ages of the older adults ranged from 64 to 84 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 18 to 27 years. In Experiment 1, the p

  3. Continuously Tunable Wettability by Using Surface Patterned Shape Memory Polymers with Giant Deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Yayun; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Designing smart surfaces with tunable wettability has drawn much attention in recent years for academic research and practical applications. Most of the previous methods to achieve such surfaces demand some particular materials that inherently have special features or complicated structures which are usually not easy to obtain. A novel strategy to achieve such smart surfaces is proposed by using the surface patterned shape memory polymers of chemically crosslinked polycyclooctene which shows a giant deformability of up to ≈730% strain. The smart surfaces possess the ability to continuously tune the wettability by controlling the recovery temperature and/or time. Coating the modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles onto such surfaces renders the surface superhydrophobicity and expands the tunable range of contact angles (CAs). Theoretical calculations of the CAs at different strains via modified Cassie model well explain the tunable wettability behaviors of such smart surfaces.

  4. Predictive response surface model for heat-induced rheological changes and aggregation of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro A; Emond, Charles; Gomaa, Ahmed; Remondetto, Gabriel E; Subirade, Muriel

    2015-02-01

    Whey proteins are now far more than a by-product of cheese processing. In the last 2 decades, food manufacturers have developed them as ingredients, with the dairy industry remaining as a major user. For many applications, whey proteins are modified (denatured) to alter their structure and functional properties. The objective of this research was to study the influence of 85 to 100 °C, with protein concentration of 8% to 12%, and treatment times of 5 to 30 min, while measuring rheological properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity) and aggregation (intermolecular beta-sheet formation) in dispersions of whey protein concentrate (WPC). A Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology modeled the heat denaturation of liquid sweet WPC at 3 variables and 3 levels. The model revealed a very significant fit for viscoelastic properties, and a lesser fit for protein aggregation, at temperatures not previously studied. An exponential increase of rheological parameters was governed by protein concentration and temperature, while a modest linear relationship of aggregation was governed by temperature. Models such as these can serve as valuable guides to the ingredient and dairy industries to develop target products, as whey is a major ingredient in many functional foods.

  5. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. PMID:25287913

  6. Modeling forest aboveground biomass by combining spectrum, textures and topographic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshi LI; Ying TAN; Jie PAN; Shikui PENG

    2008-01-01

    Many textural measures have been developed and used for improving land cover classification accu-racy, but they rarely examined the role of textures in improving the performance of forest aboveground biomass estimations. The relationship between texture and biomass is poorly understood. In this paper, SPOT5 HRG datasets were ortho-rectified and atmospherically calibrated. Then the transform of spectral features is introduced, and the extraction of textural measures based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix is also implemented in accordance with four different directions (0°, 45°, 90o and 135°) and various moving window sizes, ranging from 3 x 3 to 51 x 51. Thus, a variety of textures were generated. Combined with derived topo-graphic features, the forest aboveground biomass estima-tion models for five predominant forest types in the scenic spot of the Mausoleum of Sun Yat-Sen, Nanjing, are identified and constructed, and the estimation accuracies exhibited by these models are also validated and evaluated respectively. The results indicate that: 1) Most textures are weakly correlated with forest biomass, but minority textural measures such as ME, CR and VA play a significantly effective and critical role in estimating forest biomass; 2) The textures of coniferous forest appear preferable to those of broad-leaved forest and mixed forest in representing the spatial configurations of forests;and 3) Among the topographic features including slope,aspect and elevation,aspect has the lowest correlation with the biomass of a forest in this study.

  7. Lysozyme Aggregation and Fibrillation Monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Louis; Flanders, Bret; Schmit, Jeremy; Sorensen, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins provides a rich phase space with significant biomedical implications, including a link with several age-related diseases. We employed dynamic light scattering to monitor the aggregation of lysozyme, a model protein, from a monomeric state until the formation of micron-sized fibrils. For an aqueous lysozyme solution buffered at pH 2, the auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity was found to be well-fit by a single exponential function with decay time τ = 1/(2Dq^2) = 0.25 ms, which corresponds to a mean hydrodynamic radius (RH) of 2.2 nm, very likely generated by monomers. Ethanol (4% v/v final concentration) induced a partial unfolding, to RH = 4.6 nm. The subsequent addition of 70 mM KCl was found to shrink the size back to RH = 2.5 nm, as expected when a denatured protein refolds due to partial screening of the intramolecular repulsion. However, further aggregation was not observed. At pH 4, using a low-salt acetate buffer, more ethanol (10% v/v) was required to initiate unfolding, but once it occurred, larger aggregates formed. These results are consistent with the model that partial unfolding, which exposes beta-motif secondary structure, is a prerequisite for aggregation and fibrillation, but the aggregation fate depends on the protein charge state (pH) and screening (salt concentration).

  8. Recrystallization and texture evolution during hot rolling of copper, studied by a multiscale model combining crystal plasticity and vertex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellbin, Y.; Hallberg, H.; Ristinmaa, M.

    2016-10-01

    A multiscale modeling framework, combining a graph-based vertex model of microstructure evolution with a GPU-parallelized crystal plasticity model, was recently proposed by the authors. Considering hot rolling of copper, the full capabilities of the model are demonstrated in the present work. The polycrystal plasticity model captures the plastic response and the texture evolution during materials processing while the vertex model provides central features of grain structure evolution through dynamic recrystallization, such as nucleation and growth of individual crystals. The multiscale model makes it possible to obtain information regarding grain size and texture development throughout the workpiece, capturing the effects of recrystallization and heterogeneous microstructure evolution. Recognizing that recrystallization is a highly temperature dependent phenomenon, simulations are performed at different process temperatures. The results show that the proposed modeling framework is capable of simultaneously capturing central aspects of material behavior at both the meso- and macrolevel. Detailed investigation of the evolution of texture, grain size distribution and plastic deformation during the different processing conditions are performed, using the proposed model. The results show a strong texture development, but almost no recrystallization, for the lower of the investigated temperatures, while at higher temperatures an increased recrystallization is shown to weaken the development of a typical rolling texture. The simulations also show the influence of the shear deformation close to the rolling surface on both texture development and recrystallization.

  9. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure i

  10. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Texture Evolution of Aluminum Alloy 7005 by Accumulative Roll Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hu; Wang, M. P.; Chen, Wei; Jia, Yanlin

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, the accumulative roll bonding process was carried out on a 7005 aluminum alloy sheet to six passes. The microstructure and texture evolution was investigated by transmission electron microscope, electron backscatter diffraction analysis, and x-ray texture goniometer. With the increase of ARB passes, the microstructure was refined and the fraction of high angle boundaries increased. The hardness of different ARB process specimens was measured and showed that as the ARB passes increased, the hardness rose obviously. The tensile strength of 6 passes reaches 423.4 MPa and the elongation is 4.6%. The material is strongly textured where individual layers possess typical FCC rolling texture components and the variation of each texture is different. This is attributed to the microstructure evolution during the ARB process.

  11. Surface texturing for adaptive Ag/MoS_2 solid lubricant plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to prepare specially designed surface texture on hard steel surface by electrochemical micromachining (EM) and to incorporate electroless plated Ag/MoS2 solid lubricant coating into the dimples of EM textured steel surface to effectively reduce friction and wear of steel-steel contacts. The friction and wear behavior of the Ag/MoS2 solid lubricant coating on EM textured steel surface was evaluated in relation to the size and spacing of the dimples thereon. The microstructur...

  12. DIAGONAL POINT BY POINT SURFACE DEVELOPMENT METHOD BASED ON NURBS SURFACE FOR BLANK SHAPE ESTIMATION OF COVER PANEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yuqin; Li Fuzhu; Jiang Hong; Wang Xiaochun

    2005-01-01

    According to the characteristics of a complex cover panel, its geometry shape is described by the NURBS surface with great description capability. With the reference to the surface classification determined by Gauss curvature, the proportion of the mid-surface area between before and after being developed is derived from the displacement variation of the mid-surface in the normal vector direction of the sheet metal during the sheet metal forming process. Hereby, based on the curve development theory in differential geometry, a novel diagonal point by point surface development method is put forward to estimate a complex cover panel's blank contour efficiently. By comparing the sample's development result of diagonal point by point surface development method with that of available one-step method, the validity of the proposed surface development method is verified.

  13. [Visual Texture Agnosia in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2015-06-01

    Visual object recognition requires the processing of both geometric and surface properties. Patients with occipital lesions may have visual agnosia, which is impairment in the recognition and identification of visually presented objects primarily through their geometric features. An analogous condition involving the failure to recognize an object by its texture may exist, which can be called visual texture agnosia. Here we present two cases with visual texture agnosia. Case 1 had left homonymous hemianopia and right upper quadrantanopia, along with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and texture agnosia, because of damage to his left ventromedial occipitotemporal cortex and right lateral occipito-temporo-parietal cortex due to multiple cerebral embolisms. Although he showed difficulty matching and naming textures of real materials, he could readily name visually presented objects by their contours. Case 2 had right lower quadrantanopia, along with impairment in stereopsis and recognition of texture in 2D images, because of subcortical hemorrhage in the left occipitotemporal region. He failed to recognize shapes based on texture information, whereas shape recognition based on contours was well preserved. Our findings, along with those of three reported cases with texture agnosia, indicate that there are separate channels for processing texture, color, and geometric features, and that the regions around the left collateral sulcus are crucial for texture processing.

  14. Synthesis and Textural Characterization of Mesoporous and Meso-/Macroporous Silica Monoliths Obtained by Spinodal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Galarneau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Silica monoliths featuring either mesopores or flow-through macropores and mesopores in their skeleton are prepared by combining spinodal phase separation and sol-gel condensation. The macroporous network is first generated by phase separation in acidic medium in the presence of polyethyleneoxides while mesoporosity is engineered in a second step in alkaline medium, possibly in the presence of alkylammonium cations as surfactants. The mesoporous monoliths, also referred as aerogels, are obtained in the presence of alkylpolyethylene oxides in acidic medium without the use of supercritical drying. The impact of the experimental conditions on pore architecture of the monoliths regarding the shape, the ordering, the size and the connectivity of the mesopores is comprehensively discussed based on a critical appraisal of the different models used for textural analysis.

  15. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-4, Angle Measurement Instruments, Optical Projections and Surface Texture Gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the universal bevel protractor and the sine bar, the engineering microscope and optical projector, and several types of surface texture gages. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  16. Tailoring the grooved texture of electrospun polystyrene nanofibers by controlling the solvent system and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have successfully fabricated electrospun polystyrene (PS) nanofibers having a diameter of 326 ± 50 nm with a parallel grooved texture using a mixed solvent of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). We discovered that solvent system, solution concentration, and relative humidity were the three key factors to the formation of grooved texture and the diameter of nanofibers. We demonstrated that grooved nanofibers with desired properties (e.g., different numbers of grooves, widths between two adjacent grooves, and depths of grooves) could be electrospun under certain conditions. When THF/DMF ratio was higher than 2:1, the formation mechanism of single grooved texture should be attributed to the formation of voids on the jet surface at the early stage of electrospinning and subsequent elongation and solidification of the voids into a line surface structure. When THF/DMF ratio was 1:1, the formation mechanism of grooved texture should be ascribed to the formation of wrinkled surface on the jet surface at the early stage of electrospinning and subsequent elongation into a grooved texture. Such findings can serve as guidelines for the preparation of grooved nanofibers with desired secondary morphology. PMID:25114643

  17. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm.

  18. The impact of different soil texture datasets on soil moisture and evapotranspiration simulated by CLM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.; Dickinson, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is both a moisture flux and an energy flux. It has a substantial impact on climate. Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) is a widely used land surface model that simulates moisture, energy and momentum exchange between land and atmosphere. However, ET from CLM4 suffers from relatively low accuracy, especially for ground evaporation. In the parameterization of CLM4, soil texture, by determining soil hydraulic properties, affects the evolution of soil moisture and consequently ET. The three components of ET in climate models can more readily be improved after an evaluation of soil texture dataset's impact on ET simulations. Besides the IGBP-DIS (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System) dataset used in CLM4, another two US multi-layer soil particle content datasets, Soil Database for the Conterminous United States (CONUS-SOIL) and Global Soil Texture and Derived Water-Holding Capacities (Webb2000), are also used. The latter two show a consistent substantial reduction of both sand and clay contents in Mississippi River Basin. CLM4 is run off line over the US with the three different soil texture datasets (Control Run, CONUS SOIL and Webb2000). Comparisons of simulated soil moisture with NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis data show a higher agreement between CONUS SOIL and NCEP over Mississippi River Basin. Compared with Control Run, soil moisture from the other two runs increases in Western US and decreases in Eastern US, which produces a stronger west-east soil moisture gradient. The response of ET to soil moisture change differs in different climate regimes. In Mississippi River Basin, the change of ET is negligible even if soil moisture increases substantially. On the other hand, in eastern US and US Central Great Plains, ET is very sensitive to soil moisture during the warm seasons, with the change of up to 10 W/m2.

  19. Local Environment and Interactions of Liquid and Solid Interfaces Revealed by Spectral Line Shape of Surface Selective Nonlinear Vibrational Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shun-Li; Fu, Li; Chase, Zizwe A.; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2016-11-10

    Vibrational spectral lineshape contains important detailed information of molecular vibration and reports its specific interactions and couplings to its local environment. In this work, recently developed sub-1 cm-1 high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) was used to measure the -C≡N stretch vibration in the 4-n-octyl-4’-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir or Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer as a unique vibrational probe, and the spectral lineshape analysis revealed the local environment and interactions at the air/water, air/glass, air/calcium fluoride and air/-quartz interfaces for the first time. The 8CB Langmuir or LB film is uniform and the vibrational spectral lineshape of its -C≡N group has been well characterized, making it a good choice as the surface vibrational probe. Lineshape analysis of the 8CB -C≡N stretch SFG vibrational spectra suggests the coherent vibrational dynamics and the structural and dynamic inhomogeneity of the -C≡N group at each interface are uniquely different. In addition, it is also found that there are significantly different roles for water molecules in the LB films on different substrate surfaces. These results demonstrated the novel capabilities of the surface nonlinear spectroscopy in characterization and in understanding the specific structures and chemical interactions at the liquid and solid interfaces in general.

  20. Facile fabrication of functional PDMS surfaces with tunable wettablity and high adhesive force via femtosecond laser textured templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is emerged as a promising tool to functionalize surfaces of various materials, including metals, semiconductors, and polymers. However, the productivity of this technique is limited by the low efficiency of laser raster scanning. Here we report a facile approach for efficiently producing large-area functional polymer surfaces, by which metal is firstly textured by a femtosecond laser, and the as-prepared hierarchical structures are subsequently transferred onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surfaces. Aluminum pieces covered by laser induced micro/nano-structures act as template masters and their performance of displaying diverse colors are investigated. Polymer replicas are endowed with tunable wetting properties, which are mainly attributed to the multi-scale surface structures. Furthermore, the surfaces are found to have extremely high adhesive force for water drops because of the high water penetration depth and the resultant high contact angle hysteresis. This characteristic facilitates many potential applications like loss-free tiny water droplets transportation. The reusability of metal master and easiness of soft lithography make it to be a very simple, fast and cost-efficient way for mass production of functional polymeric surfaces.

  1. Compaction of aggregated ceramic powders: From contact laws to fracture and yield surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizette, P.; Martin, C. L. [UJF, CNRS, Lab SIMAP, INP, Grenoble GPM2, F-38402 St Martin Dheres (France); Pizette, P.; Delette, G. [CEA Grenoble, DRT LITEN DTH LEV, F-38054 Grenoble 9 (France); Sornay, P. [CEA Cadarache, DEN DEC SPUA LCU, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance (France); Sans, F. [AREVA MELOX DT DIP, F-30203 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    This work describes a methodology based on Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations to generate yield and fracture surfaces for aggregated ceramic powders. The DEM simulations, which consider the length scale of porous aggregates are used as numerical triaxial experiments to obtain the behavior of a small volume element of powder under a given load. The experimental identification procedure, which relies on the design of experiment method, is designed to limit the number of experiments and simulations needed to obtain the model material parameters. These material parameters, which model the interactions between aggregates in the DEM simulations are identified using two simple experiments on a uranium dioxide powder: closed-die compaction and diametrical compression test. The yield and fracture surfaces obtained from the DEM simulations provide valuable information on the behavior of the powder for stress states that are difficult or impossible to attain in complex triaxial tests. (authors)

  2. Nonlinear Surface Dilatational Rheology and Foaming Behavior of Protein and Protein Fibrillar Aggregates in the Presence of Natural Surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhili; Yang, Xiaoquan; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2016-04-19

    The surface and foaming properties of native soy glycinin (11S) and its heat-induced fibrillar aggregates, in the presence of natural surfactant steviol glycoside (STE), were investigated and compared at pH 7.0 to determine the impact of protein structure modification on protein-surfactant interfacial interactions. The adsorption at, and nonlinear dilatational rheological behavior of, the air-water interface were studied by combining drop shape analysis tensiometry, ellipsometry, and large-amplitude oscillatory dilatational rheology. Lissajous plots of surface pressure versus deformation were used to analyze the surface rheological response in terms of interfacial microstructure. The heat treatment generates a mixture of long fibrils and unconverted peptides. The presence of small peptides in 11S fibril samples resulted in a faster adsorption kinetics than that of native 11S. The addition of STE affected the adsorption of 11S significantly, whereas no apparent effect on the adsorption of the 11S fibril-peptide system was observed. The rheological response of interfaces stabilized by 11S-STE mixtures also differed significantly from the response for 11S fibril-peptide-STE mixtures. For 11S, the STE reduces the degree of strain hardening in extension and increases strain hardening in compression, suggesting the interfacial structure may change from a surface gel to a mixed phase of protein patches and STE domains. The foams generated from the mixtures displayed comparable foam stability to that of pure 11S. For 11S fibril-peptide mixtures STE only significantly affects the response in extension, where the degree of strain softening is decreased compared to the pure fibril-peptide system. The foam stability of the fibril-peptide system was significantly reduced by STE. These findings indicate that fibrillization of globular proteins could be a potential strategy to modify the complex surface and foaming behaviors of protein-surfactant mixtures.

  3. Surface Textures and Features Indicative of Endogenous Growth at the McCartys Flow Field, NM, as an Analog to Martian Volcanic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Self, S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes, which are recognized on the Earth and Mars. Although largely unrecognized in the planetary community, terrestrial inflated sheet flows also display morphologies that share many commonalities with lava plains on Mars. The McCartys lava flow field is among the youngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic flows in the continental United States. The southwest sections of the flow displays smooth, flat-topped plateaus with irregularly shaped pits and hummocky inter-plateau units that form a polygonal surface. Plateaus are typically elongate in map view, up to 20 m high and display lineations within the glassy crust. Lineated surfaces occasionally display small < 1m diameter lava coils. Lineations are generally straight and parallel each other, sometimes for over 100 meters. The boundaries between plateaus and depressions are also lineated and tilted to angles sometimes approaching vertical. Plateau-parallel cracks, sometimes containing squeeze-ups, mark the boundary between tilted crust and plateau. Some plateau depressions display level floors with hummocky surfaces, while some are bowl shaped with floors covered in broken lava slabs. The lower walls of pits sometimes display lateral, sagged lava wedges. Infrequently, pit floors display the upper portion of a tumulus from an older flow. In some places the surface crust has been disrupted forming a slabby texture. Slabs are typically on the scale of a meter or less across and no less than 7-10 cm thick. The slabs preserve the lineated textures of the undisturbed plateau crust. It appears that this style of terrain represents the emplacement of an extensive sheet that experiences inflation episodes within preferred regions where lateral spreading of the sheet is inhibited, thereby forming plateaus. Rough surfaces represent inflation-related disruption of pahoehoe lava and not a a lava. Depressions are often the result of non-inflation and can be clearly identified by lateral

  4. A validated computational model for the design of surface textures in full-film lubricated sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Jonathon; Lee, Yong Hoon; Allison, James; Ewoldt, Randy

    2016-11-01

    Our recent experimental work showed that asymmetry is needed for surface textures to decrease friction in full-film lubricated sliding (thrust bearings) with Newtonian fluids; textures reduce the shear load and produce a separating normal force. The sign of the separating normal force is not predicted by previous 1-D theories. Here we model the flow with the Reynolds equation in cylindrical coordinates, numerically implemented with a pseudo-spectral method. The model predictions match experiments, rationalize the sign of the normal force, and allow for design of surface texture geometry. To minimize sliding friction with angled cylindrical textures, an optimal angle of asymmetry β exists. The optimal angle depends on the film thickness but not the sliding velocity within the applicable range of the model. The model has also been used to optimize generalized surface texture topography while satisfying manufacturability constraints.

  5. Evaluation of long bone surface textures as ontogenetic indicators in centrosaurine ceratopsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R

    2009-09-01

    The search for criteria for aging non-mammalian fossil vertebrates has preoccupied paleobiologists in recent years. Previous studies of the long bones of pterosaurs and modern and subfossil birds as well as of cranial material of centrosaurine ceratopsid dinosaurs have documented variations in surface textures that seem to be ontogenetically related. In this study, long bones from the centrosaurine ceratopsid genera Centrosaurus, Einiosaurus, and Pachyrhinosaurus are examined to test the hypothesis that changes in bone surface textures and reduction of surface porosity could be correlated with size (and presumably age) classes, as has been previously documented in pterosaurs and birds. The data set includes 141 bones representing all six long bone elements, collected from monodominant centrosaurine bone beds. Bone surface patterns are documented by macroscopic visual examination, and a sequence of five texture classes ordered by decreasing surface porosity is described based on the common distributions of these patterns. Calculations of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients reveal significant correlations between texture class and size. The smallest bones are invariably associated with porous midshaft textures that grade to fibrous and long-grained patterns proximally and distally [Texture Class (TC) 1]. Post-hoc analysis after Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks confirms that the mean size of TC1 bones is, in most cases, significantly different than the mean size of bones in other texture classes. Results of this study suggest the presence of an ontogenetic surface textural signal in centrosaurine long bones; however, comparison of texture classes with size-independent maturity criteria is needed to clarify further the potential ontogenetic significance of higher texture classes.

  6. Microbial community dynamics in soil aggregates shape biogeochemical gas fluxes from soil profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting soil aggregates dynamically adjust their activity and composition in response to variations in hydration and other external conditions. These rapid dynamics shape signatures of biogeochemical activity and gas fluxes emitted from soil profiles. Mechanistic models of microbial processes in unsaturated aggregate pore networks revealed dynamic interplay between oxic and anoxic microsites that are jointly shaped by hydration and by aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities. The spatial extent of anoxic niches (hotspots) flicker in time (hot moments) and support significant anaerobic microbial activity even in aerated soil profiles. We employed an individual-based model for microbial community life in soil aggregate assemblies represented by 3-D angular pore networks with profiles of water, carbon, and oxygen that vary with soil depth as boundary conditions. The study integrates microbial activity within aggregates of different sizes and soil depth to obtain biogeochemical fluxes over the soil profile. The results quantify impacts of dynamic shifts in microbial community composition on CO2 and N2O production rates in soil profiles in good agreement with experimental data. Aggregate size distribution and the shape of resource profiles in a soil determine how hydration dynamics shape denitrification and carbon utilization rates. Results from the mechanistic model for microbial activity in aggregates of different sizes were used to derive parameters for analytical representation of soil biogeochemical processes across large scales of interest for hydrological and climate models.

  7. Extrusion Honed Surface Characteristics of Inconel 625 Fabricated By EDM for Square Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Murali Krishna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion Honing (EH is also known as Abrasive flow machining (AFM is an effective method that is used to deburr, clean, polish, remove recast layer and micro cracks by flowing pressurized semisolid abrasive laden visco-elastic media over those surfaces. Inconel 625 is one of the most difficult-to-cut materials because of its low thermal diffusive property, high hardness and high strength at elevated temperature. In this paper, the influence of the process parameters on surface roughness is investigated on Inconel 625 material of square shape fabricated by Electric discharge machining (EDM. The processed surfaces were measured and analyzed with the help of surface roughness tester and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Results show a significant improvement in surface finish and EH/AFM is capable of removing the micro cracks and recast layer.

  8. To Determine Impact of Shape of Course Aggregate on DBM Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaniyapurackal Jilu Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principal material in pavement construction. The shape of aggregate particle has significant influence on performance of the Bitumen pavement. The strength serviceability requirements of Bitumen mixes such as stability, flow, voids in mineral aggregate , voids filled with bitumen and air voids are highly depend on the physical properties of aggregate.

  9. Texture perception through direct and indirect touch: An analysis of perceptual space for tactile textures in two modes of exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T.; Bensamaïa, S. J.; Craig, J. C.; Hsiao, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable information about the texture of objects can be perceived remotely through a probe. It is not clear, however, how texture perception with a probe compares with texture perception with the bare finger. Here we investigate the perception of a variety of textured surfaces encountered daily (e.g., corduroy, paper, and rubber) using the two scanning modes—direct touch through the finger and indirect touch through a probe held in the hand—in two tasks. In the first task, subjects rated the overall pair-wise dissimilarity of the textures. In the second task, subjects rated each texture along three continua, namely, perceived roughness, hardness, and stickiness of the surfaces, shown previously as the primary dimensions of texture perception in direct touch. From the dissimilarity judgment experiment, we found that the texture percept is similar though not identical in the two scanning modes. From the adjective rating experiments, we found that while roughness ratings are similar, hardness and stickiness ratings tend to differ between scanning conditions. These differences between the two modes of scanning are apparent in perceptual space for tactile textures based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that three physical quantities, vibratory power, compliance, and friction carry roughness, hardness, and stickiness information, predicting perceived dissimilarity of texture pairs with indirect touch. Given that different types of texture information are processed by separate groups of neurons across direct and indirect touch, we propose that the neural mechanisms underlying texture perception differ between scanning modes. PMID:17558923

  10. Microfabrication of an anodic oxide film by anodizing laser-textured aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the fabrication of microstructures of an aluminium anodic oxide film (anodic alumina) by anodizing laser-textured aluminium is demonstrated. In the process, the aluminium substrate was first textured by a low power laser beam, and then the textured aluminium was subjected to anodizing, to develop a continuous, thick porous layer on the textured surface. Microstructures with a depth of a few to several tens of micrometres were fabricated successfully on the anodic oxide fil...

  11. A cytocompatible micro/nano-textured surface with Si-doped titania mesoporous arrays fabricated by a one-step anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huibing; Huang, Xiaobo; Yu, Hanwu; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xiangyu; Hang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    To mimic the hierarchical structure of bone tissues, a hybrid micro/nano-textured titanium surface with Si-doped TiO2 mesoporous arrays is fabricated by a one-step high current anodization (HCA). Specifically, the HCA is carried out in a electrolyte containing NO3(-) and SiO3(2-). The NO3(-) in the electrolyte is demonstrated to play a key role in mediating the formation of honeycombed TiO2 mesoporous arrays, which are different than the nanotubes formed by the mediating of F(-) ion in the conventional anodization. This unique structure endows the coating with improved mechanical properties compared to the nanotube layer. In addition, the Si is incorporated into the coating in a concentration-dependent manner. With the increase of Si doping amount in the coating, both the hydrophilic properties and surface free energy of coatings are obviously enhanced. The cell culture test shows that the osteoblast behaviors on this surface are positively influenced by the doped Si. Therefore, this micro/nano-textured surface coating doped with Si may endow the Ti-based implants long-term stability and good osseointegration.

  12. Contact angle hysteresis on textured surfaces with nanowire clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Chih; Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Nanowire arrays with various agglomeration patterns were synthesized by adjusting the solvent evaporation rates. Nanowires with 200 nm diameter and 2-25 microm in length were fabricated from an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous template. Various drying treatments were applied to develop nanostructured surfaces with topological differences. Due to surface tension forces, copper nanowires after thermal and evaporative drying treatments agglomerated into clusters, while supercritical drying technique provided excellent bundled-free and vertically-standing nanowire arrays. Although all dried surfaces exhibited hydrophobic nature, the contact angle hysteresis, or the difference between advancing and receding angles, was found to be larger on those surfaces with bundled nanowire clusters. To explain the difference, the wetted solid fraction on each surface was calculated using the Cassie-Baxter model to show that the hysteresis was contributed by liquid/solid contact area on the textured surfaces.

  13. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, D

    2002-01-01

    Oppositely charged surfactant and polyelectrolyte are present in hair shampoos and conditioners, together with particles (e.g. anti-dandruff agents for scalp) and droplets (e.g. silicone oil for the hair). These are normally formulated at high surfactant concentrations, beyond the flocculation region for the polyelectrolyte concentration used. However, on dilution with water, during application, flocs are formed which carry the particles and droplets to the scalp and hair. The addition of an anionic surfactant to an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte, at a given concentration, can lead to the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant 'particles', in which the surfactant 'binds' to the polyelectrolyte. This occurs from the critical association concentration (CAC), up to the surfactant concentration corresponding to maximum binding. Within this range of surfactant concentrations, the surfactant bound to the polyelectrolyte is thought to associate to form what might be termed 'internal micelles'. Each po...

  14. Spatial and temporal codes mediate the tactile perception of natural textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alison I; Saal, Hannes P; Lieber, Justin D; Cheng, Ju-Wen; Manfredi, Louise R; Dammann, John F; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2013-10-15

    When we run our fingers over the surface of an object, we acquire information about its microgeometry and material properties. Texture information is widely believed to be conveyed in spatial patterns of activation evoked across one of three populations of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents that innervate the fingertips. Here, we record the responses evoked in individual cutaneous afferents in Rhesus macaques as we scan a diverse set of natural textures across their fingertips using a custom-made rotating drum stimulator. We show that a spatial mechanism can only account for the processing of coarse textures. Information about most natural textures, however, is conveyed through precise temporal spiking patterns in afferent responses, driven by high-frequency skin vibrations elicited during scanning. Furthermore, these texture-specific spiking patterns predictably dilate or contract in time with changes in scanning speed; the systematic effect of speed on neuronal activity suggests that it can be reversed to achieve perceptual constancy across speeds. The proposed temporal coding mechanism involves converting the fine spatial structure of the surface into a temporal spiking pattern, shaped in part by the mechanical properties of the skin, and ascribes an additional function to vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptive afferents. This temporal mechanism complements the spatial one and greatly extends the range of tangible textures. We show that a combination of spatial and temporal mechanisms, mediated by all three populations of afferents, accounts for perceptual judgments of texture.

  15. Modeling of adsorption of toxic chromium on natural and surface modified lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalhori, Ebrahim Mohammadi, E-mail: zarrabi62@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box No: 31485/561, Alborz, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220 Davutpasa, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Uygur, Nihan, E-mail: uygur.n@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Adiyaman University, 02040 Altinsehir, Adiyaman (Turkey); Zarrabi, Mansur, E-mail: mansor62@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box No: 31485/561, Alborz, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shmeis, Reham M. Abu, E-mail: r.abushmeis@yahoo.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, PO Box 140753, code 11814, Amman (Jordan)

    2013-12-15

    Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) modified with an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride MgCl{sub 2} and hydrogen peroxide H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption properties of the used adsorbents were investigated through batch studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effect created by magnesium chloride on the modification of the LECA surface was greater than that of hydrogen peroxide solution and showed a substantial increase in the specific surface area which has a value of 76.12 m{sup 2}/g for magnesium chloride modified LECA while the values of 53.72 m{sup 2}/g, and 11.53 m{sup 2}/g were found for hydrogen peroxide modified LECA and natural LECA, respectively. The extent of surface modification with enhanced porosity in modified LECA was apparent from the recorded SEM patterns. XRD and FTIR studies of themodified LECA surface did not show any structural distortion. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the modified Freundlich kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted the Sips and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations better than other models. Maximum sorption capacities were found to be 198.39, 218.29 and 236.24 mg/g for natural LECA, surface modified LECA with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and surface modified LECA with MgCl{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorbents were found to have only a weak effect on conductivity and turbidity of aqueous solutions. Spent natural and surface modified LECA with MgCl{sub 2} was best regenerated with HCl solution, while LECA surface modified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was best regenerated with HNO{sub 3} concentrated solution. Thermal method showed a lower regeneration percentage for all spent adsorbents.

  16. Nanochemistry on silicon(100): surface biofunctionalization by amino-containing bifunctional molecules, and shape control of copper core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Abdullah

    The present research involves two projects: a surface science study of the room-temperature adsorption and thermal evolution of allylamine and ethanolamine on Si(100)2x1, studied by using temperature-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS), as well as Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations; and a materials science study on the shape control of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) deposited on H-terminated Si(100) substrate with an extended size regime of 5-400 nm, by using a simple, one-step electrochemical method. The Cu NPs of three primary shapes were characterized with scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and XPS. In the first surface science study, the presence of broad N 1s XPS features at 398.9-399.1 eV, corresponding to N-Si bonds, indicates N-H dissociative adsorption for both allylamine and ethanolamine on Si(100)2x1. For allylamine, the presence of C 1s features at 284.6 eV and 286.2 eV, corresponding to C=C and C-N, respectively, and the absence of the Si-C feature expected at 283.5 eV show that the reactions involving the ethenyl group such as the [2+2] C=C cycloaddition or those producing the [N, C, C] tridentate adstructures do not occur at room temperature. For ethanolamine, the O 1s feature at 533.1 eV indicates the formation of Si-O bond and O-H dissociation, which confirms an [O, N] bidentate adstructure and excludes the N-H and O-H dissociation unidentate structures. These XPS data are consistent with the N-H unidentate, and N-H and O-H double dissociation [O, N] bidentate adstructures for allylamine and ethanolamine, respectively, as predicted by the DFT calculations. TDS and temperature-dependent XPS data further show the desorption of propene and ethylene at 580 K and of acetylene at 700 K for allylamine and the desorption of ethylene at 615 K for ethanolamine, while the lack of N- or O-containing desorbates suggests that the dissociated N and O

  17. Modelling of sensory and instrumental texture parameters in processed cheese by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carmen; Downey, Gerard; O'Callaghan, Donal; Howard, Vincent; Delahunty, Conor; Sheehan, Elizabeth; Everard, Colm; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the application of near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to the measurement of texture (sensory and instrumental) in experimental processed cheese samples. Spectra (750 to 2498 nm) of cheeses were recorded after 2 and 4 weeks storage at 4 degrees C. Trained assessors evaluated 9 sensory properties, a texture profile analyser (TPA) was used to record 5 instrumental parameters and cheese 'meltability' was measured by computer vision. Predictive models for sensory and instrumental texture parameters were developed using partial least squares regression on raw or pre-treated spectral data. Sensory attributes and instrumental texture measurements were modelled with sufficient accuracy to recommend the use of NIR reflectance spectroscopy for routine quality assessment of processed cheese.

  18. Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition and neural representation of facial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Timothy J; Baseler, Heidi; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike; Young, Andrew W

    2016-10-01

    A full understanding of face recognition will involve identifying the visual information that is used to discriminate different identities and how this is represented in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of shape and surface properties in the recognition and neural representation of familiar faces. We used image morphing techniques to generate hybrid faces that mixed shape properties (more specifically, second order spatial configural information as defined by feature positions in the 2D-image) from one identity and surface properties from a different identity. Behavioural responses showed that recognition and matching of these hybrid faces was primarily based on their surface properties. These behavioural findings contrasted with neural responses recorded using a block design fMRI adaptation paradigm to test the sensitivity of Haxby et al.'s (2000) core face-selective regions in the human brain to the shape or surface properties of the face. The fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA) showed a lower response (adaptation) to repeated images of the same face (same shape, same surface) compared to different faces (different shapes, different surfaces). From the behavioural data indicating the critical contribution of surface properties to the recognition of identity, we predicted that brain regions responsible for familiar face recognition should continue to adapt to faces that vary in shape but not surface properties, but show a release from adaptation to faces that vary in surface properties but not shape. However, we found that the FFA and OFA showed an equivalent release from adaptation to changes in both shape and surface properties. The dissociation between the neural and perceptual responses suggests that, although they may play a role in the process, these core face regions are not solely responsible for the recognition of facial identity.

  19. Segmentation of Textures Defined on Flat vs. Layered Surfaces using Neural Networks: Comparison of 2D vs. 3D Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejong; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2007-08-01

    Texture boundary detection (or segmentation) is an important capability in human vision. Usually, texture segmentation is viewed as a 2D problem, as the definition of the problem itself assumes a 2D substrate. However, an interesting hypothesis emerges when we ask a question regarding the nature of textures: What are textures, and why did the ability to discriminate texture evolve or develop? A possible answer to this question is that textures naturally define physically distinct (i.e., occluded) surfaces. Hence, we can hypothesize that 2D texture segmentation may be an outgrowth of the ability to discriminate surfaces in 3D. In this paper, we conducted computational experiments with artificial neural networks to investigate the relative difficulty of learning to segment textures defined on flat 2D surfaces vs. those in 3D configurations where the boundaries are defined by occluding surfaces and their change over time due to the observer's motion. It turns out that learning is faster and more accurate in 3D, very much in line with our expectation. Furthermore, our results showed that the neural network's learned ability to segment texture in 3D transfers well into 2D texture segmentation, bolstering our initial hypothesis, and providing insights on the possible developmental origin of 2D texture segmentation function in human vision.

  20. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted.

  1. Micro-Texture Synthesis by Phase Randomization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galerne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with texture synthesis by example, the process of generating new texture images from a given sample. The Random Phase Noise algorithm presented here synthesizes a texture from an original image by simply randomizing its Fourier phase. It is able to reproduce textures which are characterized by their Fourier modulus, namely the random phase textures (or micro-textures.

  2. Image Texture Dependence Upon Sensing and Calculation Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. V.

    2013-08-01

    This paper analyzes various parameters influence on the textural properties of digital remote sensing images using the statistical method of texture description (grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)). The parameters may be grouped to external (primary) parameters determined by surface and sensor characteristics (radar frequency, polarization, speckle filtering, spatial and radiometric resolution of the sensor, multispectral (MS) band, etc.), and internal (secondary) parameters determined by the texture calculation algorithm.SAR, MS and panchromatic images are used for illustration.

  3. Pyramidal texturing of silicon surface via inorganic-organic hybrid alkaline liquor for heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a new class of silicon texturing approach based on inorganic (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and organic (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH) alkaline liquor etching processes for photovoltaic applications. The first stage of inorganic alkaline etching textures the silicon surface rapidly with large pyramids and reduces the cost. The subsequent organic alkaline second-etching improves the coverage of small pyramids on the silicon surface and strip off the metallic contaminants produced by the first etching step. In addition, it could smoothen the surface of the pyramids to yield good morphology. In this study, the texturing duration of both etching steps was controlled to optimize the optical and electrical properties as well as the surface morphology and passivation characteristics of the silicon substrates. Compared with traditional inorganic NaOH texturing, this hybrid process yields smoother (111) facets of the pyramids, fewer residual Na+ ions on the silicon surface, and a shorter processing period. It also offers the advantage of lower cost compared with the organic texturing method based on the use of only TMAH. We applied this hybrid texturing process to fabricate silicon heterojunction solar cells, which showed a remarkable improvement compared with the cells based on traditional alkaline texturing processes.

  4. Texture Repairing by Unified Low Rank Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Liang; Xiang Ren; Zhengdong Zhang; Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to harness both low-rank and sparse structures in regular or near-regular textures for image completion. Our method is based on a unified formulation for both random and contiguous corruption. In addition to the low rank property of texture, the algorithm also uses the sparse assumption of the natural image: because the natural image is piecewise smooth, it is sparse in certain transformed domain (such as Fourier or wavelet transform). We combine low-rank and sparsity properties of the texture image together in the proposed algorithm. Our algorithm based on convex optimization can automatically and correctly repair the global structure of a corrupted texture, even without precise information about the regions to be completed. This algorithm integrates texture rectification and repairing into one optimization problem. Through extensive simulations, we show our method can complete and repair textures corrupted by errors with both random and contiguous supports better than existing low-rank matrix recovery methods. Our method demonstrates significant advantage over local patch based texture synthesis techniques in dealing with large corruption, non-uniform texture, and large perspective deformation.

  5. 3D shape reconstruction of specular surfaces by using phase measuring deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Chen, Kun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    The existing estimation methods for recovering height information from surface gradient are mainly divided into Modal and Zonal techniques. Since specular surfaces used in the industry always have complex and large areas, considerations must be given to both the improvement of measurement accuracy and the acceleration of on-line processing speed, which beyond the capacity of existing estimations. Incorporating the Modal and Zonal approaches into a unifying scheme, we introduce an improved 3D shape reconstruction version of specular surfaces based on Phase Measuring Deflectometry in this paper. The Modal estimation is firstly implemented to derive the coarse height information of the measured surface as initial iteration values. Then the real shape can be recovered utilizing a modified Zonal wave-front reconstruction algorithm. By combining the advantages of Modal and Zonal estimations, the proposed method simultaneously achieves consistently high accuracy and dramatically rapid convergence. Moreover, the iterative process based on an advanced successive overrelaxation technique shows a consistent rejection of measurement errors, guaranteeing the stability and robustness in practical applications. Both simulation and experimentally measurement demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed improved method. According to the experimental result, the computation time decreases approximately 74.92% in contrast to the Zonal estimation and the surface error is about 6.68 μm with reconstruction points of 391×529 pixels of an experimentally measured sphere mirror. In general, this method can be conducted with fast convergence speed and high accuracy, providing an efficient, stable and real-time approach for the shape reconstruction of specular surfaces in practical situations.

  6. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA-15 by co-condensation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P H K Charan; G Ranga Rao

    2015-05-01

    The 3d transition metals were incorporated into SBA-15 matrix by co-condensation synthesis method. Very low concentrations of metals were introduced into silica framework by maintaining the metal to silica ratio in the synthesis gel at 0.01. The difference in hydrolysis rates of metal and silica precursors have led to textural modifications while demonstrating the structural integrity akin to pristine SBA-15. The physicochemical properties obtained offer some insights into the P123 micelle aggregation and mechanism of formation of silica network in the presence of metal salts under similar synthesis conditions of pure SBA-15. The metal doping into SBA-15 leads to increased pore diameters. Higher lattice constants (a0) observed in these samples are attributed to the increased pore wall thickness. The significant retention of the hexagonal mesostructure seen in LXRD indicates diminutive influence of metal salts at lower concentrations.Macroscopic morphologies studied by SEM show the formation of spheres along with conventional fibre-like rods.

  7. Optimization-based design of surface textures for thin-film Si solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xing; Johnson, Steven G; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, Lionel C

    2011-07-04

    We numerically investigate the light-absorption behavior of thin-film silicon for normal-incident light, using surface textures to enhance absorption. We consider a variety of texture designs, such as simple periodic gratings and commercial random textures, and examine arbitrary irregular periodic textures designed by multi-parameter optimization. Deep and high-index-contrast textures exhibit strong anisotropic scattering that is outside the regime of validity of the Lambertian models commonly used to describe texture-induced absorption enhancement for normal incidence. Over a 900-1100 nm wavelength range, our optimized surface texture in two dimensions (2D) enhances absorption by a factor of 2.7 πn, considerably larger than the original πn Lambertian result and exceeding by almost 50% a recent generalization of Lambertian model for periodic structures in finite spectral range. However, the πn Lambertian limit still applies for isotropic incident light, and our structure obeys this limit when averaged over all the angles. Therefore, our design can be thought of optimizing the angle/enhancement tradeoff for periodic textures.

  8. Effect of Q-switched Laser Surface Texturing of Titanium on Osteoblast Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisey, K. T.; Scotchford, C. A.; Martin, L.; Gill, H. S.

    Titanium and its alloys are important biomedical materials. It is known that the surface texture of implanted medical devices affects cell response. Control of cell response has the potential to enhance fixation of implants into bone and, in other applications, to prevent undesired cell adhesion. The potential use of a 100W Q-switched YAG laser miller (DMG Lasertec 60 HSC) for texturing titanium is investigated. A series of regular features with dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers are generated in the surface of titanium samples and the cell response to these features is determined. Characterisation of the laser milled features reveals features with a lengthscale of a few microns superposed on the larger scale structures, this is attributed to resolidification of molten droplets generated and propelled over the surface by individual laser pulses. The laser textured samples are exposed to osteoblast cells and it is seen that cells do respond to the features in the laser textured surfaces.

  9. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  10. Textural and Mineralogical Analysis of Volcanic Rocks by µ-XRF Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Luigi; Cossio, Roberto; Maritan, Lara; Borghi, Alessandro; Mazzoli, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    In this study, µ-XRF was applied as a novel surface technique for quick acquisition of elemental X-ray maps of rocks, image analysis of which provides quantitative information on texture and rock-forming minerals. Bench-top µ-XRF is cost-effective, fast, and non-destructive, can be applied to both large (up to a few tens of cm) and fragile samples, and yields major and trace element analysis with good sensitivity. Here, X-ray mapping was performed with a resolution of 103.5 µm and spot size of 30 µm over sample areas of about 5×4 cm of Euganean trachyte, a volcanic porphyritic rock from the Euganean Hills (NE Italy) traditionally used in cultural heritage. The relative abundance of phenocrysts and groundmass, as well as the size and shape of the various mineral phases, were obtained from image analysis of the elemental maps. The quantified petrographic features allowed identification of various extraction sites, revealing an objective method for archaeometric provenance studies exploiting µ-XRF imaging.

  11. Surface Plasmons and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectra of Aggregated and Alloyed Gold-Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fleger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of size, morphology, and composition of gold and silver nanoparticles on surface plasmon resonance (SPR and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS are studied with the purpose of optimizing SERS substrates. Various gold and silver films made by evaporation and subsequent annealing give different morphologies and compositions of nanoparticles and thus different position of the SPR peak. SERS measurements of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid obtained from these films reveal that the proximity of the SPR peak to the exciting laser wavelength is not the only factor leading to the highest Raman enhancement. Silver nanoparticles evaporated on top of larger gold nanoparticles show higher SERS than gold-silver alloyed nanoparticles, in spite of the fact that the SPR peak of alloyed nanoparticles is narrower and closer to the excitation wavelength. The highest Raman enhancement was obtained for substrates with a two-peak particle size distribution for excitation wavelengths close to the SPR.

  12. Honeycomb-patterned films of polystyrene/poly(ethylene glycol): Preparation, surface aggregation and protein adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Highly ordered honeycomb-patterned polystyrene (PS)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) films were prepared by a water-assisted method using an improved setup, which facilitated the formation of films with higher regularity, better reproducibility, and larger area of honeycomb structures. Surface aggregation of hydrophilic PEG and adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the honeycomb-patterned films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe the surface morphologies of the films before and after being rinsed with water. As confirmed by the FESEM images and the AFM phase images, PEG was enriched in the pores and could be gradually removed by water. The adsorption of fluorescence-labeled BSA on the films was studied in visual form using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Results clearly demonstrated that the protein-resistant PEG was selectively enriched in the pores. This water-assisted method may be a latent tool to prepare honeycomb-patterned biofunctional surfaces.

  13. AGGREGATION AND FUSION OF PLANT-PROTOPLASTS AFTER SURFACE-LABELING WITH BIOTIN AND AVIDIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKESTEREN, WJP; MOLEMA, E; TEMPELAAR, MJ

    1993-01-01

    In mass electrofusion systems with aggregation of protoplasts by alignment, the yield and composition of fusion products can be predicted by a simple model. Through computer simulation, upper limits were found for the yield of binary and multi fusions. To overcome constraints on binary products, sur

  14. Deep Filter Banks for Texture Recognition, Description, and Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoi, Mircea; Maji, Subhransu; Kokkinos, Iasonas; Vedaldi, Andrea

    Visual textures have played a key role in image understanding because they convey important semantics of images, and because texture representations that pool local image descriptors in an orderless manner have had a tremendous impact in diverse applications. In this paper we make several contributions to texture understanding. First, instead of focusing on texture instance and material category recognition, we propose a human-interpretable vocabulary of texture attributes to describe common texture patterns, complemented by a new describable texture dataset for benchmarking. Second, we look at the problem of recognizing materials and texture attributes in realistic imaging conditions, including when textures appear in clutter, developing corresponding benchmarks on top of the recently proposed OpenSurfaces dataset. Third, we revisit classic texture represenations, including bag-of-visual-words and the Fisher vectors, in the context of deep learning and show that these have excellent efficiency and generalization properties if the convolutional layers of a deep model are used as filter banks. We obtain in this manner state-of-the-art performance in numerous datasets well beyond textures, an efficient method to apply deep features to image regions, as well as benefit in transferring features from one domain to another.

  15. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilised by metal-chelator and the controlled formation of close-packed aggregates by them

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Bhattacharya; Aasheesh Srivastava

    2003-10-01

    Nanoparticles have properties that can be fine-tuned by their size as well as shape. Hence, there is significant current interest in preparing nano-materials of small size dispersity and to arrange them in close-packed aggregates. This manuscript describes ways of synthesising gold nanoparticles using a metal-chelator derivative 1, as stabiliser. Controlled synthesis conditions lead to formation of nanoparticles thereby indicating the ability of 1 to act as efficient stabiliser. The nanoparticles formed were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed the formation of dense aggregates of nanoparticles. This can be ascribed to the inter-particle hydrogen bonding possible by the carboxylic acid moiety of 1 that leads to aggregation. The aggregation can be controlled by the pH of the solution employed for dispersing the particles.

  16. `Gas cushion' model and hydrodynamic boundary conditions for superhydrophobic textures

    CERN Document Server

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic Cassie textures with trapped gas bubbles reduce drag, by generating large effective slip, which is important for a variety of applications that involve a manipulation of liquids at the small scale. Here we discuss how the dissipation in the gas phase of textures modifies their friction properties and effective slip. We propose an operator method, which allows us the mapping of the flow in the gas subphase to a local slip boundary condition at the liquid/gas interface. The determined uniquely local slip length depends on the viscosity contrast and underlying topography, and can be immediately used to evaluate an effective slip of the texture. Beside Cassie surfaces our approach is valid for Wenzel textures, where a liquid follows the surface relief, as well as for rough surfaces impregnated by a low-viscosity `lubricant'. These results provide a framework for the rational design of textured surfaces for numerous applications.

  17. Characterisation of group behaviour surface texturing with multi-layers fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhengyang; Fu, Yonghong; Ji, Jinghu; Wang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Surface texturing was widely applied in improving the tribological properties of mechanical components, but study of measurement of this technology was still insufficient. This study proposed the multi-layers fitting (MLF) method to characterise the dimples array texture surface. Based on the synergistic effect among the dimples, the 3D morphology of texture surface was rebuilt by 2D stylus profiler in the MLF method. The feasible regions of texture patterns and sensitive parameters were confirmed by non-linear programming, and the processing software of MLF method was developed based on the Matlab®. The characterisation parameters system of dimples was defined mathematically, and the accuracy of MLF method was investigated by comparison experiment. The surface texture specimens were made by laser surface texturing technology, in which high consistency of dimples' size and distribution was achieved. Then, 2D profiles of different dimples were captured by employing Hommel-T1000 stylus profiler, and the data were further processed by MLF software to rebuild 3D morphology of single dimple. The experiment results indicated that the MLF characterisation results were similar to those of Wyko T1100, the white light interference microscope. It was also found that the stability of MLF characterisation results highly depended on the number of captured cross-sections.

  18. Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Daniel F.; Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Dunderdale, Gary J.; Hozumi, Atsushi, E-mail: a.hozumi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Yagihashi, Makoto [Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute, Rokuban, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0058 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

  19. Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Miranda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

  20. Non-textured laser modification of silica glass surface: Wettability control and flow channel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    Local wettability of silica glass surface is modified by infrared laser irradiation. The silica glass surface exhibits hydrophobic property in the presence of sbnd CF3 or sbnd (CH3)2 terminal functional groups, which are decomposed by thermal treatment, and degree of the decomposition depends on the applied heat. Laser irradiation can control the number of remaining functional groups according to the irradiation conditions; the contact angle of deionized water on the laser modified surfaces range from 100° to 40°. XPS analysis confirms that the variation in wettability corresponds to the number of remaining sbnd CF3 groups. The laser irradiation achieves surface modification without causing any cracks or damages to the surface, as observed by SEM and AFM; moreover, surface transparency to visible light and surface roughness remains unaffected. The proposed method is applied to plane flow channel systems. Dropped water spreads only on the hydrophilic and invisible line modified by the laser irradiation without formation of any grooves. This indicates that the modified line can act as a surface channel. Furthermore, self-transportation of liquid is also demonstrated on a channel with gradually-varied wettability along its length. A water droplet on a hydrophobic side is self-transported to a hydrophilic side due to contact-angle hysteresis force without any actuators or external forces.

  1. Texture, microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine grained aluminum produced by accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharnweber, Juliane; Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Brokmeier, Heinz-Guenter [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Hoeppel, Heinz Werner; Topic, Irena [Lehrstuhl I, Allgemeine Werkstoffeigenschaften, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Jaschinski, Joern [Institut fuer Leichtbau und Kunststofftechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Texture, microstructure, and tensile behavior of technically pure aluminum AA1050 and of the age-hardening alloy AA6016 produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) were studied for different numbers of ARB cycles. After eight cycles an ultrafine grained microstructure with grain sizes of the order of 0.5{mu}m is reached. The grain size decreases with increasing alloying content. The texture consists of a major copper component and a minor brass component. The latter strengthens with alloying. Due to shear deformation in the surface region also a rotated cube component is found. It is stronger in the pure material and is partly added up in the bulk during ARB. Due to dislocation and grain boundary hardening the tensile strength increases with increasing ARB cycles following the Hall-Petch behavior while a moderate ductility is kept. Within the sheet plane no significant influence of the tensile direction on the observed mechanical properties was found. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Deformation behavior of electro-deposited pure Fe and its texture evolution during cold-rolling and subsequent annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, N.; Yoshinaga, N.; Ushioda, K.

    2015-04-01

    Electro-deposited pure Fe has a characteristic of having very sharp isotropic ND// fiber texture with a needle-like shaped fine grain elongated to ND. This Fe exhibits a surprisingly high r-value of over 7; however, such a high r-value might not be rationalized only from texture. Careful slip analyses reveal that restricted slips take place in the specific {110} slip planes, which are perpendicular to the sheet surface. Since grain boundaries with columnar structure are also perpendicular to the sheet surface, the slip plane in a certain grain may easily connect to the slip plane in adjacent grains having within ±30 degree rotation relationship around the common axis of ND//. The operation of such a slip system is considered to cause the width strain much larger than the thickness strain. Furthermore, the texture evolution during cold-rolling and subsequent annealing was investigated using electro-deposited pure Fe as a starting material. Regardless of the amount of cold-rolling reduction, 65% to 90%, {111} cold-rolling texture developed. After recrystallization, {111} texture remained when material is cold-rolled by 65%, while {111} texture developed when materials are cold-rolled by 80% and 90%. From the investigation into the mechanism on the development of recrystallization texture, the oriented nucleation and selective growth theories are concluded to contribute to the evolution of annealing texture.

  3. Change in Magma Dynamics at Okataina Rhyolite Caldera revealed by Plagioclase Textures and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, P. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    A fundamental reorganization of magma dynamics at Okataina volcano, New Zealand, occurred at 26 ka involving a change from smaller volume, high-temperature rhyodacite magmas to a lower eruptive tempo of larger volume, low-temperature, rhyolite magmas. Zircon studies demonstrate the presence of a periodically active, long-lived (100,000 yr) magmatic reservoir. However, there is little correlation between periods of zircon crystallization and eruption events. In contrast, the changing magmatic dynamics is revealed in plagioclase growth histories. Crystals from the ~0.7 ka Kaharoa eruption are characterized by resorbed cores displaying a cellular-texture of high-An (>40) zones partially replaced by low-An (Mg, Sr and Ti follow the resorption surface and display rimward depletion trends, accompanied by Ba and REE enrichment. The zonation is consistent with fractional crystallization and cooling. The cores display wide trace element diversity, pointing to crystallization in a variety of melts, before transport and mixing into a common magma where the rims grew. Plagioclase from the ~36 ka Hauparu eruption display several regrowth zones separated by resorption surfaces, which surround small resorbed cores with a spongy cellular texture of variable An content (An 40-50). The crystals display step-wise re-growth of successively higher An, Fe, Mg and Ti content, consistent with progressive mafic recharge. Two crystal groups are distinguished by trace element chemistry indicating growth in separate melts and co-occurrence via magma-mingling. The contrasting zoning patterns in plagioclase correspond to the evolutionary history of magmatism at Okataina. Emptying of the magma reservoir following caldera eruption at 46 ka reduced barriers to mafic magma ascent. This is recorded by the frequent resorption and recharge episodes in Hauparu crystals. Subsequent re-development of a more silicic reservoir zone (post-26 ka) dampened thermal and mass perturbations, resulting in simpler

  4. Wetting property of smooth and textured hydrophobic surfaces under condensation condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, PengFei; Lv, CunJing; Yao, ZhaoHui; Niu, FengLei

    2014-11-01

    Static and dynamic wetting behaviors of sessile droplet on smooth, microstructured and micro/nanostructured surface under condensation condition are systematically studied. In contrast to the conventional droplet wetting on such natural materials by dropping, we demonstrate here that when dropwise condensation occurs, the sessile droplet will transit from the Cassie-Baxter wetting state to the Wenzel wetting state or partial Cassie-Baxter wetting state on the microstructured surface or the micro/nanostructured surface, which leads to a strong adhesion between the droplet and the substrate. In contrast, the apparent contact angle and the sliding angle on the smooth surface changes a little before and after the condensation because of small roughness. Theoretical analysis shows that the roughness factor controls the adhesion force of the droplet during condensation, and a theoretical model is constructed which will be helpful for us to understand the relationship between the adhesion force and the geometry of the surface.

  5. Influence of the shape and surface oxidation in the magnetization reversal of thin iron nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron nanostructures grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID are promising for applications in magnetic sensing, storage and logic. Such applications require a precise design and determination of the coercive field (HC, which depends on the shape of the nanostructure. In the present work, we have used the Fe2(CO9 precursor to grow iron nanowires by FEBID in the thickness range from 10 to 45 nm and width range from 50 to 500 nm. These nanowires exhibit an Fe content between 80 and 85%, thus giving a high ferromagnetic signal. Magneto-optical Kerr characterization indicates that HC decreases for increasing thickness and width, providing a route to control the magnetization reversal field through the modification of the nanowire dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that these wires have a bell-type shape with a surface oxide layer of about 5 nm. Such features are decisive in the actual value of HC as micromagnetic simulations demonstrate. These results will help to make appropriate designs of magnetic nanowires grown by FEBID.

  6. A scattering model for surface-textured thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Zeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a mathematical model that relates the surface morphology of randomly surface-textured thin films with the intensity distribution of scattered light. The model is based on the first order Born approximation [see e.g., M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University

  7. Self-construction of core-shell and hollow zeolite analcime icositetrahedra: a reversed crystal growth process via oriented aggregation of nanocrystallites and recrystallization from surface to core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueying; Qiao, Minghua; Xie, Songhai; Fan, Kangnian; Zhou, Wuzong; He, Heyong

    2007-10-31

    Zeolite analcime with a core-shell and hollow icositetrahedron architecture was prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal route in the presence of ethylamine and Raney Ni. Detailed investigations on samples at different preparation stages revealed that the growth of the complex single crystalline geometrical structure did not follow the classic crystal growth route, i.e., a crystal with a highly symmetric morphology (such as polyhedra) is normally developed by attachment of atoms or ions to a nucleus. A reversed crystal growth process through oriented aggregation of nanocrystallites and surface recrystallization was observed. The whole process can be described by the following four successive steps. (1) Primary analcime nanoplatelets undergo oriented aggregation to yield discus-shaped particles. (2) These disci further assemble into polycrystalline microspheres. (3) The relatively large platelets grow into nanorods by consuming the smaller ones, and meanwhile, the surface of the microspheres recrystallizes into a thin single crystalline icositetrahedral shell via Ostwald ripening. (4) Recrystallization continues from the surface to the core at the expense of the nanorods, and the thickness of the monocrystalline shell keeps on increasing until all the nanorods are consumed, leading to hollow single crystalline analcime icositetrahedra. The present work adds new useful information for the understanding of the principles of zeolite growth.

  8. Mechanism of surface texture evolution in pure copper strips subjected to double rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing ultra-thin copper foils with different surface roughness and microstructure has important significance for improving the service performance and reducing the production cost of high-end circuit boards. In this paper, pure copper strips with initial cube texture were subjected to a double rolling process (deformation amount ranges from 50% to 95%, and the surface textures evolution law and mechanism of double-rolled strips were studied by an X-ray diffraction technique. The results show that when a deformation amount increased from 50% to 70%, the grains of two surfaces rotate away from the cube orientation, and the formed textures of two surfaces mainly consisted of C, S and B orientation components. The orientation density values for these three components on bright surface only had slight difference; the orientation density values for C and S components were much larger than that for B components on a matt surface. When the deformation amount increased to 90%, the increase extents of orientation density values for C and S components were obviously larger than that for B components on a bright surface; the increase extents of orientation density values for these three components were almost the same on the matt surface. It has been found that when deformation amount reaches 95%, the grains orientation of bright surface were relatively concentrated, and the orientation density value for C texture obviously increased to 11.68 and that for B texture was only 3.15; the grains orientation of matt surface were relatively dispersed, and the orientation density value for C texture increased to 9.26 and that for B texture obviously increased to 6.35, and the density values of these two textures had less difference. For the condition of strong compressive and shear stress on the bright surface, grains were mainly rotating to C texture orientation; compared with the bright surface, “semi-free” deformation condition on the matt surface is

  9. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Qadri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI. Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class. By implementing a cross validation method (80-20, we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively.

  10. Image-space texture-based output-coherent surface flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Pan, Zherong; Chen, Guoning; Chen, Wei; Bao, Hujun

    2013-09-01

    Image-space line integral convolution (LIC) is a popular scheme for visualizing surface vector fields due to its simplicity and high efficiency. To avoid inconsistencies or color blur during the user interactions, existing approaches employ surface parameterization or 3D volume texture schemes. However, they often require expensive computation or memory cost, and cannot achieve consistent results in terms of both the granularity and color distribution on different scales. This paper introduces a novel image-space surface flow visualization approach that preserves the coherence during user interactions. To make the noise texture under different viewpoints coherent, we propose to precompute a sequence of mipmap noise textures in a coarse-to-fine manner for consistent transition, and map the textures onto each triangle with randomly assigned and constant texture coordinates. Further, a standard image-space LIC is performed to generate the flow texture. The proposed approach is simple and GPU-friendly, and can be easily combined with various texture-based flow visualization techniques. By leveraging viewpoint-dependent backward tracing and mipmap noise phase, our method can be incorporated with the image-based flow visualization (IBFV) technique for coherent visualization of unsteady flows. We demonstrate consistent and highly efficient flow visualization on a variety of data sets.

  11. Onset of Intense Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering and Aggregation in the Au@Ag System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold core/silver shell (Au@Ag nanoparticles of ~37 ± 5 nm diameter generate intense SERS (λEX=785 nm responses in solution when they interact with the SERS labels rhodamine 6G (R6G, 4-mercaptopyridine (MPY, and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA. Herein the relationship between SERS intensity, aggregation, and adsorption phenomenon isobserved by titrating Au@Ag with the above labels. As the labels adsorb to the Au@Ag, they drive aggregation as evidenced by the creation of NIR extinction peaks, and the magnitude of this NIR extinction (measured at 830 nm correlates very closely to magnitude of the intense SERS signals. The label MBA is an exception since it does not trigger aggregation nor does it result in intense SERS; rather intense SERS is recovered only after MBA coated Au@Ag is aggregated with KCl. An “inner filter” model is introduced and applied to compensate for solution extinction when the exciting laser radiation is significantly attenuated. This model permits a summary of the SERS responses in the form of plots of SERS intensity versus the aggregate absorption at 830 nm, which shows the excellent correlation between intense SERS and LSPR bands extinction.

  12. Insights into the Structure and Metabolic Function of Microbes That Shape Pelagic Iron-Rich Aggregates ( Iron Snow )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; REICHE, M [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany; Nietzsche, S [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Kusel, K [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany

    2013-01-01

    Metaproteomics combined with total nucleic acid-based methods aided in deciphering the roles of microorganisms in the formation and transformation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates (iron snow) formed in the redoxcline of an acidic lignite mine lake. Iron snow had high total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, with 2 x 109 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the acidic (pH 3.5) central lake basin and 4 x 1010 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the less acidic (pH 5.5) northern lake basin. Active microbial communities in the central basin were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (36.6%) and Actinobacteria (21.4%), and by Betaproteobacteria (36.2%) in the northern basin. Microbial Fe-cycling appeared to be the dominant metabolism in the schwertmannite-rich iron snow, because cloning and qPCR assigned up to 61% of active bacteria as Fe-cycling bacteria (FeB). Metaproteomics revealed 70 unique proteins from central basin iron snow and 283 unique proteins from 43 genera from northern basin. Protein identification provided a glimpse into in situ processes, such as primary production, motility, metabolism of acidophilic FeB, and survival strategies of neutrophilic FeB. Expression of carboxysome shell proteins and RubisCO indicated active CO2 fixation by Fe(II) oxidizers. Flagellar proteins from heterotrophs indicated their activity to reach and attach surfaces. Gas vesicle proteins related to CO2-fixing Chlorobium suggested that microbes could influence iron snow sinking. We suggest that iron snow formed by autotrophs in the redoxcline acts as a microbial parachute, since it is colonized by motile heterotrophs during sinking which start to dissolve schwertmannite.

  13. Solder wetting behavior enhancement via laser-textured surface microcosmic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Peng, Jianke; Fu, Li; Wang, Xincheng; Xie, Yan

    2016-04-01

    In order to reduce or even replace the use of Sn-Pb solder in electronics industry, the laser-textured surface microstructures were used to enhance the wetting behavior of lead free solder during soldering. According to wetting theory and Sn-Ag-Cu lead free solder performance, we calculated and designed four microcosmic structures with the similar shape and different sizes to control the wetting behavior of lead free solder. The micro-structured surfaces with different dimensions were processed on copper plates by fiber femtosecond laser, and the effect of microstructures on wetting behavior was verified experimentally. The results showed that the wetting angle of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on the copper plate with microstructures decreased effectively compared with that on the smooth copper plate. The wetting angles had a sound fit with the theoretical values calculated by wetting model. The novel method provided a feasible route for adjusting the wetting behavior of solders and optimizing solders system.

  14. Optimum rolling ratio for obtaining {001} recrystallization texture in Ti-Nb-Al biomedical shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, T; Shimizu, R; Kim, H Y; Miyazaki, S; Hosoda, H

    2016-04-01

    The rolling rate (r) dependence of textures was investigated in the Ti-26Nb-3Al (mol%) alloy to reveal the conditions required to form the {001} recrystallization texture, which is a desirable orientation for the β-titanium shape memory alloy. {001} was the dominant cold-rolling texture when r=90% and it was transferred to the recrystallization texture without forming {112}, which is detrimental for the isotropic mechanical properties of the rolled sheet. A further increase in r resulted in the formation of {112} in both rolling and recrystallization textures. Therefore, r should be controlled to form only the {001} rolling texture, because the {112} texture can overwhelm the {001} texture during recrystallization.

  15. Physical Properties of Crushed Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag and Numerical Representation of Its Morphology Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aiguo; DENG Min; SUN Daosheng; LI Bing; TANG Mingshu

    2012-01-01

    Physical properties and geometrical morphologies of crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) were comparatively investigated.The shape,angularity,surface texture and internal pore structure of aggregate particles for different size and gradation were numerically represented by sphericity (ψ) and shape index (SI),angularity number (AN),index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST),porosity and pore size,respectively.The results show that SCR is a porous and rough aggregate.Apparent density,void,water absorption and smashing index of SCR are obviously higher than those of LCR with the same gradation,respectively.However,bulk density of SCR is lower than that of LCR with the same gradation.SI,AN,IAPST and porosity of SCR are obviously higher than those of LCR with the same gradation,respectively.The smaller particle size of SCR,the larger of its AN,IAPST and porosity.

  16. Reproduction of tactual textures transducers, mechanics and signal encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Wiertlewski, Michaël

    2013-01-01

    Texture accounts for an important part of the realism of simulated experiences, and it is most certainly true during tactile interaction. We usually experience roughness by running our fingers onto the explored surface. The perception of this fine texture is mediated by the vibrations generated by the encounters of the skin and the asperities of the surfaces.Reproduction of Tactual Textures presents factors that contribute to the mechanics of the interaction between a bare finger and a surface with a view to their artificial reproduction. It discusses the recording and reproduction of tactual

  17. Surface-secreted von Willebrand factor mediates aggregation of ADP-activated platelets at moderate shear stress: facilitated by GPIb but controlled by GPIIb-IIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frojmovic, M M; Kasirer-Friede, A; Goldsmith, H L; Brown, E A

    1997-03-01

    We previously showed that ADP activation of washed human platelets in plasma-free suspensions supports aggregation at moderate shear stress (0.4-1.6 Nm-2) in Poiseuille flow. Although most activated platelets expressed maximal fibrinogen-occupied GPIIb-IIIa receptors, aggregation appeared to be independent of bound fibrinogen, but blocked by the hexapeptide GRGDSP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that von Willebrand factor (vWF) secreted and expressed on activated platelets mediates aggregation at moderate shear rates from 300 to 1000 s-1 corresponding to shear stresses from 0.3 to 1.1 Nm-2. Relatively unactivated platelets (Flow cytometric measurements with monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2.2.9 reporting on surface-bound vWF, and with mAb S12 reporting on alpha-granule secreted P-selectin, showed that 65% and 80%, respectively, of all platelets were maximally activated with respect to maximal secretion and surface expression of these proteins. "Resting" washed platelets exhibited both surface-bound vWF and significant P-selectin secretion. We showed that mAbs 6D1 and NMC4, respectively blocking the adhesive domains on the GPIb receptor recognizing vWF, and on the vWF molecule recognizing the GPIb receptor, partially inhibited ADP-induced aggregation under shear in Couette flow, the degree of inhibition increasing with increasing shear stress. In contrast, mAb 10E5, blocking the vWF binding domain on GPIIb-IIIa, essentially blocked all aggregation at the shear rates tested. We conclude that vWF, expressed on ADP-activated platelets, is at least the predominant cross-bridging molecule mediating aggregation at moderate shear stress. There is an absolute requirement for free activated GPIIb-IIIa receptors, postulated to interact with platelet-secreted, surface bound vWF. The GPIb-vWF cross-bridging reaction plays a facilitative role becoming increasingly important with increasing shear stress. Since aurin tricarboxylic acid, which blocks the GPIb binding domain on vWF, was

  18. Textures in high purity aluminum foils and AA3004 sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖亚庆; 张新明; 唐建国; 邓运来; 陈志永

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of rolling texture with "minimum shear principle" and the strengthening of cube recrystallization texture by inhomogeneous rolling, low strain deformation and multistage annealing, of the formation and evolution of texture in high purity Al were presented. The plastic anisotropy of crystalline materials were also summarized, including determination of the co-yield surfaces and condition of slipping as well as mechanical twinning, prediction of plastic anisotropy of deep drawing with modified Tuckers method, evolution of earing behavior of Al alloy sheets for deep drawing with CMTP approach, and construction of texture balance design and some technologies to suppress plastic anisotropy in practical production.

  19. Insights into the Structure and Metabolic Function of Microbes That Shape Pelagic Iron-Rich Aggregates (“Iron Snow”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shipeng; Chourey, Karuna; Reiche, Marco; Nietzsche, Sandor; Shah, Manesh B.; Neu, Thomas R.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation leads to the formation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates (“iron snow”) at the redoxcline in a stratified lignite mine lake in east-central Germany. We aimed to identify the abundant Fe-oxidizing and Fe-reducing microorganisms likely to be involved in the formation and transformation of iron snow present in the redoxcline in two basins of the lake that differ in their pH values. Nucleic acid- and lipid-stained microbial cells of various morphologies detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy were homogeneously distributed in all iron snow samples. The dominant iron mineral appeared to be schwertmannite, with shorter needles in the northern than in the central basin samples. Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies ranged from 5.0 × 108 copies g (dry weight)−1 in the acidic central lake basin (pH 3.3) to 4.0 × 1010 copies g (dry weight)−1 in the less acidic (pH 5.9) northern basin. Total RNA-based quantitative PCR assigned up to 61% of metabolically active microbial communities to Fe-oxidizing- and Fe-reducing-related bacteria, indicating that iron metabolism was an important metabolic strategy. Molecular identification of abundant groups suggested that iron snow surfaces were formed by chemoautotrophic iron oxidizers, such as Acidimicrobium, Ferrovum, Acidithiobacillus, Thiobacillus, and Chlorobium, in the redoxcline and were rapidly colonized by heterotrophic iron reducers, such as Acidiphilium, Albidiferax-like, and Geobacter-like groups. Metaproteomics yielded 283 different proteins from northern basin iron snow samples, and protein identification provided a glimpse into some of their in situ metabolic processes, such as primary production (CO2 fixation), respiration, motility, and survival strategies. PMID:23645202

  20. Insights into the structure and metabolic function of microbes that shape pelagic iron-rich aggregates ("iron snow").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shipeng; Chourey, Karuna; Reiche, Marco; Nietzsche, Sandor; Shah, Manesh B; Neu, Thomas R; Hettich, Robert L; Küsel, Kirsten

    2013-07-01

    Microbial ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation leads to the formation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates ("iron snow") at the redoxcline in a stratified lignite mine lake in east-central Germany. We aimed to identify the abundant Fe-oxidizing and Fe-reducing microorganisms likely to be involved in the formation and transformation of iron snow present in the redoxcline in two basins of the lake that differ in their pH values. Nucleic acid- and lipid-stained microbial cells of various morphologies detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy were homogeneously distributed in all iron snow samples. The dominant iron mineral appeared to be schwertmannite, with shorter needles in the northern than in the central basin samples. Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies ranged from 5.0 × 10(8) copies g (dry weight)(-1) in the acidic central lake basin (pH 3.3) to 4.0 × 10(10) copies g (dry weight)(-1) in the less acidic (pH 5.9) northern basin. Total RNA-based quantitative PCR assigned up to 61% of metabolically active microbial communities to Fe-oxidizing- and Fe-reducing-related bacteria, indicating that iron metabolism was an important metabolic strategy. Molecular identification of abundant groups suggested that iron snow surfaces were formed by chemoautotrophic iron oxidizers, such as Acidimicrobium, Ferrovum, Acidithiobacillus, Thiobacillus, and Chlorobium, in the redoxcline and were rapidly colonized by heterotrophic iron reducers, such as Acidiphilium, Albidiferax-like, and Geobacter-like groups. Metaproteomics yielded 283 different proteins from northern basin iron snow samples, and protein identification provided a glimpse into some of their in situ metabolic processes, such as primary production (CO2 fixation), respiration, motility, and survival strategies.

  1. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Karamehmedović, Mirza; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    We characterize nano-textured surfaces by optical diffraction techniques using an adapted commercial light microscope with two detectors, a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The acquisition and analyzing time for the topological parameters height, width, and sidewall angle is only a few milliseconds of a grating. We demonstrate that the microscope has a resolution in the nanometer range, also in an environment with many vibrations, such as a machine floor. Furthermore, we demonstrate an easy method to find the area of interest with the integrated CCD camera.

  2. Formation of Combined Surface Features of Protrusion Array and Wrinkles atop Shape-Memory Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, W. M.; Tong, T. H.

    We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective approach to realize two combined surface features of different scales together, namely submillimeter-sized protrusion array and microwrinkles, atop a polystyrene shape-memory polymer. Two different types of protrusions, namely flat-top protrusion and crown-shaped protrusion, were studied. The array of protrusions was produced by the Indentation-Polishing-Heating (IPH) process. Compactly packed steel balls were used for making array of indents. A thin gold layer was sputter deposited atop the polymer surface right after polishing. After heating for shape recovery, array of protrusions with wrinkles on the top due to the buckling of gold layer was produced.

  3. eF-seek: prediction of the functional sites of proteins by searching for similar electrostatic potential and molecular surface shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kengo; Murakami, Yoichi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a method to predict ligand-binding sites in a new protein structure by searching for similar binding sites in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The similarities are measured according to the shapes of the molecular surfaces and their electrostatic potentials. A new web server, eF-seek, provides an interface to our search method. It simply requires a coordinate file in the PDB format, and generates a prediction result as a virtual complex structure, with the putative ligands in a PDB format file as the output. In addition, the predicted interacting interface is displayed to facilitate the examination of the virtual complex structure on our own applet viewer with the web browser (URL: http://eF-site.hgc.jp/eF-seek). PMID:17567616

  4. 表面结构的分类与识别%Classification and Recognition of Surface Texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MURALIKRISHNAN B; BUI Son H; RAJA J

    2004-01-01

    Measurement and characterization of surface texture is an important aspect of precision metrology.Historically this has involved partitioning a profile into different wavelength regimes referred to as roughness,waviness and form followed by numerical quantization.Parameters computed are then inspected for tolerance compliance to ensure a part performs its intended function.This approach is satisfactory when the specification has been carefully determined and the process is sta ble.However,when the manufacturing process is under development or when instability or modifications to the process in validate specifications,there is a need to study surface finish parameters in relation to functional performance or process measures.In this context,the problem of surface texture classification and recognition are discussed.Advanced techniques developed for this purpose along with applications are presented.Also,the techniques discussed here will be useful across large bandwidth,from the characterization of nano scale to traditional micro scale surfaces.%表面结构的测量与特征描述是精密计量技术的一个重要方面,传统上包括将轮廓情况根据不同的波长范围划分为粗糙度、波纹度和形状及后续的数字量化.按算得的参数检查它是否为公差允许,以保证零件执行其指定的功能.当技术特性已经经过仔细确定,并且其过程稳定时,该方法是令人满意的;但是,当制造过程正在进行中或过程的不稳定、过程变化使技术特性失效时,就需要研究和功能表现及过程评定相关的表面参数.讨论了表面结构的分类与识别问题.同时阐述了为此目的而开发的先进技术及其应用.所研究的技术对从纳米尺度到传统的微米尺度的较大带宽范围内的表面特征描述都是有效的.

  5. Stochastic structural model of rock and soil aggregates by continuum-based discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yuannian; ZHAO; Manhong; LI; Shihai; J.G.; Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper first presents a stochastic structural model to describe the random geometrical features of rock and soil aggregates. The stochastic structural model uses mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape to construct the microstructures of aggregates,and introduces two types of structural elements (block element and jointed element) and three types of material elements (rock element, soil element, and weaker jointed element)for this microstructure. Then, continuum-based discrete element method is used to study the deformation and failure mechanism of rock and soil aggregate through a series of loading tests. It is found that the stress-strain curve of rock and soil aggregates is nonlinear, and the failure is usually initialized from weaker jointed elements. Finally, some factors such as mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape are studied in detail. The numerical results are in good agreement with in situ test. Therefore, current model is effective for simulating the mechanical behaviors of rock and soil aggregates.

  6. Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Paula Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A 7.4 mm thick strip of 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the industrial twin-roll casting (TRC process was homogenized at 500 °C for 12 hours, after which it was cold rolled in two conditions: 1 to reduce the strip's thickness by 67%, and 2 to reduce it by 91%. The alloy was annealed at 400 °C for 1 hour in both conditions. The results revealed that a rotated cube texture, the {001} component, predominated in the as-cast condition and was transformed into brass, copper and S type textures during the cold rolling process. There was practically no difference between the deformation textures at the two thickness reductions.

  7. Wetting theory for small droplets on textured solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Donggyu; Ryu, Seunghwa

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wetting theories on rough surfaces with Wenzel, Cassie-Baxter, and Penetrate modes suggest the possibility of tuning the contact angle by adjusting the surface texture. Despite decades of intensive study, there are still many experimental results that are not well understood because conventional wetting theory, which assume an infinite droplet size, has been used to explain measurements of finite-sized droplets. In this study, we suggest a wetting theory that is applicable to any droplet size based on the free energy landscape analysis of various wetting modes of finite-sized droplets on a 2D textured surface. The key finding of our study is that there are many quantized wetting angles with local free energy minima; the implication of this is remarkable. We find that the conventional theories can predict the contact angle at the global free energy minimum if the droplet size is 40 times or larger than the characteristic scale of the surface roughness. Furthermore, we confirm that the pinning orig...

  8. Experimental study of surface texture and resonance mechanism of booming sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU; JianJun; ZHANG; KeCun; SUN; Bo; JIANG; ShengXiang; DONG; GuangRong; ZU; RuiPing; FANG; HaiYan

    2007-01-01

    The sound-producing mechanism of booming sand has long been a pending problem in the blown sand physics. Based on the earlier researches, the authors collected some silent sand samples from Tengger Desert, Australian Desert, Kuwait Desert, beaches of Hainan Island and Japanese coast as well as the soundless booming sand samples from the Mingsha Mountain in Dunhuang to make washing experiments. In the meantime the chemical corrosion experiment of glass micro-spheres, surface coating experiment and SEM examination were also conducted. The experimental results show that the sound production of booming sand seems to have nothing to do with the presence of SiO2 gel on the surface of sand grains and unrelated to the surface chemical composition of sand grains but is related to the resonance cavities formed by porous (pit-like) physical structure resulting from a number of factors such as wind erosion, water erosion, chemical corrosion and SiO2 gel deposition, etc. Its resonance mechanism is similar to that of Hemholz resonance cavity. Under the action of external forces, numerous spherical and sand grains with smooth surface and porous surface are set in motion and rub with each other to produce extremely weak vibration sound and then become audible sound by human ears through the magnification of surface cavity resonance. However the booming sands may lose their resonance mechanism and become silent sand due to the damping action caused by the invasion of finer particles such as dust and clay into surface holes of sand grains. Therefore, clearing away fine pollutants on the quartz grain surface is an effective way to make silent sand emit audible sound.

  9. Color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket measured by multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Skov, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Green color and texture are important attributes for the perception of freshness of wild rocket. Packaging of green leafy vegetables can postpone senescence and yellowing, but a drawback is the risk of anaerobic respiration leading to loss of tissue integrity and development of an olive-brown color....... The hypothesis underlying this paper is that color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket leaves can be predicted by multispectral imaging for faster evaluation of visual quality of leafy green vegetables in scientific experiments. Multispectral imaging was correlated to sensory evaluation of packaged wild...... rocket quality. CIELAB values derived from the multispectral images and from a spectrophotometer changed during storage, but the data were insufficient to describe variation in sensory perceived color and texture. CIELAB values from the multispectral images allowed for a more detailed determination...

  10. Influence of hydrogen surface passivation on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution in GeSn/Ge(001) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johll, Harman; Samuel, Milla; Koo, Ruey Yi; Kang, Hway Chuan; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Tok, Eng Soon

    2015-05-01

    Plane-wave density functional theory is used to investigate the impact of hydrogen passivation of the p(2×2) reconstructed Ge1-xSnx surface on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution. On a clean surface, Sn preferentially segregates to the surface layer, with surface coverages of 25%, 50%, and 100% for total Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. In contrast, a hydrogen passivated surface increases interlayer migration of Sn to subsurface layers, in particular, to the third layer from the surface, and results in surface coverages of 0%, 0%, and 50% corresponding to Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. Hydrogen transfer from a Ge-capped surface to the one enriched with increasing Sn surface coverage is also an unfavorable process. The presence of hydrogen therefore reduces the surface energy by passivating the reactive dangling bonds and enhancing Sn interlayer migration to the subsurface layers. For both clean and hydrogenated surfaces, aggregation of Sn at the surface layer is also not favored. We explain these results by considering bond enthalpies and the enthalpies of hydrogenation for various surface reactions. Our results thus point to reduced Sn segregation to the surface in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film if CVD growth, using hydride precursors in the hydrogen limited growth regime, is used. This would lead to a more abrupt interface and is consistent with recent experimental observation. Hydrogenation is therefore a promising method for controlling and manipulating elemental population of Sn in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film.

  11. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  12. Decoration of disclinations by solidification-induced band texture and focal-conic texture for a low-molar-mass liquid crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two decoration techniques, solidification-induced band texture decora tion and focal-conictexture decoration, have been established to exhibit the director field of disclinations in a low-molar-mass methacrylate liquid crystal. The disclinations with strength s = 1/2 and s = ±1 are observed by the two decor ation methods. For the solidification-induced band texture decoration, the molecular orientation is perpendicular to the direction of the band. While for focal- conictexture decoration, it has been proved by the results of IR dichroism that the direction of the director is parallel to the direction of the focal-conic. Therefore, the sketch map of the molecular director filed can be mapped according to the morphological pattern of the solidification-induced band textureor focal-conic texture.

  13. 再生骨料混凝土路面耐磨性的研究%Research on Abrasion Resistance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 赵美霞

    2011-01-01

    采用单因素扫描法系统考察了再生粗骨料的取代率、水胶比、砂率、胶凝材料的总用量等因素对再生混凝土耐磨性能的影响,分析了其产生的原因.在单因素试验的基础上,通过响应面法对影响再生混凝土耐磨性能的显著因素进行了更进一步的研究,并建立了相应的预测模型.结果表明:再生骨料的取代率和水胶比对再生混凝土耐磨性影响最为显著,砂率和胶凝材料的总用量对再生混凝土耐磨性有一定的影响,且再生骨料取代率为43%、水胶比为0.38、砂率为35%时再生混凝土耐磨性能最佳,研究结果为再生混凝土耐磨性的深入研究提供了一定的借鉴和参考.%The single factor scanning method was used to analyze the effects of replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate, water-binder ratio, sand-coarse aggregate ratio, the total amount of gelled material on the wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete, and its reasons were analyzed. On the basis of the single-factor test, the significant influence factors of the wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete were further studied by the response surface methodology ( RSM ) , and a correlation model on the optimized wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete was presented. The analysis results show that replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate, water-binder ratio exert tremendous influence on wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete, sand-coarse aggregate ratio and the total amount of gelled material exert certain influence. Wear resistance of recycled aggregate concrete is best when replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate is 43% , water-binder ratio is 0. 38, sand-coarse aggregate ratio is 0. 35. The test results also can provide a reference for future further study on abrasion resistance of recycled aggregate concrete.

  14. Experimental Study on Tribological Properties of Laser Textured 45 Steel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of pits’ size parameters on the tribological properties of textured friction pairs, using the Nd:YAG laser micro machining system and the “single pulse at the same point, interval more times” processing technics to process the pits on the surface of 45 steel. The dimension parameters of pits texture were obtained by orthogonal experimental design. The tribological experiment of GCr15 pin/45 steel disc was carried out by UMT-2 test machine. The surface morphology of the specimens was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the pits texture on the surface of 45 steel can effectively reduce the friction coefficient and the wear on the condition of oil-rich lubrication. The textured specimen with diameter 60μm, depth 6μm and surface density 10% has the lowest friction coefficient, and the friction coefficient is reduced by 21% compared with the smooth specimen. By analyzing the wear morphology on the surface of 45 steel, it is found that the surface of pits texture can obviously reduce the wear.

  15. Separate channels for processing form, texture, and color: evidence from FMRI adaptation and visual object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavina-Pratesi, C; Kentridge, R W; Heywood, C A; Milner, A D

    2010-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging research suggests that although object shape is analyzed in the lateral occipital cortex, surface properties of objects, such as color and texture, are dealt with in more medial areas, close to the collateral sulcus (CoS). The present study sought to determine whether there is a single medial region concerned with surface properties in general or whether instead there are multiple foci independently extracting different surface properties. We used stimuli varying in their shape, texture, or color, and tested healthy participants and 2 object-agnosic patients, in both a discrimination task and a functional MR adaptation paradigm. We found a double dissociation between medial and lateral occipitotemporal cortices in processing surface (texture or color) versus geometric (shape) properties, respectively. In Experiment 2, we found that the medial occipitotemporal cortex houses separate foci for color (within anterior CoS and lingual gyrus) and texture (caudally within posterior CoS). In addition, we found that areas selective for shape, texture, and color individually were quite distinct from those that respond to all of these features together (shape and texture and color). These latter areas appear to correspond to those associated with the perception of complex stimuli such as faces and places.

  16. Laser induced periodic surface structuring on Si by temporal shaped femtosecond pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, G F B; Martins, R J; Otuka, A J G; Siqueira, J P; Mendonca, C R

    2015-10-19

    We investigated the effect of temporal shaped femtosecond pulses on silicon laser micromachining. By using sinusoidal spectral phases, pulse trains composed of sub-pulses with distinct temporal separations were generated and applied to the silicon surface to produce Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS). The LIPSS obtained with different sub-pulse separation were analyzed by comparing the intensity of the two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT) of the AFM images of the ripples (LIPSS). It was observed that LIPSS amplitude is more emphasized for the pulse train with sub-pulses separation of 128 fs, even when compared with the Fourier transform limited pulse. By estimating the carrier density achieved at the end of each pulse train, we have been able to interpret our results with the Sipe-Drude model, that predicts that LIPSS efficacy is higher for a specific induced carrier density. Hence, our results indicate that temporal shaping of the excitation pulse, performed by spectral phase modulation, can be explored in fs-laser microstructuring.

  17. Wetting property of smooth and textured hydrophobic surfaces under condensation condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO PengFei; LV CunJing; YAO ZhaoHui; NIU FengLei

    2014-01-01

    Static and dynamic wetting behaviors of sessile droplet on smooth,microstructured and micro/nanostructured surface under condensation condition are systematically studied.In contrast to the conventional droplet wetting on such natural materials by dropping,we demonstrate here that when dropwise condensation occurs,the sessile droplet will transit from the Cassie-Baxter wetting state to the Wenzel wetting state or partial Cassie-Baxter wetting state on the microstructured surface or the micro/nanostructured surface,which leads to a strong adhesion between the droplet and the substrate.In contrast,the apparent contact angle and the sliding angle on the smooth surface changes a little before and after the condensation because of small roughness.Theoretical analysis shows that the roughness factor controls the adhesion force of the droplet during condensation,and a theoretical model is constructed which will be helpful for us to understand the relationship between the adhesion force and the geometry of the surface.

  18. Enhancement of the adsorption capacity of the light-weight expanded clay aggregate surface for the metronidazole antibiotic by coating with MgO nanoparticles: Studies on the kinetic, isotherm, and effects of environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Al-Musawi, Tariq J; Ghahramani, Esmaeil; Kazemian, Hossein; Zarrabi, Mansur

    2017-02-09

    The synthesized MgO nanoparticles were used to coat the light-weight expanded clay aggregates (LECA) and as a metronidazole (MNZ) adsorbent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques were employed to study the surface morphology and characteristics of the adsorbents. MgO/LECA clearly revealed the advantages of the nanocomposite particles, showing high specific surface area (76.12 m(2)/g), significant adsorption sites and functional groups. Between pH 5 and 9, the MNZ sorption was not significantly affected. Kinetic studies revealed that the MNZ adsorption closely followed the Avrami model, with no dominant process controlling the sorption rate. The study of the effects of foreign ions revealed that the addition of carbonate raised the MNZ removal efficiency of LECA by 8% and the total removal of MNZ by MgO/LECA. Furthermore, nitrate and hardness only marginally influenced the MNZ removal efficiency and their effects can be ranked in the order of carbonate>nitrate>hardness. The isotherm adsorption of MNZ was best fitted with the Langmuir model enlighten the monolayer MNZ adsorption on the homogeneous LECA and MgO/LECA surfaces. The maximum adsorption capacity under optimum conditions was enhanced from 56.31 to 84.55 mg/g for LECA and MgO/LECA, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the MgO/LECA nanocomposite showed potential as an efficient adsorbent for MNZ removal.

  19. Observation of water condensate on hydrophobic micro textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Wook; Do, Sang Cheol; Ko, Jong Soo; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2013-07-01

    We visually observed that a dropwise condensation occurred initially and later changed into a filmwise condensation on hydrophobic textured surface at atmosphere pressure condition. It was observed that the condensate nucleated on the pillar side walls of the micro structure and the bottom wall adhered to the walls and would not be lifted to form a spherical water droplet using environmental scanning electron microscope.

  20. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  1. A novel method of aligning molecules by local surface shape similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. A.; Bayada, D. M.; Johnson, A. P.

    2000-08-01

    A novel shape-based method has been developed for overlaying a series of molecule surfaces into a common reference frame. The surfaces are represented by a set of circular patches of approximately constant curvature. Two molecules are overlaid using a clique-detection algorithm to find a set of patches in the two surfaces that correspond, and overlaying the molecules so that the similar patches on the two surfaces are coincident. The method is thus able to detect areas of local, rather than global, similarity. A consensus overlay for a group of molecules is performed by examining the scores of all pairwise overlays and performing a set of overlays with the highest scores. The utility of the method has been examined by comparing the overlaid and experimental configurations of 4 sets of molecules for which there are X-ray crystal structures of the molecules bound to a protein active site. Results for the overlays are generally encouraging. Of particular note is the correct prediction of the `reverse orientation' for ligands binding to human rhinovirus coat protein HRV14.

  2. Texturing of titanium (Ti6Al4V) medical implant surfaces with MHz-repetition-rate femtosecond and picosecond Yb-doped fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Mutlu; Öktem, Bülent; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Yavaş, Seydi; Mukhopadhyay, Pranab K; Eken, Koray; Ozgören, Kıvanç; Aykaç, Yaşar; Tazebay, Uygar H; Ilday, F Ömer

    2011-05-23

    We propose and demonstrate the use of short pulsed fiber lasers in surface texturing using MHz-repetition-rate, microjoule- and sub-microjoule-energy pulses. Texturing of titanium-based (Ti6Al4V) dental implant surfaces is achieved using femtosecond, picosecond and (for comparison) nanosecond pulses with the aim of controlling attachment of human cells onto the surface. Femtosecond and picosecond pulses yield similar results in the creation of micron-scale textures with greatly reduced or no thermal heat effects, whereas nanosecond pulses result in strong thermal effects. Various surface textures are created with excellent uniformity and repeatability on a desired portion of the surface. The effects of the surface texturing on the attachment and proliferation of cells are characterized under cell culture conditions. Our data indicate that picosecond-pulsed laser modification can be utilized effectively in low-cost laser surface engineering of medical implants, where different areas on the surface can be made cell-attachment friendly or hostile through the use of different patterns.

  3. Nanoparticle-textured surfaces from spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R A; Zhai, X; Dobrynin, A V

    2008-05-20

    Rough surfaces composed of discrete but relatively uniform nanoparticles were prepared from a lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer by spin coating from tetrahydrofuran (THF) or a THF/methanol mixture onto a silica surface. The particle morphology is consistent with the spinodal decomposition of the film surface occurring during spin coating. The particles are well wetted to the silica, and if heated for a long time above the ionomer's glass-transition temperature, the particles flow and coalesce into a smooth, homogeneous film.

  4. Use of biomimetic hexagonal surface texture in friction against lubricated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipenyuk, Alexey; Varenberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Smooth contact pads that evolved in insects, amphibians and mammals to enhance the attachment abilities of the animals' feet are often dressed with surface micropatterns of different shapes that act in the presence of a fluid secretion. One of the most striking surface patterns observed in contact pads of these animals is based on a hexagonal texture, which is recognized as a friction-oriented feature capable of suppressing both stick-slip and hydroplaning while enabling friction tuning. Here, we compare this design of natural friction surfaces to textures developed for working in similar conditions in disposable safety razors. When slid against lubricated human skin, the hexagonal surface texture is capable of generating about twice the friction of its technical competitors, which is related to it being much more effective at channelling of the lubricant fluid out of the contact zone. The draining channel shape and contact area fraction are found to be the most important geometrical parameters governing the fluid drainage rate.

  5. Texture and phase analysis of deformed SUS304 by using HIPPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takajo, Shigehiro [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-15

    These slides represent the author's research activity at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is about texture and phase analysis of deformed SUS304 by using HIPPO. The following topics are covered: diffraction histogram at each sample position, diffraction histogram (all bank data averaged), possiblity of ε-phase, MAUD analysis with including ε-phase.

  6. Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatton Anna L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that textured insoles can alter gait and standing balance by way of enhanced plantar tactile stimulation. However, to date, this has not been explored in older people at risk of falling. This study investigated the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles on gait and double-limb standing balance in older fallers. Methods Thirty older adults >65 years (21 women, mean [SD] age 79.0 [7.1], with self-reported history of ≥2 falls in the previous year, conducted tests of level-ground walking over 10 m (GAITRite system, and double-limb standing with eyes open and eyes closed over 30 seconds (Kistler force platform under two conditions: wearing textured insoles (intervention and smooth (control insoles in their usual footwear. Results Wearing textured insoles caused significantly lower gait velocity (P = 0.02, step length (P = 0.04 and stride length (P = 0.03 compared with wearing smooth insoles. No significant differences were found in any of the balance parameters (P > 0.05. Conclusions A textured insole worn by older adults with a history of falls significantly lowers gait velocity, step length and stride length, suggesting that this population may not have an immediate benefit from this type of intervention. The effects of prolonged wear remain to be investigated.

  7. Texture in Metallic and Ceramic Films and Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Czerwinski, F; J. A. Szpunar

    1999-01-01

    The properties of films and coatings can be optimized for a variety of applications by modifying their texture. Understanding how the texture in thin films is formed and how it can be controlled during film growth process is one of the most important areas of texture research. Several examples were selected to illustrate how the texture in films and coatings is developed and to explain how various properties of films are affected by texture. In particular, texture development during electrode...

  8. Aggregation and Disaggregation Techniques Applied on Remotely Sensed Data to Obtain Optimum Resolution for Surface Energy Fluxes Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, N.; Kustas, W. P.; Li, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Continuous monitoring of surface energy fluxes provides an important tool for precision agriculture management. It is, therefore, desirable to obtain these fluxes at agricultural field size (length scale ~ 10-100 m). To date, land surface temperature (LST), a fundamental input required for flux computations, is usually available at a nominal resolution of 1 km, which disables field-scale monitoring. Disaggregating LST data into field-scale sub-pixels was found to be possible, with deterioration in temperature accuracy as sub-pixel size is reduced. In contrast to LST, land use and fractional vegetation cover (LU and FC, additional key inputs) are available at high spatial resolution (e.g., 30 m). Aggregation of LU and FC to meet the lower resolution LST data introduces errors when aggregating to larger pixel sizes. The objective of this research is to find the optimum resolution that will minimize the errors due to aggregation of LU/FC and disaggregation of LST data, to provide continuous estimates of field scale surface energy fluxes. Data were used from the 2002 Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX02) conducted over the upper Midwest corn and soybean production region of Iowa. Three dates during the period of rapid crops growth (June 23, July 1, and July 8) for which Landsat TM images are available were analyzed. The original pixels were aggregated to form 960 m pixels (to mimic thermal data currently available from MODIS) and were then disaggregated following the procedure suggested by Kustas et al. (2003)* to form 60, 120, and 240 m sub-pixels. LU and FC were obtained at 30 m resolution and then aggregated to 60, 120, 240, and 960 m. The Two-Source-Model was run at each of the resolutions using the pertinent inputs. The model output at 60 m resolution, using the original LST data was considered the base line, to which all other outputs were compared. For comparing the flux results at the lower resolutions, the 60 m flux output was aggregated. The

  9. Effect of surface charge convection and shape deformation on the dielectrophoretic motion of a liquid drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-04-01

    The dielectrophoretic motion and shape deformation of a Newtonian liquid drop in an otherwise quiescent Newtonian liquid medium in the presence of an axisymmetric nonuniform dc electric field consisting of uniform and quadrupole components is investigated. The theory put forward by Feng [J. Q. Feng, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4438 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevE.54.4438] is generalized by incorporating the following two nonlinear effects—surface charge convection and shape deformation—towards determining the drop velocity. This two-way coupled moving boundary problem is solved analytically by considering small values of electric Reynolds number (ratio of charge relaxation time scale to the convection time scale) and electric capillary number (ratio of electrical stress to the surface tension) under the framework of the leaky dielectric model. We focus on investigating the effects of charge convection and shape deformation for different drop-medium combinations. A perfectly conducting drop suspended in a leaky (or perfectly) dielectric medium always deforms to a prolate shape and this kind of shape deformation always augments the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. For a perfectly dielectric drop suspended in a perfectly dielectric medium, the shape deformation leads to either increase (for prolate shape) or decrease (for oblate shape) in the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. Both surface charge convection and shape deformation affect the drop motion for leaky dielectric drops. The combined effect of these can significantly increase or decrease the dielectrophoretic drop velocity depending on the electrohydrodynamic properties of both the liquids and the relative strength of the electric Reynolds number and electric capillary number. Finally, comparison with the existing experiments reveals better agreement with the present theory.

  10. Joint Effects of Illumination Geometry and Object Shape in the Perception of Surface Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olkkonen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties provide useful information for identifying objects and interacting with them. Effective utilization of this information, however, requires that the perception of object surface properties be relatively constant across changes in illumination and changes in object shape. Such constancy has been studied separately for changes in these factors. Here we ask whether the separate study of the illumination and shape effects is sufficient, by testing whether joint effects of illumination and shape changes can be predicted from the individual effects in a straightforward manner. We found large interactions between illumination and object shape in their effects on perceived glossiness. In addition, analysis of luminance histogram statistics could not account for the interactions.

  11. Reliable Classification of Geologic Surfaces Using Texture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foil, G.; Howarth, D.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Castano, R.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2012-12-01

    Communication delays and bandwidth constraints are major obstacles for remote exploration spacecraft. Due to such restrictions, spacecraft could make use of onboard science data analysis to maximize scientific gain, through capabilities such as the generation of bandwidth-efficient representative maps of scenes, autonomous instrument targeting to exploit targets of opportunity between communications, and downlink prioritization to ensure fast delivery of tactically-important data. Of particular importance to remote exploration is the precision of such methods and their ability to reliably reproduce consistent results in novel environments. Spacecraft resources are highly oversubscribed, so any onboard data analysis must provide a high degree of confidence in its assessment. The TextureCam project is constructing a "smart camera" that can analyze surface images to autonomously identify scientifically interesting targets and direct narrow field-of-view instruments. The TextureCam instrument incorporates onboard scene interpretation and mapping to assist these autonomous science activities. Computer vision algorithms map scenes such as those encountered during rover traverses. The approach, based on a machine learning strategy, trains a statistical model to recognize different geologic surface types and then classifies every pixel in a new scene according to these categories. We describe three methods for increasing the precision of the TextureCam instrument. The first uses ancillary data to segment challenging scenes into smaller regions having homogeneous properties. These subproblems are individually easier to solve, preventing uncertainty in one region from contaminating those that can be confidently classified. The second involves a Bayesian approach that maximizes the likelihood of correct classifications by abstaining from ambiguous ones. We evaluate these two techniques on a set of images acquired during field expeditions in the Mojave Desert. Finally, the

  12. Surface texture modification of spin-coated SiO2 xerogel thin films by TMCS silylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogesh S Mhaisagar; Bhavana N Joshi; A M Mahajan

    2012-04-01

    The SiO2 xerogel thin films were deposited successfully by sol–gel technique via the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with ethanol as a solvent. Further, the deposited thin films were treated wet chemically by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and hexane solution with 10% and 15% volume ratio to remove the hydroxyl groups from the surface of deposited SiO2 thin films. These as deposited and surfacemodified films were characterized by ellipsometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and contact angle meter. The presence of 2900 and 850 cm-1 peaks of CH3 vibrations in FTIR spectra of surface-modified films confirms the hydrphobisation of SiO2 surface. The maximum contact angle of 108.7° was observed for the surface-modified film at 10% TMCS.

  13. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  14. Droplet hysteresis investigation on non-wetting striped textured surfaces: A lattice Boltzmann study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongye; Liu, Haihu; Sun, Jinju; Ba, Yan

    2014-10-01

    The Cassie-Baxter model is widely used to predict the apparent contact angles on textured super-hydrophobic surfaces. However, it has been challenged by some recent studies, since it does not consider contact angle hysteresis and surface structure characteristics near the contact line. The present study is to investigate the contact angle hysteresis on striped textured surfaces, and its elimination through vibrating the substrate. The two-phase flow is simulated by a recently proposed lattice Boltzmann model for high-density-ratio flows. Droplet evolutions under various initial contact angles are simulated, and it is found that different contact angles exist for the same textured surface. The importance of the contact line structure for droplet pinning is underlined via a study of droplet behavior on a composite substrate, with striped textured structure inside and flat structure outside. A “stick-jump” motion is found for the advancing contact line on the striped textured surface. Due to hysteresis, the contact angles after advancing are not consistent with the Cassie-Baxter model. The stable equilibrium is obtained through properly vibrating the substrate, and the resulted contact angles are consistent with Cassie's predictions.

  15. Mechanical performance and texture characteristic of an IF steel containing Nb and Ti by double cold rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-yun Wang; Peng Zhang; Wei Li; Guang-jie Huang

    2009-01-01

    Single cold rolling and double cold rolling were applied to hot rolled strips with different reduction ratios.The evolutions of { 100},{ 111 } and Goss face texture during double rolling were investigated by comparing the orientation distribution function (ODF) of the double rolled sample with that of the single rolled one.The double cold rolling texture is characterized by a higher T-texture and a lower a-texture,and the { 111 } component is improved remarkably.Based on the TEM observation and me-chanical properties test,it is found that the reduction ratio assignment significantly affects the texture variation,as-annealing micro-structures,and properties of the double cold rolled samples.These results may provide a theoretical guide for the industrial produc-tion of double cold rolled IF steel.

  16. Langmuir aggregation of Nile blue and safranine T on sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate surface and its application to quantitative determination of anionic detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Ye, Qing-Song; Liu, Wei-Guo

    2002-04-01

    We studied the interaction of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) with Nile Blue (NB) and Safranine T (ST) by a spectral correction technique. The aggregations of NB and ST on an SDBS surface obeyed Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The adsorption ratios of NB and ST to SDBS were both 0.5, and the adsorption constants of the aggregates were 1.80 x 10(5) and 9.49 x 10(4). The aggregations were applied to the quantitative determination of anion detergent in samples; the recovery of SDBS was between 90.3 and 106% together with an RSD of 3.78%.

  17. Study on tribological properties of multi-layer surface texture on Babbitt alloys surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Zhao, Feifei; Li, Yan; Li, Pengyang; Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng

    2016-12-01

    To improve tribological properties of Babbitt alloys, multi-layer surface texture consisted of the main grooves and secondary micro-dimples are fabricated on the Babbitt substrate through laser pulse ablation. The tribological behaviors of multi-layer surface texture are investigated using a rotating type pin-on-disc tribo-meter under variation sliding speeds, and the film pressure distributions on the textured surfaces are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for elucidating the possible mechanisms. The results suggest that: (i) the multi-layer surface texture can reduce friction coefficient of Babbitt alloy, which has lowest friction coefficient of 0.03, in case of the groove parameter of 300 μm width and 15% of area density; (ii) the improvement effect may be more sensitive to the groove area density and the siding speed, and the textured surface with lower area density has lower friction coefficient under high sliding speed. Based on the reasons of (i) the secondary micro-dimples on Babbitt alloy possesses a hydrophobicity surface and (ii) the CFD analysis indicates that main grooves enhancing hydrodynamic effect, thus the multi-layer surface texture is regarded as dramatically improve the lubricating properties of the Babbitt alloy.

  18. Surface morphology and physical properties of partially melt textured Mn doped Bi-2223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The samples of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xMnxO10+δ (x = 0.0 to 0.30 were prepared by the standard solid-state reaction method. The phase identification characteristics of synthesized (HTSC materials were explored through powder X-ray diffractometer reveals that all the samples crystallize in orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters a = 5.4053 Å, b = 5.4110 Å and c = 37.0642 Å up to Mn concentration of x = 0.30. The critical temperature (Tc measured by standard four probe method has been found to depress from 108 K to 70 K as Mn content (x increases from 0.00 to 0.30. The effects of sintering temperature on the surface morphology of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xMnxO10+δ have also been investigated. The surface morphology investigated through scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (SEM & AFM results that voids are decreasing but grains size increases as the Mn concentration increases besides, nanosphere like structures on the surface of the Mn doped Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xMnxO10+δ (Bi-2223 samples.

  19. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  20. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped with a d...... features and performance of learning algorithms is done and the best method is further used to classify objects by their surface textures with recognition results higher than 90 percent.......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...

  1. Wetting theory for small droplets on textured solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donggyu; Pugno, Nicola M.; Ryu, Seunghwa

    2016-11-01

    Conventional wetting theories on rough surfaces with Wenzel, Cassie-Baxter, and Penetrate modes suggest the possibility of tuning the contact angle by adjusting the surface texture. Despite decades of intensive study, there are still many experimental results that are not well understood because conventional wetting theory, which assumes an infinite droplet size, has been used to explain measurements of finite-sized droplets. Here, we suggest a wetting theory applicable to a wide range of droplet size for the three wetting modes by analyzing the free energy landscape with many local minima originated from the finite size. We find that the conventional theory predicts the contact angle at the global minimum if the droplet size is about 40 times or larger than the characteristic scale of the surface roughness, regardless of wetting modes. Furthermore, we obtain the energy barrier of pinning which can induce the contact angle hysteresis as a function of geometric factors. We validate our theory against experimental results on an anisotropic rough surface. In addition, we discuss the wetting on non-uniformly rough surfaces. Our findings clarify the extent to which the conventional wetting theory is valid and expand the physical understanding of wetting phenomena of small liquid drops on rough surfaces.

  2. Formation and Water Stability of Aggregates in Red Soils as Affected by Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMINGKUI等; M.J.WILSON; 等

    1996-01-01

    The water stability of aggregates in various size classes separated from 18 samples of red soils under different managements,and the mechanisms responsible for the formation of waer-stable soil aggregates were studied.The results showed that the water stbility of soil aggregates declined with increasing size,especially for the low organic matter soils.Organic matter plays a key role in the formation of water-stable soil aggregates.The larger the soil aggregate size.the greater the impact of organic matter on the water stability of soil aggregates.Removal of organic matter markedly disintegrated the large water-stable aggregates(>2.0mm)and increased the small ones(2.0mm)were mainly glued up by organic mater,Both free oxides and organic matter contribute to the formation and water stability of aggregates in red soils.

  3. Contrast negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an "oddball" real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system's tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  4. Textural identification of carbonate rocks by image processing and neural network: Methodology proposal and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmo, Roberto; Amodio, Sabrina; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Ferreri, Vittoria; Longo, Giuseppe

    2005-06-01

    Using more than 1000 thin section photos of ancient (Phanerozoic) carbonates from different marine environments (pelagic to shallow-water) a new numerical methodology, based on digitized images of thin sections, is proposed here. In accordance with the Dunham classification, it allows the user to automatically identify carbonate textures unaffected by post-depositional modifications (recrystallization, dolomitization, meteoric dissolution and so on). The methodology uses, as input, 256 grey-tone digital image and by image processing gives, as output, a set of 23 values of numerical features measured on the whole image including the "white areas" (calcite cement). A multi-layer perceptron neural network takes as input this features and gives, as output, the estimated class. We used 532 images of thin sections to train the neural network, whereas to test the methodology we used 268 images taken from the same photo collection and 215 images from San Lorenzello carbonate sequence (Matese Mountains, southern Italy), Early Cretaceous in age. This technique has shown 93.3% and 93.5% of accuracy to classify automatically textures of carbonate rocks using digitized images on the 268 and 215 test sets, respectively. Therefore, the proposed methodology is a further promising application to the geosciences allowing carbonate textures of many thin sections to be identified in a rapid and accurate way. A MATLAB-based computer code has been developed for the processing and display of images.

  5. Computer Texture Mapping for Laser Texturing of Injection Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser texturing is a relatively new multiprocess technique that has been used for machining 3D curved surfaces; it is more flexible and efficient to create decorative texture on 3D curved surfaces of injection molds so as to improve the surface quality and achieve cosmetic surface of molded plastic parts. In this paper, a novel method of laser texturing 3D curved surface based on 3-axis galvanometer scanning unit has been presented to prevent the texturing of injection mold surface from much distortion which is often caused by traditional texturing processes. The novel method has been based on the computer texture mapping technology which has been developed and presented. The developed texture mapping algorithm includes surface triangulation, notations, distortion measurement, control, and numerical method. An interface of computer texture mapping has been built to implement the algorithm of texture mapping approach to controlled distortion rate of 3D texture math model from 2D original texture applied to curvature surface. Through a case study of laser texturing of a high curvature surface of injection mold of a mice top case, it shows that the novel method of laser texturing meets the quality standard of laser texturing of injection mold.

  6. Influence of initial textures on dynamic recrystallization and textures in AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping(杨平); CUI Feng-e(崔凤娥); MA Shi-cai(马世才); G Gottstein

    2003-01-01

    Microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were applied to inspect the influence of initial texture on dynamic recrystallization and texture formation in AZ31 magnesium alloys during channel die compression. The results show that stress-strain curves, microstructures and textures depend on initial textures. Two types of nucleation sites are detected which are in different proportions depending on initial textures. Dynamic recrystallization proceeds faster in samples with more inhomogeneity. When the basal planes of grains are parallel to rolling plane of sample with scattering around transverse direction, no new texture component occurs and texture is strengthened together with dynamic recrystallization. By other initial textures there are texture changes during hot deformation. New grains rotate gradually to basal orientation at heavy strain.

  7. Modulation of the Gelation Efficiency of Fibrillar and Spherical Aggregates by Means of Thiolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Broersen, K.; Linden, E. van der; Martin, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrillar and spherical aggregates were prepared from whey protein isolate (WPI). These aggregates were thiolated to a substantial degree to observe any impact on functionality. Sulfur-containing groups were introduced on these aggregates which could be converted to thiol groups by deblocking. Chang

  8. Silicone hydrogel contact lens surface analysis by atomic force microscopy: shape parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldez, M. J.; Garcia-Resua, C.; Lira, M.; Sánchez-Sellero, C.; Yebra-Pimentel, E.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Average roughness (Ra) is generally used to quantify roughness; however it makes no distinction between spikes and troughs. Shape parameters as kurtosis (Rku) and skewness (Rsk) serve to distinguish between two profiles with the same Ra. They have been reported in many biomedical fields, but they were no applied to contact lenses before. The aim of this study is to analyze surface properties of four silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL) by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) evaluating Ra, Rku and Rsk. Methods: CL used in this study were disposable silicone hydrogel senofilcon A, comfilcon A, balafilcon A and lotrafilcon B. Unworn CL surfaces roughness and topography were measured by AFM (Veeco, multimode-nanoscope V) in tapping modeTM. Ra, Rku and Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were determined. Results: Surface topography and parameters showed different characteristics depending on the own nature of the contact lens (Ra/Rku/Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were: senofilcon A 3,33/3,74/0,74 and 3,76/18,16/1,75; comfilcon A: 1,56/31,09/2,93 and 2,76/45,82/3,60; balafilcon A: 2,01/33,62/-2,14 and 2,54/23,36/-1,96; lotrafilcon B: 26,97/4,11/-0,34 and 29,25/2,82/-0,23). In lotrafilcon B, with the highest Ra, Rku showed a lower degree of peakedness of its distribution. Negative Rsk value obtained for balafilcon A showed a clear predominance of valleys in this lens. Conclusions: Kku and Rsk are two statistical parameters useful to analyse CL surfaces, which complete information from Ra. Differences in values distribution and symmetry were observed between CL.

  9. TEXTURE AND CRYSTALLINITY EVOLUTION IN ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE INDUCED BY ROLLING AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Jia; Dierk Raabe; Wei-min Mao

    2006-01-01

    The orientation and crystallinity evolution of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) induced by rolling were studied using wide angle X-ray scattering with an area detector. The tensile mechanical properties of rolled isotactic polypropylene sheets were also measured in this work. The texture component method was used to analyze the rolling texture. The rolling texture consists mainly of (010)[001], (130)[001] and [001]//RD fiber components in the sample with a rolling true strain of 1.5.The results reveal that crystallinity drastically decreases during rolling. It is suggested that amorphization is a deformation mechanism which takes place as an alternative to crystallographic intralamellar slip depending on the orientation of the lamellae. Both the orientation and crystallinity affect the tensile mechanical properties of rolled polypropylene. Crystallinity influences the elastic modulus on both directions and yield strength on transverse direction at the first stage of deformation.Orientation is the main reason for the changes of mechanical properties, especially at the latter part of deformation. The changes of both tensile strength and elongation percentage on rolling direction are larger than those on transverse direction,which results from the orientation. At last, the anisotropic mechanical properties occur on the rolling and transverse direction: high tensile strength with low elongation percentage on rolling direction and low tensile strength with high elongation percentage on transverse direction.

  10. Position-dependent texture analysis of melt-textured YBCO by means of electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Ogasawara, K.; Murakami, M.

    2003-10-01

    The texture and phase distribution of melt-textured YBa 2Cu 3O x (YBCO) was studied by means of automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis as a function of the position in the bulk pellet of 4 cm diameter. A total of five samples was cut from the pellet; four samples from the surface of the bulk with different distances to the seed crystal, and one cut in vertical direction in the middle of the pellet. The melt-textured YBCO samples require a two-phase analysis to be performed, so a high surface quality is necessary to enable an automated EBSD scan. Good quality Kikuchi patterns are obtained from both the 1 2 3 and 2 1 1 phases. We found an inhomogeneous distribution of the 2 1 1 particles. Whereas the samples cut from the surface contain a large amount of 2 1 1 particles, in the samples of the vertical direction only traces of 2 1 1 particles are found. Furthermore, we measured the misorientation angle distribution of all samples. The data are presented in form of phase mappings, misorientation distribution functions and pole figures.

  11. Water stable aggregates of Japanese Andisol as affected by hydrophobicity and drying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity is a property of soils that reduces their affinity for water, which may help impeding the pressure build-up within aggregates, and reducing aggregate disruption. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of soil hydrophobicity and drying temperature to water stability of aggregates while preventing the floating of dry aggregates using unhydrophobized and hydrophobized surface Andisol. Soil was hydrophobized using stearic acid into different hydrophobicities. Hydrophobicity was determined using sessile drop contact angle and water drop penetration time (WDPT. Water stability of aggregates (%WSA was determined using artificially prepared model aggregates. The %WSA increased as the contact angle and WDPT increased. Contact angle and WDPT, which provided maximum %WSA showing less than 1 s of floating, was around 100° and 5 s, respectively. Although the %WSA gradually increased with increasing contact angle and WDPT above this level, high levels of hydrophobicity initiated aggregate floating, which would cause undesirable effects of water repellency. Heating at 50°C for 5 h d-1 significantly affected %WSA and hydrophobicity in hydrophobized samples, but did not in unhydrophobized samples. The results indicate that the contact angle and wetting rate (WDPT are closely related with the water stability of aggregates. The results further confirm that high levels of hydrophobicities induce aggregate floating, and the drying temperature has differential effects on hydrophobicity and aggregate stability depending on the hydrophobic materials present in the soil.

  12. Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana de Paula Martins; André Luis Moreira de Carvalho; Angelo Fernando Padilha

    2012-01-01

    A 7.4 mm thick strip of 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the industrial twin-roll casting (TRC) process was homogenized at 500 °C for 12 hours, after which it was cold rolled in two conditions: 1) to reduce the strip's thickness by 67%, and 2) to reduce it by 91%. The alloy was annealed at 400 °C for 1 hour in both conditions. The results revealed that a rotated cube texture, the {001}

  13. The effects of sous-vide cooking parameters on texture and cell wall modifications in two apple cultivars: A response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abel; Le Meurlay, Dominique; Lara, Isabel; Symoneaux, Ronan; Madieta, Emmanuel; Mehinagic, Emira

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of 'Mondial Gala' and 'Granny Smith' apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. 'Mondial Gala' fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than 'Granny Smith' apples. Pectin methylesterase activity levels in 'Mondial Gala' apples were enhanced at mild temperatures and pectins in this cultivar displayed a lower degree of methylation. Therefore, the establishment of calcium-mediated linkages between cell wall polymers might have been favoured in 'Mondial Gala' apples, thus reinforcing tissues and improving the preservation of textural attributes, in comparison to 'Granny Smith' samples.

  14. Cathepsin G Induces Cell Aggregation of Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells via a 2-Step Mechanism: Catalytic Site-Independent Binding to the Cell Surface and Enzymatic Activity-Dependent Induction of the Cell Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyo Morimoto-Kamata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils often invade various tumor tissues and affect tumor progression and metastasis. Cathepsin G (CG is a serine protease secreted from activated neutrophils. Previously, we have shown that CG induces the formation of E-cadherin-mediated multicellular spheroids of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether CG required its enzymatic activity to induce MCF-7 cell aggregation. The cell aggregation-inducing activity of CG was inhibited by pretreatment of CG with the serine protease inhibitors chymostatin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. In addition, an enzymatically inactive S195G (chymotrypsinogen numbering CG did not induce cell aggregation. Furthermore, CG specifically bound to the cell surface of MCF-7 cells via a catalytic site-independent mechanism because the binding was not affected by pretreatment of CG with serine protease inhibitors, and cell surface binding was also detected with S195G CG. Therefore, we propose that the CG-induced aggregation of MCF-7 cells occurs via a 2-step process, in which CG binds to the cell surface, independently of its catalytic site, and then induces cell aggregation, which is dependent on its enzymatic activity.

  15. Fourier and granulometry methods on 3D images of soil surfaces for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Green, O.; Munkholm, Lars Juhl;

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to present and compare two methods for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution based on high resolution 3D images of the soil surface. The methods for analyzing the images are discrete Fourier transform and granulometry. The results of these methods correlate...... with a measured weight distribution of the soil aggregates. The results have shown that it is possible to distinguish between the cultivated and the uncultivated soil surface. A sensor system suitable for capturing in-situ high resolution 3D images of the soil surface is also described. This sensor system...... is based on a SICK LMS111 laser range scanner....

  16. Study of microstructure and electrical properties of bulk YBCO prepared by melt textured growth technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonal, M. R.; Krishnan, Madangopal [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA 400 085 (India); Tewari, R. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A. K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA 400 085 (India); Gyore, A.; Vajda, I. [Department of Electric Power Engineering, Budapest Univ. of Technology & Economics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-06-24

    Bulk YBCO components were prepared using Melt Texture Growth (MTG) technique. Components were fabricated using MTG by addition of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) and Ag to YBCO, which leads to improved grain size without affecting superconducting properties. Green compacts prepared by cold isostatic pressing were pre-sintered at 930°C before subjecting melt texturing. Cooling rates lower than 1 °C.h{sup −1} was used, in between (peritectic) temperature of about 995 and 1025°C, to obtain large grained components. Microstructure studies in details were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA), Orientation Imaging Microscope (OIM) and TEM correlated with electrical properties like Critical current density (J{sub c})

  17. Generalized Models for Rock Joint Surface Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized models of joint surface shapes are the foundation for mechanism studies on the mechanical effects of rock joint surface shapes. Based on extensive field investigations of rock joint surface shapes, generalized models for three level shapes named macroscopic outline, surface undulating shape, and microcosmic roughness were established through statistical analyses of 20,078 rock joint surface profiles. The relative amplitude of profile curves was used as a borderline for the division of different level shapes. The study results show that the macroscopic outline has three basic features such as planar, arc-shaped, and stepped; the surface undulating shape has three basic features such as planar, undulating, and stepped; and the microcosmic roughness has two basic features such as smooth and rough.

  18. Visualizing the size, shape, morphology, and localized surface plasmon resonance of individual gold nanoshells by near-infrared multispectral imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejac, Irena; Bryan, William W; Lee, T Randall; Tran, Chieu D

    2009-08-15

    We have successfully utilized the newly developed near-infrared multispectral imaging (NIR-MSI) microscope to observe and measure directly the localized surface plasmon absorption (LSPR) of individual gold nanoshells. The NIR-MSI is suited for this task because it can simultaneously record spectral and spatial information of a sample with high sensitivity (single pixel resolution) and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.9 microm/pixel). Importantly, the LSPR of individual nanoshells measured by the NIR-MSI microscope agrees well with the spectra calculated theoretically using Mie scattering for the nanoshells (i.e., nanoshells with silica cores approximately 800 nm in diameter and gold shell thicknesses of approximately 35 nm). Additionally, the NIR-MSI microscope enables measurement of LSPR at different positions within a single nanoshell. LSPR spectra were found to be distinct at various positions within a single nanoshell. Since LSPR spectra are known to depend on the shape and morphology of the nanoshells, these results seem to suggest that the individual nanoshells are not smooth and well-defined, but are rather rough and inhomogeneous. The LSPR spectra of single nanoshells in several different solvents were also examined using NIR-MSI and were found to depend on the dielectric constant of the medium. However, the relationship was discovered to be more complex than simply following the Drude equation. Specifically, when (lambda(max)/fwhm)(2) values of LSPR for single gold nanoshells were plotted as a function of 2n(2) (or 2epsilon) for nanoshells in six different solvents, a linear relationship was found for only three solvents: D(2)O, acetonitrile-d(3), and ethyl acetate. Acetone-d(6) showed a slight deviation, whereas formamide and pyridine-d(5) exhibited distinctly different correlations.

  19. Multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories—nuclear shapes and potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-06-01

    The intrinsic nuclear shapes deviating from a sphere not only manifest themselves in nuclear collective states but also play important roles in determining nuclear potential energy surfaces (PES’s) and fission barriers. In order to describe microscopically and self-consistently nuclear shapes and PES’s with as many shape degrees of freedom as possible included, we developed multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFTs). In MDC-CDFTs, the axial symmetry and the reflection symmetry are both broken and all deformations characterized by {β }λ μ with even μ are considered. We have used the MDC-CDFTs to study PES’s and fission barriers of actinides, the non-axial octupole Y 32 correlations in N = 150 isotones and shapes of hypernuclei. In this Review we will give briefly the formalism of MDC-CDFTs and present the applications to normal nuclei.

  20. Multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories --- nuclear shapes and potential energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic nuclear shapes deviating from a sphere not only manifest themselves in nuclear collective states but also play important roles in determining nuclear potential energy surfaces (PES's) and fission barriers. In order to describe microscopically and self-consistently nuclear shapes and PES's with as many shape degrees of freedom as possible included, we developed multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFTs). In MDC-CDFTs, the axial symmetry and the reflection symmetry are both broken and all deformations characterized by $\\beta_{\\lambda\\mu}$ with even $\\mu$ are considered. We have used the MDC-CDFTs to study PES's and fission barriers of actinides, the non-axial octupole $Y_{32}$ correlations in $N = 150$ isotones and shapes of hypernuclei. In this Review we will give briefly the formalism of MDC-CDFTs and present the applications to normal nuclei.

  1. Surface treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy by modified advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Cheng-lin; WANG Ru-meng; YIN Li-hong; PU Yue-pu; DONG Yin-sheng; GUO Chao; SHENG Xiao-bo; LIN Ping-hua; CHU Paul-K

    2009-01-01

    A modified advanced oxidation process(AOP) utilizing a UV/electrochemically-generated peroxide system was used to fabricate titania films on chemically polished NiTi shape memory alloy(SMA). The microstructure and biomedical properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICPMS), hemolysis analysis, and blood platelet adhesion test. It is found that the modified AOP has a high processing effectiveness and can result in the formation of a dense titania film with a Ni-free zone near its top surface. In comparison, Ni can still be detected on the outer NiTi surface by the conventional AOP using the UV/H2O2 system. The depth profiles of O, Ni, Ti show that the film possesses a smooth graded interface structure next to the NiTi substrate and this structure enhances the mechanical stability of titania film. The titania film can dramatically reduce toxic Ni ion release and also improve the hemolysis resistance and thromboresistance of biomedical NiTi SMA.

  2. The spectral emittance and stability of coatings and textured surfaces for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockeram, B.V.; Hollenbeck, J.L.

    2000-11-01

    Coatings or surface modifications are needed to improve the surface emissivity of materials under consideration for TPV radiator applications to a value of 0.8 or higher. Vacuum plasma spray coatings (ZrO{sub 2} + 18% TiO{sub 2} + 10% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrC, Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}, ZrTiO{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 2% HfO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2}) and a chemical vapor deposited coating of rhenium whiskers were used to increase the surface emissivity of refractory metal and nickel-base materials. Emittance measurements following 4000 hours of vacuum annealing at 1100 C show that only the ZrO{sub 2} + 18% TiO{sub 2} + 10% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrC, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2} coatings have the desired thermal stability, and maintain emissivity values higher than 0.8. These coatings are graybody emitters, and provide a high emissivity value in the wavelength range that is relevant to the TPV cells. The highest emissivity values were observed for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2} coatings, with post-anneal values higher than graphite.

  3. Mapping soil texture classes and optimization of the result by accuracy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Pásztor, László

    2014-05-01

    There are increasing demands nowadays on spatial soil information in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. The GlobalSoilMap.net (GSM) project aims to make a new digital soil map of the world using state-of-the-art and emerging technologies for soil mapping and predicting soil properties at fine resolution. Sand, silt and clay are among the mandatory GSM soil properties. Furthermore, soil texture class information is input data of significant agro-meteorological and hydrological models. Our present work aims to compare and evaluate different digital soil mapping methods and variables for producing the most accurate spatial prediction of texture classes in Hungary. In addition to the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System as our basic data, digital elevation model and its derived components, geological database, and physical property maps of the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System have been applied as auxiliary elements. Two approaches have been applied for the mapping process. At first the sand, silt and clay rasters have been computed independently using regression kriging (RK). From these rasters, according to the USDA categories, we have compiled the texture class map. Different combinations of reference and training soil data and auxiliary covariables have resulted several different maps. However, these results consequentially include the uncertainty factor of the three kriged rasters. Therefore we have suited data mining methods as the other approach of digital soil mapping. By working out of classification trees and random forests we have got directly the texture class maps. In this way the various results can be compared to the RK maps. The performance of the different methods and data has been examined by testing the accuracy of the geostatistically computed and the directly classified results. We have used the GSM methodology to assess the most predictive and accurate way for getting the best among the

  4. Transition from Cassie to impaled state during drop impact on groove-textured solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntanathan, V; Sivakumar, D

    2014-05-07

    Liquid drops impacted on textured surfaces undergo a transition from the Cassie state characterized by the presence of air pockets inside the roughness valleys below the drop to an impaled state with at least one of the roughness valleys filled with drop liquid. This occurs when the drop impact velocity exceeds a particular value referred to as the critical impact velocity. The present study investigates such a transition process during water drop impact on surfaces textured with unidirectional parallel grooves referred to as groove-textured surfaces. The process of liquid impalement into a groove in the vicinity of drop impact through de-pinning of the three-phase contact line (TPCL) beneath the drop as well as the critical impact velocity were identified experimentally from high speed video recordings of water drop impact on six different groove-textured surfaces made from intrinsically hydrophilic (stainless steel) as well as intrinsically hydrophobic (PDMS and rough aluminum) materials. The surface energy of various 2-D configurations of liquid-vapor interface beneath the drop near the drop impact point was theoretically investigated to identify the locally stable configurations and establish a pathway for the liquid impalement process. A force balance analysis performed on the liquid-vapor interface configuration just prior to TPCL de-pinning provided an expression for the critical drop impact velocity, Uo,cr, beyond which the drop state transitions from the Cassie to an impaled state. The theoretical model predicts that Uo,cr increases with the increase in pillar side angle, α, and intrinsic hydrophobicity whereas it decreases with the increase in groove top width, w, of the groove-textured surface. The quantitative predictions of the theoretical model were found to show good agreement with the experimental measurements of Uo,cr plotted against the surface texture geometry factor in our model, {tan(α/2)/w}(0.5).

  5. Identification and comparison of electrical tapes using instrumental and statistical techniques: I. Microscopic surface texture and elemental composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpaster, John V; Sturdevant, Amanda B; Andrews, Kristen L; Brun-Conti, Leanora

    2007-05-01

    Comparisons of polyvinyl chloride electrical tape typically rely upon evaluating class characteristics such as physical dimensions, surface texture, and chemical composition. Given the various techniques that are available for this purpose, a comprehensive study has been undertaken to establish an optimal analytical scheme for electrical tape comparisons. Of equal importance is the development of a quantitative means for sample discrimination. In this study, 67 rolls of black electrical tape representing 34 different nominal brands were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Differences in surface roughness, calendering marks, and filler particle size were readily apparent, including between some rolls of the same nominal brand. The relative amounts of magnesium, aluminum, silicon, sulfur, lead, chlorine, antimony, calcium, titanium, and zinc varied greatly between brands and, in some cases, could be linked to the year of manufacture. For the first time, quantitative differentiation of electrical tapes was achieved through multivariate statistical techniques, with 36 classes identified within the sample population. A single-blind study was also completed where questioned tape samples were correctly associated with known exemplars. Finally, two case studies are presented where tape recovered from an improvised explosive device is compared with tape recovered from a suspect.

  6. High fidelity replication of surface texture and geometric form of a high aspect ratio aerodynamic test component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan

    2016-06-01

    This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial and amplitude areal surface texture parameter were accurate to within 2%. Compared to an existing similar system using correlation areal parameters the current technique is shown to have lower fidelity and this difference is discussed. The current technique was developed for the measurement of boundary layer flow ‘laminar to turbulent’ transition for gas turbine compressor blade profiles and this application is illustrated.

  7. Analysis of machinable structures and their wettability of rotary ultrasonic texturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaolin; Shimada, Keita; Mizutani, Masayoshi; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    2016-10-01

    Tailored surface textures at the micro- or nanoscale dimensions are widely used to get required functional performances. Rotary ultrasonic texturing (RUT) technique has been proved to be capable of fabricating periodic micro- and nanostructures. In the present study, diamond tools with geometrically defined cutting edges were designed for fabricating different types of tailored surface textures using the RUT method. Surface generation mechanisms and machinable structures of the RUT process are analyzed and simulated with a 3D-CAD program. Textured surfaces generated by using a triangular pyramid cutting tip are constructed. Different textural patterns from several micrometers to several tens of micrometers with few burrs were successfully fabricated, which proved that tools with a proper two-rake-face design are capable of removing cutting chips efficiently along a sinusoidal cutting locus in the RUT process. Technical applications of the textured surfaces are also discussed. Wetting properties of textured aluminum surfaces were evaluated by combining the test of surface roughness features. The results show that the real surface area of the textured aluminum surfaces almost doubled by comparing with that of a flat surface, and anisotropic wetting properties were obtained due to the obvious directional textural features.

  8. An Image Retrieval Method Based on Color and Texture Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The technique of image retrieval is widely used in science experiment, military affairs, public security,advertisement, family entertainment, library and so on. The existing algorithms are mostly based on the characteristics of color, texture, shape and space relationship. This paper introduced an image retrieval algorithm, which is based on the matching of weighted EMD(Earth Mover's Distance) distance and texture distance. EMD distance is the distance between the histograms of two images in HSV(Hue, Saturation, Value) color space, and texture distance is the L1 distance between the texture spectra of two images. The experimental results show that the retrieval rate can be increased obviously by using the proposed algorithm.

  9. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N.; Marao, Heloisa Fonseca; Pinto, Nelson; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1) dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured) and (2) micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface). L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International) was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α = 0.05) evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal), individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants. PMID:28042577

  10. A hydrophobic gold surface triggers misfolding and aggregation of the amyloidogenic Josephin domain in monomeric form, while leaving the oligomers unaffected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Apicella

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding and aggregation in intracellular and extracellular spaces is regarded as a main marker of the presence of degenerative disorders such as amyloidoses. To elucidate the mechanisms of protein misfolding, the interaction of proteins with inorganic surfaces is of particular relevance, since surfaces displaying different wettability properties may represent model systems of the cell membrane. Here, we unveil the role of surface hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity in the misfolding of the Josephin domain (JD, a globular-shaped domain of ataxin-3, the protein responsible for the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. By means of a combined experimental and theoretical approach based on atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal changes in JD morphology and secondary structure elicited by the interaction with the hydrophobic gold substrate, but not by the hydrophilic mica. Our results demonstrate that the interaction with the gold surface triggers misfolding of the JD when it is in native-like configuration, while no structural modification is observed after the protein has undergone oligomerization. This raises the possibility that biological membranes would be unable to affect amyloid oligomeric structures and toxicity.

  11. A Hydrophobic Gold Surface Triggers Misfolding and Aggregation of the Amyloidogenic Josephin Domain in Monomeric Form, While Leaving the Oligomers Unaffected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Alessandra; Soncini, Monica; Deriu, Marco Agostino; Natalello, Antonino; Bonanomi, Marcella; Dellasega, David; Tortora, Paolo; Regonesi, Maria Elena; Casari, Carlo Spartaco

    2013-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation in intracellular and extracellular spaces is regarded as a main marker of the presence of degenerative disorders such as amyloidoses. To elucidate the mechanisms of protein misfolding, the interaction of proteins with inorganic surfaces is of particular relevance, since surfaces displaying different wettability properties may represent model systems of the cell membrane. Here, we unveil the role of surface hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity in the misfolding of the Josephin domain (JD), a globular-shaped domain of ataxin-3, the protein responsible for the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. By means of a combined experimental and theoretical approach based on atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal changes in JD morphology and secondary structure elicited by the interaction with the hydrophobic gold substrate, but not by the hydrophilic mica. Our results demonstrate that the interaction with the gold surface triggers misfolding of the JD when it is in native-like configuration, while no structural modification is observed after the protein has undergone oligomerization. This raises the possibility that biological membranes would be unable to affect amyloid oligomeric structures and toxicity. PMID:23527026

  12. Prediction of water quality parameters from SAR images by using multivariate and texture analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Muntadher A.; Toumi, Abdelmalek; Khenchaf, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing is one of the most important tools for monitoring and assisting to estimate and predict Water Quality parameters (WQPs). The traditional methods used for monitoring pollutants are generally relied on optical images. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images which we used to map the region of interest and to estimate the WQPs. To achieve this estimation quality, the texture analysis is exploited to improve the regression models. These models are established and developed to estimate six common concerned water quality parameters from texture parameters extracted from Terra SAR-X data. In this purpose, the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to estimate several regression models using six texture parameters such as contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, entropy and variance. For each predicted model, an accuracy value is computed from the probability value given by the regression analysis model of each parameter. In order to validate our approach, we have used tow dataset of water region for training and test process. To evaluate and validate the proposed model, we applied it on the training set. In the last stage, we used the fuzzy K-means clustering to generalize the water quality estimation on the whole of water region extracted from segmented Terra SAR-X image. Also, the obtained results showed that there are a good statistical correlation between the in situ water quality and Terra SAR-X data, and also demonstrated that the characteristics obtained by texture analysis are able to monitor and predicate the distribution of WQPs in large rivers with high accuracy.

  13. Mechanical properties and fractal analysis of the surface texture of sputtered hydroxyapatite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramowicz, Miroslaw; Braic, Laurentiu; Azem, Funda Ak; Kulesza, Slawomir; Birlik, Isil; Vladescu, Alina

    2016-08-01

    This aim of this work is to establish a relationship between the surface morphology and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings prepared using RF magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range from 400 to 800 °C. The topography of the samples was scanned using atomic force microscopy, and the obtained 3D maps were analyzed using fractal methods to derive the spatial characteristics of the surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the strong influence of the deposition temperature on the Ca/P ratio in the growing films. The coatings deposited at 600-800 °C exhibited a Ca/P ratio between 1.63 and 1.69, close to the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (Ca/P = 1.67), which is crucial for proper osseointegration. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the intensity of phosphate absorption bands increased with increasing substrate temperature. Each sample exhibited well defined and sharp hydroxyapatite band at 566 cm-1, although more pronounced for the coatings deposited above 500 °C. Both the hardness and elastic modulus of the coated samples decrease with increasing deposition temperature. The surface morphology strongly depends on the deposition temperature. The sample deposited at 400 °C exhibits circular cavities dug in an otherwise flat surface. At higher deposition temperatures, these cavities increase in size and start to overlap each other so that at 500 °C the surface is composed of closely packed peaks and ridges. At that point, the characteristics of the surface turns from the dominance of cavities to grains of similar size, and develops in a similar manner at higher temperatures.

  14. Paraboloid Structured Silicon Surface for Enhanced Light Absorption: Experimental and Simulative Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Kaur, Jasmeet; Fareed, Imran; Mobin, Abdul; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present an optical model that simulates the light trapping and scattering effects of a paraboloid texture surface first time. This model was experimentally verified by measuring the reflectance values of the periodically textured silicon (Si) surface with the shape of a paraboloid under different conditions. A paraboloid texture surface was obtained by electrochemical etching Si in the solution of hydrofluoric acid, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and deionized (DI) water. The paraboloid texture surface has the advantage of giving a lower reflectance value than the hemispherical, random pyramidal, and regular pyramidal texture surfaces. In the case of parabola, the light can be concentrated in the direction of the Si surface compared to the hemispherical, random pyramidal, and regular pyramidal textured surfaces. Furthermore, in a paraboloid textured surface, there can be a maximum value of 4 or even more by anisotropic etching duration compared to the hemispherical or pyramidal textured surfaces which have a maximum h/D (depth and diameter of the texture) value of 0.5. The reflectance values were found to be strongly dependent on the h/D ratio of the texture surface. The measured reflectance values were well matched with the simulated ones. The minimum reflectance value of ~4 % was obtained at a wavelength of 600 nm for an h/D ratio of 3.75. The simulation results showed that the reflectance value for the h/D ratio can be reduced to ~0.5 % by reducing the separations among the textures. This periodic paraboloidal structure can be applied to the surface texturing technique by substituting with a conventional pyramid textured surface or moth-eye antireflection coating.

  15. Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapati, Vidya; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Light trapping in solar cells allows for increased current and voltage, as well as reduced materials cost. It is known that in geometrical optics, a maximum 4n^2 absorption enhancement factor can be achieved by randomly texturing the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption enhancement limit only holds when the thickness of the solar cell is much greater than the optical wavelength. In sub-wavelength thin films, the fundamental questions remain unanswered: (1) what is the sub-wavelength absorption enhancement limit and (2) what surface texture realizes this optimal absorption enhancement? We turn to computational electromagnetic optimization in order to design nanoscale textures for light trapping in sub-wavelength thin films. For high-index thin films, in the weakly absorbing limit, our optimized surface textures yield an angle- and frequency-averaged enhancement factor ~39. They perform roughly 30% better than randomly textured structures, but they fall...

  16. Purification of Nanoparticles by Size and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, James D.; Rizzello, Loris; Avila-Olias, Milagros; Gaitzsch, Jens; Contini, Claudia; Magoń, Monika S.; Renshaw, Stephen A.; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Producing monodisperse nanoparticles is essential to ensure consistency in biological experiments and to enable a smooth translation into the clinic. Purification of samples into discrete sizes and shapes may not only improve sample quality, but also provide us with the tools to understand which physical properties of nanoparticles are beneficial for a drug delivery vector. In this study, using polymersomes as a model system, we explore four techniques for purifying pre-formed nanoparticles into discrete fractions based on their size, shape or density. We show that these techniques can successfully separate polymersomes into monodisperse fractions.

  17. Aggregation mechanism of Pd nanoparticles in L-cysteine aqueous solution studied by NEXAFS and AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, C., E-mail: tsukada.chie@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ogawa, S.; Mizutani, T. [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kutluk, G.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Yagi, S. [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for L-cysteine under water environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on Si wafer by gas evaporation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the Pd NPs/Si has been dipped into L-cysteine aqueous solution, the L-cysteine has selectively adsorbed on Pd NPs surface and existed as the L-cysteine thiolate, atomic S and L-cystine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moreover, the aggregation of Pd NPs occurs by the migration of Pd NPs on Si and the cross-linked reaction between L-cysteine thiolate molecules adsorbed on Pd NPs. - Abstract: We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) from the point of microscopic view. Thus, as the basic research for the biocompatibility, we have investigated the adsorbates on the Pd NPs surface and the aggregation mechanism for the Pd NPs on Si substrate after dipping into L-cysteine aqueous solution by means of NEXAFS measurement and AFM observation. The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on the Si wafer by the gas evaporation method. Judging from the results of NEXAFS measurement, it is clear that the L-cysteine thiolate and atomic S exist on the Pd NPs surface. The results of AFM observation show that the Pd NPs aggregate. It is thought that the aggregation of the Pd NPs occurs by both the migration of the Pd NPs on Si wafer and the cross-linked reaction.

  18. Crystal origins and magmatic system beneath Ngauruhoe volcano (New Zealand) revealed by plagioclase textures and compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, Alisha C.; Shane, Phil

    2016-09-01

    The textural variation and compositional zoning of plagioclase in pre-historic and historic basaltic andesite lava flows from Ngauruhoe volcano reveals extensive crystal recycling from a multi-level magma system. Most phenocrysts have a calcic (~ An80-90) resorbed core with diffuse or no zonation that is depleted in Fe and Mg. Some cores display patchy zonation from replacement by high An crystallization prior to resorption. The cores are mantled by oscillatory-zoned rims of lower An content (Mg. Rim zones vary in relative thickness and textural complexity, and include sieve-textured bands, and/or cyclic calcic growth following dissolution events. A subordinate crystal population display similar features, but lack a resorbed core. These latter crystals display overall rimward enrichment in An, Fe and Mg. The resorbed cores crystallized from magmas more mafic than those erupted at Ngauruhoe, and slow cooling and prolonged storage resulted in loss of An zoning patterns and depletion of Fe and Mg by diffusion. These crystals are likely to have originated from deep cumulates or intrusions, and were subsequently entrained in ascending magmas. Patchy-textured cores were produced during decompression in a water under-saturated magma and staged ascent. The diversity in crystal cores reflect different conduits and ascent histories. The crystal rims grew in a more differentiated magma reservoir, and are in equilibrium with the erupted melt. Most of the zoning patterns in the rim zone require water pressure and/or temperature changes. These changes could have been caused by convective self-mixing in a closed system and/or the intrusion of hydrous melts of similar bulk composition. Other crystals display rimward elemental enrichments consistent with mafic recharge. Previously reported rimward enrichment in 87Sr-86Sr compositions can be explained by the re-cycled origin of the crystal cores and progressive crustal assimilation at shallower depths in the magma system where

  19. Nonlinear surface dilatational rheology and foaming behavior of protein and protein fibrillar aggregates in the presence of natural surfactant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Zhili; Yang, Xiaoquan; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The surface and foaming properties of native soy glycinin (11S) and its heat-induced fibrillar aggregates, in the presence of natural surfactant steviol glycoside (STE), were investigated and compared at pH 7.0 to determine the impact of protein structure modification on protein?surfactant interfaci

  20. Bernoulli Embedding Model and Its Application in Texture Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xin Zhang; Ying Tang; Hui Zhao; Hu-Jun Bao

    2006-01-01

    A novel texture mapping technique is proposed based on nonlinear dimension reduction, called Bernoulli logistic embedding (BLE). Our probabilistic embedding model builds texture mapping with minimal shearing effects. A log-likelihood function, related to the Bregman distance, is used to measure the similarity between two related matrices defined over the spaces before and after embedding. Low-dimensional embeddings can then be obtained through minimizing this function by a fast block relaxation algorithm. To achieve better quality of texture mapping, the embedded results are adopted as initial values for mapping enhancement by stretch-minimizing. Our method can be applied to both complex mesh surfaces and dense point clouds.

  1. Systematic study of aggregation structure and thermal behavior of a series of unique H-shape alkane molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroko; Tashiro, Kohji; Nemoto, Norio; Motoyama, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-11

    The H-shape alkanes of various arm lengths have been synthesized successfully through the Grignard reaction. The detailed investigation of these novel compounds may allow us to widen the topological chemistry field furthermore. The molecular form and molecular packing structure in the crystal lattice have been revealed successfully on the basis of X-ray structure analysis as well as the analysis of Raman longitudinal acoustic modes (LAM) sensitive to the alkyl zigzag chain segments. The molecular conformation in the crystal lattice is deformed markedly from the originally imagined H-shape. In the cases of C3HOH to C6HOH, for example, the molecules are packed in a complicated manner and the OH···O hydrogen bonds govern the whole intermolecular interactions mainly. Since the alkyl segmental length is not very long, the conformational change is not very drastic, i.e., the small configurational entropy. Synergic effect of the hydrogen bonds and the small configurational entropy gives the higher melting point as known from the thermal data. On the other hand, in the cases of C10HOH and C12HOH, one of the long alkyl chain arms is found to be bent by 90° so that all of the alky chain segments of planar-zigzag conformation can be packed as closely as possible, and the intermolecular OH···O hydrogen bonds are also formed effectively without any mistake. As a result, the contribution of nonbonded intra- and intermolecular van der Waals interactions between the trans-zigzag alkyl chain segments become major, and the coupling of this enthalpy effect with the larger configurational entropy effect of the molecular shape results in the decrement of the melting point which approaches gradually that of longer n-alkane compound. In this way a sensitive balance between the nonbonded van der Waals interactions, the OH···O hydrogen bonds, as well as the configurational entropy effect gives the characteristic thermal behavior of the H-shape compounds. The thus

  2. Mechanical properties and fractal analysis of the surface texture of sputtered hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramowicz, Miroslaw [University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Oczapowskiego 11, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Braic, Laurentiu [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele (Romania); Azem, Funda Ak [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Tinaztepe Campus, 35397, Izmir (Turkey); Kulesza, Slawomir [University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Sloneczna 54, 10-710 Olsztyn (Poland); Birlik, Isil [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Tinaztepe Campus, 35397, Izmir (Turkey); Vladescu, Alina, E-mail: alinava@inoe.ro [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele (Romania)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite were prepared at temperatures in the range from 400 to 800 °C. • The coatings prepared at 800 °C is closer to the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. • Hardness and elastic modulus decreased with increasing deposition temperature. • The surface morphology strongly depends on the deposition temperature. • Mesokurtic height distribution pulled towards larger heights were formed at high temperature. - Abstract: This aim of this work is to establish a relationship between the surface morphology and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings prepared using RF magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range from 400 to 800 °C. The topography of the samples was scanned using atomic force microscopy, and the obtained 3D maps were analyzed using fractal methods to derive the spatial characteristics of the surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the strong influence of the deposition temperature on the Ca/P ratio in the growing films. The coatings deposited at 600–800 °C exhibited a Ca/P ratio between 1.63 and 1.69, close to the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (Ca/P = 1.67), which is crucial for proper osseointegration. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the intensity of phosphate absorption bands increased with increasing substrate temperature. Each sample exhibited well defined and sharp hydroxyapatite band at 566 cm{sup −1}, although more pronounced for the coatings deposited above 500 °C. Both the hardness and elastic modulus of the coated samples decrease with increasing deposition temperature. The surface morphology strongly depends on the deposition temperature. The sample deposited at 400 °C exhibits circular cavities dug in an otherwise flat surface. At higher deposition temperatures, these cavities increase in size and start to overlap each other so that at 500 °C the surface is composed of closely packed peaks and ridges. At that point, the characteristics of the surface turns from the

  3. Mechanisms of sound seattering by biological targets and their aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gorska

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Gorska's thesis is based on a set of 9 papers published in scientific journals (Gorska & Klusek 1998, Gorska 2000, Gorska & Chu 2001a, b, Gorska & Ona 2003a, b and conference proceedings (Gorska & Klusek 1994, Gorska 1999, Gorska & Chu 2000, which broadly summarise her integrated research achievements in underwater acoustics from 1994 to 2003. She is the sole author of two of the articles (Gorska 1999, 2000, and is the first co-author, taking a leading part, in the others (Gorska & Klusek 1994, 1998, Gorska & Chu 2000, Gorska & Chu 200la, b, Gorska & Ona 2003a, b.     Her research objective was to work out the theoretical background to certain problems of sound scattering by biological targets - single individuals and aggregated layers of fish and zooplankton - in relation to environmental conditions in the sea. In the study she focused on acoustical extinction and backscattering, including the phenomenon of echo interference. In conjunction wit h the co-authors of papers Gorska & Ona 2003a, b, Gorska & Chu 2001a, b and Gorska & Chu 2000, she was able to apply and verify her theoretical results empirically.

  4. Ellipsometry characterization of polycrystalline ZnO layers with the modeling of carrier concentration gradient: Effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sago, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki, E-mail: fujiwara@gifu-u.ac.jp [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems (CIPS), Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kuramochi, Hideto; Iigusa, Hitoshi; Utsumi, Kentaro [Tokyo Research Laboratory, TOSOH Co., Ltd., 2743-1 Hayakawa, Ayase-shi, Kanagawa 252-1123 (Japan)

    2014-04-07

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied to study the effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture on the carrier transport properties of Al-doped ZnO layers fabricated by dc and rf magnetron sputtering. In the SE analysis, the variation in the free carrier absorption toward the growth direction, induced by the ZnO grain growth on foreign substrates, has been modeled explicitly by adopting a multilayer model in which the optical carrier concentration (N{sub opt}) varies continuously with a constant optical mobility (μ{sub opt}). The effect of the grain boundary has been studied by comparing μ{sub opt} with Hall mobility (μ{sub Hall}). The change in μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} indicates a sharp structural transition of the ZnO polycrystalline layer at a thickness of d ∼ 500 nm, which correlates very well with the structure confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In particular, below the transition thickness, the formation of the high density grain boundary leads to the reduction in the μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} ratio as well as N{sub opt}. As a result, we find that the thickness dependence of the carrier transport properties is almost completely governed by the grain boundary formation. On the other hand, when the ZnO layer is exposed to wet air at 85 °C, μ{sub Hall} reduces drastically with a minor variation of μ{sub opt} due to the enhanced grain boundary scattering. We have also characterized textured ZnO:Al layers prepared by HCl wet etching by SE. The analysis revealed that the near-surface carrier concentration increases slightly after the etching. We demonstrate that the SE technique can be applied to distinguish various rough textured structures (size ∼ 1 μm) of the ZnO layers prepared by the HCl etching.

  5. Surface Texturing Investigated for a High Solar Absorptance Low Infrared Emittance Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to design, build, and vacuum test a high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance solar collector for heat engine and thermal switching applications. Mini-satellites proposed by the Applied Physics Laboratory for operation in environments that are subject to radiation threat may utilize a heat engine for power and a thermal bus for thermal control. To achieve this goal, a surface having high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance is needed. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, one concept being pursued to achieve this goal is texturing high thermal conductivity graphite epoxy composites using a directed atomic oxygen beam and then coating the textured surface with a reflective metallic coating. Coupons were successfully textured, coated, and evaluated. A variety of texturing conditions were explored, and textures were documented by scanning electron microscopy. Copper, gold, silver, iridium, and aluminum coatings were applied, and the highest solar absorptance to infrared emittance ratio was found to be 1.3. A full-sized solar collector was manufactured with this ratio, and the amount of heat collected was observed using an Inconel calorimeter installed in a bench-top vacuum chamber equipped with a solar simulator. Results to date indicate good heat flow through the system, with 9 W of heat flow measured by the calorimeter.

  6. Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316, surface-textured 316 (ST-316, and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316 in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si3N4 balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication.

  7. Methods for analyzing surface texture effects of volcanoes with Plinian and subplinian eruptions types: Cases of study Lascar (23 S) and Chaiten (42 S), Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, L; Salinas, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology that provides the analysis of surface texture changes in areas adjacent to the volcano and its impact product of volcanic activity. To do this, algorithms from digital image processing such as the co-occurrence matrix and the wavelet transform are used. These methods are working on images taken by the Landsat satellite platform sensor 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM + sensor, and implemented with the purpose of evaluating superficial changes that can warn of surface movements of the volcano. The results were evaluated by similarity metrics for grayscale images, and validated in two different scenarios that have the same type of eruption, but differ, essentially, in climate and vegetation. Finally, the proposed algorithm is presented, setting the parameters and constraints for implementation and use.

  8. Shape Selection in the Self-Assembly of Chiral Lipid Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Robin; Selinger, Jonathan; Malanoski, Anthony; Schnur, Joel M.

    2004-03-01

    Many lipids and other biological materials self-assemble into helical or twisted membranes and tubules. The membrane shape is determined by a complex interplay between elastic forces and the orientation and chirality of the constituent molecules. We study this interplay through Monte Carlo simulations, using a mesoscale model of the self-assembly process. Our simulations show shape transitions as the membrane's elastic properties are varied. Remarkably, both right- and left-handed helical aggregates can form from a membrane of a single chirality, depending on the orientation of molecular tilt. We discuss application of these findings to help understand recent experiments.

  9. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D L; Walsh, J L; Iza, F; Kong, M G [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Shama, G [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.g.kong@lboro.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  10. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D. L.; Walsh, J. L.; Shama, G.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  11. Distinct role of hydration water in protein misfolding and aggregation revealed by fluctuating thermodynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2015-04-21

    decrease in solvation free energy, harnessing the monomer solvation free energy earned during the misfolding. The second step, where a compact dimer structure is formed, is driven by direct protein-protein interactions, but again it is accompanied by an increase in solvation free energy. The increased solvation free energy of the dimer will function as the driving force to recruit another Aβ protein in the approach stage of subsequent oligomerizations. The fluctuating thermodynamics analysis of the misfolding and dimerization of the Aβ protein indicates that the interaction of the protein with surrounding water plays a critical role in protein aggregation. Such a water-centric perspective is further corroborated by demonstrating that, for a large number of Aβ mutants and mutants of other protein systems, the change in the experimental aggregation propensity upon mutation has a significant correlation with the protein solvation free energy change. We also find striking discrimination between the positively and negatively charged residues on the protein surface by surrounding water molecules, which is shown to play a crucial role in determining the protein aggregation propensity. We argue that the protein total charge dictates such striking behavior of the surrounding water molecules. Our results provide new insights for understanding and predicting the protein aggregation propensity, thereby offering novel design principles for producing aggregation-resistant proteins for biotherapeutics.

  12. Influence of deposition conditions and substrate morphology on the electrical properties of sputtered ZnO:Al grown on texture-etched glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Nicolas, E-mail: n.sommer@fz-juelich.de [IEK5 — Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Götzendörfer, Stefan [Berliner Glas Surface Technology, 89428 Syrgenstein (Germany); Köhler, Florian [IEK5 — Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Ziegner, Mirko [IEK2 — Werkstoffstruktur und -eigenschaften, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Hüpkes, Jürgen [IEK5 — Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    The focus of this work is the growth of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) on texture-etched glass substrates. We investigated the influence of sputter parameters, pressure and temperature on the charge carrier mobility of ZnO:Al films grown on different substrate textures. An optimized sputtering process was developed which led to charge carrier mobilities on textured substrates that are close to those on flat substrates. Based on X-ray diffraction measurements, we qualitatively explain the effect of different sputtering conditions. Furthermore, the ZnO:Al charge carrier mobility was related to the substrate morphology. ZnO:Al films on U-shaped surface morphologies showed significantly higher charge carrier mobilities than those on V-shaped structures. ZnO:Al damp heat stability and etching behavior provided evidence that the number of ZnO:Al growth disturbances on textured substrates can be reduced by adequate substrate morphology and sputtering conditions. - Highlights: • Growth of ZnO:Al on various texture-etched glass substrates • Reduced influence of growth disturbances using optimized sputtering conditions • Higher ZnO:Al charge carrier mobility on U-shaped than on V-shaped textures.

  13. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    -type texture. However, since there is by now reasonable agreement about the description of and the explanation for the development of the copper-type texture (though not about all the details), we have chosen to focus on the brass-type texture for which there is no such general agreement. First we introduce...

  14. Multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboyejo, W.O.; Mercer, C.; Allameh, S.; Nemetski, B. [Princeton Materials Inst., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Marcantonio, N. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering; Ricci, J.L. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Orthodontics

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces that are used in biomedical implants. The hierarchies of substructural and microstructural features associated with laser micro-texturing, mechanical polishing and surface blasting with alumina pellets are elucidated via atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The nano-scale roughness profiles for the different surface textures are characterized via AFM. Sub-micron precipitates and dislocation substructures associated with wrought processing and laser processing are revealed by TEM. OM and SEM micro- and mesoscale images of the groove structures and then described before discussing the implications of the result for the optimization of laser processing schemes. The implications of the results are examined for the fabrication of micro-textured surfaces that will facilitate the self organization of proteins, and the attachment of mammalian cells to the Ti-6Al-4V surfaces in biomedical implants. (orig.)

  15. Development of Control Models and a Robust Multivariable Controller for Surface Shape Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Scott Eric [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2003-06-18

    Surface shape control techniques are applied to many diverse disciplines, such as adaptive optics, noise control, aircraft flutter control and satellites, with an objective to achieve a desirable shape for an elastic body by the application of distributed control forces. Achieving the desirable shape is influenced by many factors, such as, actuator locations, sensor locations, surface precision and controller performance. Building prototypes to complete design optimizations or controller development can be costly or impractical. This shortfall, puts significant value in developing accurate modeling and control simulation approaches. This thesis focuses on the field of adaptive optics, although these developments have the potential for application in many other fields. A static finite element model is developed and validated using a large aperture interferometer system. This model is then integrated into a control model using a linear least squares algorithm and Shack-Hartmann sensor. The model is successfully exercised showing functionality for various wavefront aberrations. Utilizing a verified model shows significant value in simulating static surface shape control problems with quantifiable uncertainties. A new dynamic model for a seven actuator deformable mirror is presented and its accuracy is proven through experiment. Bond graph techniques are used to generate the state space model of the multi-actuator deformable mirror including piezo-electric actuator dynamics. Using this verified model, a robust multi-input multi-output (MIMO) H controller is designed and implemented. This controller proved superior performance as compared to a standard proportional-integral controller (PI) design.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of surface shape and optical thickness using wavelength tuning and a polynomial window function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hibino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-12-14

    In this study, a 6N - 5 phase shifting algorithm comprising a polynomial window function and discrete Fourier transform is developed for the simultaneous measurement of the surface shape and optical thickness of a transparent plate with suppression of the coupling errors between the higher harmonics and phase shift error. The characteristics of the 6N - 5 algorithm were estimated by connection with the Fourier representation in the frequency domain. The phase error of the measurements performed using the 6N - 5 algorithm is discussed and compared with those of measurements obtained using other algorithms. Finally, the surface shape and optical thickness of a transparent plate were measured simultaneously using the 6N - 5 algorithm and a wavelength tuning interferometer.

  17. Frabrication of Au Nanoparticles in Various Shapes and Their Application in Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-yang XUE; Hui-juan WANG; Yong-feng LIANG; Rong CHEN; Jun LIU

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic metallic Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique optical properties, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)spectroscopy. In this paper, star-shaped and sphere gold NPs were prepared by seed-mediated growth and Frence methods respectively. The reaction process and the effect of reagent in seed-mediated growth of gold nanostar particles were systematically described. After fabricating NPs the authors test their Raman enhancement using Crystal Violet (CV) molecules apart. The experimental results indicated that star-shaped Au NPs had stronger Raman enhancement spectrum than that of sphere Au NPs.

  18. Inferring species richness and turnover by statistical multiresolution texture analysis of satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    richness, or [Formula: see text] diversity, based on the Shannon entropy of pixel intensity.To test our approach, we specifically use the green band of Landsat images for a water conservation area in the Florida Everglades. We validate our predictions against data of species occurrences for a twenty-eight years long period for both wet and dry seasons. Our method correctly predicts 73% of species richness. For species turnover, the newly proposed KL divergence prediction performance is near 100% accurate. This represents a significant improvement over the more conventional Shannon entropy difference, which provides 85% accuracy. Furthermore, we find that changes in soil and water patterns, as measured by fluctuations of the Shannon entropy for the red and blue bands respectively, are positively correlated with changes in vegetation. The fluctuations are smaller in the wet season when compared to the dry season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Texture-based statistical multiresolution image analysis is a promising method for quantifying interseasonal differences and, consequently, the degree to which vegetation, soil, and water patterns vary. The proposed automated method for quantifying species richness and turnover can also provide analysis at higher spatial and temporal resolution than is currently obtainable from expensive monitoring campaigns, thus enabling more prompt, more cost effective inference and decision making support regarding anomalous variations in biodiversity. Additionally, a matrix-based visualization of the statistical multiresolution analysis is presented to facilitate both insight and quick recognition of anomalous data.

  19. Flow, heat transfer, and free s