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  1. Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Tun-Jen Hsiao; Pau-Chung Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle- aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT).METHODS: A retrospective, observational followup study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetScomponents,liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed.RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to daynight rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middleaged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT.

  2. Hypofibrinolytic State in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Aggravated by the Metabolic Syndrome before Clinical Manifestations of Atherothrombotic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto-Mejía, Elsa; Santiago-Germán, David; Martínez-Marino, Manuel; María Eugenia Galván-Plata; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Alvarado-Moreno, Antonio; Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Metabolic and genetic factors induce plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) overexpression; higher PAI-1 levels decrease fibrinolysis and promote atherothrombosis. Aim. To assess PAI-1 antigen levels among subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) plus Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) before clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis and the contribution of metabolic factors and 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene on the variability of PAI-1. Methods. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional assay in a hospital in Mexico City from May 2010 to September 2011. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. PAI-1 levels and 4G/5G polymorphism were determined by ELISA and PCR-RFLP analysis. Results. We enrolled 215 subjects with T2DM plus MetS and 307 controls. Subjects with T2DM plus MetS had higher PAI-1 levels than the reference group (58.4 ± 21 versus 49.9 ± 16 ng/mL, p = 0.026). A model with components of MetS explained only 12% of variability on PAI-1 levels (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.001), with β = 0.18 (p = 0.03) for hypertension, β = −0.16 (p = 0.05) for NL HDL-c, and β = 0.15 (p = 0.05) for NL triglycerides. Conclusion. Subjects with T2DM plus MetS have elevated PAI-1 levels before clinical manifestations of atherothrombotic disease. Metabolic factors have a more important contribution than 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1 plasma variability. PMID:28271069

  3. Hypofibrinolytic State in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Aggravated by the Metabolic Syndrome before Clinical Manifestations of Atherothrombotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Aburto-Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic and genetic factors induce plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 overexpression; higher PAI-1 levels decrease fibrinolysis and promote atherothrombosis. Aim. To assess PAI-1 antigen levels among subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM plus Metabolic Syndrome (MetS before clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis and the contribution of metabolic factors and 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene on the variability of PAI-1. Methods. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional assay in a hospital in Mexico City from May 2010 to September 2011. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. PAI-1 levels and 4G/5G polymorphism were determined by ELISA and PCR-RFLP analysis. Results. We enrolled 215 subjects with T2DM plus MetS and 307 controls. Subjects with T2DM plus MetS had higher PAI-1 levels than the reference group (58.4 ± 21 versus 49.9 ± 16 ng/mL, p=0.026. A model with components of MetS explained only 12% of variability on PAI-1 levels (R2 = 0.12; p=0.001, with β=0.18 (p=0.03 for hypertension, β=-0.16 (p=0.05 for NL HDL-c, and β=0.15 (p=0.05 for NL triglycerides. Conclusion. Subjects with T2DM plus MetS have elevated PAI-1 levels before clinical manifestations of atherothrombotic disease. Metabolic factors have a more important contribution than 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1 plasma variability.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  5. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance syndrome, low HDL cholesterol, Metabolic Syndrome, overweight, syndrome x, type 2 diabetes Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women January 2005 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  6. [Metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which is consisted of hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, is one of the most significant lifestyle-related disorders that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Among many upstream factors that are related to metabolic syndrome, obesity, especially visceral obesity, plays an essential role in its pathogenesis. In recent studies, possible mechanisms which connect obesity to metabolic syndrome have been elucidated, such as inflammation, abnormal secretion of adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome; and illustrate how visceral obesity contributes to, and how the treatments for obesity act on metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  8. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome Print A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  10. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...

  11. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  12. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  13. Metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity ). This body type may be described as "apple-shaped." Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced ... Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  14. Inflammation Aggravates Disease Severity in Marfan Syndrome Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonic, Teodora; de Witte, Piet; Groenink, Maarten; de Waard, Vivian; Lutter, Rene; van Eijk, Marco; Jansen, Marnix; Timmermans, Janneke; Kempers, Marlies; Scholte, Arthur J.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Pals, Gerard; Baars, Marieke J. H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic genetic disorder with major features in cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems, associated with large clinical variability. Numerous studies reveal an involvement of TGF-beta signaling. However, the contribution of tissue inflammation is not ad

  15. Metabolic syndrome and migraine

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    Amit eSachdev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevaleirnt and costly conditions.The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogensis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise.

  16. Inflammation aggravates disease severity in Marfan syndrome patients.

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    Teodora Radonic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS is a pleiotropic genetic disorder with major features in cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems, associated with large clinical variability. Numerous studies reveal an involvement of TGF-β signaling. However, the contribution of tissue inflammation is not addressed so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we showed that both TGF-β and inflammation are up-regulated in patients with MFS. We analyzed transcriptome-wide gene expression in 55 MFS patients using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array and levels of TGF-β and various cytokines in their plasma. Within our MFS population, increased plasma levels of TGF-β were found especially in MFS patients with aortic root dilatation (124 pg/ml, when compared to MFS patients with normal aorta (10 pg/ml; p = 8×10(-6, 95% CI: 70-159 pg/ml. Interestingly, our microarray data show that increased expression of inflammatory genes was associated with major clinical features within the MFS patients group; namely severity of the aortic root dilatation (HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 genes; r = 0.56 for both; False Discovery Rate(FDR = 0%, ocular lens dislocation (RAET1L, CCL19 and HLA-DQB2; Fold Change (FC = 1.8; 1.4; 1.5, FDR = 0% and specific skeletal features (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB5, GZMK; FC = 8.8, 7.1, 1.3; FDR = 0%. Patients with progressive aortic disease had higher levels of Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF in blood. When comparing MFS aortic root vessel wall with non-MFS aortic root, increased numbers of CD4+ T-cells were found in the media (p = 0.02 and increased number of CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.003 in the adventitia of the MFS patients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, our results imply a modifying role of inflammation in MFS. Inflammation might be a novel therapeutic target in these patients.

  17. A case of aggravation of hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome after delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yuan-hui; WANG Yong-qing; WANG Jing; YE Rong-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is a severe obstetric complication which usually resolves in most patients after delivery.Methods We report a rare case of aggravation of HELLP syndrome after delivery.Results The patient underwent the treatment for HELLP syndrome,.including glucocorticoid therapy. The symptoms of HELLP syndrome reappeared and became more severe than before the termination of pregnancy. The patient also had severe and persistent hypoproteinemia, hyponatremia and hypocalcemia.Conclusions HELLP syndrome is an acute and critical obstetric syndrome which can have heterogeneous presentations and variable prognosis. We should be fully aware of the diverse clinical characteristics of this condition.

  18. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

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    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  19. Nutrition and metabolic syndrome.

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    Albornoz López, Raúl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The exact etiology is unclear, although it is known thatthere is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, dietary habits play an important role in the treatment and prevention of this condition. General classic recommendations include control of obesity, increased physical activity, decreased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, reduced intake of simple sugars and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. It has been studied the influence of diets low in carbohydrates, diets rich in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber intake, the Mediterranean diet and the glycemic index in relation to metabolic syndrome.Other nutrients recently studied are the micronutrients (magnesium and calcium, soy and other phytochemicals. Evidence suggests that a healthy diet like the Mediterranean protects against metabolic syndrome,caracterized for a low content in saturated and trans fat, high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, balanced intake of carbohydrates and high in fiber, fruits and vegetables. There is more controversy about the type of diet of choice for the control ofmetabolic syndrome (low-carbohydrate diets or lowfat, needing more studies on the role of soy and other phytochemicals.

  20. How Is Metabolic Syndrome Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Metabolic Syndrome Treated? Heart-healthy lifestyle changes are the first line of treatment for metabolic syndrome. If heart-healthy lifestyle changes aren’t enough, ...

  1. Metabolic Syndrome, Androgens, and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and met...

  2. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy.

  3. [Metabolic syndrome and melatonin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, S I; Molchanov, A Iu; Golichenkov, V A; Burlakova, O V; Suprunenko, E S; Savchenko, E S

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the following symptoms: obesity, AH, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance. Pathophysiologically, MS is underlain by disorders of many biochemical and physiological processes, such as elevated levels of low density lipoproteins, hyperstimulation of pancreatic b-cells, increased insulin secretion, substitution of lipid metabolism for carbohydrate one, overgrowth of adipose tissue, excess production of adiponectin, leptin and other signal molecules and a rise in their local intravascular concentration, weight gain. Endogenous and exogenous melatonin inhibits these pathophysiological mechanisms, normalizes metabolism, equilibrates insulin secretion, prevents pancreatic hyperfunction, phosphorylates insulin receptors, inactivates active oxygen and nitrogen species including those produced in LDLP metabolism. Melatonin has specific MT1 and MT2 receptors localized in all body cells. Due to this, it exerts combined preventive action in patients with MS. Recently, melatonin has been reported to have therapeutic effect in MS; it may be recommended to treat this condition.

  4. Metabolic syndrome, androgens, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with increases in androgen levels. In men, reductions in androgen levels are associated with inflammation, and androgen supplements reduce inflammation. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. This review discusses the possibility that the effects of androgens on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae may differ between males and females.

  5. Oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Praveen; Mishra, Sandhya; Ajmera, Peeyush; Mathur, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    As antioxidants play a protective role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, understanding the physiological status of antioxidant concentration among people at high risk for developing these conditions, such as Metabolic Syndrome, is of interest. In present study out of 187 first degree non-diabetic relatives and 192 non-diabetic spouses, 33.1% and 19.7% were found to have metabolic syndrome respectively. Subjects with metabolic syndrome (≥3 risk factors) had poor a...

  6. Metabolic syndrome and professional aptitude

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Rębak; Edyta Suliga; Stanisław Głuszek

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation has resulted in a growing problem of metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome. Scientific studies show that this disease is an epidemic of the 21st century. Metabolic syndrome is a collection of mutually related metabolic factors, such as obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, lipid disorders, arterial hypertension, and pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic state, increasing the risk of the development of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes, and their cardio...

  7. Metabolic syndrome and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Khromilev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a major problem of public health and health care system, with rising prevalence in the world. There is evidence that obesity, as the main component of MS, is strongly associated with the presence of gestational complications: fetal growth retardation, fetal macrosomia, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, stillbirth and perinatal death. The underlying mechanisms of this association are actively investigated nowadays. The importance of MS in pregnancy is also determined by the increase of the risk of venous trombosis.

  8. Gut microbiome and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome contributes approximately 2kg of the whole body weight, and recent studies suggest that gut microbiota has a profound effect on human metabolism, potentially contributing to several features of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined by a clustering of metabolic disorders that include central adiposity with visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia and non-optimal blood pressure levels. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that around 20-25 percent of the world's adult population has metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the existing data linking gut microbiome with metabolic syndrome. Existing evidence from studies both in animals and humans support a link between gut microbiome and various components of metabolic syndrome. Possible pathways include involvement with energy homeostasis and metabolic processes, modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, interferences with the immune system, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system. Modification of gut microbiota via prebiotics, probiotics or other dietary interventions has provided evidence to support a possible beneficial effect of interventions targeting gut microbiota modulation to treat components or complications of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an obesity-associated collection of disorders, each of which contributes to cardiovascular risk. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS contribute to the interrelationship between metabolic syndrome and salt-sensitive hypertension, which are both caused by obesity and excess salt consumption and are major threats to health in developed countries. ROS can induce insulin resistance, which is indispensable for the progression of metabolic syndrome, and salt-sensitive hypertension stimulates ROS production, thereby promoting the development of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, ROS activate mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and the sympathetic nervous system, which can contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome and salt-sensitive hypertension. Salt-induced progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is also accelerated in animal models with metabolic syndrome, probably owing to further stimulation of ROS overproduction and subsequent ROS-induced MR activation and sympathetic excitation. Therefore, ROS contribute to the progression of the metabolic syndrome itself and to the CVD accompanying it, particularly in conjunction with excessive salt consumption.

  10. [Hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... risk associated with increased blood pressure. As the definition of the metabolic syndrome is based on dichotomization of cardiovascular risk factors with a continuously increasing risk, it cannot match risk stratification tools like the HeartScore for calculation of prognosis. However, the metabolic...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  11. Vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Genetics of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančáková, Alena; Laakso, Markku

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic traits associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of the MetS. The MetS has a significant genetic component, and therefore linkage analysis, candidate gene approach, and genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been applied in the search of gene variants for the MetS. A few variants have been identified, located mostly in or near genes regulating lipid metabolism. GWA studies for the individual components of the MetS have reported several loci having pleiotropic effects on multiple MetS-related traits. Genetic studies have provided so far only limited evidence for a common genetic background of the MetS. Epigenetic factors (DNA methylation and histone modification) are likely to play important roles in the pathogenesis of the MetS, and they might mediate the effects of environmental exposures on the risk of the MetS. Further research is needed to clarify the role of genetic variation and epigenetic mechanisms in the development of the MetS.

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  15. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  17. Posttransplant Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shadab Siddiqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a cluster of metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. MS has become a major health concern worldwide and is considered to be the etiology of the current epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to cardiovascular disease, the presence of MS is also closely associated with other comorbidities including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The prevalence of MS in patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is not well established and difficult to ascertain. Following liver transplant, the prevalence of MS is estimated to be 44–58%. The main factors associated with posttransplant MS are posttransplant diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. In addition to developing NAFLD, posttransplant MS is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality that is 2.5 times that of the age- and sex-matched individuals. Additionally, the presence of posttransplant MS has been associated with rapid progression to fibrosis in individuals transplanted for HCV cirrhosis. There is an urgent need for well-designed prospective studies to fully delineate the natural history and risk factors associated with posttransplant MS. Until then, early recognition, prevention, and treatment of its components are vital in improving outcomes in liver transplant recipients.

  18. [Treatment strategy of insomnia for the patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    Insomnia has been reported to underlie the development and aggravation of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Treatment of insomnia is important for both the management and prevention of these comorbid disorders. We introduced the treatment strategy of insomnia for the patients with metabolic syndrome. For the better management of insomnia, sleep hygiene education should be given first, and adequate drug therapy should be started thereafter. Cognitive behavioral therapy is useful not only for insomnia symptom but also for the reducing amount of drug and prevention of the recurrence of insomnia. We expect that progress in the management of insomnia would result in the better treatment outcome of metabolic syndrome in general practice.

  19. Long-term management of sevelamer hydrochloride-induced metabolic acidosis aggravation and hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonikian, Macroui; Metaxaki, Polyxeni; Iliopoulos, Anastasios; Marioli, Stamatia; Vlassopoulos, Dimosthenis

    2006-01-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride use in hemodialysis patients is complicated by metabolic acidosis aggravation and hyperkalemia. Rare reports about a short-term correction of this complication have been published. The current authors investigated the long-term correction of metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia in sevelamer hydrochloride-treated patients at doses adequate to achieve serum phosphate levels within K/DOQI recommendations. The authors followed 20 hemodialysis patients for 24 months in an open-label prospective study. The dialysate bicarbonate concentration was increased stepwise to a maximum 40 mEq/L and adjusted to reach patient serum bicarbonate levels of 22 mEq/L, according to K/DOQI recommendations. Laboratory results for serum bicarbonate, potassium, calcium, phosphate, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, iPTH, cholesterol (HDL-LDL), triglycerides, Kt/V, systolic-diastolic arterial pressure were recorded. Sevelamer hydrochloride-induced metabolic acidosis aggravation and hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients were corrected, on the long-term, by an increase in dialysate bicarbonate concentration. Further improvement in bone biochemistry was noted with this adequate acidosis correction and parallel sevelamer hydrochloride administration, in sufficiently large doses to achieve K/DOQI phosphate recommendations.

  20. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  1. Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions.

  2. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  3. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Escasany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in female nurses in the Hospital Juan A. Fernandez (HJAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to determine whether work, rest, diet, and health, are predictive of it.Materials and methods: For the first objective, a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted, and for the second, a multivariate cross-sectional observational multivariate analysis was made comparing independent samples. A total of 192 nurses were studied between October 2008 and March 2009. They completed a questionnaire that include indicators that could be predictors of MS. Anthropometric measurements, including blood pressure were taken, was well as a blood sample to analyze fasting glucose, HDL-C and plasma triglycerides.Results: It was found that 35% and 41% of nurses were overweight and obese, respectively. A total of 92% had centro-abdominal obesity. The prevalence of MS found was 33.3% (95%CI, 26.7 to 40.5. Those who had this disease were between 53±9 years. Statistically significant differences were found in the bivariate analysis between MS and the variables, age, length of service, time worked during night shift, and academic studies.Conclusions: The prevalence of MS was 64/192 in HJAF nurses (33.3% I 95%CI, 26.7-40.5. There were no statistically significant differences with the indicators of, age, “time worked during night shift”, and “studies”. These results suggest that age is the most important variable in predicting the onset of MS in the population of nurses.

  5. Role of androgen excess on metabolic aberrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Charikleia D; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance is implicated as the major player in the metabolic abnormalities and contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the syndrome. However, androgen excess appears to participate as an independent parameter, which further aggravates the cardiovascular and metabolic aberrations in affected women with PCOS. The resultant impact of hyperandrogenemia possibly acquires clinical significance for women's health in the context of PCOS, particularly since recent data support an increased incidence of coronary artery disease and of cardiovascular events directly related to androgen levels in women with the syndrome.

  6. Neck Circumference and Cardio- Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Nagendran Vijaya; Ismail, Mohammed H.; P, Mahesha; M, Girish; Tripathy, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Only few studies about neck circumference (NC) as a measure of cardio metabolic syndrome available from India. Study was conducted to establish an association between neck circumference and cardio metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic cutis laxa syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, M.; Kouwenberg, D.; Gardeitchik, T.; Kornak, U.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cutis laxa is a rare skin disorder characterized by wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin due to defective synthesis of elastic fibers and other proteins of the extracellular matrix. Wrinkled, inelastic skin occurs in many cases as an acquired condition. Syndromic forms of cutis laxa, howe

  8. Action mechanism of corticosteroids to aggravate Guillain-Barré syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been proved to be ineffective for Guillain-Barré syndrome, but the mechanism remains unknown. In a rabbit model of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome, treatment with corticosteroids significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the spinal ventral roots and the survival rate as well as clinical improvement. On 30th day after onset, there was significantly higher frequency of axonal degeneration in the corticosteroids-treated rabbits than saline-treated rabbits. Corticostero...

  9. Exercise in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension that is occurring in increasing frequency across the global population. Although there is some controversy about its diagnostic criteria, oxidative stress, which is defined as imbalance between the production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species, has a major pathophysiological role in all the components of this disease. Oxidative stress and consequent inflammation induce insulin resistance, which likely links the various components of this disease. We briefly review the role of oxidative stress as a major component of the metabolic syndrome and then discuss the impact of exercise on these pathophysiological pathways. Included in this paper is the effect of exercise in reducing fat-induced inflammation, blood pressure, and improving muscular metabolism.

  10. Paraneoplastic endocrine-metabolic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The paraneoplastic syndromes (PS are characterized by the presence of biochemical alterations, signs and symptoms expressive of cancer distance action into the patient’s organism. Sometimes these syndromes can precede the evidence of malignancy even of some years or can correspond to cancer relapse. PS, even being characterized by general symptoms (fever, anorexia, cachexia, may occur with neurological, rheumathological, osteoarticular, vascular, haematological, nephrological and endocrinological/metabolic symptoms; the latter ones are discussed in this article. AIM OF THE STUDY Here we will focus on the most common PS: paraneoplastic hypercalcemia, inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH and paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Our work can be useful in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of paraneoplastic syndromes.

  11. Phytoestrogens and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Medjakovic, Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are a diverse class of non-steroidal compounds that have an affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family and for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Examples of phytoestrogens include prenylated flavonoids, isoflavones, coumestans and lignans. Many phytoestrogens counteract the cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we propose a mechanism of action which is based on five pillars/principles. First, phytoestrogens are involved in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as COX-2 and iNOS, by activating PPAR and by inhibiting IκB activation. Second, they increase reverse cholesterol transport, which is mediated by PPARγ. Third, phytoestrogens increase insulin sensitivity, which is mediated via PPARα. Fourth, they exert antioxidant effects by activating antioxidant genes through KEAP. Fifth, phytoestrogens increase energy expenditure by affecting AMP-activated kinase signaling cascades, which are responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis. In addition to these effects, which have been demonstrated in vivo and in clinical trials, other effects, such as eNOS activation, may also be important. Some plant extracts from soy, red clover or licorice can be described as panPPAR activators. Fetal programming for metabolic syndrome has been hypothesized; thus, the consumption of dietary phytoestrogens during pregnancy may be relevant. Extracts from soy, red clover or licorice oil have potential as plant-derived medicines that could be used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease linked to hyperandrogenism and obesity, although clinical trials have not yet been conducted. Phytoestrogens may help prevent metabolic syndrome, although intervention studies will be always be ambiguous, because physical activity and reduced calorie consumption also have a significant impact. Nevertheless, extracts rich in phytoestrogens may be an

  12. Current perspectives between metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Carla; Valli, Debora; Matacchione, Giulia; Catalano, Alfonso

    2016-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies linked metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer. Although metabolic syndrome may not necessarily cause cancer, it is linked to poorer cancer outcomes including increased risk of recurrence and overall mortality. This review tends to discuss the major biological and physiological alterations involved in the increase of incidence and mortality of cancer patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We focus on metabolic syndrome-associated visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) pathway as well as estrogen signaling and inflammation. Several of these factors are also involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer may provide new insight about oncogenesis. Moreover, prevention of metabolic syndrome - related alterations may be an important aspect in the management of cancer patients during simultaneous palliative care.

  13. Psoriasis and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Günaydın

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory disease that occurs with poligenic and other triggering factors. Psoriasis which is accepted as a systemic disease has been verified to be associated with other diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, hepatosteatosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are the ones that are the most significant. Material and Method: In thıs study fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, basal insulin levels, insulin resistances and body mass indexes, cigarette and alcohol habits of 50 adult patients are compared with the age and gender matched 50 nonpsoriatic controls. Conclusion: In our study, methabolic syndrome and its components diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia are found to be in higher rates in psoriatic group compared to nonpsoriatics.

  14. Metabolic syndrome in children (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in child...

  15. RESISTANT HYPERTENSION IN A PATIENT WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Drapkina; J. S. Sibgatullina

    2016-01-01

    Clinical case of resistant hypertension in a patient with metabolic syndrome is presented. Features of hypertension in metabolic syndrome and features of metabolic syndrome in women of pre- and postmenopausal age are also considered. Understanding the features of metabolic syndrome in women, as well as features of hypertension and metabolic syndrome will improve the results of treatment in patients with resistant hypertension.

  16. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  17. Dyslipidemic drugs in metabolic syndrome

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    Sheelu S Siddiqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Statins reduce cardiovascular events, so all metabolic syndrome patients should be evaluated for dyslipidemia. Many patients fail to achieve lipid goals with statin monotherapy. Co-administration of ezetimibe (EZE and atorvastatin (ATV may enable more patients to achievelow-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C goal while avoiding risks of high-dose statin monotherapy. Materials and Methods: The present study compares rosuvastatin (Rsv with a combination of (Atv and (Eze. Metabolic syndrome patients, 30-70 years with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dl and a 10-year CHD risk score of 10% were randomized to double-blind treatment with (Rsv 5 mg (n = 67 or (Atv 10 mg+(Eze 10 mg (n = 68 for 12 weeks. Results: LDL-C reduced significantly; (32.3% and 30.3%, P < 0.001 in (Atv+(Eze and (Rsv, respectively, but there was no significant difference between two arms. More patients achieved LDL-C goal of ≤100 mg/dl with (Atv+(Eze compared to (Rsv (65% vs. 58%, P < 0.05. Triglycerides (TG were reduced more with (Atv+(Eze compared to (Rsv (28.1% and 21.4%, P < 0.001. Greater increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed with (Atv+(Eze. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: This study shows that the combination of (Atv+(Eze has more efficacy and comparable safety to that of (Rsv.

  18. SIRT1 and metabolic syndrome

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    Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two major components of metabolic syndrome, become healthepidemics in the world. Over the past decade, advances in understanding the role of some regulators participatingin lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis have been made.Of them, SIRT1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Sir2 protein has been identified. SIRT1 is a nuclearNAD+-dependent deacetylase that targets many transcriptional modulators, including PPAR-α and -γ (peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors α and γ, PGC-1α (PPAR-γ coactivator-1α, FOXO (forkhead box O proteins,and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, thereby this enzyme mediates a wide range of physiological processes like apoptosis,fat metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and neurodegeneration.In this article, we discuss how SIRT1 regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin secretion indifferent metabolic organs/tissue, including liver, muscle, pancreas, and fat. Additionally, the role of this enzymein reduction of inflammatory signalling is highlighted.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the data with respect to prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in bipolar disorder patients. Electronic searches were done in PUBMED, Google Scholar and Science direct. From 2004 to June 2011, 34 articles were found which reported on the prevalence of MetS. The sample size of these studies varied from 15 to 822 patients, and the rates of MetS vary widely from 16.7% to 67% across different studies. None of the sociodemographic variable has emerged as a consistent risk factor for MetS. Among the clinical variables longer duration of illness, bipolar disorder- I, with greater number of lifetime depressive and manic episodes, and with more severe and difficult-to-treat index affective episode, with depression at onset and during acute episodes, lower in severity of mania during the index episode, later age of onset at first manic episode, later age at first treatment for the first treatment for both phases, less healthy diet as rated by patients themselves, absence of physical activity and family history of diabetes mellitus have been reported as clinical risk factors of MetS. Data suggests that metabolic syndrome is fairly prevalent in bipolar disorder patients.

  20. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascula

  1. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  2. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed...... the association between the number of stressful life events experienced in the 5 years up until baseline and incident metabolic syndrome after 6.5 years at follow-up in the Hoorn study, a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort. Participants with prevalent metabolic syndrome at baseline were excluded....... Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, including fasting plasma glucose levels, HDL-C levels, triglyceride levels, waist circumference and hypertension. We included 1099 participants (47% male; age 60 ± 7 years). During 6.5 years of follow-up, 238 participants (22...

  3. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjiyannakis, Stasia

    2005-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that result in an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in adults. It emerges when a person’s predisposition for insulin resistance is worsened by increasing central obesity and is largely confined to the overweight population. The United States National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report proposed a set of criteria for the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome...

  4. Genetics of metabolic syndrome and related traits

    OpenAIRE

    Henneman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis several aspects of metabolic syndrome are addressed. The focus involves questions concerning the genetics of obesity, TG and cholesterol and hyperglycemia. Since we hypothesized that obesity is the most important trigger of metabolic impairment, the MetS definition in this thesis was chosen to include the obesity measure waist circumference as an essential component. In the study described in chapter 2, the heritability of the metabolic syndrome was addressed and compared to th...

  5. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kathryn Buchanan; Lemberg, Louis

    2003-03-01

    The prevalence of marked obesity is increasing rapidly among adults and has more than doubled in 10 years. Sixty-one percent of the adult population of the United States is overweight or obese. Americans are the fattest people on earth. Paradoxically these increases in the numbers of persons who are obese or overweight have occurred during recent years when Americans have been preoccupied with numerous dietary programs, diet products, weight control, health clubs, home exercise equipment, and physical fitness videos, each "guaranteed" to bring rapid results. Overweight and obesity are also world problems. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 billion people around the world are now overweight or obese. Westernization of diets has been part of the problem. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are being replaced by readily accessible foods high in saturated fat, sugar, and refined carbohydrates. Since class 3 obesity (morbid or extreme obesity) is associated with the most severe health complications, the incidence of hypertension, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, and peripheral vascular disease will increase substantially in the future. Recently, obesity alone has been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and CHF. The metabolic syndrome associated with abdominal obesity, which includes insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated CRP levels, identifies subjects who have an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Twenty to 25% of the adult population in the United States have the metabolic syndrome, and in some older groups this prevalence approaches 50%. The prevalence of overweight children in the United States has also been increasing dramatically, especially among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican-American adolescents. Overweight children usually become overweight adults. Atherosclerosis begins in childhood. The degree of atherosclerotic changes in children and young adults can be correlated with the presence of the same risk

  6. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

  7. The metabolic syndrome and adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2006-05-22

    Visceral fat accumulation has been shown to play crucial roles in the development of cardiovascular disease as well as the development of obesity-related disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension and the so-called metabolic syndrome. Given these clinical findings, adipocytes functions have been intensively investigated in the past 10 years, and have been revealed to act as endocrine cells that have been termed adipocytokines, which secrete various bioactive substances. Among adipocytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor are produced in adipocytes as well as other organs, and may contribute to the development of vascular diseases. Visfatin has been identified as a visceral-fat-specific protein that might be involved in the development of obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. On the contrary to these adipocytokines, adiponectin, an adipose-tissue-specific, collagen-like protein, has been noted as an important antiatherogenic and antidiabetic protein, or as an anti-inflammatory protein. The functions of adipocytokine secretion might be regulated dynamically by nutritional state. Visceral fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipocyte functions, including oversecretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth and hyposecretion of adiponectin, which results in the development of a variety of metabolic and circulatory diseases. In this review, the importance of adipocytokines, especially focusing on adiponectin is discussed with respect to cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Rutigliano, Grazia; Baroni, Stefano; Landi, Paola; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Major depression is associated with a 4-fold increased risk for premature death, largely accounted by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationship between depression and CVD is thought to be mediated by the so-called metabolic syndrome (MeS). Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated a co-occurrence of depression with MeS components, ie, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Although the exact mechanisms linking MeS to depression are unclear, different hypotheses have been put forward. On the one hand, MeS could be the hallmark of the unhealthy lifestyle habits of depressed patients. On the other, MeS and depression might share common alterations of the stress system, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, and platelet and endothelial function. Both the conditions induce a low grade chronic inflammatory state that, in turn, leads to increased oxidative and nitrosative (O&NS) damage of neurons, pancreatic cells, and endothelium. Recently, neurobiological research revealed that peripheral hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, which are classically involved in homeostatic energy balance, may play a role in mood regulation. Metabolic risk should be routinely assessed in depressed patients and taken into account in therapeutic decisions. Alternative targets should be considered for innovative antidepressant agents, including cytokines and their receptors, intracellular inflammatory mediators, glucocorticoids receptors, O&NS pathways, and peripheral mediators.

  9. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...

  10. Metabolic syndrome and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ying Chen; Qiao-Hua Qiao; Shan-Chun Zhang; Yu-Hao Chen; Guan-Qun Chao; Li-Zheng Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the development of gallstone disease (GSD).METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted in 7570 subjects (4978 men aged 45.0 ± 8.8 years,and 2592 women aged 45.3 ± 9.5 years) enrolled from the physical check-up center of the hospital.The subjects included 918 patients with gallstones (653 men and 265 women) and 6652 healthy controls (4325 men and 2327 women) without gallstones.Body mass index (BMI),waist circumference,blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured.Colorimetric method was used to measure cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).Dextrose oxidizing enzyme method was used to measure FPG.Subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the information on demographic data,age,gender,histories of diabetes mellitus,hypertension,and chronic liver disease and so on.Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (ATP Ⅲ) criteria.Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or attenuated ultrasound transmission.RESULTS:Among the 7570 subjects,the prevalence of the gallstone disease was 12.1% (13.1% in men and 10.2% in women).BMI,waist circumference,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure,fasting blood glucose and serum triglyceride (TG) in cases group were higher than in controls,while serum high-density lipid was lower than in controls.There were significant differences in the waist circumference,blood pressure,FPG and TG between cases and controls.In an ageadjusted logistic regression model,metabolic syndrome was associated with gallstone disease.The age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for GSD in men was 1.29 [95%confidence interval (CI),1.09-1.52; P =0.0030],and 1.68 (95% CI,1.26-2.25; P =0.0004) in women; the overall age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for

  11. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome: the worrisome twosome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D; Rasool, S

    2016-01-01

    By virtue of insulin resistance being the common etiology for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome, the cardiometabolic risks of these two syndromes are shared. The usual concerns of a PCOS patient are cosmetic or reproductive. However, there are more serious concerns past the reproductive age. Early treatment of insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia reduces the long-term risk. This review highlights the unhealthy association of metabolic syndrome with PCOS and emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, patient education and long-term follow-up beyond the reproductive age into menopause to prevent the long-term serious co-morbidities.

  12. Hypothyroidism and possible association with Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Ahmad, Mushir; Nagtilak, Suryakant; Ahmad, Naved

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid dysfunctions are the most common forms of endocrine disorder in our country, Thyroid hormones perform a wide array of metabolic functions including regulation of lipids, carbohydrates, protein and electrolytes and mineral metabolism, Thyroid hormones are major regulatory hormones that controls the rate of metabolic function and alteration in the levels of thyroid hormones may be associated with metabolic syndromeAim: The study was performed to investigate the association b...

  13. Mangiferin modulation of metabolism and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling

    2016-09-10

    The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):492-503, 2016.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome and Outcomes after Renal Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daynene Vykoukal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases can partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Multiple observational studies have consistently shown that increased body mass index as well as insulin resistance and increased fasting insulin levels is associated with chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for related disorders. Metabolic syndrome appears to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, likely due to the combination of dysglycemia and high blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome is associated with markedly reduced renal clinical benefit and increased progression to hemodialysis following endovascular intervention for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inferior early outcomes for dialysis access procedures.

  15. Metabolic syndrome and outcomes after renal intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykoukal, Daynene; Davies, Mark G

    2010-12-27

    Metabolic syndrome significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases can partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Multiple observational studies have consistently shown that increased body mass index as well as insulin resistance and increased fasting insulin levels is associated with chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for related disorders. Metabolic syndrome appears to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, likely due to the combination of dysglycemia and high blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome is associated with markedly reduced renal clinical benefit and increased progression to hemodialysis following endovascular intervention for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inferior early outcomes for dialysis access procedures.

  16. Behind and beyond the pediatric metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla Paolo; Pietrobelli Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The growing use of the Metabolic Syndrome in pediatric age need a critical approach, on the basis of recent concerns on definition and usefulness for individual management in clinical practice. We reviewed these aspects from a pediatric point of view, providing a set of questions about what the Metabolic Syndrome means in a clinical setting. The new proposed pediatric definition by IDF was discussed, by outlying how it does not fully consider the peculiarities of children and adolesc...

  17. Evaluating Metabolic Syndrome in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maria D Rekliti; Ioannis A Kyriazis

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is consisted by a group of interrelated disorders increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes causing diseases and deaths in modern world.Purpose of the current study is to relate the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome parameters in clinical practice.Data sources and methods: The methodology which was used in this study included Greek and international bibliography review with the help of key-words.Results: Bibliography review showed that the...

  18. Metabolic syndrome and outcome after breast reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ounhasuttiyanon, Areerat; Lohsiriwat, Visnu

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome with its core components including obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension; is has been proven as a multiplex risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is also recently shown by meta-analysis for its association with increased risk of common cancers including breast cancer. Multiple studies have shown metabolic syndrome prone to have poor perioperative outcome and complications for multiple type of surgery including vascular and flap surgery due to compr...

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Colao, Annamaria; Lenzi, Andrea; Giugliano, Dario

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Available evidence supports the emerging hypothesis that metabolic syndrome may be associated with the risk of some common cancers. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between metabolic syndrome and risk of cancer at different sites. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted an electronic search for articles published through October 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles. Every included study was to repor...

  20. Evaluating Metabolic Syndrome in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Rekliti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MS is consisted by a group of interrelated disorders increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes causing diseases and deaths in modern world.Purpose of the current study is to relate the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome parameters in clinical practice.Data sources and methods: The methodology which was used in this study included Greek and international bibliography review with the help of key-words.Results: Bibliography review showed that the criteria for Metabolic Syndrome are not well-defined and vary according to age, gender and race, while new risk factors are identified every day. Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are the basic features of obesity in childhood and adolescence. As a result, the frequency of metabolic disorders constantly increases in overweight or obese children and adolescents and therefore it is necessary for the diagnosis of the syndrome.Conclusions: Metabolic Syndrome management should be based upon an individualized risk assessment and not upon a simple summation and effort in getting treatment separately for each metabolic disorder. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with multiple risk factors will contribute substantially to prevention by adopting a healthy lifestyle and reducing future syndrome complications.

  1. Association between metabolic syndrome and agerelated cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangshin; Park; Eun-Hee; Lee

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To determine the effect of metabolic syndrome on age-related cataract formation.·METHODS: We analyzed data for 2852 subjects [41.8%men and 58.2% women; mean(±SD) age, 52.9 ±13.9y],taken from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by criteria proposed by the Joint Interim Societies. Cataract was diagnosed by using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. The association between metabolic syndrome and cataract was determined using age-adjusted and multivariable logistic regression analyses.· RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, men with metabolic syndrome had a 64% increased risk of nuclear cataract [odds ratio(OR), 1.64; 95% confidence interval(CI), 1.12-2.39]. Women with metabolic syndrome had a56% increased risk of cortical cataract(OR, 1.56; 95% CI,1.06-2.30). Men and women with metabolic syndrome had a 46%(OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.01-2.12) and 49%(OR,1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08) increased risk of any cataract,respectively. The prevalence of nuclear and any cataract significantly increased with an increasing number of disturbed metabolic components in men, and prevalence of all types of cataracts increased in women. Men using hypoglycemic medication had an increased risk of nuclear(OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.41-4.86) and any(OR, 2.27;95% CI, 1.14-4.51) cataract, and women using antidyslipidemia medication had an increased risk of cortical(OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.12-4.24) and any(OR, 2.21;95% CI, 1.14-4.26) cataract.·CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome and its components,such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, andimpaired fasting glucose, are associated with age-related cataract formation in the Korean population.

  2. The metabolic syndrome in Africa: Current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Christian I

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to earlier thoughts, metabolic syndrome is no longer rare in Africa. The prevalence is increasing, and it tends to increase with age. This increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the continent is thought to be due to departure from traditional African to western lifestyles. In Africa, it is not limited to adults but is also becoming common among the young ones. Obesity and dyslipidemia seem to be the most common occurring components. While obesity appears more common in females, hypertension tends to be more predominant in males. Insulin resistance has remained the key underlying pathophysiology. Though pharmacologic agents are available to treat the different components of the syndrome, prevention is still possible by reverting back to the traditional African way of life.

  3. Toxic metabolic syndrome associated with HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2006-01-01

    (HAART) may encounter the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), which attenuates patient compliance to this treatment. HALS is characterised by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This review depicts the metabolic abnormalities associated...... with HAART by describing the key cell and organ systems that are involved, emphasising the role of insulin resistance. An opinion on the remedies available to treat the metabolic abnormalities and phenotype of HALS is provided....

  4. The metabolic syndrome among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a strong risk factor for chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and is related to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related stress, fatigue, and physical...... questionnaire information about their workplace on board, about treatment of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, and about previously diagnosed type 2-diabetes. In order to define MS, we collected data about waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose. Results: Out...

  5. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.

  8. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  9. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  10. The role of interleukin-18 in the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Seljeflot Ingebjørg; Trøseid Marius; Arnesen Harald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic syndrome is thought to be associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation, and a growing body of evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18) might be closely related to the metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Circulating levels of IL-18 have been reported to be elevated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome, to be closely associated with the components of the syndrome, to predict cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with the metabolic syndrome an...

  11. Metabolic syndrome is associated with erosive esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Ho Park; Dong IL Park; Hong Joo Kim; Yong Kyun Cho; Chong IL Sohn; Woo Kyu Jeon; Byung Ik Kim

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are risk factors for erosive esophagitis.METHODS: A case-control study was performed using the database of the Kangbuk Semsung Hospital Medical Screening Center.RESULTS: A total of 1679 cases of erosive esophagitis and 3358 randomly selected controls were included.Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21% of the cases and 12% of the controls (P<0.001).Multiple logistic regressions confirmed the association between erosive esophagitis and metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio,1.25; 95% CI,1.04-1.49).Among the components of metabolic syndrome,increased waist circumference,elevated serum triglyceride levels and hypertension were significant risk factors for erosive esophagitis (allP<0.01).Furthermore,increased insulin resistance (Odds ratio,0.91; 95% CI,0.85-0.98)and fatty liver,as diagnosed by ultrasonography (odds ratio,1.39; 95% CI,1.20-1.60),were also related to erosive esophagitis even after adjustment for a series of confounding factors.CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome and increased insulin resistance are associated with an increased risk of developing erosive esophagitis.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

  13. Ghrelin in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Pulkkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of related risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and liver disease. Obesity, which has become a global public health problem, is one of the major risk factors for development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a complex disease, caused by the interplay between environmental and genetic factors. Ghrelin is one of the circulating peptides, which stimulates appetite and regulates energy balance, and thus is one of the candidate genes for obesity and T2DM. During the last years both basic research and genetic association studies have revealed association between the ghrelin gene and obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes

  14. Rodent Models for Metabolic Syndrome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are widely used to mimic human diseases to improve understanding of the causes and progression of disease symptoms and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, together known as the metabolic syndrome, are causing increasing morbidity and mortality. To control these diseases, research in rodent models that closely mimic the changes in humans is essential. This review will examine the adequacy of the many rodent models of metabolic syndrome to mimic the causes and progression of the disease in humans. The primary criterion will be whether a rodent model initiates all of the signs, especially obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels, liver and kidney, primarily by diet since these are the diet-induced signs in humans with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that the model that comes closest to fulfilling this criterion is the high carbohydrate, high fat-fed male rodent.

  15. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE An association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis, has been suggested.Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a more localized chronic inflammation of the skin, has been speculated to have a similar association......,predominantly female, and more often smokers compared with the non-HS group.EXPOSURE Hidradenitis suppurativa.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Metabolic syndrome and its components of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.RESULTS When compared with the non-HS group, the odds ratios (ORs...

  16. Adiponectin provides cardiovascular protection in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-23

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  17. Metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness among patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Salah Bediwy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Other explanations of EDS in subjects with metabolic syndrome can be related to obesity, depression, or diabetes rather than to sleep apnea. Subjects with metabolic syndrome should be screened for EDS regardless of sleep apnea.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome in Estonia: Prevalence and Associations with Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Triin Eglit; Tarvo Rajasalu; Margus Lember

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that metabolic syndrome should be considered a premorbid condition in younger individuals. We evaluated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Estonia and compared the characteristic profiles between morbid metabolic syndrome (previously established diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidaemia) and premorbid metabolic syndrome subgroups. Our study was a cross-sectional, population-based sample of the general population in Estonia aged 20–74 years (n = 495). Metabo...

  1. Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Gale, C R; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  2. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  3. The metabolic syndrome: a brain disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, R.M.; Kreier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of obesity with, as consequence, a rise in associated diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia--the metabolic syndrome--is reaching epidemic proportions in industrialized countries. Here, we provide a hypothesis that the biological clock which normally prepares us each

  4. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence...

  5. Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Engelsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective People with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Early detection might modify cardiometabolic risk factors and prevent cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate 1) the feasibility and yield of screening for MetS with

  6. Metabolic aspects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bonsignore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS and could contribute to cardiovascular risk in OSAS. Sleep loss and intermittent hypoxia could contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic alterations associated with obesity, a common feature of OSAS. The biology of the adipocyte is being increasingly studied, and it has been found that hypoxia negatively affects adipocyte function. In November 2007, the European Respiratory Society and two EU COST Actions (Cardiovascular risk in OSAS (B26 and Adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome (BM0602, held a Research Seminar in Düsseldorf, Germany, to discuss the following: 1 the effects of hypoxia on glucose metabolism and adipocyte function; 2 the role of inflammatory activation in OSAS and obesity; 3 the alarming rates of obesity and OSAS in children; 4 the harmful effects of the metabolic syndrome in OSAS; 5 the effects of OSAS treatment on metabolic variables; and 6 the relationship between daytime sleepiness and hormonal and inflammatory responses. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, the role of the endocannabinoid system and novel pharmacological approaches to treat insulin resistance were also discussed. As obesity and hypoxia could be the basic links between OSAS and adipocyte dysfunction, further research is needed to translate these new data into clinical practice.

  7. Relationship between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia. Methods: A total of 2374 subjects who received health examination in our hospital from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2006 were enrolled in our study. Hyperuricemia is defined as ≥7 mg/dl (in men) or ≥6.0 mg/dl (in women). Metabolic syndrome was defined using AHA/NHLBI (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) criteria. Results: (1) The overall prevalence of hyperuricemia was 13.10%.The condition was more common in men than in women (19.07% vs 3.42%). (2) Among men, uric acid concentration is statistically significantly positively correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglyceride. Uric acid is negatively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Uric acid concentration is most strongly correlated with serum triglyceride (r=0.379) and waist circumference (r=0.297). Among women, statistically significant positive correlations were noted for the serum uric acid concentrations with waist circumference, triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose. Serum triglyceride (r=0.329) and waist circumference (r=0.234) are most strongly correlated with uric acid concentrations. (3) Men with hyperuricemia had a 1.634-fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome as compared with those without hyperuricemia [odds ratio (OR)=1.634, P=0.000]. Women with hyperuricemia had a 1.626-fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=1.626, P=0.000)as compared with those without hyperuricemia. Conclusion: Hyperuricemia is prevalent among Chinese population. Additionally,serum uric acid is positively associated with metabolic syndrome.

  8. MR imaging evaluation of cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, R.W. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Roos, A. de

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has become an important public health problem and has reached epidemic proportions globally. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities in an individual, with insulin resistance as the main characteristic. The major adverse consequence of metabolic

  9. Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, Giovanni; Santilli, Francesca; Patrono, Carlo

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of risk factors related to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Occurrence of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes and their vascular complications share several pathogenetic features including subclinical, low-grade inflammation, altered oxidative/antioxidant status, and persistent platelet activation. Despite the availability of multiple interventions to counteract these metabolic changes, including appropriate diet, regular exercise, weight control and drugs, epidemiological data are witnessing the growing trend of the problem, reflecting both the multifactorial nature of these diseases as well as the scarce compliance of patients to established strategies. Several nutraceuticals used in clinical practice have been shown to target the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and their complications and to favorably modulate a number of biochemical and clinical endpoints. These compounds include antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamins C and E, flavonoids, vitamin D, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals such as chromium and magnesium, alpha-lipoic acid, phytoestrogens, and dietary fibers. Several areas of concern exist regarding the use of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals in this setting, including product standardization, definition of optimal dosing regimen, potential side effects, drug interactions, and need for evidence-based indications.

  10. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Leandro Martín; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder affecting women in reproductive age. Although the etiology of PCOS remains unclear, it is believed to result from genetic, environmental and behavioral interactions. Women with PCOS have higher lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease (CVR) than healthy women at the same age and tend to display insulin resistance (IR). IR has traditionally been defined as a decreased ability of insulin to mediate the metabolic actions on glucose uptake, glucose production, and/or lipolysis. This results in a requirement for increased amounts of insulin to achieve a given metabolic action. Metabolic syndrome (MS) includes hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, increased CVR and hyperleptinemia and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, IR, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of MS in women is around 50 %. In addition, it has been recently suggested that women with MS show increased circulating androgens. The present review discusses the main alterations and features of PCOS and MS and the most important treatments.

  11. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  13. Adipokines, Metabolic Syndrome and Rheumatic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Abella; Morena Scotece; Javier Conde; Verónica López; Verónica Lazzaro; Jesús Pino; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Oreste Gualillo

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis...

  14. The metabolic syndrome among Danish seafarers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Representing a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined by a constellation of increased waist circumference in combination with dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and/or increased blood pressure. MS is a strong risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. Approximately 1/5 of Danish adults have MS,which has an etiological relation to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related...

  15. Electroneurographic parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suljo Kunić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to measure electroneurographic (ENG parameters of the median and ulnar nerve in patients with metabolic syndrome and to determine whether the large imbalance in glycemic control came to neuropathic changes to the template.Methods: The study included 100 patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I – patients with normal glycemic control and Group II - patients with diabetes mellitus for up to five years. We measured sensory conductive velocity (SCV, the amplitude of sensory nerve action potential (SNAP, motor conductive velocity (MCV, terminal motor latency (TML and compose muscle action potential after distal stimulation (CMAP-I and after proximal stimulation (CMAP-II for the ulnar and median nerve.Results: Sensory and motor parameters in Group II were amended to neuropathic pattern compared to Group I. There were significant differences in: SNAP amplitude for all tested nerves, SCV values for both left and right median and ulnar nerve; MCV and TML for left median nerve; MCV, TML and CMAP-I for right median nerve area; MCV and TML for left ulnar nerve; MCV, CMAP-I and CMAP-II for right ulnar nerve area.Conclusion: Patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus duration of five years have the significant changes in sensory and motor peripheral nerves. Neuropathic changes are possible in patients with metabolic syndrome and normal glycemic control.

  16. Androgen deficiency and metabolic syndrome in men

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Ashley G; Zhao, Fujun; Lee, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing health concern worldwide. Initially a point of interest in cardiovascular events, the cluster of HTN, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance known as MetS has become associated with a variety of other disease processes, including androgen deficiency and late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Men with MetS are at a higher risk of developing androgen deficiency, and routine screening of testosterone (T) is advised in this population. The pathophysiology of ...

  17. The association of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gurav, Abhijit N.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition, which constitutes a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder is found prevalent in the industrialized societies of the world in epidemic proportions. Periodontitis is an oral disease of microbial origin characterized by loss of attachment apparatus of tooth, resulting in edentulism if untreated. Periodontitis has been attributed to produce a low grade ...

  18. Migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is emerging that migraine is not solely a headache disorder. Observations that ischemic stroke could occur in the setting of a migraine attack, and that migraine headaches could be precipitated by cerebral ischemia, initially highlighted a possibly association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease. More recently, large population-based studies that have demonstrated that migraineurs are at increased risk of stroke outside the setting of a migraine attack have prompted the concept that migraine and cerebrovascular disease are comorbid conditions. Explanations for this association are numerous and widely debated, particularly as the comorbid association does not appear to be confined to the cerebral circulation as cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease also appear to be comorbid with migraine. A growing body of evidence has also suggested that migraineurs are more likely to be obese, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic and have impaired insulin sensitivity, all features of the metabolic syndrome. The comorbid association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may consequently be explained by migraineurs having the metabolic syndrome and consequently being at increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. This review will summarise the salient evidence suggesting a comorbid association between migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangjin; Ko, Young; Kwak, Changyeong; Yim, Eun-shil

    2016-01-01

    Background Gender is thought to be an important factor in metabolic syndrome and its outcomes. Despite a number of studies that have demonstrated differences in metabolism and its components that are dependent on gender, limited information about gender differences on the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and its components is available regarding the Korean old adult population. This study aimed to identify gender differences in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and other risk fac...

  20. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  1. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L.; Guo, Wei Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods: Totally

  2. Infantile epileptic syndromes and metabolic etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigevano, Federico; Bartuli, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders can cause onset of epilepsy in the first year of life. Epilepsy rarely dominates the clinical presentation, which is more frequently associated with other neurologic symptoms, such as mental retardation, hypotonia and/or dystonia, or vigilance disturbances. The pathogenesis of seizures is multifaceted; inherited metabolic disorder can affect the balance between excitatory and inhibitory chemical mediators, eliminate an energetic substrate at the cerebral level, cause in utero brain malformation, or provoke acute brain lesions. Some clinical disorders that strongly suggest particular metabolic etiologies can be identified. For example, specific clinical signs and findings on electroencephalogram (EEG) are characteristic of pyridoxine-dependent seizures, and inherited metabolic disorders associated with early myoclonic encephalopathy are well defined. In most cases, however, epilepsy secondary to inherited metabolic disorders presents with polymorphic clinical and EEG features that are difficult to classify into precise epileptic syndromes. Common characteristics of these seizures include onset in the first months of life; usually partial, multifocal; simple partial motor semiology; successive appearance of tonic seizures, spasms, and massive myoclonus; and resistance to antiepilepsy drugs. Inherited metabolic disorders must be considered in patients presenting with epilepsy and progressive neurologic worsening.

  3. Accessing autonomic function can early screen metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001. Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001. Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0-24, participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50-100 had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.64 for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome.

  4. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Czepielewski; Ledo Daruy Filho; Elisa Brietzke; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials, (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (ii...

  5. [Metabolic syndrome and chronic persistent atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuchina, E L; Solov'ev, O V; Mochalova, O V; Kononov, S K; Onuchin, S G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate specific features of chronic recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and disturbed carbohydrate metabolism compared with AF patients without MS. It enrolled 145 patients aged 44-83 years: 117 with abdominal obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, waist circumference >80 and 94 cm in women and men respectively) including 30 without metabolic disturbances; 35 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 52 with type 2 DM, and 28 controls without MS. Parameters measured included frequency and severity of AF, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, albuminurea, C-reactive peptide level, quality of AH control, results of echocardiography and 24 hour ECG monitoring (sinus rhythm), and insulin resistance index (HOMA IRindex). Groups of AF and MS patients were dominated by women. The frequency and severity of AF relapses in MS patients were higher than in controls (especially in the presence of IGT and DM). IGT and DM2 associated with structural changes in myocardium (left atrial dilatation, prevalence of LV concentric hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction) coupled to higher systolic AH and marked metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, IR, elevated microalbuminurea and C-reactive protein level, dyslipidemia). These conditions contribute to the frequency and severity of AF relapses. Development of AF in MS is a multifactor problem necessitating strict control of AH, dyslipidemia, DM2 and IGT, reduction of body weight and abdominal obesity.

  6. 代谢综合征与抑郁症的相关性%Relationship between metabolic syndrome and depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建新; 陈莉明

    2011-01-01

    近年来随着代谢综合征发病率的升高,其并发抑郁症的人数也相应增加.代谢综合征中的胰岛素抵抗、皮质醇增多、肥胖和非酒精性脂肪肝与抑郁症的发生有关,而抑郁症患者的不健康生活习惯又是发生代谢综合征的原因.而且两种疾病的治疗也存在交叉.探索二者之间的关系,有助于进一步研究其发病机制,预防和治疗代谢综合征相关性抑郁症.%With the increase of prevalance of metabolic syndrome, the number of the patients suffering from depression is increasing. Depression in the patients with metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance,higher level of cortisone,obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver. And the unhealthy life style of depressive patients will then aggravate metabolic syndrome. Furthermore the treatment of these two diseases has the same aspects. The exploration of the association between depression and metabolic syndrome is helpful in understanding of the pathogenesis,prevention and treatment of depression related to metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Wider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient hepatic O 2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O 2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to the loss of appetite or dietary restriction.

  8. Klinefelter syndrome: cardiovascular abnormalities and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, A E; Giagulli, V A; Mongioì, L M; Triggiani, V; Radicioni, A F; Jannini, E A; Pasquali, D

    2017-03-03

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common genetic causes of male infertility. This condition is associated with much comorbidity and with a lower life expectancy. The aim of this review is to explore more in depth cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated to KS. KS patients have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (standardized mortality ratio, SMR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.6-3.0), but it is not clear whether the cause of the death is of thrombotic or hemorrhagic nature. Cardiovascular congenital anomalies (SMR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.4-17.1) and the development of thrombosis or leg ulcers (SMR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.9-17.2) are also more frequent in these subjects. Moreover, cardiovascular abnormalities may be at least partially reversed by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). KS patients have also an increased probability of endocrine and/or metabolic disease, especially obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effects of TRT on these abnormalities are not entirely clear.

  9. Metabolic syndrome: evidences for a personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Both insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Depending on their expression and their function, gene variants may influence either insulin action or other metabolic traits. Nutrition also plays an important role in the development and progression of these conditions. Genetic background may interact with habitual dietary fat composition, affecting predisposition to insulin resistance syndrome and individual responsiveness to changes in dietary fat intake. In this context, nutrigenetics has emerged as a multidisciplinary field focusing on studying the interactions between nutritional and genetic factors and health outcomes. Due to the complex nature of gene-environment interactions, however, dietary therapy may require a "personalized" nutrition approach in the future. Although the results have not always been consistent, gene variants that affect primary insulin action, and particularly their interaction with the environment, are important modulators of glucose metabolism. The purpose of this review is to present some evidence of studies that have already demonstrated the significance of gene-nutrient interactions (adiponectin gene, Calpain-10, glucokinase regulatory protein, transcription factor 7-like 2, leptin receptor, scavenger receptor class B type I etc.) that influence insulin resistance in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in migraine headache: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Salmasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correlation of metabolic syndrome and migraine headache was evaluated in some previous studies. However there is no study that compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the patients with and without migraine. Control of coincidental factors such as metabolic syndrome reduces therapeutic resistance in migrainous patients. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with and without migraine headache. Materials and Methods: 200 migrainous patients diagnosed according to International Headache Society and 200 healthy controls without migraine enrolled in this study. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III criteria in these two groups and compared with each other. Results: In this study, 17% (34 of migrainous patients and 15% (30 of healthy control without migraine had metabolic syndrome. (P = 0.585. Of the metabolic syndrome components, body mass index (P = 0.05 and waist circumference in migrainous (P = 0.03 were significantly more frequent. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome and migraine headache had not significant correlation; however, higher body mass index and waist circumference as metabolic syndrome components had correlated with migraine headache.

  11. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  12. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Psoriasis

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    Ilkin Zindancı

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder in which proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α increase both locally and systematically. It is thought that chronic inflammation results in metabolic diseases and proinflammatory cytokines give rise to the development of atherogenesis, peripheral insulin resistance, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Methods. Study consisted of 115 plaque-type psoriasis patients and 140 healthy individuals. Data including body weight, height, waist circumference, body-mass index, and arterial blood pressure were collected. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, and HDL levels were determined. International Diabetes Federation Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance were used for evaluating patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Results. Compared to the control group, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were found to be higher in psoriasis patients. Metabolic syndrome was increased by 3-folds in psoriasis patients and was more prevalent in women than in men. It was determined that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in psoriasis patients after the age of 40. Metabolic syndrome was not related to smoking, severity of psoriasis, and duration of disease. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that psoriasis preconditions occurrence of a group of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. For this reason, patients with psoriasis should be treated early and they should be followed with respect to metabolic diseases.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and skin: Psoriasis and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Padhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (Met S is a clustering of risk factors comprising of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and abnormal glucose tolerance. The prevalence of Met S has been increasing in the last few years throughout the world. Psoriasis has consistently been associated with Met S as well as its various components. However, the association is no longer limited to psoriasis alone. Various dermatological conditions such as lichen planus, androgenetic alopecia, systemic lupus erythematosus, skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and even cutaneous malignancies have also been found to be associated with this syndrome. Though chronic inflammation is thought to be the bridging link, the role of oxidative stress and endocrine abnormalities has recently been proposed in bringing them together.

  14. The metabolic syndrome: a brain disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Ruud M; Kreier, Felix

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity with, as consequence, a rise in associated diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia--the metabolic syndrome--is reaching epidemic proportions in industrialized countries. Here, we provide a hypothesis that the biological clock which normally prepares us each morning for the coming activity period is altered due to a modern life style of low activity during the day and late-night food intake. Furthermore, we review the anatomical evidence supporting the proposal that an unbalanced autonomic nervous system output may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of diabetes type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension and visceral obesity.

  15. The metabolic basis of the Refsum syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, D

    1971-02-01

    Studies in patients with the Refsum syndrome show that accumulation of phytanic acid stems from a metabolic error in the pathway for its oxidative degradation. The major degradative pathway involves an initial alpha oxidation followed by successive beta oxidation steps. The enzyme defect in patients with phytanic acid storage appears to be at the very first step, alphahydroxylation of phytanic acid. Heterozygous carriers have a partial fibroblasts in cell culture. On diets low in phytanic acid content, plasma phytanic acid levels fall and objective studies in patients suggest therapeutic benefit.

  16. [Chronobiological aspects of obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Garaulet, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms (approximately 24h) are widely characterized at molecular level and their generation is acknowledged to originate from oscillations in expression of several clock genes and from regulation of their protein products. While general entrainment of organisms to environmental light-dark cycles is mainly achieved through the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals, this molecular clockwork is functional in several organs and tissues. Some studies have suggested that disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption (CD)) may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and their specific role in the adipocyte; (2) the genetic aspects of and scientific evidence for obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (3) CD and its causes and pathological consequences. Finally, ideas about use of chronobiology for the treatment of obesity are discussed.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: Does it Differ Between Women and Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlani, Yogita; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease represents a massive healthcare burden worldwide. Gender differences in the pathophysiology, presentation and prognosis of cardiovascular disease have been described in the literature. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. With the global obesity epidemic, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly in the developed as well as developing world. However, there is considerable variation in the prevalence based on geography, age, sex and, definition used for diagnosis. Data on gender related differences in metabolic syndrome is relatively scarce. Here, we aim to review the gender differences in epidemiology and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome as well as its individual components. Knowledge of gender differences in metabolic syndrome can help design gender specific preventative and therapeutic strategies that will have a positive impact on overall population health.

  18. Metabolic syndrome components in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Heather A; Cheverud, James M

    2010-03-01

    Animal models have enriched understanding of the physiological basis of metabolic disorders and advanced identification of genetic risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Murine models are especially appropriate for this type of research, and are an excellent resource not only for identifying candidate genomic regions, but also for illuminating the possible molecular mechanisms or pathways affected in individual components of MetS. In this review, we briefly discuss findings from mouse models of metabolic disorders, particularly in light of issues raised by the recent flood of human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) results. We describe how mouse models are revealing that genotype interacts with environment in important ways, indicating that the underlying genetics of MetS is highly context dependant. Further we show that epistasis, imprinting and maternal effects each contribute to the genetic architecture underlying variation in metabolic traits, and mouse models provide an opportunity to dissect these aspects of the genetic architecture that are difficult if not impossible to ascertain in humans. Finally we discuss how knowledge gained from mouse models can be used in conjunction with comparative genomic methods and bioinformatic resources to inform human MetS research.

  19. Perturbed autonomic nervous system function in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the clustering of various common metabolic abnormalities in an individual and it is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its prevalence in the general population is approximately 25%. Central fat accumulation and insulin resistance are considered as the common denominators of the abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome have autonomic nervous system dysfunction characterized by predominance of the sympathetic nervous system in many organs, i.e. heart, kidneys, vasculature, adipose tissue, and muscles. Sympathetic nervous system activation in metabolic syndrome is detected as increased heart rate and blood pressure, diminished heart rate variability, baroreceptor dysfunction, enhanced lipolysis in visceral fat, increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and high urine or plasma catecholamine concentrations as well as turnover rates. The augmented sympathetic activity in individuals with metabolic syndrome worsens prognosis of this high-risk population. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not clearly understood. Whether sympathetic overactivity is involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome or is a consequence of it remains to be elucidated since data from prospective studies are missing. Intervention studies have demonstrated that the autonomic disturbances of the metabolic syndrome may be reversible.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome in Estonia: Prevalence and Associations with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triin Eglit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been suggested that metabolic syndrome should be considered a premorbid condition in younger individuals. We evaluated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Estonia and compared the characteristic profiles between morbid metabolic syndrome (previously established diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidaemia and premorbid metabolic syndrome subgroups. Our study was a cross-sectional, population-based sample of the general population in Estonia aged 20–74 years (n=495. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. The crude and weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.9% and 25.9%, respectively. Despite being significantly younger, the premorbid subgroup showed similar levels of insulin resistance as the morbid subgroup (mean HOMA-IR ± SD 2.73±1.8 versus 2.97±2.1, P=0.5. The most important attribute of metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance, which already characterises metabolic syndrome in the early stages of its metabolic abnormalities.

  1. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  2. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  3. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  4. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia.

  5. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but ef

  6. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome : the Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M; Rauh, Simone P; Pouwer, Frans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Elders, Petra J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the associat

  7. Metabolic syndrome among patients receiving clozapine: A preliminary estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving clozapine. Materials and Methods : For this study, 100 patients attending the psychiatry outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital who were receiving clozapine for more than three months were evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP-III criteria. Results : Forty-six patients fulfilled IDF criteria and 47 met modified NCEP ATP-III criteria of metabolic syndrome. There was significant correlation between these two sets of criteria used to define the metabolic syndrome (Kappa value -0.821, P < 0.001. Among the individual parameters studied, increased waist circumference was the most common abnormality, followed by abnormal blood glucose levels and elevated triglyceride levels. All these abnormalities were seen in more than half (52-61% of the patients. When the sample was divided into two groups, i.e., those with and without metabolic syndrome, patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher body mass index and had spent more time in school. Logistic regression analysis revealed that these two variables together explained about 19% of the variance in metabolic syndrome (adjusted r 2 = 0193; F = 12.8; P < 0.001. Conclusion : The findings of the present study suggest that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in subjects receiving clozapine.

  8. Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviaux, Robert K.; Naviaux, Jane C.; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A. Taylor; Alaynick, William A.; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21–67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20–67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84–100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86–100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer. PMID:27573827

  9. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase prevents metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Moaven, Omeed; Patel, Palak; Malo, Nondita S; Ray, Madhury; Abtahi, Seyed M; Muhammad, Nur; Raychowdhury, Atri; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Moss, Angela K; Ahmed, Rizwan; Hakimian, Shahrad; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Warren, H Shaw; Bhan, Atul K; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A

    2013-04-23

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we examined the role of the small intestinal brush-border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), in preventing a high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. We found that both endogenous and orally supplemented IAP inhibits absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides) that occurs with dietary fat, and oral IAP supplementation prevents as well as reverses metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, IAP supplementation improves the lipid profile in mice fed a standard, low-fat chow diet. These results point to a potentially unique therapy against metabolic syndrome in at-risk humans.

  10. Effect of metabolic syndrome on the outcome of corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Y H; Lee, B K; Baek, J R; Park, M H; Noh, J H; Gong, H S; Baek, G H

    2016-11-01

    Diffuse peripheral nerve impairment is common in metabolic syndrome: in patients with metabolic syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome this might affect the outcome of treatment by local corticosteroid injection. A total of 55 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and metabolic syndrome treated with corticosteroid injection (10 mg triamcinolone acetonide) were age and sex matched with 55 control patients without metabolic syndrome. Grip strength, perception of touch with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaires were assessed at the baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. The two groups had similar pre-operative grip strength and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire symptom and function scores of the metabolic syndrome group were significantly greater than the control group at 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. Except for significantly greater grip strength at the 12-week follow-up in the control group, there were no significant differences in grip strength between the groups. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament sensory index for the control group was significantly greater than that of the metabolic syndrome group throughout the 24-week follow-up. After 24 weeks, five patients (13%) in the control group and 13 patients (27%) in the metabolic syndrome group had had carpal tunnel surgery. Patients with metabolic syndrome are at risk for poor functional outcome and failure of treatment after corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism--two peas in a pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Fahim; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is highly prevalent in up to 50% of men with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Low testosterone levels in men appear to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor and predictor of subsequent development of the metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in testosterone levels. This review provides an account of the pathophysiological mechanisms in the bidirectional relationship between hypogonadism and body composition, inflammation and insulin sensitivity as well as the effects of testosterone replacement on diverse metabolic parameters.

  12. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  13. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  14. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  15. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, S.W.; Friis-Moller, N.; Bruyand, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rickenbach, M.; Reiss, P.; El-Sadr, W.; Phillips, A.; Lundgren, J.; Sabin, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  16. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Worm; N. Friis-Møller; M. Bruyand; A. d'Arminio Monforte; M. Rickenbach; P. Reiss; W. El-Sadr; A. Phillips; J. Lundgren; C. Sabin

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  17. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Mouse models of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Arion J; Ellacott, Kate L J; King, Victoria L; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by obesity concomitant with other metabolic abnormalities such as hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein levels, elevated blood pressure and raised fasting glucose levels. The precise definition of MetS, the relationships of its metabolic features, and what initiates it, are debated. However, obesity is on the rise worldwide, and its association with these metabolic symptoms increases the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (among many other diseases). Research needs to determine the mechanisms by which obesity and MetS increase the risk of disease. In light of this growing epidemic, it is imperative to develop animal models of MetS. These models will help determine the pathophysiological basis for MetS and how MetS increases the risk for other diseases. Among the various animal models available to study MetS, mice are the most commonly used for several reasons. First, there are several spontaneously occurring obese mouse strains that have been used for decades and that are very well characterized. Second, high-fat feeding studies require only months to induce MetS. Third, it is relatively easy to study the effects of single genes by developing transgenic or gene knockouts to determine the influence of a gene on MetS. For these reasons, this review will focus on the benefits and caveats of the most common mouse models of MetS. It is our hope that the reader will be able to use this review as a guide for the selection of mouse models for their own studies.

  19. Physical activity and metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallwitz, Eric R; Loy, Veronica; Mettu, Praveen; Von Roenn, Natasha; Berkes, Jamie; Cotler, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients, a population that tends to be physically inactive. The aim of this study was to characterize physical activity and evaluate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients more than 3 months after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Physical activity, including duration, frequency, and metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was assessed. The study population consisted of 204 subjects, with 156 more than 1 year after transplantation. The median time after transplantation was 53.5 months (range = 3-299 months). The mean duration of exercise was 90 ± 142 minutes, and the mean MET score was 3.6 ± 1.5. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 58.8% of all subjects and in 63.5% of the subjects more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis involving all subjects, metabolic syndrome was associated with a time after transplantation greater than 1 year [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.389-6.092] and older age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.001-1.072). A second analysis was performed for only patients more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with lower exercise intensity (OR = 0.690, 95% CI = 0.536-0.887), older age (OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.014-1.101), and pretransplant diabetes (OR = 4.246, 95% CI = 1.300-13.864). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplantation, and the rate is significantly higher in patients more than 1 year after transplantation. The observation that exercise intensity is inversely related to metabolic syndrome after transplantation is novel and suggests that physical activity might provide a means for reducing metabolic syndrome complications in liver

  20. Insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, B; Moran, A; Sinaiko, A R

    2005-12-01

    The insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome (IRS), also known as syndrome X, is characterized by a clustering of factors associated with cardiovascular risk (obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension, and dyslipidemia). As reported from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey, the IRS is present in approximately 24% of adults in the United States and is strongly associated with coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality. Of equal importance, it is now clear that the origins of the IRS extend back into childhood (the IRS is found in approximately 4-10% of children and adolescents) and that the high prevalence of adult IRS is strongly linked to the development of cardiovascular risk during childhood and tracking of the components of the IRS into adulthood. The goal of this review is to present a summary of the currently available information on the IRS in the pre-adult age group with reference to adult studies only when necessary for clarification. The review will specifically summarize insulin resistance in childhood; the important influence of obesity and, in particular, visceral fat, on insulin resistance and the IRS; differences between ethnic groups; relations to adipocytokines, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress; relations of hypertension and lipids to insulin resistance; familial factors; endocrine complications; and potential therapeutic effects from diet and physical activity. Despite the lesser amount of basic and clinical information on childhood IRS in comparison to information available from adult studies, there can now be little doubt that the adverse associations among risk factors comprising the IRS begin in childhood. The challenge is to identify etiologic relations and develop intervention strategies designed to reduce the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Salam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS or "Syndrome X" which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride (TG levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.

  2. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

  3. Refeeding and metabolic syndromes: two sides of the same coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, O A; Hachem, D H; Ayoub, J J

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome describes the metabolic and clinical changes attributed to aggressive rehabilitation of malnourished subjects. The metabolic changes of refeeding are related to hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, sodium retention and hyperglycemia, and these are believed to be mainly the result of increased insulin secretion following high carbohydrate intake. In the past few decades, increased consumption of processed food (refined cereals, oils, sugar and sweeteners, and so on) lowered the intake of several macrominerals (mainly phosphorus, potassium and magnesium). This seems to have compromised the postprandial status of these macrominerals, in a manner that mimics low grade refeeding syndrome status. At the pathophysiological level, this condition favored the development of the different components of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is reasonable to postulate that metabolic syndrome is the result of long term exposure to a mild refeeding syndrome. PMID:24979149

  4. Hyperleptinemia, Adiposity, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

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    Suruchi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002 and women (P for trend = 0.0001. In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24 after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines.

  5. [Fattening diet and metabolic syndrome in Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauhouot-Attoungbré, Marie Laure; Yayo, Eric Sagou; Konan, Jean-Louis; Koné, Fatoumata; Siara, Eugénie; Monnet, Dagui

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a particular state of morbidity characterized by the association of several factors contributing to the increase in the cardiovascular risk. This constellation of factors associates the glucose intolerance and its corollary the hyperglycemia, the overweight, the hypertriglyceridemia, the fall of the HDL-cholesterol and arterial hypertension. In Africa, it is difficult to evaluate in the actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The present study aims was to determine the prediction and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of nurse--lactating mothers--in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), who were submitted at a particularly rich food lipids. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, and we used the definition of « National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III ». The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, which belong to the Ethie where the habit are to eat, after giving birth, high foods lipids for 6 months. We used the definition of "National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III" to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this population and see if the diet has a negative influence. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. The risk to develop a metabolic syndrome in this specific population of nurse is particularly big and it's linked to their eating habits.

  6. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  7. Diet and metabolic syndrome: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Deirdre; Kelly, Stacey; Healy, Niamh P; McArdle, Maeve A; Holohan, Kieran; Roche, Helen M

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex multifactorial disorder and its incidence is on the increase worldwide. Due to the definitive link between obesity and the MetS weight loss strategies are of prime importance in halting the spread of MetS. Numerous epidemiological studies provide evidence linking dietary patterns to incidence of MetS symptoms. As a consequence of the epidemiology studies, dietary intervention studies which analyse the effects of supplementing diets with particular nutrients of interest on the symptoms of the MetS have been conducted. Evidence has shown that lifestyle intervention comprising changes in dietary intake and physical activity leads to an improved metabolic profile both in the presence or absence of weight loss thus highlighting the importance of a multi-faceted approach in combating MetS. Nutritional therapy research is not focused solely on reducing energy intake and manipulating macronutrient intake but is investigating the role of functional foods or bioactive components of food. Such bioactives which target weight maintenance and /or insulin sensitivity may have a potentially positive effect on the symptoms of the MetS. However the efficacy of different functional nutrients needs to be further defined and clearly demonstrated.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatic diseases: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, Prodromos I; Karvounaris, Stylianos A; Boumpas, Dimitrios T

    2008-01-01

    Subjects with metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors of which central obesity and insulin resistance are the most characteristic--are at increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In these subjects, abdominal adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, known to promote insulin resistance. The presence of inflammatory cytokines together with the well-documented increased risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with inflammatory arthritides and systemic lupus erythematosus has prompted studies to examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an effort to identify subjects at risk in addition to that conferred by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These studies have documented a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome which correlates with disease activity and markers of atherosclerosis. The correlation of inflammatory disease activity with metabolic syndrome provides additional evidence for a link between inflammation and metabolic disturbances/vascular morbidity.

  9. Obesity-Related Metabolic Syndrome: Mechanisms of Sympathetic Overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Canale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased worldwide over the past few years. Sympathetic nervous system overactivity is a key mechanism leading to hypertension in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Sympathetic activation can be triggered by reflex mechanisms as arterial baroreceptor impairment, by metabolic factors as insulin resistance, and by dysregulated adipokine production and secretion from visceral fat with a mainly permissive role of leptin and antagonist role of adiponectin. Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity contributes to a further decline of insulin sensitivity and creates a vicious circle that may contribute to the development of hypertension and of the metabolic syndrome and favor cardiovascular and kidney disease. Selective renal denervation is an emerging area of interest in the clinical management of obesity-related hypertension. This review focuses on current understanding of some mechanisms through which sympathetic overactivity may be interlaced to the metabolic syndrome, with particular regard to the role of insulin resistance and of some adipokines.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however, little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density than those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI [difference = 4.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-7.81]. Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (women in Jalisco (difference = 4.62; 95% CI, 1.73-7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference = -2.91; 95% CI, -7.19 to 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico, or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however, results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies.

  11. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome:An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rubayat; Rahman; Ghassan; M; Hammoud; Ashraf; A; Al-mashhrawi; Khulood; T; Ahmed; Jamal; A; Ibdah

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased dramatically by 80% over the past two decades in the United States. Numerous basic science and clinical studies have documented a strong association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the metabolic syndrome. These studies have documented that, in most patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma through the cirrhotic process. However, minority of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis.This review summarizes the current literature of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome with special emphasis on various components of the metabolic syndrome including risk of association with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia,and hypertension. Current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical features, treatments, outcomes,and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the background of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is reviewed. With the current epidemic of metabolic syndrome, the number of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing.Subsequently, it is expected that the incidence and prevalence of HCC will also increase. It is very important for the scientific community to shed more light on the pathogenesis of HCC with metabolic syndrome,both with and without cirrhosis. At the same time it is also important to quantify the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with the metabolic syndrome in a prospective setting and develop surveillance recommendations for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  12. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome: the Hoorn study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M; Rauh, Simone P; Pouwer, Frans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Elders, Petra J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the association between the number of stressful life events experienced in the 5 years up until baseline and incident metabolic syndrome after 6.5 years at follow-up in the Hoorn study, a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort. Participants with prevalent metabolic syndrome at baseline were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, including fasting plasma glucose levels, HDL-C levels, triglyceride levels, waist circumference and hypertension. We included 1099 participants (47% male; age 60 ± 7 years). During 6.5 years of follow-up, 238 participants (22%) developed the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education level and follow-up duration showed a positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and incident metabolic syndrome [OR 1.13 (1.01-1.27) per event, p = 0.049]. In addition, a Poisson model showed a significant positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and the number of metabolic syndrome factors at follow-up [OR 1.05 (1.01-1.11) per event, p = 0.018]. Finally, we observed a significant association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and waist circumference at follow-up [adjusted for confounders β 0.86 (0.39-1.34) cm per event, p metabolic syndrome during 6.5 years of follow-up, in a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort.

  13. Neprilysin, obesity and the metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standeven, Kristina F.; Hess, Katharina; Carter, Angela M.; Rice, Gillian I.; Cordell, Paul A.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Lu, Bao; Scott, D. Julian; Turner, Anthony J.; Hooper, Nigel M.; Grant, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Neprilysin (NEP), a zinc metallo-endopeptidase, has a role in blood pressure control and lipid metabolism. The present study tested the hypothesis that NEP is associated with insulin resistance and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a study of 318 healthy human subjects and in murine obesity and investigated NEP production by adipocytes in-vitro. Methods and Results In 318 white European males, plasma NEP was elevated in the MetS and increased progressively with increasing MetS components. Plasma NEP activity correlated with insulin, homeostasis model assessment and body mass index in all subjects (p<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that in human pre-adipocytes NEP expression is upregulated 25-30 fold during differentiation into adipocytes. Microarray analysis of mRNA from differentiated human adipocytes confirmed high NEP expression comparable to adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. In a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance, plasma NEP levels were significantly higher in high fat diet (HFD)-fed compared with normal chow diet (NCD)-fed animals (1642±529 and 820±487 pg/μl, respectively; p<0.01). Tissue NEP was increased in mesenteric fat in HFD compared with NCD-fed mice (p<0.05). NEP knock out mice did not display any changes in insulin resistance, glucose tolerance or body and epididymal fat pad weight compared to wild type mice. Conclusions In humans, NEP activity correlated with body mass index and measures of insulin resistance with increasing levels in subjects with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. NEP protein production in human adipocytes increased during cell differentiation and plasma and adipose tissue levels of NEP were increased in obese insulin resistant mice. Our results indicate that NEP associates with cardio-metabolic risk in the presence of insulin resistance and increases in obesity. PMID:21042321

  14. Cardiac rehabilitation programs improve metabolic parameters in patients with the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ignacio P; Zapata, Maria A; Cervantes, Carlos E; Jarabo, Rosario M; Grande, Cristina; Plaza, Rose; Garcia, Sara; Rodriguez, Miriam L; Crespo, Silvia; Perea, Jesús

    2010-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training program on metabolic parameters and coronary risk factors in patients with the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. The study involved 642 patients with coronary heart disease. Of them, 171 (26.7%) fulfilled criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Clinical data, laboratory tests, and exercise testing were performed before and after the program, which lasted 2 to 3 months. Except for waist circumference, there were no significant differences between groups; blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose improvements during the follow-up were higher in patients with the metabolic syndrome (all Pmetabolic syndrome, functional capacity increased by 26.45% ( Pmetabolic equivalents, with a slight increase of 1.25% ( P=not significant) in the double product. Patients with the metabolic syndrome who took part in this secondary prevention program reported improvements in cardiovascular risk profile and functional capacity.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

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    Marta Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  17. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  18. Novel opportunities for next-generation probiotics targeting metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Patrice D; Van Hul, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Various studies have described the beneficial effects of specific bacteria on the characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Intestinal microbiota might therefore represent a modifiable trait for translational intervention to improve the metabolic profiles of obese and type 2 diabetic patients. However, identifying potential probiotic strains that can effectively colonize the gastrointestinal tract and significantly affect host metabolism has been challenging. This review aims to summarize the notable advances and contributions in the field that may prove useful for identifying next-generation probiotics that target metabolic syndrome and its related disorders.

  19. Metabolic syndrome among infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Walid Farok Elsawah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: Two hundred and twenty infertile PCOS women were included in this prospective cross section study. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on at least two of ESHRE/ASRM criteria and diagnosis of MS was based on at least three of NCEP ATP III criteria. A standard questionnaire was used to document length of menstrual cycles, personal and family history of medical disorders. Signs of androgen excess and insulin resistance were noted in the physical examination. Anthropometric measurements were done to measure waist circumference, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overnight fasting blood sample and a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test, TSH, prolactin, total testosterone, SHBG and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all studied PCOS women. Trans-vaginal ultrasound was also done to measure;ovarian volume and number of follicles in both ovaries. Results: The prevalence of MS in studied PCOS women was 30.5% (67/220). There is strong positive correlation between prevalence of MS and both age and BMI of the studied PCOS women. Logistic regression analysis showed that;the age>25 and waist-hip ratio≥0.85 were powerful predictors for the prevalence of MS in PCOS women. Conclusion:The prevalence of MS was 30.5%in the studied PCOS women. The age above 25 years and waist-hip ratio≥0.85 were powerful predictors for prevalence of MS in PCOS women.

  20. [The role of insulin resistance in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roĭtberg, G E; Ushakova, T I; Dorosh, Zh V

    2004-01-01

    Early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is based on detection of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and clinical presentations of this syndrome. Differences in approaches to diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and its multi component nature hamper comparison of results of different studies and elaboration of generalized guidelines for selection of high risk groups and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Until present there are no common criteria of the syndrome and this makes difficult standardization of methodology of its investigation. Several organizations (WHO, National Cholesterol Education Program, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance) issued documents in which diagnostic approaches to detection of metabolic syndrome and its separate components have been formulated. These approaches as well as comparative analysis of direct and calculated methods of assessment of insulin resistance are presented in this review.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents - criteria for diagnosis

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    Mancini Marcio C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the definition chosen as the most appropriate is the one proposed by the IDF, with cut-offs fixed for pressure, lipids and glycemia, and abdominal circumference points assessed by percentile. Although on the one hand this definition could fail to include some children in the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome, on the other hand, it would be of easier acceptance as it does not use multiple tables to assess several anthropometric and metabolic criteria.

  2. The role of transient receptor potential channels in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is correlated with increased cardiovascular risk and characterized by several factors, including visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP......) canonical (TRPC), vanilloid (TRPV), and melastatin (TRPM) channels, have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, disruption of TRP channel expression or function may account for the observed increased cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome patients. TRPV1 regulates...... there is no evidence that a single TRP channelopathy may be the cause of all metabolic syndrome characteristics, further studies will help to clarify the role of specific TRP channels involved in the metabolic syndrome. (Hypertens Res 2008; 31: 1989-1995)....

  3. Vascular risk factors and adipocyte dysfunction in metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajer, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The cluster of vascular risk factors closely associated with obesity, consists of fasting and postprandial dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, also known as metabolic syndrome, is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, adipose tissue in conc

  4. Metabolic syndrome and reproductive organ cancers: а review of literature

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    K. P. Laktionov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the prevalence and association of reproductive organ cancers with metabolic syndrome. The latter has been found to increase a risk for cancer of the endometrium, breast, and prostate.

  5. The Metabolic Syndrome and Biochemical Recurrence following Radical Prostatectomy

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    Jennifer M. Post

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome refers to a set of conditions that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly among African American men. This study aimed to estimate the association of metabolic syndrome with biochemical recurrence (BCR in a racially diverse population. Among 383 radical prostatectomy patients, 67 patients had documented biochemical recurrence. Hypertension was significantly, positively associated with the rate of BCR (hazard ratio (HR = 2.1; 95%  CI = 1.1, 3.8. There were distinct racial differences in the prevalence of individual metabolic syndrome components; however, the observed associations with BCR did not differ appreciably by race. We conclude that hypertension may contribute to a poorer prognosis in surgically treated prostate cancer patients. Our findings suggest that targeting components of the metabolic syndrome which are potentially modifiable through lifestyle interventions may be a viable strategy to reduce risk of BCR in prostate cancer.

  6. Leptin Level in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Alexander V. Dreval, PhD, ScD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the dynamics of leptin in the various types of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism could reveal its role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the Fasting Leptin Level (FLL and effect of acute hyperinsulinemia during the Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT on the leptin levels in women with Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS. Materials and Methods: In total, 59 obese women (54.0 [48.5-60.0] yrs; BMI – 33.2 [29.0-37.2] kg/m² with IRS (12 – obesity (NGT, 18 - ITG and 30 - T2DM were observed. The IVGTT test was done only in women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2DM. The leptin level was investigated during fasting conditions and again 120 min post glucose loading. Then the Hepatic glucose production Index (H-index was calculated using the IVGTT data. Results: The FLL in women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT was almost two times greater than in women with IGT and T2DM. A negative relationship was found to exist between FLL and HbA1c in T2DM (r=0.3, p8%. The leptin level significantly decreased at 120 min of IVGTT in both the IGT and T2DM groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The FLL depended upon the degree of glucose metabolism impairment; postprandial leptin response to the glucose load was lower in the IGT group than in the T2DM subjects.

  7. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.I.Gǘiundǘz; B.H.Gǘmǘs; C.Sekuri

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) and to see which risk factors correlated the best with ED. Methods: Seventy-nine cardiology clinic outpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and lipid metabolism disorder were recruited. They were categorized as having MS,hypertension (blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg) and dyslipidemia. ED was classified based on International Index of Erectile Function scores. Patients were grouped into quartiles based on body mass index (BMI). Chi-square,Pearson's correlation and regression tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 56.6 years. ED was diagnosed in 59 (74.7 %) of the 79 patients. In the 38 patients with MS, all had ED. ED was not significantly correlated with cholesterol levels (P>0.05), but was found often in patients who had both hypercholesterolemia and HT (P<0.01). Nineteen(76 %) of the 25 patients who had dyslipidemia had ED. However, ED wasnot significantly correlated with dyslipidemia (P>0.05). Tweenty-two of the 23 patients who had BMI greater than30 had ED, which was significantly more prevalent than that in those who had normal BMI (P<0.01). ED was seen in 38 of 53 smoker patients. Although ED was more prevalent in cigarette smokers, it was not significantly different from non-smokers (P>0.5). Conclusion: ED is present in a high percentage of patients with MS. Among multiple risk factors for ED, MS correlates the most highly. The next most important risk group is the patients with hypertension +hypercholestrolemia and obesity (BMI>30). (Asian JAndrol 2004 Dec; 6: 355-358)

  8. Periodontal disease: the influence of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Enrico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress.

  9. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in young women after placental syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, M.; Stekkinger, E.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether women with a recent history of a placental syndrome and concomitant metabolic syndrome have reduced cardiac diastolic function. METHODS: In this cohort study, women with a history of a placental syndrome were included. We assessed body mass index, blood pressure, fasti

  10. Could Metabolic Syndrome, Lipodystrophy, and Aging Be Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exhaustion Syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mansilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and complex diseases of modern society is metabolic syndrome. This syndrome has not been completely understood, and therefore an effective treatment is not available yet. We propose a possible stem cell mechanism involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. This way of thinking lets us consider also other significant pathologies that could have similar etiopathogenic pathways, like lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and aging. All these clinical situations could be the consequence of a progressive and persistent stem cell exhaustion syndrome (SCES. The main outcome of this SCES would be an irreversible loss of the effective regenerative mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs pools. In this way, the normal repairing capacities of the organism could become inefficient. Our point of view could open the possibility for a new strategy of treatment in metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophic syndromes, progeria, and even aging: stem cell therapies.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and risk of subsequent colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raluca Pais; Horatiu Silaghi; Alina Cristina Silaghi; Mihai Lucian Rusu; Dan Lucian Dumitrascu

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity have an increasing prevalence and incidence in the general population. The actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 24% in US population and between 24.6% and 30.9% in Europe. As demonstrated by many clinical trials (NAHANES Ⅲ, INTERHART) the metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to cardiovascular disease, individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been linked to the development of cancer, particularly to colorectal cancer.Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem; in the year 2000 there was an estimated total of 944 717 incident cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed world-wide. This association is sustained by many epidemiological studies. Recent reports suggest that individuals with metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of colon or rectal cancer. Moreover, the clusters of metabolic syndrome components increase the risk of associated cancer. The physiopathological mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer is mostly related to abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Population and experimental studies demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia, elevated C-peptide, elevated body mass index, high levels of insulin growth factor-1, low levels of insulin growth factor binding protein-3, high leptin levels and low adiponectin levels are all involved in carcinogenesis. Understanding the pathological mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and its components to carcinogenesis has a major clinical significance and may have profound health benefits on a number of diseases including cancer, which represents a major cause of mortality and morbidity in our societies.

  12. Sedentary Activity Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Independent of Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bankoski, Andrea; Tamara B. Harris; McClain, James J.; Brychta, Robert J.; Caserotti, Paolo; Chen, Kong Y.; Berrigan, David; Troiano, Richard P.; Koster, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were from 1,367 men and women, aged ≥60 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Sedentary time during waking hours was measured by an accelerometer (5 min. A sedentary break was defined as an interruption in sedentary time (≥100 counts per minute). Metabolic syndrome ...

  13. Study of an association of gout and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I I Pol'skaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of comorbidity of gout and metabolic syndrome. It gives the data of the authors' study that has revealed the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with primary chronic gout, as well as a substantially higher cardiovascular risk in patients with the concomitance of these diseases. A role of hyperuricemia as an independent cardiovascular risk factor is demonstrated

  14. Testosterone and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men: Current Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nieschlag E; Zitzmann M

    2006-01-01

    Circumstances of life and food supply have changed in developed countries, resulting in an increasing prevalence of overweight. As a consequence, a complex disorder consisting of visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension emerges: the so-called metabolic syndrome leads to the manifestation of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. In men, testosterone deficiency contributes to the generation of the metabolic syndrome, as demonstrated by epidemiological and inter...

  15. Relationship of the metabolic syndrome to carotid ultrasound traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinman Bernard

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased vascular disease risk. We evaluated two carotid ultrasound measurements, namely intima media thickness and total plaque volume, in a Canadian Oji-Cree population with a high metabolic syndrome prevalence rate. Methods As part of the Sandy Lake Complications Prevalence and Risk Factor Study, 166 Oji-Cree subjects (baseline metabolic syndrome prevalence, 44.0%, according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines were examined using a high-resolution duplex ultrasound scanner. Results Image analysis showed that mean intima media thickness was elevated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (818 ± 18 vs 746 ± 20 μm, as was total plaque volume (125 ± 26 vs 77.3 ± 17.0 mm3. However, after adjustment for age and sex, the differences were significant only for intima media thickness (P = 0.039. Furthermore, a significant trend towards increased intima media thickness was observed with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components: mean intima media thickness was highest among individuals with all five metabolic syndrome components compared to those with none (866 ± 55 vs 619 ± 23 μm, P = 0.0014. A similar, but non-significant trend was observed for total plaque volume. Conclusion This is the first study of the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and two distinct carotid ultrasound traits measured in the same individuals. The results suggest that standard intima media thickness measurement shows a more consistent and stronger association with the metabolic syndrome than does total plaque volume.

  16. Breakfast patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Korean diet, including breakfast, is becoming more Western, which could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to assess whether breakfast patterns are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. The study subjects (n = 371; 103 men, 268 women) were employees of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances, and all subjects were between 30 and 50 years old. The data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, three-day food intake...

  17. Understanding asthma and the metabolic syndrome - a Nigerian report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria is a developing country that is currently witnessing an upsurge in diabetes mellitus and obesity with its antecedent consequences. There is also a fairly high prevalence of asthma affecting an estimated 10.7% of the population. There is no data presently on the possible presence of metabolic syndrome in Nigerian living with asthma. The study was conceived to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among a population of asthmatics seen in our practice. We also attem...

  18. Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored cognitive impairment in metabolic syndrome in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 819 participants free of clinical stroke and dementia of the population-based Austrian Stroke Prevention Study who had undergone brain MRI, neuropsychological testing, and a risk factor assessment relevant to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria–defined metabolic syndrome. High-sensitivity C...

  19. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia as a component of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Bespalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of uric acid in the blood serum of 103 patients with coronary heart disease was researched in clinical conditions. The interrelation with the components of the metabolic syndrome in patients on the background of individually selected pathogenetic therapy was studied. It was shown that the abdominal obesity has the highest correlation with the level of uric acid in a cluster of metabolic syndrome components.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life: a systematic review 1

    OpenAIRE

    Saboya, Patrícia Pozas; Bodanese,Luiz Carlos; Zimmermann,Paulo Roberto; Gustavo,Andréia da Silva; Assumpção, Caroline Melo; Londero, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62.063 pa...

  1. The Metabolic Syndrome among Postmenopausal Women in Gorgan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoljalal Marjani; Sedigheh Moghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The present study aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Gorgan, Iran. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on hundred postmenopausal women who were referred to the health centers in Gorgan. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines. Results. The mean body mass index, waist circumference, hip, circumference waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting blood glucose l...

  2. Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Sagun; Aytekin Oguz; Engin Karagoz; Arzu Ti?li Filizer; Gonca Tamer; Banu Mesci

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Meden...

  3. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among Employees in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Fang Yang; Michiel L Bots; Wei-Ying Guo; Bing Zhao; Arno W Hoes; Ilonca Vaartjes

    2015-01-01

    Background:The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China.Methods:Totally,33,149 employees who received health screening in the International Health Promotion Center in the First Hospital of Jilin University were enrolled.Height,weight,waist circumference,blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein,and low-density lipoprotein were recorded.Three definitions for the metabolic syndrome were applied,revised National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (NCEP ATP Ⅲ) criteria,the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria,and the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria.Results:Overall,the age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 22.9%,20.6%,and 15.3% based on dcfinitions of revised NCEP ATP Ⅲ criteria,the IDF criteria,and the CDS criteria,respectively.Men had higher age-standardized prevalence than women in all three definitions (P < 0.05).The prevalence was 27.1%,24.5%,and 20.4% for men;17.1%,15.4%,and 8.3% for women,respectively.The most common metabolic component with the metabolic syndrome was overweight (54.7% of men had an elevated body mass index,and 35.9% of women had central obesity).Conclusions:A large proportion of employees among Northeast China have the metabolic syndrome.These findings place emphasis on the need to develop aggressive lifestyle modification for patients with the metabolic syndrome and population level strategies for the prevention,detection,and treatment of cardiovascular risk.

  4. Opposite fates of fructose in the development of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Alegret; Juan C Laguna

    2012-01-01

    This short review comments on the recently published work of Ishimoto et al regarding the opposing effects of fructokinase C and A isoforms on fructoseinduced metabolic syndrome in mice.The framework for the commentary is the preexisting background of epidemiological and experimental data regarding the association between ingestion of fructose,as present in sweetened beverages,and the development of metabolic syndrome.The work of Ishimoto etal clearly confirms the negative effect of fructose on lipid and glucose metabolism,independently from the amount of energy provided by the ingested sugar.It also confirms the absolute requirement of liver fructose metabolism,driven by fructokinase activity,in order to develop the full spectrum of metabolic syndrome alterations.

  5. The metabolic syndrome is associated with decelerated cognitive decline in the oldest old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, E.; Biessels, G. J.; de Craen, A. J. M.; Gussekloo, J.; Westendorp, R. G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose metabolism, associated with cardiovascular disease. The metabolic syndrome also appears to predispose to cognitive dysfunction and dementia. In this study the associati

  6. Metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation: Preventable illness or common consequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric R Kallwitz

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplant being present in approximately half of recipients.It has been associated with adverse outcomes such as progression of hepatitis C and major vascular events.As the United States population ages and the rate of obesity increases,prevention of the metabolic syndrome in the post-transplant population deserves special consideration.Currently,the metabolic syndrome after transplant appears at least two times more common than observed rates in the general population.Specific guidelines for patients after transplant does not exist,therefore prevention rests upon knowledge of risk factors and the presence of modifiable elements.The current article will focus on risk factors for the development of the metabolic syndrome after transplant,will highlight potentially modifiable factors and propose potential areas for intervention.As in the non-transplant population,behavioral choices might have a major role.Opportunities exist in this regard for health prevention studies incorporating lifestyle changes.Other factors such as the need for immunosuppression,and the changing characteristics of wait listed patients are not modifiable,but are important to know in order to identifypersons at higher risk.Although immunosuppression after transplant is unavoidable,the contribution of different agents to the development of components of the metabolic syndrome is also discussed.Ultimately,an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome after transplant is likely unavoidable,however,there are many opportunities to reduce the prevalence.

  7. The molecular mechanisms between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Ya-yuan; Li, Zhi-rong; Luo, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xiao-hua

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic syndrome, which is extremely common in developed and some developing countries, is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. It has been proved that there is a strong association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome could increase the risk of breast cancer and influence the prognosis of the breast cancer patients. Some characteristic of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and lack of physical exercise are all risk factors for developing breast cancer. The metabolic syndrome mainly include obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and each of them impacts the risk of breast cancer and the prognosis of the breast cancer patients in different ways. In this Review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the immunological and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this highly prevalent and serious disease. These studies bring new insight into the complex associations between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer and have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that might enable a personalized approach in the management of this disease.

  8. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood.

  9. Adipokines, metabolic syndrome and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Vanessa; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; López, Verónica; Lazzaro, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases.

  10. [Metabolic syndrome in inflammatory rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesci, D; Valentini, G; La Montagna, G

    2006-01-01

    Toward the end of the last century a better knowledge of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and their associations led investigators to propose the existence of a unique pathophysiological condition called "metabolic" or "insulin resistance syndrome". Among all, insulin-resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are considered its most important treatment targets. Different definitions have been provided by World Health Organization (WHO) and by The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III). In particular, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglicemia are the most common items used for its definition. The presence of MetS is effective in predicting the future risk of diabetes and coronaropathies. The evidence of a higher CV risk rate among different rheumatic inflammatory diseases has recently been associated with high prevalence of MetS in some cases. Rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis have the large series among arthritis, whereas systemic lupus erythematosus among connective tissue disorders. This review analyses all most important studies about the evidence of MetS in rheumatic patients and the main clinical and prognostic significance of this relation.

  11. Adipokines, Metabolic Syndrome and Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Abella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases.

  12. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunlulu, Mehmet; Telci Caklili, Ozge; Oguz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Growing data show the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components with cancer development and cancer-related mortality. It is suggested that in MetS and cancer association, insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factor 1 system play a key role, especially adipokines secreted from visceral adipocytes, free fatty acids and aromatase activity contribute to this process. It is also reported that MetS has a link with colorectal, breast, endometrial, pancreas, primary liver and, although controversial, prostate cancer. Although every component of MetS is known to have an association with cancer development, it is still debated whether the effects of these components are additive or synergistic. On the other hand, in the association between MetS and cancer, the role of antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatments including thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin receptor blockers is also suggested. The primary approach in MetS-cancer relation is to prevent risk factors. Life style changes including weight loss and a healthy diet are known to decrease cancer risk in normal population. It is postulated that an insulin-sensitizing agent, metformin, has cancer-preventing effects on diabetic patients. This review discusses the relationship between MetS and cancer from different aspects and examines this relationship in some of the cancers suggested to be linked with MetS.

  13. Obesity, blood vessels and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, M; Cardillo, C

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is rising worldwide at an alarming rate and so is the incidence of obesity-related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The obesity-dependent vascular damage appears to be derived from a variety of changes in the adipose tissue, leading to a chronic inflammatory state and dysregulation of adipocyte-derived factors. This, in turn, impairs vascular homeostasis by determining an unbalance between the protective effect of the nitric oxide pathway and the unfavourable action of the endothelin-1 system. In addition, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance contribute to vascular dysfunction because the opposing endothelium-dependent vasodilating and vasoconstrictor effects of insulin are shifted towards a predominant vasoconstriction in patients with obesity. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that the vascular dysfunction of obesity is not only limited to the endothelium but also involves the other layers of the vessel wall. In particular, obesity-related changes in vascular smooth muscle seem to disrupt the physiological facilitatory action of insulin on the responsiveness to vasodilator stimuli, whereas the adventitia and the perivascular fat appear to be a source of proinflammatory and vasoactive factors that may contribute to endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of vascular disease.

  14. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Sawant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterised by a constellation of individual risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods. The current study was a population-based survey of cohort of subjects in the metropolitan city of Mumbai. A total of 548 subjects, who attended the CARDIAC evaluation camp, were recruited in the study. Participants with complete fasting lipid profiles, blood glucose, and known cardiac risk markers were evaluated. Results. On applying modified NCEP ATP III, we found out that nearly 95% of the subjects had at least one abnormal parameter. We found the prevalence of MS in our study population to be 19.52%. The prevalence of MS in males was almost double than females (=.008. The overall prevalence of BMI (>23 kg/m2 was 79.01%. Increased hypertriglyceridemia and decreased levels of HDL-C were found to be more in males (<.0001. Conclusion. The low percentage of subjects with normal and controlled parameters suggests that there is a need for awareness programs and lifestyle interventions for the prevention and control of MS.

  15. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome: A component of metabolic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1935, Stein and Leventhal first described the polycystic ovary (PCO as a frequent cause of irregular ovulation in women seeking treatment for subfertility. Although the initial management was surgical with wedge resection of ovary, the availability of radioimmunoassay and increased clinical use of ultrasound made it clear that many women had the ultrasound characteristics of PCO with or without the biochemical or clinical features of PCOS and therefore that PCO were not associated with a single syndrome. The association between increased insulin resistance and PCOS is a consistent finding in all ethnic groups. Obesity is a common factor in the majority of women with PCOS. It is postulated that a woman may be genetically predisposed to developing PCOS but it is only the interaction of environmental factors (obesity with the genetic factors that results in the characteristic metabolic and menstrual disturbances. Weight loss, altered diet and exercise have been shown to be effective in the management of PCOS. Importance of early recognition, proper intervention, long-term monitoring and health implications needs more concern.

  17. Relationship between aldosterone and the metabolic syndrome in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Barceló

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS occurs frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS. We hypothesized that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS and associated with the presence of MS. METHODS: We studied 66 patients with OSAHS (33 with MS and 33 without MS and 35 controls. The occurrence of the MS was analyzed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III clinical criteria. Measurements of plasma renin activity (PRA, aldosterone, aldosterone:PRA ratio, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were obtained at baseline and after CPAP treatment. RESULTS: Aldosterone levels were associated with the severity of OSAHS and higher than controls (p = 0.046. Significant differences in aldosterone levels were detected between OSAHS patients with and without MS (p = 0.041. A significant reduction was observed in the aldosterone levels in patients under CPAP treatment (p = 0.012. CONCLUSION: This study shows that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS in comparison to controls, and that CPAP therapy reduces aldosterone levels. It also shows that aldosterone levels are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, suggesting that aldosterone excess might predispose or aggravate the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of OSAHS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is not a randomized controlled trial and was not registered.

  18. Sympathetic system activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, N; Liatis, S; Katsilambros, N

    2006-11-01

    Obesity is a very common disease worldwide, resulting from a disturbance in the energy balance. The metabolic syndrome is also a cluster of abnormalities with basic characteristics being insulin resistance and visceral obesity. The major concerns of obesity and metabolic syndrome are the comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and certain types of cancers. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with both energy balance and metabolic syndrome. Sympathomimetic medications decrease food intake, increase resting metabolic rate (RMR), and thermogenic responses, whereas blockage of the SNS exerts opposite effects. The contribution of the SNS to the daily energy expenditure, however, is small ( approximately 5%) in normal subjects consuming a weight maintenance diet. Fasting suppresses, whereas meal ingestion induces SNS activity. Most of the data agree that obesity is characterized by SNS predominance in the basal state and reduced SNS responsiveness after various sympathetic stimuli. Weight loss reduces SNS overactivity in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by enhanced SNS activity. Most of the indices used for the assessment of its activity are better associated with visceral fat than with total fat mass. Visceral fat is prone to lipolysis: this effect is mediated by catecholamine action on the sensitive beta(3)-adrenoceptors found in the intraabdominal fat. In addition, central fat distribution is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, suggesting that a disturbed axis may be implicated in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, SNS activity induces a proinflammatory state by IL-6 production, which in turn results in an acute phase response. The increased levels of inflammatory markers seen in the metabolic syndrome may be elicited, at least in part, by SNS overactivity. Intervention studies showed that the disturbances of the autonomic nervous system seen in the

  19. Obesity, body composition and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in women with PCOS. METHODS: In 35 women with PCOS (17 lean, lean PCOS and 18 obese, obese PCOS) and 25 control women (9 lean, lean controls and 16 obese......-stimulated glucose oxidation (GOX 2) (P metabolism (P

  20. Neurobiology of the metabolic syndrome : An allostatic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Gertjan; Buwalda, Bauke

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of more or less related metabolic and cardiovascular derangements including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, blood and tissue dislipidemia, high blood pressure and it is often associated with neuroendocrine and immunological dysregulations. The aetiology of t

  1. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents - criteria for diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini Marcio C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, there has been a greater concern about the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. It is evident that each component of the syndrome must be identified as early as possible in order to prevent definitive lesions. The question is how to do this and which cut-offs must be adopted for this diagnosis. For a matter of convenience, the d...

  2. [Metabolic syndrome in a global perspective. Significance for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2006-09-04

    The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to the clustering of a number of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia) believed to be related to insulin resistance. The prevalence of each of these diseases as well as the metabolic syndrome is increasing world wide. Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes are no longer diseases of the wealthy. By 2025, three out of four people with diabetes will be living in 3rd world countries, and similar trends are likely for the other components of the syndrome. Preventive action is urgently needed, and studies in China and India have proven to be effective.

  3. The role of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome

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    Ifeoma C Udenze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study of 50 adult men and women with metabolic syndrome and 50 age- and sex-matched men and women without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria approved the study protocol. Comparisons of the continuous variables and the categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The study subjects differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048, waist circumference (P = 0.002, body mass index (BMI (P = 0.012, waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023, high-density lipoprotein (HDL (P = 0.012, and insulin resistance (P = 0.042. There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019, cytokines, IL-6 (P = 0.040, and TNFα (P = 0.031 between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a positive significant association between CRP, waist circumference, and insulin resistance and a negative significant association between CRP and HDL in metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study reports increased plasma levels of the inflammatory

  4. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14-30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71-36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66-39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85-45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95-27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13-41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24-41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77-38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society.

  5. The role of interleukin-18 in the metabolic syndrome

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    Seljeflot Ingebjørg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metabolic syndrome is thought to be associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation, and a growing body of evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18 might be closely related to the metabolic syndrome and its consequences. Circulating levels of IL-18 have been reported to be elevated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome, to be closely associated with the components of the syndrome, to predict cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with the metabolic syndrome and to precede the development of type 2 diabetes. IL-18 is found in the unstable atherosclerotic plaque, in adipose tissue and in muscle tissue, and is subject to several regulatory steps including cleavage by caspase-1, inactivation by IL-18 binding protein and the influence of other cytokines in modulating its interaction with the IL-18 receptor. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of IL-18 in the metabolic syndrome, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk and the potential effect of life style interventions.

  6. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

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    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki (National Central Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO{sub 2} were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author).

  7. Cardiovascular Changes in Animal Models of Metabolic Syndrome

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    Alexandre M. Lehnen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans.

  8. Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Women at Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowska, Aneta; Nowak, Lena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with premature atherosclerosis, as well as with many metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Visceral fat accumulation, particularly, is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The menopause transition, as well as the early postmenopausal period, is associated with increase in total and central obesity. Among adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue adiponectin is the only one that has a protective role in the development of obesity-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to present a role that adiponectin may play during the progress of menopause in relation to development of menopausal metabolic syndrome.

  9. Zinc homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

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    Miao, Xiao; Sun, Weixia; Fu, Yaowen; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu

    2013-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral that is required for various cellular functions. Zn dyshomeostasis always is related to certain disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications. The associations of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications, thus, stem from the multiple roles of Zn: (1) a constructive component of many important enzymes or proteins, (2) a requirement for insulin storage and secretion, (3) a direct or indirect antioxidant action, and (4) an insulin-like action. However, whether there is a clear cause-and-effect relationship of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or diabetic complications remains unclear. In fact, it is known that Zn deficiency is a common phenomenon in diabetic patients. Chronic low intake of Zn was associated with the increased risk of diabetes and diabetes also impairs Zn metabolism. Theoretically Zn supplementation should prevent the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications; however, limited available data are not always supportive of the above notion. Therefore, this review has tried to summarize these pieces of available information, possible mechanisms by which Zn prevents the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. In the final part, what are the current issues for Zn supplementation were also discussed.

  10. Regulatory functions of PPARbeta in metabolism: implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disturbances, collectively known as metabolic syndrome, has reached an epidemic proportion in industrialized countries. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological treatments of such pathologies are only partially efficient and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. This review focuses on the recent findings describing the regulatory functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta) on lipid metabolism in several tissues and on the implications of such findings on the therapeutic usefulness of PPARbeta agonists in the treatment of particular features of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunctions.

  11. A Nutritional Approach to the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Robert H. Lerman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS; addressing both is crucial for its management. A diet featuring the Mediterranean dietary pattern or low glycemic load has been shown to prevent and ameliorate MetS. Plant compounds, including soy protein and phytosterols, have been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Recently, phytochemicals from hops and acacia were identified as lipogenic, antiinflammatory compounds that reduced serum insulin and glucose levels in animals. A 12-week, randomized lifestyle intervention study in overweight and obese women with LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL compared a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and soy/phytosterol-based medical food to an AHA low-fat diet. The modified Mediterranean diet with medical food was superior in reducing markers of MetS and CVD risk. A subsequent,randomized 12-week study in men and women with MetS and LDL ≥3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL showed that supplementation with soy/phytosterol-based medical food plus phytochemicalsenhanced the benefits of a Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet and aerobic exercise. At the completion of the study, 43% of participants receiving medical food and phytochemicalsexhibited net resolution of MetS compared with only 22% of those on diet and exercise alone. A subanalysis of participants at high risk (MetS + LDL ≥4.14 mmol/L [160 mg/dL] indicated minimal benefit from lifestyle change alone but marked benefits with the addition of medical food and phytochemicals. Case studies illustrate long-term benefits of this supplemented lifestyle change program. In conclusion, institution of a phytochemical-enhanced lifestyle intervention promises to be a clinically useful approach in MetS management.

  12. The metabolic syndrome: an artificial and irrelevant notion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    (1) The term 'metabolic syndrome' was first coined in the 1970s, although initial reports of associated lipid and carbohydrate metabolic disorders in the same patient date from the 1930s. (2) The metabolic syndrome refers to a variety of vaguely related disorders, often including obesity, blood lipid disorders, type 2 diabetes, and varying degrees of hypertension. Various definitions and diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Smoking is not included. (3) A 'diagnosis' of 'metabolic syndrome' has no clinical or therapeutic relevance. (4) It is better to treat each condition, if it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, provided a treatment with a positive risk-benefit balance (including a proven impact on morbidity/mortality endpoints) is available.

  13. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

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    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

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    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032 and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006. All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01. In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.

  15. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana P.; Estrella, Mayra; Valle, Yari; Pérez, Naydi; Haddock, Lillian; Suárez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do other ethnic groups. We assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components in Puerto Rican adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study that used a probability cluster design to select a sample of households of the San Juan metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A total of 859 persons aged 21–79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and waist circumference measurements, and blood sampling. Our primary outcome measure was metabolic syndrome as defined by the updated NCEP-ATP criteria. Results Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 43.3%; 45.3% for men and 42.2% for women (P>.05). Prevalence significantly rose with age, from 12.8% among participants aged 21–29 years to 58.2% for participants aged 70–79 years (P<.001). Corresponding increases in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in both men and women were also observed; the prevalence peaked in men aged 50–59 years (62.6%) and in women aged 70–79 years (65.2%). Elevated glucose (49.8%) and abdominal obesity (49.0%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by elevated blood pressure (46.1%), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.0%), and elevated triglycerides (31.3%). Substantial variations were found between men and women in the prevalence of individual components. Conclusions Puerto Ricans have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. This health disparity has implications for diabetes and cardiovascular prevention programs. PMID:19157247

  16. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  17. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

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    Thang S Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  18. Plasma proteome profiles predict diet-induced metabolic syndrome and the early onset of metabolic syndrome in a pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Koopmans, S.J.; Kruijt, L.; Smits, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25 % of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Feeding behavior is often associated with the onset of the metabolic syndrome. We have deve

  19. Excess Metabolic Syndrome Risks Among Women Health Workers Compared With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Abiodun M; Adewoye, Ifeoluwa A; Dairo, David M; Adebiyi, Adewole; Lackland, Daniel T; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Tayo, Bamidele O

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although significant disparities in the risks of metabolic syndrome by occupation type and sex are well documented, the factors associated with metabolic syndrome in low- to middle-income countries remain unclear. These gaps in evidence identify the need for patterns of metabolic syndrome among hospital personnel of both sexes in Nigeria. A total of 256 hospital workers comprising 32.8% men were studied. The mean age of the participants was 42.03 ± 9.4 years. Using International Diabetic Federation criteria, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24.2%. Women were substantially and significantly more likely to be identified with metabolic syndrome compared with men (34.9% vs 2.4%, respectively; P=.0001). This study identified metabolic syndrome among health workers with over one third of women with metabolic syndrome compared with metabolic syndrome in the health care workplace.

  20. Study of insulin status in metabolic syndrome in correlation with presence of other risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhanshu Shekhar; Ram Ranjan Singh; Md. Jawed Akhtar; Vijay Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome is widely prevalent and multifactorial disorder. The majority of persons with metabolic syndrome have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance and / or associated hyperinsulinemia are believed to be the direct cause of other metabolic syndrome risk factors. The present work is being done to assess the insulin status and to assess the correlation between insulin status and other component of metabolic syndrome. Methods: The pre...

  1. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-11-15

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome in the Immediate Female Relatives (Mothers of Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

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    marzieh akbarzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: About 40% of PCOS affected women’s sisters have hyperandrogenemia and are exposed to metabolic syndrome risk. This study aimed at investigating metabolic disorders and level of testosterone in immediate relatives (mothers of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Methods: The study was conducted over 34 mothers of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome, and 34 relatives of women without the syndrome. Blood pressure, height and weight, a blood sample were obtained from all participants in order to investigate their serum insulin, blood sugar, testosterone and lipoproteins. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated based on ATPIII (Adult Treatment Panel Ш and IDF (International Diabetes Federation, and resistance to insulin was evaluated based on HOMA indices (Homeostasis Model Assessment Index and QUICKI (Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and fasting blood sugar and BMI≤30kg/m2. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in mothers of the PCOS was according to ATPIII index and IDF index was not significantly different from the relatives of healthy group (P>0.05. The means of fasting blood sugar, blood pressure, serum testosterone, total cholesterol, LDL. HDL and triglyceride in mothers of the healthy women were very different from those of the mothers of the patients (P0.05. Conclusion: Immediate relatives especially mothers of women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are exposed to metabolic syndrome.

  3. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

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    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  4. Genetic selection of embryos that later develop the metabolic syndrome.

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    Edwards, M J

    2012-05-01

    THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: Is an excellent explanation of the process where human and animal foetuses exposed to malnutrition, either by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, are metabolically programmed, with selective stunting of cell differentiation and organ growth. With the postnatal excess of nutrition observed in developed countries, this irreversible programming causes metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Metabolic programming involves epigenetic changes including imprinting which might be transmitted through more than one generation rather than being completely re-set or erased during reproduction. The Barker hypothesis was supported by epidemiological data that recognised no excess fetal or postnatal mortality when pregnant women were starved during the Dutch famine in World War II. This argued against the "thrifty genotype" theory introduced in 1962, which proposed that starvation selected against members of the population with less "thrifty" genes, but the survivors who had "thrifty" genes developed metabolic syndrome if they were subsequently over-nourished. EMBRYONIC/FETAL SELECTION: Embryos or early foetuses could be selected very early in pregnancy on the basis of their genotype, by maternal malnutrition, hypertension, obesity or other causes of placental insufficiency. The genotype that allows embryos, or cells within them, to survive a less hospitable environment in the decidua after implantation might contribute to the later development of metabolic syndrome. This article hypothesises that an adverse intrauterine environment, caused by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, kills a proportion of embryos and selects a surviving population of early embryos whose growth in utero is retarded by their genotype, their environment or a combination of both. The metabolic syndrome follows if the offspring is over-nourished later in life. The embryonic selection hypothesis presented here could be

  5. The skin function: a factor of anti-metabolic syndrome

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    Zhou Shi-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The body’s total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body’s antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body’s total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin’s antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn and metabolic syndrome are also discussed.

  6. Pycnogenol® in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Om P

    2015-07-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological actions of Pycnogenol® in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension. Pycnogenol® is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. Subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, antiinflammatory, endothelium-dependent vasodilator activity, and also its anti-thrombotic effects make it appropriate for targeting the multifaceted pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, blood pressure in mild to moderate hypertensive patients, and waist circumference, and improve lipid profile, renal and endothelial functions in metabolic syndrome. This review highlights the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and related clinical research findings on the safety and efficacy of Pycnogenol®. The results of clinical research studies performed with Pycnogenol® are discussed using an evidence-based, target-oriented approach following the pathophysiology of individual components as well as in metabolic syndrome overall.

  7. The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome

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    Paulina Sicińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pozas Saboya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62.063 patients. Almost all studies suggested that metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with impaired quality of life. Some, however, found association only in women, or only if associated with depression or Body Mass Index. Merely one study did not find association after adjusted for confounding factors. Conclusion: although there are a few studies available about the relationship between metabolic syndrome and quality of life, a growing body of evidence has shown significant association between metabolic syndrome and the worsening of quality of life. However, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this association and verify whether this relationship is linear, or only an association factor.

  9. Pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome and its lipid complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Binesh Marvasti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity epidemic has been spread all over the world in the past few decades and has caused a major public health concern due to its increasing global prevalence. Obese individuals are at higher risks of developing dyslipidemic characteristics resulting in increased triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol content and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels. This disorder has profound implications as afflicted individuals have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Today, this phenotype is designated as metabolic syndrome. According to the criteria set by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, for a patient to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the person must have central obesity plus any two of the following conditions: raised TG, reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised blood pressure, and increased fasting plasma glucose. Current National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III guidelines for the treatment of patients with the metabolic syndrome encourage therapies that lower LDL cholesterol and TG and raise HDL-cholesterol. Primary intervention often involves treatment with statins to improve the lipid profiles of these patients. However, recent studies suggest the potential of newly identified drugs including thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors that seem to be promising in reducing the level of progression of metabolic syndrome related disorders. This review discusses the current pharmacological treatments of the metabolic syndrome with the above mentioned drugs.

  10. Pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome and its lipid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh Marvasti, T; Adeli, Kh

    2010-01-01

    Obesity epidemic has been spread all over the world in the past few decades and has caused a major public health concern due to its increasing global prevalence. Obese individuals are at higher risks of developing dyslipidemic characteristics resulting in increased triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol content and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels. This disorder has profound implications as afflicted individuals have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Today, this phenotype is designated as metabolic syndrome. According to the criteria set by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), for a patient to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the person must have central obesity plus any two of the following conditions: raised TG, reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised blood pressure, and increased fasting plasma glucose. Current National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) guidelines for the treatment of patients with the metabolic syndrome encourage therapies that lower LDL cholesterol and TG and raise HDL-cholesterol. Primary intervention often involves treatment with statins to improve the lipid profiles of these patients. However, recent studies suggest the potential of newly identified drugs including thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors that seem to be promising in reducing the level of progression of metabolic syndrome related disorders. This review discusses the current pharmacological treatments of the metabolic syndrome with the above mentioned drugs.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life: a systematic review 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboya, Patrícia Pozas; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Zimmermann, Paulo Roberto; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Assumpção, Caroline Melo; Londero, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62.063 patients. Almost all studies suggested that metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with impaired quality of life. Some, however, found association only in women, or only if associated with depression or Body Mass Index. Merely one study did not find association after adjusted for confounding factors. Conclusion: although there are a few studies available about the relationship between metabolic syndrome and quality of life, a growing body of evidence has shown significant association between metabolic syndrome and the worsening of quality of life. However, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this association and verify whether this relationship is linear, or only an association factor. PMID:27901223

  12. [The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Maćczak, Aneta; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-01-09

    Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment.

  13. Dynamic genetic architecture of metabolic syndrome attributes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ondrej; Liska, Frantisek; Krenova, Drahomira; Kazdova, Ludmila; Sedova, Lucie; Zima, Tomas; Peng, Junzheng; Pelinkova, Kveta; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimir

    2005-04-14

    The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone administration challenges. The interval mapping analysis of 83 metabolic and morphometric traits revealed over 50 regions genomewide with significant or suggestive linkage to one or more of the traits in the segregating PD/Cub x BN/Cub population. The multiple interval mapping showed that, in addition to "single" quantitative train loci, there are more than 30 pairs of loci across the whole genome significantly influencing the variation of particular traits in an epistatic fashion. This study represents the first whole genome analysis of metabolic syndrome in the PD/Cub model and reveals several new loci previously not connected to the genetics of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, it attempts to present the concept of "dynamic genetic architecture" of metabolic syndrome attributes, evidenced by shifts in the genetic determination of syndrome features during ontogenesis and during adaptation to the dietary and pharmacological influences.

  14. "The metabolic syndrome... is dead": These reports are an exaggeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The debates continue over the validity of the metabolic syndrome concept. The continuous increment of the obesity pandemic is almost worldwide paralleled by rising rates of metabolic syndrome prevalence. Then, it seems obvious that these debates drove the need for further investigations as well as a deeper cooperation between relevant national and international organizations regarding the issue. Instead, part of the scientific community elected to totally "dismiss" the concept of the metabolic syndrome. Meanwhile, the best available evidence from three consecutive large meta-analyses has systematically shown that people with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of cardiovascular events. The most recent and largest of them included near one million patients (total n = 951,083. The investigators concluded that the metabolic syndrome is associated with a 2-fold increase in cardiovascular outcomes and a 1.5-fold increase in all-cause mortality rates. One of the ways to hit the metabolic syndrome is an utterly simplistic view on this concept as a predictive tool only. Of course, the presence of the metabolic syndrome possesses a definite predictive value, but first of all it is a widely accepted concept regarding a biological condition based on the complex and interrelated pathophysiological mechanisms starting from excess central adiposity and insulin resistance. Therefore, it is completely unfair to compare it with statistically constructed predictive tools, including stronger prognostic variables even unrelated to each other from the biological point of view. For example, in the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in contrast to Framingham score age and cholesterol - presumably low density lipoprotein - cholesterol (LDL-C - levels are not included, as well as a variety of strong predictors used in other risk-stratification scores: previous myocardial infarction, heart failure, smoking, family history, etc. However, the metabolic syndrome

  15. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  16. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Borges, Ana Luíza; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Santos, Marize M; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; Martins, Stella Maris Seixas; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some components

  17. Genetic variants in lipid metabolism are independently associated with multiple features of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Povel, C.M.; Boer, J.M.; Imholz, S.; Dolle, M.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within transcriptional pathways of glucose and lipid metabolism, which are related to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods 373 SNPs were measured in 3575 subjects of the Doetinchem cohort. Prevalence

  18. Thiazide diuretics exacerbate fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reungjui, Sirirat; Roncal, Carlos A; Mu, Wei; Srinivas, Titte R; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2007-10-01

    Fructose is a commonly used sweetener associated with diets that increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Thiazide diuretics are frequently used in these patients for treatment of hypertension, but they also exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Rats on high-fructose diets that are given thiazides exhibit potassium depletion and hyperuricemia. Potassium supplementation improves their insulin resistance and hypertension, whereas allopurinol reduces serum levels of uric acid and ameliorates hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Both potassium supplementation and treatment with allopurinol also increase urinary nitric oxide excretion. We suggest that potassium depletion and hyperuricemia in rats exacerbates endothelial dysfunction and lowers the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which blocks insulin activity and causes insulin resistance during thiazide usage. Addition of potassium supplements and allopurinol with thiazides might be helpful in the management of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  20. Oxidant stress and skeletal muscle microvasculopathy in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Jefferson C

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the metabolic syndrome in afflicted individuals is, in part, characterized by the development of a severely pro-oxidant state within the vasculature. It has been previously demonstrated by many investigators that this increasingly pro-oxidant state can have severe negative implications for many relevant processes within the vasculature, including the coordination of dilator/constrictor tone or reactivity, the structural adaptations of the vascular wall or distal networks, as well as the integrated regulation of perfusion resistance across and throughout the vascular networks. The purpose of this review article is to present the different sources of oxidant stress within the setting of the metabolic syndrome, the available mechanism for attempts at regulation and the vascular outcomes associated with this condition. It is anticipated that this overview will help readers and investigators to more effectively design experiments and interpret their results within the extremely complicated setting of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Reduced apolipoprotein glycosylation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Savinova

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls.Very low density (VLDL, intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL, and high density lipoproteins (HDL fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays.Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1 total plasma--apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2 VLDL--apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3 LDL--apoC3 was increased, (4 HDL--associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4 was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all. In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001.Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and nutrition in a Granada's tropical coast population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Millán

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS is described as an association of health problems that a given person may simultaneously or successively develop, and it is considered a serious condition because it is related to a significantly increased risk of suffering diabetes, coronary disease and brain damage. Nutrition, along with other factors such as physical activity and genetic inheritance, has an influence on preventing MS. Objective: The aim of this research is to demonstrate important aspects concerning the diagnosis, the prevalence, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome among the population of the tropical coast of Granada. Methods: 119 individuals from the tropical coast of Granada were studied to collect personal data such as their body mass index, body fat percentage, glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and food intake (through nutritional survey. Results: As a result of this research, a metabolic syndrome prevalence of 20,2% was obtained, 58,3% of which was related to women. The results obtained show significant statistical differences between individuals having metabolic syndrome and the control group. Particularly, these differences can be noted in parameters such as the BMI or the % of body fat. Nevertheless, there are no significant differences between the two groups concerning parameters related to nutrition such as % of fat, carbohydrates, proteins and kcal/day. Conclusion: As a conclusion from the research, we can state that the metabolic syndrome prevalence among the population of the tropical coast of Granada is similar to the figure obtained for the population in the US and in other areas of Spain. In addition, this research shows that metabolic syndrome is more frequent among individuals whose BMI and % of body fat is higher than 30.

  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome An Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder Throughout Life

    OpenAIRE

    Szilágyi A

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still a matter of controversies, but it is apparent that hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance (IR) are major determining factors in the development of ovarian hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. The consequences of the PCOS extend beyond the reproductive axis. Follow up studies have shown an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other elements of metabolic syndrome in PCOS and increased cardiov...

  4. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  5. Metabolic syndrome in first-time hospitalized patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, L; Vestergaard, C H; Lund, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in younger patients with depression are few. We examined the prevalence and progression of MetS in first-time hospitalized patients with depression during 1 year of follow-up. Furthermore, we explored putative risk factors of MetS. METHOD: We...... increase in WC and triglycerides and a non-significant increase in the prevalence of MetS. Antipsychotic medication (OR 10.5, 95% CI 1.18-94.14) and low aerobic fitness (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.93) were significantly correlated with MetS (P Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent...

  6. Lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students: Differences by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Araceli Álvarez Gasca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students as well as differences between men and women are analyzed. 970 students (67.4% women, 32.6% men were randomly selected and assessed on lifestyle (EV, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome(SM. Results showed 4.63% with SM and 36.65% with obesity, women predominated. Predominant EV was good and better in men than women, highest frequency of SM was in bad EV. Relationship between gender, obesity, and SM was significant for the studied population. Differences were found between men and women.

  7. Lipid Profile and Leptin Levels in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This paper should be cited as: Esmaeili R, Hassanzadeh, T . [ Lipid Profile and Leptin Levels in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome ]. mljgoums . 201 4 ; 8 ( 3 : 23 - 29 [Article in Persian] Esmaeili, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Metabolic syndrome called a cluster of several metabolic disorders is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Genetic differences in leptin receptor gene are related with the concentration and activity of leptin in that these discrepancies can influence lipid levels. We aimed to determine the association between the leptin receptor gene polymorphism on serum lipid profile and leptin activity in metabolic syndrome patients. Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 200 patients with metabolic syndrome and 200 healthy individuals. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP were used to determine genotypic distribution and allelic frequencies of polymorphisms, respectively. The plasma leptin activity was measured by a kit in a fluorescence spectrometer, and Lipid concentration by routine biochemical and enzymatic assays. Results: Two groups had significant differences in all measured factors such as lipid profiles, fast blood sugar, waist circumference, blood pressure and leptin concentration (P< 0.05. Conclusion: Given that the two groups had significant differences in blood and body measurements, no role of K656N polymorphism was observed. Overall, Lys656Asn (K656N polymorphism of leptin receptor gene is not associated with serum lipid profile and leptin activity with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Treating Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotz, Clarisse A.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:27698622

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Children: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana; Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome in children has become the focus of many research projects in recent years. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children and its correlation with overweight and obesity.

  10. Review of Hyperuricemia as New Marker for Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Billiet, Laura; Doaty, Sarah; Katz, James D.; Velasquez, Manuel T.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has long been established as the major etiologic factor in gout. In recent years, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests that hyperuricemia may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of a number of metabolic, hemodynamic, and systemic pathologic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, stroke, and atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiologic studies have linked hyperuricemia with each of these disorders. In some studies, therapies that lower u...

  11. Role of sirtuins in linking metabolic syndrome with depression

    OpenAIRE

    Juhyun eSong; JONGPIL eKIM

    2016-01-01

    Depression is now widely regarded as a common disabling disorder that affects negatively the social functioning all over the world. Depression is associated with diverse phenomenon in brain such as neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Recent studies reported that depression occurs by various metabolic changes, leading to metabolic syndrome. Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylases, known to regulate diverse biological mechanism such as longevity, g...

  12. The search for putative unifying genetic factors for components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, M; Lyssenko, V; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of factors contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes but unifying mechanisms have not been identified. Our aim was to study whether common variations in 17 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes or components...... of the metabolic syndrome and variants in nine genes with inconsistent association with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome would also predict future development of components of the metabolic syndrome, individually or in combination....

  13. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  14. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  15. A Clinical Pharmacist's Role in Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Pediatric Ambulatory Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…

  16. Effect of metabolic syndrome on mitsugumin 53 expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Ma

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual's likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53 is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379. The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients.

  17. Magnesium Intake and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher dietary intake of magnesium (Mg) may protect against development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors in elderly men and women. We examined cross-sectional associations between magnesium i...

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  19. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  20. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  1. Genetic variants and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Povel, C.M.; Boer, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate gene studies on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been conducted. However, for most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) no systematic review on their association with MetS exists. A systematic electronic literature search was conducted until the 2nd of June 2010, using HuGE Nav

  2. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Czepielewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS in bipolar disorder (BD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i clinical trials, (ii studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (iii data about metabolic syndrome. A 5-point quality scale was used to assess the methodological weight of the studies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were selected. None of studies reached the maximum quality score of 5 points. The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in BD individuals when compared to a control group. The analysis of MS subcomponents showed that abdominal obesity was heterogeneous. Individuals with BD had significantly higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia than healthy controls. When compared to the general population, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of low HDL-c in individuals with BD. Data on hypertension were also inconclusive. Rates of hyperglycemia were significantly greater in patients with BD compared to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results point to the presence of an association between BD and MS, as well as between their subcomponents.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and the environmental pollutants from mitochondrial perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Taek; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2014-12-01

    The worldwide epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the last few decades cannot be fully accounted for only by changes in the lifestyle factors, such as sedentary lifestyle and overeating. Besides genetic factors, there must be other causes to explain this rapid change. They could not be infectious in nature and induce insulin resistance as key biochemical abnormality. Mitochondrial dysfunction could be underlying mechanism behind the insulin resistance, thus metabolic syndrome. Then there have been increasing number of reports suggesting that chronic exposure to and accumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), especially so-called the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within the body might be associated with metabolic syndrome. Combining two concepts, we developed new "EDCs-induced mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of metabolic syndrome". In this review we suggest that classifying those chemicals into 5 groups might be clinically useful considering their removal or avoidance; POPs, non-persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, air pollutants and drugs. We will also discuss briefly how those insights could be applied to clinical medicine.

  4. Testosterone and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men: Current Knowledge

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    Nieschlag E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumstances of life and food supply have changed in developed countries, resulting in an increasing prevalence of overweight. As a consequence, a complex disorder consisting of visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension emerges: the so-called metabolic syndrome leads to the manifestation of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. In men, testosterone deficiency contributes to the generation of the metabolic syndrome, as demonstrated by epidemiological and interventional approaches. Correspondingly, testosterone substitution in hypogonadal men is able to invalidate the mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome by various pathways. It has reciprocal effects on the generation of muscle and visceral fat tissue by exerting influence on the commitment of pluripotent stem cells. In addition, testosterone inhibits further development of pre-adipocytes. It also enhances insulin sensitivity of muscle cells by augmenting mitochondrial capacity and fostering expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes. Testosterone is also able to break the vicious circle of leptin resistance and generation of new adipose tissue. These effects are exerted by androgen receptor-mediated mechanisms. As epidemiological studies indicate, testosterone substitution is especially helpful in preventing or attenuating the metabolic syndrome in aging men with late-onset hypogonadism and in Klinefelter patients.

  5. Physical Activity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Overweight in Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…

  6. Personality as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Pouwer, Francois

    2012-01-01

    A behavior, temperament, neuroticism, and Type D personality. Conflicting evidence was reported on persons with high hostility, neuroticism, or Type D personality scores to be associated with an increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and development. All significant findings do point in the same direction...

  7. The Metabolic Syndrome and Its Influence on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Pushpjeet; Kowdley, Kris V

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are highly prevalent in the Western population. Their pathogenesis is closely linked to insulin resistance, which serves as a therapeutic target for the management of these conditions. This review article reviews the research supporting the influence of MetS on NASH and includes studies supporting their similar epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment.

  8. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Zhai, F.; Kok, F.J.; Piao, J.; Zhang, J.; Ma, G.

    2008-01-01

    Since national figures on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adolescents are lacking, this study aims to estimate its prevalence and distribution among Chinese youngsters. The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey is a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Applyi

  9. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...

  10. Rett syndrome: Neurologic and metabolic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagebeuk, E.E.O.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs almost exclusively in females. It was described in 1954 by Andreas Rett, an Australian neuropediatrician. After a period of apparently normal development, affected patients experience loss of speech and purposeful handuse, stereotypic

  11. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Norberto C. Chavez-Tapia; Daniel Motola-Kuba; Karla Sanchez-Lara; Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez; Héctor Baptista; Martha H. Ramos; Misael Uribe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish an association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and the development of gallstone disease.METHOIDS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in a check-up unit in a university hospital in Mexico City. We enrolled 245 subjects, comprising 65 subjects with gallstones (36 women, 29 men) and 180 controls (79women and 101 men without gallstones). Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma insulin, and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment. Unconditional logistic regressionanalysis (univariate and multivariate) was used to calculate the risk of gallstone disease associated with the presence of at least three of the criteria (Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ). Analyses were adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: Among 245 subjects, metabolic syndrome was present in 40% of gallstone disease subjects, compared with 17.2% of the controls, adjusted by age and gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.79; 95%CI, 1.46-5.33; P = 0.002),a dose-dependent effect was observed with each component of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.36, 95%CI, 0.72-7.71;P = 0.16 with one component and OR = 5.54, 95%CI,1.35-22.74; P = 0.02 with four components of metabolic syndrome). Homeostasis model assessment was significantly associated with gallstone disease (adjusted OR = 2.25;95%CI, 1.08-4.69; P = 0.03).CONCLUSION: We conclude that as for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, gallstone disease appears to be strongly associated with metabolic syndrome.

  12. The metabolic syndrome in thyroid disease: A report from Nigeria

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    Anthonia O Ogbera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in people with thyroid disorders. Materials and Methods: 112 subjects with a history of thyroid disorders were consecutively enrolled for the study. Clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and referring to their case folders and prescriptions. The subjects were categorized into three: thyrotoxic, those with hypothyroidism and those with nontoxic goiters, based on clinical parameters and or thyroid function tests. The study subjects were weighed and their anthropometric indices were documented. The laboratory parameters that were analyzed included total cholesterol, high-density and low-density cholesterol and triglyceride. Statistical analysis was performed using Student′s t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and chi-square test. Results: The study subjects were aged between 14 and 76 years, with a mean age of 44.5 years, and the female:male ratio was 97:15. The mean age and anthropometric indices were comparable in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 28% and the frequency of occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism and nontoxic goiter was 24%, 40% and 42%, respectively. The commonest occurring metabolic syndrome defining criterion was dysglycemia, while hypertension and elevated triglyceride were the least documented of the criteria. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome occurs in 1 in every 4 persons with thyroid disorders, and as such, routine screening for this cardiovascular risk factor may be of benefit in this group of people, especially in those with hypothyroidism.

  13. Review of hyperuricemia as new marker for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Laura; Doaty, Sarah; Katz, James D; Velasquez, Manuel T

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has long been established as the major etiologic factor in gout. In recent years, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests that hyperuricemia may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of a number of metabolic, hemodynamic, and systemic pathologic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, stroke, and atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiologic studies have linked hyperuricemia with each of these disorders. In some studies, therapies that lower uric acid may prevent or improve certain components of the metabolic syndrome. There is an association between uric acid and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus; the connection between other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis is less clear. The mechanism for the role of uric acid in disorders other than gout is not well established but recent investigations point towards systemic inflammation induced by urate, as the major pathophysiological event common to systemic diseases, including atherosclerosis.

  14. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  15. Melatonin May Curtail the Metabolic Syndrome: Studies on Initial and Fully Established Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Scacchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of melatonin given to rats simultaneously with fructose on initial and fully developed metabolic syndrome, male Wistar rats had free access to chow and 5% or 10% fructose drinking solution for 8 weeks. As compared to controls, systolic blood pressure augmented significantly under both treatments whereas excessive body weight was seen in rats receiving the 10% fructose only. Rats drinking 5% fructose showed a greater tolerance to a glucose load while rats having access to a 10% fructose drinking solution exhibited the expected impaired glucose tolerance found in the metabolic syndrome. Circulating triglyceride and low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-c concentration augmented significantly in rats showing a fully developed metabolic syndrome only, while high blood cholesterol levels were found at both stages examined. Melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking solution counteracted the changes in body weight and systolic blood pressure found in rats administered with fructose. Melatonin decreased the abnormal hyperglycemia seen after a glucose load in 10% fructose-treated rats but it did not modify the greater tolerance to glucose observed in animals drinking 5% fructose. Melatonin also counteracted the changes in plasma LDL-c, triglyceride and cholesterol levels and decreased plasma uric acid levels. The results underline a possible therapeutical role of melatonin in the metabolic syndrome, both at initial and established phases.

  16. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

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    Davies MJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Davies,1 Katherine W Merton,1 Ujjwala Vijapurkar,2 Dainius A Balis,2 Mehul Desai2 1Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA Objective: Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome.Methods: This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1 and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2. Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C <1.0 mmol/L (men or <1.3 mmol/L (women; waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men, ≥88 cm (non-Asian women, >90 cm (Asian men, or >80 cm (Asian women; diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg. Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports.Results: In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus

  17. Obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J.Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The prevalence of obesity in both developed and developing countries has increased dramatically in recent years.1Many people who are obese develop metabolic changes that increase the risk of diabetes mellitus and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obesity leads to the development of insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities and increased blood pressure.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontal Disease Progression in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, E K; Chen, N; Cabral, H J; Vokonas, P; Garcia, R I

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of 3 or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is associated with periodontal disease, but few studies have been prospective in design. This study's aim was to determine whether metabolic syndrome predicts tooth loss and worsening of periodontal disease in a cohort of 760 men in the Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study and Normative Aging Study who were followed up to 33 y from 1981 to 2013. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Waist circumference was measured in units of 0.1 cm following a normal expiration. Fasting blood samples were measured in duplicate for glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Calibrated periodontists served as dental examiners. Periodontal outcome events on each tooth were defined as progression to predefined threshold levels of probing pocket depth (≥5 mm), clinical attachment loss (≥5 mm), mobility (≥0.5 mm), and alveolar bone loss (≥40% of the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the root apex, on radiographs). Hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) of tooth loss or a periodontitis event were estimated from tooth-level extended Cox proportional hazards regression models that accounted for clustering of teeth within individuals and used time-dependent status of metabolic syndrome. Covariates included age, education, smoking status, plaque level, and initial level of the appropriate periodontal disease measure. Metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation increased the hazards of tooth loss (1.39; 1.08 to 1.79), pocket depth ≥5 mm (1.37; 1.14 to 1.65), clinical attachment loss ≥5 mm (1.19; 1.00 to 1.41), alveolar bone loss ≥40% (1.25; 1.00 to 1.56), and tooth mobility ≥0.5 mm (1.43; 1.07 to 1.89). The number of positive metabolic syndrome conditions was also associated with each of these outcomes. These findings suggest that the metabolic disturbances that

  19. Metabolic syndrome: no internationally defined standard cut-off value for waist circumference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olabode Oladeinde

    2007-01-01

    @@ The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin - metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and increase the risk of development of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptors and The Metabolic Syndrome

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    Anna Meiliana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a growing threat to global health by virtue of its association with insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, collectively known as the metabolic syndrome (MetS. The nuclear receptors PPARα and PPARγ are therapeutic targets for hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, respectively, and drugs that modulate these receptors are currently in clinical use. More recent work on the PPARδ has uncovered a dual benefit for both hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, highlighting the broad potential of PPARs in the treatment of metabolic disease. CONTENT: We have learned much about PPARs, the metabolic fat sensors, and the molecular pathways they regulate. Through their distinct tissue distribution and specific target gene activation, the three PPARs together control diverse aspects of fatty acid metabolism, energy balance, insulin sensitivity glucose homeostasis, inflammation, hypertension and atherosclerosis. These studies have advanced our understanding of the etiology for the MetS. Mechanisms revealed by these studies highlight the importance of emerging concepts, such as the endocrine function of adipose tissue, tissue-tissue cross-talk and lipotoxicity, in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. SUMMARY: The elucidation of key regulators of energy balance and insulin signaling have revolutionized our understanding of fat and sugar metabolism and their intimate link. The three ‘lipidsensing’ (PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ exemplify this connection, regulating diverse aspects of lipid and glucose homeostasis, and serving as bonafide therapeutic targets. KEYWORDS: peroxisome proliferator, activated receptor, metabolic syndrome.

  1. MicroRNAs in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that play important roles in development of diseases. Several studies have provided evidences showing that miRNAs affect pathways that are fundamental for metabolic control in adipocyte and skeletal muscle differentiations. Some miRNAs have been implicated in lipid, amino acid, and glucose homeostasis. This leads to the possibility that miRNAs may contribute to common metabolic diseases and point to novel therapeutic opportunities based on targeting of miRNAs. CONTENT: miRNAs have been recognized as a class of epigenetic regulators of metabolism and energy homeostasis, primarily because the simultaneous regulation of a large number of target genes can be accomplished by a single miRNA. Emerging evidences suggest that miRNAs play a key role in the pathological development of obesity by affecting adipocyte differentiation. miRNAs have been implicated as novel protagonists in the pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM, regulation of insulin production, secretion and action. They also appear to play a role in the development of diabetic complications such as nephropathy and cardiac hypertrophy. SUMMARY: Involvement of miRNAs in glucose and lipid metabolism has provided strong evidences to confirm their roles as key players in regulation of complex metabolic pathways. Additionally, it indicates potential outlook for novel therapeutic strategies in the management of obesity, metabolic syndrome and DM. Further research in this field is needed to ascertain the full potential of miRNAs as novel metabolic biomarkers and potent therapeutic agents against obesity and its metabolic disorders. KEYWORDS: obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, miRNAs, adipogenesis, insulin, pancreatic cells.

  2. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. Methods A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20–40 years enrolled in the 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Conclusion Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace. PMID:28360979

  3. MOGAT2: A New Therapeutic Target for Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhua Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is an ever-increasing health problem among the world’s population. It is a group of intertwined maladies that includes obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and diabetes mellitus type II (T2D. There is a direct correlation between high triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG level and severity of metabolic syndrome. Thus, controlling the synthesis of TAG will have a great impact on overall systemic lipid metabolism and thus metabolic syndrome progression. The Acyl-CoA: monoacylglycerolacyltransferase (MGAT family has three members (MGAT1, -2, and -3 that catalyze the first step in TAG production, conversion of monoacylglycerol (MAG to diacylglycerol (DAG. TAG is then directly synthesized from DAG by a Acyl-CoA: diacylglycerolacyltransferase (DGAT. The conversion of MAG → DAG → TAG is the major pathway for the production of TAG in the small intestine, and produces TAG to a lesser extent in the liver. Transgenic and pharmacological studies in mice have demonstrated the beneficial effects of MGAT inhibition as a therapy for treating several metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, T2D, and NAFLD. In this review, the significance of several properties of MGAT physiology, including tissue expression pattern and its relationship to overall TAG metabolism, enzymatic biochemical properties and their effects on drug discovery, and finally what is the current knowledge about MGAT small molecule inhibitors and their efficacy will be discussed. Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MGAT for lowering TAG synthesis and whether this avenue of drug discovery warrants further clinical investigation.

  4. Metabolic epidermal necrosis-hepatocutaneous syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, K P

    1999-11-01

    It is clear that cutaneous lesions of metabolic epidermal necrosis in the dog can occur either with a demonstrable glucagon-secreting tumor or with hepatic disease without any detectable glucagonoma. Additional clinical case reports of the disease in cats are needed to better characterize the disease in this species. The lesions of NME-MEN may not represent a specific physiological mechanism of cutaneous disease but instead a pathophysiological process that can be triggered by several systemic metabolic abnormalities. The fact that NME is observed in association with a variety of conditions supports the theory that an overall metabolic derangement results in the rash. The prognosis for canine MEN is poor; however, some affected dogs have been maintained for many months with dietary management. High-quality protein diets such as Hill's Prescription Diet a/d (Hill's Pet Products) or other "recovery" diets may be helpful. Zinc and essential fatty acid supplementation may help some patients. Dietary supplementation with cooked egg yolks may be helpful. It is prudent to avoid corticosteroids in these cases, as development of diabetes mellitus worsens the prognosis. Histopathological examination of the pancreas coupled with determination of plasma glucagon may help define the characteristics of GS versus HS in dogs. It is possible that some dogs diagnosed with MEN-HS may have an undetected pancreatic tumor. Although the hepatic ultrasound findings in dogs with MEN-HS are becoming well characterized, it is possible for dogs with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors to also have abnormal hepatic ultrasonography. As the presence of MEN and hepatic disease does not necessarily rule out the presence of a pancreatic tumor, prospective studies correlating plasma glucagon levels with pancreatic histopathology in cases of MEN-GS versus MEN-HS seem warranted.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: reviewing diagnosis and management of metabolic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2014-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women at reproductive age associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Proposed diagnosed criteria for PCOS include two out of three features: androgen excess, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovary appearance on ultrasound (PCO), after other causes of hyperandrogenism and dysovulation are excluded. Based on these diagnostic criteria, the most common phenotypes are the "classic PCOS"--hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea, with or without PCO; the "ovulatory phenotype"--hyperandrogenism and PCO in ovulatory women; and the "non-hyperandrogenic phenotype", in which there is oligomenorrhea and PCO, without overt hyperandrogenism. The presence of obesity may exacerbate the metabolic and reproductive disorders associated with the syndrome. In addition, PCOS women present higher risk for type 2 diabetes and higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors that seems to be associated with the classic phenotype. The main interventions to minimize cardiovascular and metabolic risks in PCOS are lifestyle changes, pharmacological therapy, and bariatric surgery. Treatment with metformin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, lowering blood glucose and androgen levels. These effects are more potent when combined with lifestyle interventions. In conclusion, besides reproductive abnormalities, PCOS has been associated to metabolic comorbidities, most of them linked to obesity. Confounders, such as the lack of standard diagnostic criteria, heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, and presence of obesity, make management of PCOS difficult. Therefore, the approach to metabolic abnormalities should be tailored to the risks and treatment goals of each individual woman.

  6. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shi

    Full Text Available Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC and systolic blood pressure (SBP, supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC. Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison.Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables.There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls, and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese children as compared to

  7. Association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Y; Thomas, G; Nurko, S; Stephany, B; Fatica, R; Chiesa, A; Rule, A D; Srinivas, T; Schold, J D; Navaneethan, S D; Poggio, E D

    2013-09-01

    The selection of living kidney donors is based on a formal evaluation of the state of health. However, this spectrum of health includes subtle metabolic derangements that can cluster as metabolic syndrome. We studied the association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in 410 donors from 2005 to 2012, of whom 178 donors were systematically followed after donation since 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the NCEP ATPIII criteria, but using a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) instead of waist circumference. Following donation, donors received counseling on lifestyle modification. Metabolic syndrome was present in 50 (12.2%) donors. Donors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have chronic histological changes on implant biopsies than donors with no metabolic syndrome (29.0% vs. 9.3%, p kidney function recovery following donation. At last follow-up, reversal of metabolic syndrome was observed in 57.1% of donors with predonation metabolic syndrome, while only 10.8% of donors developed de novo metabolic syndrome (p histological changes, and nephrectomy in these donors was associated with subsequent protracted recovery of kidney function. Importantly, weight loss led to improvement of most abnormalities that define metabolic syndrome.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in non-obese Taiwanese: new definition of metabolically obese, normal-weight individual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TSAI Chung-huang

    2009-01-01

    Background Not only the obese,but also the non-obese adults have the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the upper normal weight.The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in non-obese adult Taiwanese(body mass index(BMI)≤26.9 kg/m~2).Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2007.One thousand six hundred and fifty-nine subjects(aged 47.5±12.4 years),60.8% of which were men,were enrolled.The prevalence and odds ratios of metabolic syndrome,defined by the American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute(2005),were analyzed in the BMI category according to 2.0 unit increments,in individuals seeking a health examination.Results The higher the BMI categories,the more prevalent the metabolic syndrome was in women and in men(P<0.001).Compared with those women with a BMI≤20.9 kg/m~2,the odds ratios for metabolic syndrome in women were 1.3(95% CI:0.5-3.2)with BMI 21.0-22.9 kg/m~2,3.0(1.3-7.1)with BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m~2,and 8.6(3.6-20.8)for women with BMI 25.0-26.9 kg/m~2,after controlling for age,smoking status,alcohol consumption,betel nut chewing,blood routine,biochemical data,hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus.The corresponding odds ratios in men were 1.6(0.6-4.2),3.7(1.6-8.8),and 9.9(4.2-23.2).Conclusions Individuals in the upper normal weight and slightly overweight BMI range have relatively high prevalence and increased risk of having metabolic syndrome.Therefore,physicians should screen metabolic syndrome in not only obese but also non-obese individuals for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  10. Metabolic risk-factor clustering estimation in children: to draw a line across pediatric metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambilla, P; Lissau, I; Flodmark, C-E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MS) have been applied in studies of obese adults to estimate the metabolic risk-associated with obesity, even though no general consensus exists concerning its definition and clinical value. We reviewed the current literature on the MS...... and adolescents, analyzing the scientific evidence needed to detect a clustering of cardiovascular risk-factors. Finally, we propose a new methodological approach for estimating metabolic risk-factor clustering in children and adolescents. RESULTS: Major concerns were the lack of information on the background...... to quantify metabolic risk-factor clustering, collected in a multilevel Metabolic Individual Risk-factor And CLustering Estimation (MIRACLE) approach, and thus avoiding the use of the current MS term in children. CONCLUSION: Pediatricians should consider a novel and specific approach to assessing children...

  11. Long-Term Consequences for Offspring of Paternal Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Linares Segovia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, few have focused how diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome together in parents can influence on obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Objective. To know the risk obesity and metabolic disturbance in children, adolescents, and young adults whose parents have diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Methods. A comparative survey was made in healthy children of parents with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome compared with offspring of healthy parents. We performed anthropometry and evaluated blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in plasma. We registered parent antecedents to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and investigated the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Results. We studied 259 subjects of 7 to 20 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27% and 37%, respectively. The highest proportion of BMI >95th of the entire group was found in offspring with both diabetic parents. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were lower in the group with healthy parents compared with the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but with healthy father. HDL cholesterol was higher in the group with both healthy parents than in the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but healthy father. Conclusions. The offspring of parents with diabetes plus metabolic syndrome showed higher proportion of variables related to metabolic syndrome compared with healthy parents.

  12. Association of Microalbuminuria with Metabolic Syndrome among Aged Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hua; Guan, Li-Ying; Wang, Yi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on chronic kidney disease has been conflicting. We aim to investigate the association between MetS and microalbuminuria and identify the major contributing components of MetS that result in microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Methods. A total of 674 adults aged 55-98 years (males: 266; mean age: 66.5 ± 7.5 years) were studied. MetS was defined by the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society criteria and microalbuminuria by urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥3 mg/mmoL. Results. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was gradually increased with increasing number of MetS components (P microalbuminuria (OR = 1.781, 95% CI = 1.226-2.587; P microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Elevated FPG is the most predominant component of metabolic syndrome associated with microalbuminuria followed by elevated SBP and reduced HDL-C.

  13. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael J; Merton, Katherine W; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Balis, Dainius A; Desai, Mehul

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP) in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome. Methods This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1) and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2). Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM): triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) women); waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men), ≥88 cm (non-Asian women), >90 cm (Asian men), or >80 cm (Asian women); diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg). Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports. Results In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus glimepiride and sitagliptin. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated in each study. Conclusion Canagliflozin was associated with improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome, whereas

  14. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood

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    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial-origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  15. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Concepción M; Olza, Josune; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  16. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, male hypogonadism and cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Corona; Francesco Lotti; Alessandra Sforza; Mario Maggi; Valerio Chiarini

    2013-01-01

    Background: A large body of evidences indicates that sexual dysfunction, and in particular erectile dysfunction (ED), may represent an early surrogate marker of different disease states such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression. Furthermore, it has been suggested that ED could also be considered the first sign of a forthcoming coronary heart disease (CHD) and an efficient predictor of silent CHD in a diabetic population, independently of glycometabolic ...

  17. Sympathetic Nervous System, Hypertension, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalle, Gino; Grassi, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have clearly shown the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. This short review will be aimed at focusing and discussing the new information collected on two specific clinical conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. The paper will briefly describe the four main mechanisms that represent the common link between these two pathophysiological conditions and that through the sympathetic nervous system contribute to increase the cardiovascular risk.

  18. Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions

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    Rashmi H Mallappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies and many people are interested in learning the facts behind these health claims. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone. Hence, the above "Pharmaco-nutritional" approach has been selected and extensively reviewed to gain thorough knowledge on putative mechanisms of probiotic and prebiotic action in order to develop dietary strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: Cardiovascular Protection in the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Prakash C Deedwania

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that the metabolic syndrome, a constellation of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications and the development of Type 2 diabetes. Consequently, timely identification and management of all components of the metabolic syndrome is warranted. In particular, guidelines have emphasised the importance of targeting elevated blood pressure (BP and dyslipidaemia as a method of reducing global cardiovascular risk.Findings from the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE trial show that the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan, reduces cardiovascular events and the development of Type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. This profile is being further explored in the ongoing Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR trial.Given the potential advantages to patients and physicians of tackling more than one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, antihypertensive agents such as valsartan would appear to be an important addition to the management of vulnerable patients at high risk of cardiovascular events.

  20. Adiponectin: linking the metabolic syndrome to its cardiovascular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Karen R; Kamari, Yehuda; Avni, Irit; Grossman, Ehud; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2005-05-01

    Obesity and its related disorders, glucose intolerance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, collectively named the metabolic syndrome, result in substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent data point to several underlying regulatory mechanisms through which obesity links these various outcomes. Adipose tissue is now understood to function not merely as a passive energy storage depot but as an active endocrine organ, producing a variety of bioactive substances termed adipocytokines. Adiponectin, an adipocytokine first described as the most abundant protein produced by adipocytes, appears to serve as a central regulatory protein in many of the physiologic pathways controlling lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and to mediate various vascular processes. Adiponectin displays both anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. Unlike other adipocytokines, its levels are paradoxically decreased in obesity and insulin-resistance states including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as hypertension and coronary artery disease. This review will detail the relationship of adiponectin to various features of obesity and insulin-resistance syndromes, as well as its relationship to the cardiovascular complications of these disorders.

  1. Does the metabolic syndrome add to the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Much controversy has surrounded both the pathological basis and the clinical utility of the metabolic syndrome. Key questions still revolve around the definition of this syndrome, its utility as a predictor of cardiovascular risk, and the treatment implications of diagnosis. The metabolic syndrome i

  2. Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemany Marià

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, which may derive, in the end, into insulin resistance. The available systems of energy disposal could not cope with the excess of substrates, since they are geared for saving not for spendthrift, which results in an unbearable overload of the storage mechanisms. Adipose tissue is the last energy sink, it has to store the energy that cannot be used otherwise. However, adipose tissue growth also has limits, and the excess of energy induces inflammation, helped by the ineffective intervention of the immune system. However, even under this acute situation, the excess of glucose remains, favoring its final conversion to fat. The sum of inflammatory signals and deranged substrate handling induce most of the metabolic syndrome traits: insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia and their compounded combined effects. Thus, a maintained excess of energy in the diet may result in difficulties in the disposal of glucose, eliciting

  3. [The integrated approach to diagnostics of metabolic syndrome in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roĭtberg, G E; Ushakova, T I; Sharkhun, O O; Dorosh, Zh V

    2012-01-01

    Basic criteria of diagnostics and definitions of metabolic syndrome recommended by various international associations and expert groups are discussed. Permanent changes of criteria and usage of various approaches to diagnostics influence prevalence of metabolic syndrome among populations and estimation of its association with unfavorable outcomes. Some definitions of metabolic syndrome are more sensitive in detection of risk groups for cardiovascular diseases, and others in - detection of persons with high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. New integrated definition of metabolic syndrome which unites pathophysiological and clinical epidemiological approaches for assessment of metabolic disorders and detection of high risk groups of patients applicable for use in everyday clinical practice is presented.

  4. Effect of metabolic syndrome on sexual function in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunctemur, Alper; Dursun, Murat; Ozbek, Emin; Sahin, Suleyman; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Koklu, Ismail; Polat, Emre Can; Erkoc, Mustafa; Danis, Eyyup; Bozkurt, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and multidimensional disorder related to many biological, psychological, and social determinants. The authors assessed the effect of one of the many factors affect sexual function-metabolic syndrome-on female sexual function. They equally divided 400 women participants among 4 groups: (a) premenopausal with metabolic syndrome, (b) premenopausal without metabolic syndrome, (c) postmenopausal with metabolic syndrome, and (d) postmenopausal without metabolic syndrome. The authors used the Female Sexual Function Index to assess women's sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction was found more often in both pre- and postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (p =.001). Overall Female Sexual Function Index score and satisfaction, pain, and desire domain scores independently of the menopause status showed statistically significant differences across women with metabolic syndrome in comparison with participants with no metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome and Female Sexual Function Index scores. Higher fasting glucose levels were significantly associated with the Female Sexual Function Index score (p women with the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Metabolic disturbances in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

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    I. A. Harsch

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic disturbances in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS include insulin resistance and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion molecules, as well as an elevation of hormones derived from the adipose tissue as leptin. These phenomena might, in part, be an explanation for the excess morbidity and mortality of OSAS patients concerning cardiovascular disease. Several of these factors have been described as being independently associated with OSAS and not only related to its comorbidities, including obesity. A promising approach to studying the metabolic phenomena in these OSAS patients would be to monitor patients before and during the course of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, as nocturnal sleep disturbances are treatable and may revert the impact of OSAS on the metabolic phenomena; however, patients do frequently (and unfortunately maintain their body weight. Although not confirmed by all investigations, a tendency towards an improvement in some of the above-mentioned metabolic parameters has been reported in several studies in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients and may be reflected by the decreased occurrence of new cardiovascular events, the reduction of systolic blood pressure and the improvement of left ventricular systolic function.

  6. Dysregulation of the Autonomic Nervous System Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Stress is suggested to lead to metabolic dysregulations as clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Although dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system is found to associate with the metabolic syndrome and its dysregulations, no longitudinal study has been performed to date to examine the pr

  7. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  8. Psychosocial stress induces hyperphagia and exacerbates diet-induced insulin resistance and the manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghez, Valentina; Razzoli, Maria; Carobbio, Stefania; Campbell, Mark; McCallum, Jacob; Cero, Cheryl; Ceresini, Graziano; Cabassi, Aderville; Govoni, Paolo; Franceschini, Paolo; de Santis, Valentina; Gurney, Allison; Ninkovic, Ivana; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    Stress and hypercaloric food are recognized risk factors for obesity, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Given the complexity of these metabolic processes and the unavailability of animal models, there is poor understanding of their underlying mechanisms. We established a model of chronic psychosocial stress in which subordinate mice are vulnerable to weight gain while dominant mice are resilient. Subordinate mice fed a standard diet showed marked hyperphagia, high leptin, low adiponectin, and dyslipidemia. Despite these molecular signatures of MetS and T2D, subordinate mice fed a standard diet were still euglycemic. We hypothesized that stress predisposes subordinate mice to develop T2D when synergizing with other risk factors. High fat diet aggravated dyslipidemia and the MetS thus causing a pre-diabetes-like state in subordinate mice. Contrary to subordinates, dominant mice were fully protected from stress-induced metabolic disorders when fed both a standard- and a high fat-diet. Dominant mice showed a hyperphagic response that was similar to subordinate but, unlike subordinates, showed a significant increase in VO2, VCO2, and respiratory exchange ratio when compared to control mice. Overall, we demonstrated a robust stress- and social status-dependent effect on the development of MetS and T2D and provided insights on the physiological mechanisms. Our results are reminiscent of the effect of the individual socioeconomic status on human health and provide an animal model to study the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  9. Executive Functioning and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Project FRONTIER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Jed; Atchison, Timothy; DeButte-Smith, Maxine; Weiner, Myron F.; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    Decrements in cognitive functioning have been linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease defined by the presence of three of the following: elevated blood pressure, increased waist circumference, elevated blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We examined the relationship between four measures of executive functioning (EF) and MetS as diagnosed by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-American Heart Association criteria. MetS was examined in a rural population of 395 persons with a mean age of 61.3 years, 71.4% women, 37.0% Hispanic, 53.7% White non-Hispanic. There was a 61.0% prevalence of MetS. We derived a factor score from the four executive function measures which was used to compare those with and without the syndrome, as well as any additive effects of components of the syndrome. Those with MetS exhibited significantly poorer performance than those without the syndrome. However, there was no additive effect, having more components of the syndrome was not related to lower performance. The presence of MetS was associated with poorer EF in this rural cohort of community dwelling volunteers. PMID:24152591

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

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    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome: An Important Risk Factor for Parkinson’s Disease

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    Pei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is becoming commoner due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. Generally speaking, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without metabolic syndrome. Increasing oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and Parkinson’s disease is mentioned in the comprehensive articles; however, the system review about clear relation between metabolic syndrome and Parkinson’s disease is deficient. In this review, we will focus on the analysis that the metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease and the preventions that reduce the incident of Parkinson’s disease by regulating the oxidative stress.

  12. A metabolic syndrome severity score: A tool to quantify cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Joshua F; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and is associated with increased mortality. There is no standard, validated way to assess the severity of aggregated metabolic syndrome risk factors. Cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor data came from two studies conducted in Australia from 2006 to 2010 in adults aged 18 or above. In medication free adults, sex-specific clinical thresholds and Principal Component Analysis were used to develop a formula to calculate a metabolic syndrome severity score (MetSSS). These scores were compared to scores derived using the same process in subgroups by sex, age, medication status, and time. We also examined the MetSSS in relation to other known risk factors. In 2125 adults (57.6±14.7years of age), the MetSSS ranged from 0 to 8.7 with a mean of 2.6. There were strong correlations (.95-.99) between the MetSSS in medication free adults and the MetSSS calculated from subgroups. MetSSS predicted medication initiation for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia over six months (OR=1.31, 95% CI [1.00-1.70], per MetSSS unit, p=.043). Lower education, medication prescription, history of smoking and age were associated with higher MetSSS (all p<.05). Higher physical but not mental health quality of life was associated with lower MetSSS (p<.001). A standardized formula to measure cardio-metabolic risk factor severity was constructed and demonstrated expected relations with known risk factors. The use of the MetSSS is recommended as a measure of change within individuals in cardio-metabolic risk factors and to guide treatment and management.

  13. MicroRNAs related to androgen metabolism and polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Udesen, Pernille Bækgaard; Wissing, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disorder in women. PCOS is associated with altered features of androgen metabolism, increased insulin resistance and impaired fertility. Furthermore, PCOS, being a syndrome diagnosis, is heterogeneous and characterized by polycystic ovaries...

  14. Metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and nervous system injury: Epidemiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giovanna; Pirillo, Isabel; Tomassoni, Daniele; Sirignano, Ascanio; Grappasonni, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common and complex disorder combining hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. MetS represents a risk factor for changes in cognitive functions in older age, and several studies have suggested that MetS may be linked to dementia. This article reviews the main evidences about the relationship between MetS and neurodegenerative disease. Starting from an epidemiological point of view, the article analyzes medico-social aspects related to MetS, considering the reduction of work capacity and the condition of disability that it involves. Some authors affirm that on the basis of current Italian legislation, it is possible to consider the syndrome as a disability. This is because all the diseases that make up MetS are high-risk clinical pathological conditions. For these reasons, a joint action is required to contain the incidence of MetS, the high social costs, and the loss of productivity related to the syndrome. In conclusion, healthcare initiatives could be adopted in order to increase the understanding of the pathogenic contributions of each element on MetS and how they can be modified. These actions will be useful to reduce healthcare costs and can lead to more effective prevention of metabolic disease, thus promoting good health.

  15. Association of Cortisol and the Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sat Byul; Blumenthal, James A.; Lee, Soon Young; Georgiades, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related and have become increasingly prevalent in Korea. The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have previously been associated with increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity, but the associations have not been extensively examined in non-Caucasian populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between cortisol, adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in a K...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the metabolic syndrome: Consequences of a dual threat

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhabandhu Naik; Anjali Joshi; Thomas Vizhalil Paul; Nihal Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is found to be more frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The presence of inflammatory markers in circulation, sputum, and broncho-alveolar fluid suggest systemic inflammation is one of the potential mechanisms responsible for both COPD and metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity, skeletal muscle dysfunction, hypogonadism, and steroid use are also important causes of the metabolic syndrome in COPD. Obesity and insulin resistance is found to be more c...

  17. Pedometer assessed physical activity of people with metabolic syndrome in Poland.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Owlasiuk; Sławomir Chlabicz; Anna Gryko; Alicja Litwiejko; Jolanta Małyszko; Dorota Bielska

    2014-01-01

    introduction. Metabolic syndrome is a contemporary disease of civilization, an effect of lack of healthy behaviour, a consequence of lifestyle devoid of physical activity, eating poor quality food rich in calories and excessive stress. Apart from a proper diet, physical activity remains an important part of metabolic syndrome management. objective. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the physical activity of an adult population of patients with metabolic syndrome. mater...

  18. Liver fat percent is associated with metabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in a high-risk vascular cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McHenery Christine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine whether liver fat percent (LFP is associated with the metabolic syndrome independently of visceral fat area (VFA. Methods 43 High-risk vascular patients not on lipid-lowering therapy were evaluated for the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII metabolic syndrome criteria and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to quantify VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA at the L4-L5 disc and liver magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to quantify LFP. Comparisons: 1. Baseline differences in patients with and without the metabolic syndrome 2. Forward binary logistic regression analysis of predictors of the metabolic syndrome with VFA, SFA and LFP as independents 3. Correlates of LFP. Results 43 patients were included in analysis. Patients with metabolic syndrome had greater VFA, SFA and LFP than patients without the metabolic syndrome (all p Conclusions LFP is associated with the metabolic syndrome and renders the current gold standard of VFA redundant in this analysis. This measure of obesity-related cardiovascular risk requires further validation and evaluation in a prospective cohort.

  19. Chronic Inflammation in Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosário Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is disturbing. The activation of inflammatory pathways, used normally as host defence, reminds the seriousness of this condition. There is probably more than one cause for activation of inflammation. Apparently, metabolic overload evokes stress reactions, such as oxidative, inflammatory, organelle and cell hypertrophy, generating vicious cycles. Adipocyte hypertrophy, through physical reasons, facilitates cell rupture, what will evoke an inflammatory reaction. Inability of adipose tissue development to engulf incoming fat leads to deposition in other organs, mainly in the liver, with consequences on insulin resistance. The oxidative stress which accompanies feeding, particularly when there is excessive ingestion of fat and/or other macronutrients without concomitant ingestion of antioxidant-rich foods/beverages, may contribute to inflammation attributed to obesity. Moreover, data on the interaction of microbiota with food and obesity brought new hypothesis for the obesity/fat diet relationship with inflammation. Beyond these, other phenomena, for instance psychological and/or circadian rhythm disturbances, may likewise contribute to oxidative/inflammatory status. The difficulty in the management of obesity/metabolic syndrome is linked to their multifactorial nature where environmental, genetic and psychosocial factors interact through complex networks.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Kanufre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify markers of metabolic syndrome (MS in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 58 PKU patients (ages of 4-15 years: 29 patients with excess weight, and 29 with normal weight. The biochemical variables assessed were phenylalanine (phe, total cholesterol, HDL-c, triglycerides, glucose, and basal insulin. The patients had Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA and waist circumference assessed. RESULTS: No inter-group difference was found for phe. Overweight patients had higher levels of triglycerides, basal insulin, and HOMA, but lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, when compared to the eutrophic patients. Total cholesterol/HDL-c was significantly higher in the overweight group. A positive correlation between basal insulin level and HOMA with waist circumference was found only in the overweight group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that patients with PKU and excess weight are potentially vulnerable to the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct clinical and laboratory monitoring, aiming to prevent metabolic changes, as well as excessive weight gain and its consequences, particularly cardiovascular risk.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in youth: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ball, Geoff D C; Franks, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The current paper reviews the important issues and challenges facing children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies suggest that the MetS and its risk components may be on the rise in children along with rising rates of obesity; however, further study remains warranted. The topics reviewed encompass the definition of the syndrome, its prevalence, clustering and tracking of metabolic risk factors, the role of physical activity and diet in the development of the MetS, criticisms and utility of the MetS definition, and special considerations needed in the pediatric population. Physical activity and diet may play important roles in the MetS; however, research with precise measurements of activity, diet, and metabolic outcomes is needed. The paper concludes by emphasizing that regardless of one's position in the ongoing debate about the MetS, the long-term risks attributable to each individual risk component are real. The abnormality of one component should automatically prompt the screening of other components. Among children and adolescents, lifestyle modification should always serve as the frontline strategy. Prevention during childhood is key to the largest possible impact on adult health at the population level.

  2. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy.

  3. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1) control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2) group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out. Results Average age of the subjects in the control group (n = 254) was 35.7 ± 11.5 years and 42.0 ± 10.7 years for subjects in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 190). Subjects at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome showed decreased IS, increased insulin resistance (IR), and altered β-cell function. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a high prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) of family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This group also showed a significant metabolic imbalance with glucose and insulin levels and lipid profile outside the ranges considered safe to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and T2D. Conclusion The main finding in this study was the detection of altered β-cell function, decreased IS, an increased IR in subjects at metabolic balance, and the progressive deterioration of β-cell function and IS in subjects with metabolic syndrome as the number of features of metabolic syndrome increases

  4. Association between Nutrient Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Shin, Eung-Jin; Yeom, Jeong-Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of nutritional status according to metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (metabolic syndrome group and normal group) according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in 143 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and their lifestyle and nutritional status were analyzed. Recall method was used for the dietary survey, and metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and blood pressure. This study showed that the metabolic syndrome group had a low age, a high body mass index (BMI), and a high drinking rate. The intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus was significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group than in the normal group, and the intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, and folic acid was significantly low. The intake of cholesterol, fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid was also higher in the metabolic syndrome group. Higher BMI, alcohol consumption, intake of fat, total fatty acid or saturated fatty acid increased the risk of metabolic syndrome, but fiber, vitamin C, or folic acid intake lowered the risk.Weight management and balanced nutritional intake should be emphasized to prevent metabolic syndrome and to improve the condition in patients with colorectal cancer.

  5. Association between Nutrient Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eung-Jin; Yeom, Jeong-Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of nutritional status according to metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (metabolic syndrome group and normal group) according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in 143 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and their lifestyle and nutritional status were analyzed. Recall method was used for the dietary survey, and metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and blood pressure. This study showed that the metabolic syndrome group had a low age, a high body mass index (BMI), and a high drinking rate. The intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus was significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group than in the normal group, and the intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, and folic acid was significantly low. The intake of cholesterol, fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid was also higher in the metabolic syndrome group. Higher BMI, alcohol consumption, intake of fat, total fatty acid or saturated fatty acid increased the risk of metabolic syndrome, but fiber, vitamin C, or folic acid intake lowered the risk.Weight management and balanced nutritional intake should be emphasized to prevent metabolic syndrome and to improve the condition in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:28168180

  6. Epidemiological, endocrine and metabolic features in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2004-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the more common genetic disorders, associated with abnormalities of the X chromosome, and occurring in about 50 per 100 000 liveborn girls. Turner syndrome is usually associated with reduced adult height, gonadal dysgenesis and thus insufficient circulating levels of female sex steroids, and infertility. A number of other signs and symptoms are seen more frequently with the syndrome. Morbidity and mortality are increased. The average intellectual performance is within the normal range. A number of recent studies have provided new insights with respect to epidemiology, cardiology, endocrinology and metabolism. Treatment with GH during childhood and adolescence allows a considerable gain in adult height, although very-long-term consequences of this treatment are not clear. Puberty has to be induced in most cases, and female sex hormone replacement therapy is given during the adult years. The proper dose of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has not been established, and, likewise, benefits and/or drawbacks from HRT have not been thoroughly evaluated. Since the risk of cardiovascular and endocrinological disease is clearly elevated, proper care during adulthood is emphasized. In summary, Turner syndrome is a condition associated with a number of diseases and conditions which are reviewed in the present paper.

  7. Ozone (O3): A Potential Contributor to Metabolic Syndrome through Altered Insulin Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutants have been associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that acute O3 exposure will produce metabolic impairments through endoplasmic reticular stress (ER) stress and altered insulin signaling in liver,...

  8. Transfer of Intestinal Microbiota From Lean Donors Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, Anne; Van Nood, Els; Holleman, Frits; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Kootte, Ruud S.; Bartelsman, Joep F. W. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Serlie, Mireille J.; Oozeer, Raish; Derrien, Muriel; Druesne, Anne; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E.T.; Bloks, Vincent W.; Groen, Albert K.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Stroes, Erik S.; de Vos, Willem M.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We studied the effects of infusing intestinal microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome on the recipients' microbiota composition and glucose metabolism. Subjects were assigned rando

  9. Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: Biochemical Background and Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberecht, Harry; Hermans, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome are divided into four subgroups. Although dividing them in groups has some limitations, it can be used to draw some conclusions. In a first part, the dyslipidemias and markers of oxidative stress are discussed, while inflammatory markers and cardiometabolic biomarkers are reviewed in a second part. For most of them, the biochemical background and clinical significance are discussed, although here also a well-cut separation cannot always be made. Altered levels cannot always be claimed as the cause, risk, or consequence of the syndrome. Several factors are interrelated to each other and act in a concerted, antagonistic, synergistic, or modulating way. Most important conclusions are summarized at the end of every reviewed subgroup. Genetic biomarkers or influences of various food components on concentration levels are not included in this review article.

  10. Metabolic syndrome associated to non-inflammatory Achilles enthesopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Di Carlo, Luigi; Salini, Vincenzo; Schiavone, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    Enthesopathies are frequently found in rheumatic inflammatory diseases, but can be observed also in absence of systemic inflammation. Aging, overuse, and microtraumas can be responsible for enthesis-degenerative phenomena. Despite that Achilles enthesis is the more frequently affected, no systematic study on the risk factors associated to this enthesopathy has been yet performed. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome could be associated to entheseal lesions. Forty-five subjects with symptomatic non-inflammatory Achilles enthesopathy were compared to 45 asymptomatic controls. An ultrasound study of the Achilles enthesis was carried out, and the presence/absence of lesions (morphologic abnormalities, calcific deposits, enthesophytes, cortical abnormalities, and adjacent bursitis) was assessed. On the basis of history, comorbidities (osteoarthritis, diabetes, and hypertension) were recorded. In each subject, body mass index (BMI), glucose, total, and HDL cholesterol were also evaluated. All symptomatic subjects showed at ultrasound evaluation at least one structural entheseal alteration; pathologic features in asymptomatic subjects were found in 6/45 (13.3 %) of cases. Higher values of BMI and glucose were found in subjects with symptomatic enthesopathy. At multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of high values of BMI and glucose was related to a higher probability to detect entheseal lesions. Metabolic syndrome and overweight may have a role in the pathogenesis of Achilles enthesopathy due to their synergistic worsening effect on other pathogenetic factors of tendon degeneration, such age and overuse. Therefore, subjects with metabolic syndrome practicing sports and other activities stressing the Achilles tendon should receive advice for more frequent controls.

  11. Anticoagulant therapy in pregnant patients with metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzynski, Radzisław; Poniedzialek-Czajkowska, Elzbieta; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Leszczynska-Gorzelak, Bozena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a specific state of heightened coagulability related to the increase in procoagulant agents and to the reduced fibrinolysis. Pregnancy is associated with a 4-fold increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and this risk still increases to 14-fold during puerperium. A correlation between the metabolic syndrome and development of cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular incidents has been described. Such a relationship is referred to a hypercoagulable state due to increased serum levels of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, factor (F) VII and VIII, von Willebrand factor and from endothelial activation, caused by increased circulating adhesion molecules. As to the risk of VTE, the probability for its association with cardiovascular incidents is increased by common underlying mechanisms such as the activation of platelets and the blood coagulation. A correlation between idiopathic VTE and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. The anticoagulant therapy may be recommended during the pregnancy for the treatment or the prophylaxis of VTE and, in women with artificial heart valves, for the prevention of the valve thrombosis and systemic embolisation. There are also specific conditions during pregnancy which benefit from anticoagulant use, such as recurrent fetal loss, thrombophilia and assisted reproductive technology. There are no published specific data about using of anticoagulant agents in pregnant patients with the metabolic syndrome except for a few articles addressing reproductive problems. The mechanisms of anticoagulant action were studied with the focus on heparinoids, because of their safety not only for the patient but also for the fetus. The new oral anticoagulants were also shortly described although they have been contraindicated during the pregnancy.

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with depression in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttajit S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak PilakantaDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: To identify the point prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Metabolic syndrome was assessed based on an updated definition derived from the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17 was used to measure depressive symptoms in 80 patients with schizophrenia. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression for the association between each depressive symptom and metabolic syndrome.Results: The point prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and International Diabetes Federation criteria were 37% and 35%, respectively. The risk of having metabolic syndrome significantly increased in those who were widowed or separated, or had longer duration of illness. Central obesity was the metabolic feature with the highest odds ratios for metabolic syndrome at 19.3. Three out of 17 items of HDRS subscales were found to be significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, including depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation with the odds ratios of 3.0, 3.4, and 3.6, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia was higher than the overall rate but was slightly lower than in the general population in the USA. Central obesity, measured by waist circumference, was found to be highly correlated with metabolic syndrome. Depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Waist circumference and screening

  13. Association of Visceral Fat and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jeong-Hyeon; Jang, Han-Yun; Oh, Min-Jin; Rho, Jun-Seung; Jung, Ju-Hye; Yum, Keun-Sang; Han, Ji-Whan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Visceral fat (VF) is closely associated with many metabolic risk factors and is also known to be a strong predictive factor for severe metabolic complications in adults. But there are only a few studies concerning the association of VF and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents. In our study, we emphasized the association of VF [measured by VF computed tomography (VFCT)] and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Materials and Me...

  14. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte;

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  15. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiu-Li; Xu, Wang-Hong, E-mail: mtao@buffalo.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tao, Meng-Hua, E-mail: mtao@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  16. Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Heart Disease in Overweight and Obesity With and Without Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Overweight and obesity likely cause myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether coexisting metabolic syndrome is a necessary condition is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that overweight and obesity with and without metabolic syndrome...... syndrome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios for incident MI and IHD according to combinations of BMI category and absence or presence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: During a median of 3.6 years' follow-up, we recorded 634 incident MI and 1781 incident IHD events. For MI, multivariable adjusted...... hazard ratios vs normal weight individuals without metabolic syndrome were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.00-1.61) in overweight and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.34-2.63) in obese individuals without metabolic syndrome and 1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-2.02) in normal weight, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.35-2.15) in overweight, and 2.33 (95% CI, 1...

  17. Hormonal contraception in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, S.O.

    2010-01-01

    resulting in more pregnancies where both the mother and the fetus are at high risk. Consequently, use of safe and effective contraceptive methods is of paramount importance. Paradoxically, both obese and diabetic women are less likely to use contraception as compared to women of normal weight. Modern types......The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... of hormonal contraceptives are safe and provide important noncontraceptive benefits. The impact of obesity on drug pharmacokinetics may result in lower blood levels of steroid contraceptives that reduce their ability to prevent pregnancy, but the actual change is probably minimal. In women with uncomplicated...

  18. Hormonal Contraception in obestiy, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Sven O.

    2010-01-01

    resulting in more pregnancies where both the mother and the fetus are at high risk. Consequently, use of safe and effective contraceptive methods is of paramount importance. Paradoxically, both obese and diabetic women are less likely to use contraception as compared to women of normal weight. Modern types......The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... of hormonal contraceptives are safe and provide important noncontraceptive benefits. The impact of obesity on drug pharmacokinetics may result in lower blood levels of steroid contraceptives that reduce their ability to prevent pregnancy, but the actual change is probably minimal. In women with uncomplicated...

  19. Metabolic syndrome: from global epidemiology to individualized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, J A; Nieto-Martinez, R E; Lopez-Jimenez, F

    2007-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) encompasses a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that are thought to place patients at higher risk for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular (CV) disease. The underlying pathophysiology is still a point of contention among various professional organizations leading to inconsistencies in the manner in which MetS is defined. Each definition has its advantages and disadvantages. Nonetheless, there is an agreement that insulin resistance and obesity are likely the central contributing factors. Because the prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a frightening rate in the past few decades, MetS represents a major public health problem that should be identified clinically in individual patients. This review describes the changing epidemiology of obesity and of MetS and discusses its importance in CV disease. We outline the existing controversies that surround MetS and discuss the role of lifestyle, pharmacological, surgical, and novel approaches in its management.

  20. [Pathogenesis of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndromes associated with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín; Rodríguez-Vidigal, Francisco F; Domingo, Pere

    2006-09-30

    Lipodystrophy, and the metabolic alterations (dislipemia, insulin-resistance) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a multifactorial syndrome due to the interaction of host related factors (cellular immune status, diet, gene mutations), viral factors (cytokine synthesis, polyunsaturated fatty acid or PUFA depletion), and pharmacological effects (mitochondrial DNA-polymerase inhibition, lipolysis inhibition, adiponectin synthesis reduction). HIV probably modifies the adipocyte differentiation and the lipid metabolism. This retroviral effect is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor) and the participation of other factors (drugs, diet), all in the context of a particular host genetic setting. The adipocyte (and several cellular receptors, fatty acids, membrane proteins, and cytokines) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

  1. An approach to the etiology of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica M Muñoz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of obesity in the world, especially accumulation of abnormal amounts of visceral fat predisposes to insulina resistance, which is the central role of metabolic syndrome (MS. Obesity can deregulate the intracellular signaling of insulina due to the production of inflammatory substances, chemo attractant proteins, adipokines and molecules that trigger hormonal mediator potentials for destabilization of signal transduction, leading to metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The complexity of the MS and of the genetic mechanisms involved in its etiology derives from the combination of variants on genes involved and environmental factors that predispose it. The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of obesity in molecular and biochemical responses that trigger insulin resistance and its relation to some candidate genes and the ancestral component of the population.

  2. Metabolic syndrome: аrguments pro's and con's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Uchamprina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a combination of impaired glucose metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite numerous studies on this subject, the terminology and the definition of MS as well as borderline values for its criteria are not defined. From the standpoint of public health and clinical practice, the early detection of MS is highly important in order to prevent the development of CVD and T2D. This review article reflects the stages of development of the concept of MS, expresses the opinion of the authors with respect to the modern view of the problem and analyzes of contemporary arguments "for" and "against" the use of MS diagnosis in clinical practice.

  3. The impact of metabolic disease associated with metabolic syndrome on human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases induced by metabolic syndrome (MS) have been increased during the past two decades. During healthy pregnancy maternal organs and placenta are challenged to adapt to the increasingly physiological changes. In addition to the increasingly proatherogenic MS, pregnant woman develops a high cardiac output, hypercoagulability, increased inflammatory activity and insulin resistance with dyslipidemia. The MS describes a cluster of metabolic changes associated with an impact on the physiology of many organs. While the metabolic syndrome is directly responsible for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, additional impact on human pregnancy like preterm delivery with low-birth-weight infants as well as the development of diseases such as diabetes, preeclampsia and hypertension. Recent evidence suggests that MS is originated in fetal life in association with maternal nutrition during pregnancy and fetal programming which apparently increases the susceptibility for MS in children and later life. This review will describe the MS in association with the origin of the emerging diseases during pregnancy such as diabetes, preeclampsia and others. The influence of perinatal environment and maternal diet and smoking on MS as well as the genetic biomarkers of MS will be described.

  4. Patterns of cholesterol metabolism: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for dyslipidemias and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, G; De Vuono, S; Mannarino, E

    2011-09-01

    Investigating cholesterol metabolism, which derives from balancing cholesterol synthesis and absorption, opens new perspectives in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemias and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Cholesterol metabolism is studied by measuring plasma levels of campesterol, sitosterol and cholestanol, that is, plant sterols which are recognised as surrogate cholesterol-absorption markers and lathosterol or squalene, that is, cholesterol precursors, which are considered surrogate cholesterol-synthesis markers. This article presents current knowledge on cholesterol synthesis and absorption, as evaluated by means of cholesterol precursors and plant sterols, and discusses patterns of cholesterol balance in the main forms of primary hyperlipidaemia and MS. Understanding the mechanism(s) underlying these patterns of cholesterol synthesis and absorption will help to predict the response to hypolipidemic treatment, which can then be tailored to ensure the maximum clinical benefit for patients.

  5. Predictors of obstructive sleep apnea in males with metabolic syndrome

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    Nikolaos Papanas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Papanas1, Paschalis Steiropoulos2, Evangelia Nena2, Argyris Tzouvelekis2, Athanasios Skarlatos2, Maria Konsta2, Vasileios Vasdekis3, Efstratios Maltezos1, Demosthenes Bouros21Outpatient Clinic of Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Sleep Laboratory, Department of Pneumonology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 3Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economic and Business, Athens, GreeceAbstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its components among obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients vs controls, as well as to investigate which of these components are strongly associated with the presence of OSA in subjects reporting symptoms indicating sleep-disordered breathing. Included were 83 consecutive male subjects, without known concomitant diseases, who visited an outpatient clinic of obesity, diabetes and metabolism. Based on polysomnography, these were divided into two groups: OSA patients (n = 53 and controls (n = 30. Parameters indicating MS, according to the NCEP ATP III criteria (blood pressure, waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol levels were evaluated in both groups. The criteria for MS were fulfilled in 49 participants. Presence of MS was significantly correlated with the presence of OSA. However, after adjustment for BMI, only serum glucose was significantly associated with the presence of OSA (P = 0.002. Conversely, the presence of MS was associated with a significant reduction in percentage of slow-wave sleep (P = 0.030. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence for the association between OSA and MS. Between subjects with MS, elevated serum glucose levels indicate a higher probability for the presence of OSA. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, glucose, metabolic syndrome

  6. Metabolic syndrome, its pathophysiology and the role of melatonin.

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    Srinivasan, Venkataramanujam; Ohta, Yoshiji; Espino, Javier; Pariente, Jose A; Rodriguez, Ana B; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Zakaria, Rahimah

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by symptoms of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in MetS are complex and involved dysregulation of many biochemical and physiological regulatory mechanisms of the body. Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins like VLDL, and LDL with reduction of HDL seen in patients with MetS contribute to atherogenic dyslipedemia. Melatonin has been suggested to be effective in improving MetS through its anti-hyperlipidemic action. Melatonin reduced both adiposity, and body weight in experimental animal studies and also attenuated weight gain and obesityinduced metabolic alterations and this effect of melatonin is attributed to its anti-oxidative effects. Melatonin administration has been shown to inhibit insulin release by acting through both MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in pancreatic β-cells. Melatonin also increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in animals fed with either high fat or high sucrose diet. Melatonin exerts most of its beneficial actions by acting through MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in various tissues of the body and some of the metabolic actions of melatonin have been blocked by melatonin antagonist like luzindole. Ramelteon, the newly available melatonin agonist will also have more promising role in the control of MetS. The numbers of patents are available with regard to treatment of MetS. Drug related to antidepressant fluoxetine is used for treatment of MetS (US Patent No. 2008001400450). Anti-oxidants like S-adenosyl-methionine, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C have been found beneficial in treating MetS (US Patent No. 8063024). Melatonin being a powerful Antioxidant will have a promising role in treating patients with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

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    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-08-21

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

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    Carlotta Lassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Novel nutraceutic therapies for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esperanza; Martínez-Abundis; Miriam; Mendez-del; Villar; Karina; G; Pérez-Rubio; Laura; Y; Zu?iga; Marisol; Cortez-Navarrete; Alejandra; Ramírez-Rodriguez; Manuel; González-Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon,Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome(MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with Met S. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented.

  10. Novel nutraceutic therapies for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Méndez-del Villar, Miriam; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Zuñiga, Laura Y; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Alejandra; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with MetS. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented. PMID:27076875

  11. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

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    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  12. The criteria for metabolic syndrome and the national health screening and education system in Japan.

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    Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on the accumulation of risk factors, a measure used by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); the other focuses on abdominal obesity, a measure used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Japanese government. The latter definition takes waist circumference (WC) into consideration as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA, and other organizations attempted to unify these criteria; as a result, WC is no longer an obligatory component of those systems, while it remains obligatory in the Japanese criteria. In 2008, a new Japanese cardiovascular screening and education system focused on metabolic syndrome was launched. People undergoing screening are classified into three groups according to the presence of abdominal obesity and the number of metabolic risk factors, and receive health educational support from insurers. This system has yielded several beneficial outcomes: the visibility of metabolic syndrome at the population level has drastically improved; preventive measures have been directed toward metabolic syndrome, which is expected to become more prevalent in future generations; and a post-screening education system has been established. However, several problems with the current system have been identified and are under debate. In this review, we discuss topics related to metabolic syndrome, including (1) the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome; (2) metabolic syndrome and the universal health screening and education system; and (3) recent debates about Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  13. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

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    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovarian syndrome women in a hospital of Tehran

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    Ashraf Moini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a condition associated with chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and androgen excess. Women with this syndrome are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MBS in women with PCOS referred to Arash Hospital in different ages and body mass index (BMI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gynecologic Clinic at Arash Hospital affiliated with Tehran University. A total of 282 women with PCOS ages between 15-40 years were included. The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its components in this population were the main outcomes. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and laboratory tests (FBS, TSH, HDL-C, serum prolactin, triglycerides and total cholesterol were measured in this population. Results: The prevalence of MBS in PCOS women was 22.7% (64 cases. The rate of central obesity, FBS more than 110 mg/dl, triglycerides more than 150 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C less than 50 mg/dl, and blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg in PCOS women was 31% (87, 3.2% (9, 33% (93, 68.8% (194, and 10.6% (30, respectively. The risk of MBS was increased in older and the obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Conclusion: The present sample showed women with PCOS have a high prevalence of MBS and its individual components, particularly decreased HDL-C.

  15. [FEATURES OF CLINICAL COURSE AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN MEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ANDROGEN DEFICIENCY].

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    Tyuzikov, I A; Grekov, E A; Kalinchenko, S Yu

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effect of the components of the metabolic syndrome (obesity, insulin resistance (IR)) and androgen deficiency on the clinical course of lower urinary tract symptoms against the background of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) and nocturia, as well as on some of the parameters of BPH (prostate volume, residual urine volume, total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood level). The comprehensive survey of 160 men with LUTS/BPH (mean age 56.7 ± 3.3 years) was performed; based on the results of survey, three comparison groups were formed: Group 1 (n = 70)--patients with isolated obesity; Group 2 (n = 36)--patients with obesity and insulin resistance; and Group 3 (n = 54)--patients with obesity, insulin resistance and androgen deficiency. The control group consisted of 30 patients with LUTS/BPH without these metabolic and hormonal disorders. In patients with LUTS/BPH and obesity, higher frequency of nocturia compared with the control group was revealed (63.7% vs 23.3%; P resistance and androgen deficiency had the highest average prostate volume and residual urine volume compared with those of other groups (P resistance, androgen deficiency are associated pathological conditions, greatly aggravating the clinical course of LUTS/BPH due to adverse impact on the BPH parameters, acting both together and separately. The most severe LUTS/BPH were associated with the presence of all three of the above systemic disorders.

  16. Metabolic syndrome in Mediterranean women with polycystic ovary syndrome: when and how to predict its onset.

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    Espinós-Gómez, Juan J; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J; Ordóñez-Llanos, J; Calaf-Alsina, J

    2012-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The metabolic disorders are not universal and may vary with race, age and phenotype. Our purpose was to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of Mediterranean PCOS women with MetS, compare them with non-MetS PCOS patients, and assess the ability of clinical data and biochemical tests to predict these abnormalities within our population. A total of 218 subjects, 196 PCOS women and 22 controls, undergo a physical examination and laboratory evaluation for a diagnosis of MetS. MetS was categorized according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. PCOS patients were analyzed separately and compared in three subgroups: three or more MetS criteria, two criteria, one or no criteria. The overall prevalence of MetS was 21.4%. Women with MetS had higher glucose (G) levels than PCOS women with two criteria (5.7 ± 1.5 vs 5 ± 0.4, p women with one or no criteria and the control group. WC, HDL and TG were the best predictors of PCOS patients at risk for MetS. In conclusion, we recommend considering PCOS patients with two criteria of MetS as having the same risk as patients with the full syndrome. Waist circumference with HDL and triglycerides is an efficient combined test to identify PCOS women at risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

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    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure.

  18. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes

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    Paula Wesendonck Caponi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. The animals were allocated to the following groups: MS (sedentary metabolic syndrome, MS-T (trained on a treadmill for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 10 weeks, H (sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats and H-T (trained spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Lee index, blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of training. Glucose transporter Type 4 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: At baseline, the MS rats exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and increased Lee index compared with the H rats. Training decreased the body weight and Lee index of the MS rats (MS-T vs. MS, but not of the H rats (H-T vs. H. There were no differences in food intake between the groups. At the end of the experiments, the systolic blood pressure was lower in the two trained groups than in their sedentary controls. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in the trained groups. Glucose transporter Type 4 content increased in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle of the trained groups relative to their respective untrained groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study shows that an isolated aerobic exercise training intervention is an efficient means of improving several components of metabolic syndrome, that is, training reduces obesity and hypertension and increases insulin sensitivity.

  19. A case of metabolic syndrome, positive antinuclear antibodies and cirrhosis.

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    Alessandro Grasso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a common clinical condition often associated with hepatic steatosis and sometimes with mild transaminases and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase increase. We report a case of a 45-years-old female, with mild increase of ALT, who was followed-up in our Department. A liver biopsy was then performed when an atorvastatin-induced ALT flare, as well as a positive antinuclear antibody appearance, occurred. A picture of steatohepatitis with sever fibrosis and cirrhosis was found. A caloric restriction with physical activity as well as the use of metformin were recommended. In the following 6 years the patient develops a decompensated cirrhosis and was referred to a Transplant Unit. This case suggests that non alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis can develop in patients with metabolic syndrome, especially when other cofactors of liver damage, as alcohol, may be superimposed. In non alcoholic steatohepatitis liver biopsy is mandatory to stage the disease. Moreover it is always recommended when different causes may concur to liver damage in the same patient.

  20. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

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    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications.

  1. Exercise Induced Adipokine Changes and the Metabolic Syndrome

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    Saeid Golbidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population: a short overview

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    Natasa Marcun Varda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MS in adults is defined as a concurrence of obesity, disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Studies now indicate that many of its components are also present in children and adolescents. Moreover, the clustering of these risk factors has been documented in some children, who are at increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. The MS is highly prevalent among overweight children and adolescents. Identifying these children is important for early prevention and treatment of different components of the syndrome. The first-line treatment comprises lifestyle modification consisting of diet and exercise. The most effective tool for prevention of the MS is to stop the development of childhood obesity. The first attempt of consensus-based pediatric diagnostic criteria was published in 2007 by the International Diabetes Federation. Nevertheless, national prevalence data, based on uniform pediatric definition, protocols for prevention, early recognition and effective treatment of pediatric MS are still needed. The aim of this article is to provide a short overview of the diagnosis and treatment options of childhood MS, as well as to present the relationships between MS and its individual components.

  3. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

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    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  4. Adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome: too much, too little or neither.

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    Grundy, Scott M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that excess adipose tissue plays an important role in development of the syndrome. On the other hand, persons with a deficiency of adipose tissue (e.g. lipodystrophy) also manifest the metabolic syndrome. In some animal models, expansion of adipose tissue pools mitigates adverse metabolic components (e.g. insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia). Hence, there are conflicting data as to whether adipose tissue worsens the metabolic syndrome or protects against it. This conflict may relate partly to locations of adipose tissue pools. For instance, lower body adipose tissue may be protective whereas upper body adipose tissue may promote the syndrome. One view holds that in either case, the accumulation of ectopic fat in muscle and liver is the driving factor underlying the syndrome. If so, there may be some link between adipose tissue fat and ectopic fat. But the mechanisms underlying this connection are not clear. A stronger association appears to exist between excessive caloric intake and ectopic fat accumulation. Adipose tissue may act as a buffer to reduce the impact of excess energy consumption by fat storage; but once a constant weight has been achieved, it is unclear whether adipose tissue influences levels of ectopic fat. Another mechanism whereby adipose tissue could worsen the metabolic syndrome is through release of adipokines. This is an intriguing mechanism, but the impact of adipokines on metabolic syndrome risk factors is uncertain. Thus, many potential connections between adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome remain to unravelled.

  5. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

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    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  6. Hyperleptinemia - an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome in the adult population in Kerala, India

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    Manju K. Sudharmadevi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Serum leptin levels had a strong association with components of metabolic syndrome, especially abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Elevated leptin level should be taken as a warning sign of metabolic syndrome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3988-3992

  7. The association between frailty, the metabolic syndrome, and mortality over the lifespan.

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    Kane, Alice E; Gregson, Edward; Theou, Olga; Rockwood, Kenneth; Howlett, Susan E

    2017-03-09

    Frailty and the metabolic syndrome are each associated with poor outcomes, but in very old people (90+ years) only frailty was associated with an increased mortality risk. We investigated the relationship between frailty, metabolic syndrome, and mortality risk, in younger (20-65 years) and older (65+ years) people. This is a secondary analysis of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets for 2003-2004 and 2005-2006, linked with mortality data up to 2011. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Frailty was operationalized using a 41-item frailty index (FI). Compared to the younger group (n = 6403), older adults (n = 2152) had both a higher FI (0.10 ± 0.00 vs. 0.22 ± 0.00, p metabolic syndrome (24.1 vs. 45.5%, p metabolic syndrome and FI were correlated in younger people (r = 0.25, p metabolic syndrome did so only in the younger group. In Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and each other, the FI was associated with increased mortality risk at both ages (younger HR 1.05 (1.04-1.06); older HR 1.04 (1.03-1.04) whereas the metabolic syndrome did not contribute to mortality risk. The FI better predicted mortality than did the metabolic syndrome, regardless of age.

  8. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  9. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  10. Studies on the pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Lihui

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we aimed to expand our knowledge on the pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome in transgenic mice. The metabolic syndrome involves multiple aspects and has a major impact on cardiovascular diseases. In the first part of thesis the role of PAI-1 in the development of insu

  11. Aspects involved in the (patho)physiology of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is an increasing problem in our Western society. Many of the features of the metabolic syndrome, like obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Growing evidence supports the important role of body

  12. Study of insulin status in metabolic syndrome in correlation with presence of other risk factors

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    Sudhanshu Shekhar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: It was observed that metabolic syndrome is associated with elevated serum insulin levels and each component of metabolic syndrome, both biochemical as well as clinical, is associated with hyper-insulinemia and this reflects the presence of insulin resistance in subjects of study. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2734-2737

  13. Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptom profiles-Sex-specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, Radboud M; Smits, Johanna E M P; Schoevers, Robert A; van den Brink, Rob H S; Holewijn, Suzanne; Franke, Barbara; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between depression and metabolic syndrome is becoming more obvious. Waist circumference (WC) might be the most important metabolic syndrome (MetS) feature in relation to late-life depression, with a possible mediating role for adiponectin. Methods: Cross-sectional populat

  14. Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve aspects of metabolic syndrome in cells cultured in vitro, and in an...

  15. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  16. Metabolic syndrome in women of childbearing age and pregnancy: recognition and management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Knopp, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    The obesity pandemic engenders the global threat of metabolic syndrome and its related disorders, including diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome on women of childbearing age, including pregnancy, with a discussion of lipid management. Treatment options will also be presented.

  17. Endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome: a prospective study in a rural institute in India

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    Khwaja Saifullah Zafar

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Estimation of Endothelial Dysfunction in patients at risk of developing full blown Metabolic Syndrome may predict the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these individuals even before fulfilling the 3/5 criteria of NCEP/ATP III Guidelines for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1612-1619

  18. Abdominal radiotherapy: a major determinant of metabolic syndrome in nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waas, M. van; Neggers, S.J.; Raat, H.; Rij, C.M. van; Pieters, R.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports on metabolic syndrome in nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma survivors are scarce. Aim was to evaluate the occurrence of and the contribution of treatment regimens to the metabolic syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study 164 subjects participated (67 adult long-ter

  19. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Varun Malayala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.

  20. The metabolic syndrome, depression, and cardiovascular disease : Interrelated conditions that share pathophysiologic mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the metabolic syndrome as a clinical phenotype with consequences for diagnosis and treatment that go beyond the different clinical specialties involved. A life-course approach is suggested as a means of understanding the complex interrelations between the metabolic syndrome,

  1. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population.......Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population....

  2. Obesity, but not Metabolic Syndrome, Negatively Affects Outcome in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Kemp, David E; Friedman, Edward S; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Calabrese, Joseph R; Rabideau, Dustin J; Ketter, Terence A; Thase, Michael E; Singh, Vivek; Tohen, Mauricio; Bowden, Charles L; Bernstein, Emily E; Brody, Benjamin D; Deckersbach, Thilo; Kocsis, James H; Kinrys, Gustavo; Bobo, William V; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin G; Leon, Andrew C.; Faraone, Stephen; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Shelton, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on outcome in bipolar disorder. Method The Comparative Effectiveness of a Second Generation Antipsychotic Mood Stabilizer and a Classic Mood Stabilizer for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study randomized 482 participants with bipolar disorder in a six-month trial comparing lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Baseline variables were compared between groups with and without obesity, with and without abdominal obesity, and with and without metabolic syndrome, respectively. The effects of baseline obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome on outcomes were examined using mixed effects linear regression models. Results At baseline, 44.4% of participants had obesity, 48.0% had abdominal obesity, and 27.3% had metabolic syndrome; neither obesity, nor abdominal obesity, nor metabolic syndrome were associated with increased global severity, mood symptoms, or suicidality, or with poorer functioning or life satisfaction. Treatment groups did not differ on prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, or metabolic syndrome. By contrast, among the entire cohort, obesity was associated with less global improvement and less improvement in total mood and depressive symptoms, suicidality, functioning, and life satisfaction after six months of treatment. Abdominal obesity was associated with similar findings. Metabolic syndrome had no effect on outcome. Conclusion Obesity and abdominal obesity, but not metabolic syndrome, were associated with less improvement after six months of lithium- or quetiapine-based treatment. PMID:26114830

  3. Targeted High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolomics differentiates metabolic syndrome from obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fanyi; Xu, Mengyang; Bruno, Richard S; Ballard, Kevin D; Zhu, Jiangjiang

    2017-04-01

    Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Identification of novel biomarkers are needed to distinguish metabolic syndrome from equally obese individuals in order to direct them to early interventions that reduce their risk of developing further health problems. We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to evaluate the associations between metabolite profiles and established metabolic syndrome criteria (i.e. elevated waist circumference, hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in plasma samples from obese men ( n = 29; BMI = 35.5 ± 5.2 kg/m(2)) and women ( n = 40; 34.9 ± 6.7 kg/m(2)), of which 26 met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (17 men and 9 women). Compared to obese individuals without metabolic syndrome, univariate statistical analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that a specific group of metabolites from multiple metabolic pathways (i.e. purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, and tryptophan metabolism) were associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves generated based on the PLS-DA models showed excellent areas under the curve (0.85 and 0.96, for metabolites only model and enhanced metabolites model, respectively), high specificities (0.86 and 0.93), and good sensitivities (0.71 and 0.91). Moreover, principal component analysis revealed that metabolic profiles can be used to further differentiate metabolic syndrome with 3 versus 4-5 metabolic syndrome criteria. Collectively, these findings support targeted metabolomics approaches to distinguish metabolic syndrome from obesity alone, and to stratify metabolic syndrome status based on the number of criteria met. Impact statement We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to

  4. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chul Kho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG on a high-fructose (HF diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4 in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.

  5. Stress and obesity/metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2011-09-01

    Chronic distress contributes to the development of obesity and comorbid states. Stress is the disturbance of the complex dynamic equilibrium that all organisms must maintain, and is associated with activation of the Stress system comprising of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous systems. The stress system functions in a baseline circadian fashion and interacts with other systems of the organism to regulate a variety of behavioral, endocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular functions. The experience of perceived or real uncontrollable intense and/or chronic stress (distress) may lead to several psychopathologic conditions, including anxiety, depressive and psychosomatic disorders, substance abuse, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, as well as impaired reproductive and immune functions. Developing children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress. Both behavioral and biological pathways are involved in the connection between chronic stress and obesity in adults and children. Emotional "comfort" eating, lack of sleep, impulsive behaviours and selection of specific foods often characterize stressed individuals. In addition to specific behaviours, dysregulation of the stress system through increased secretion of cortisol and catecholamines, especially in the evening hours, and in concert with concurrently elevated insulin concentrations, leads to development of central obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In children, chronic alterations in cortisol secretion may have additional effects on cognitive and emotional development, timing of puberty and final stature. Obese children and adolescents are frequently entangled in a vicious cycle between distress, impairing self-image and distorted self-image, maintaining and worsening distress.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing intermittent androgen-deprivation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammadali Mohammadzadeh; Rezaei, Mohammadhadi Mohammadzadeh; Ghoreifi, Alireza; Kerigh, Behzad Feyzzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), especially intermittent type, has not been completely evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate metabolic syndrome in men with PCa undergoing intermittent ADT. Methods: In this longitudinal study, we studied the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in 190 patients who were undergoing intermittent ADT. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. All metabolic parameters, including lipid profile, blood glucose, blood pressures, and waist circumferences of the patients were measured six and 12 months after treatment. Results: Mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 6.74 years. The incidence of metabolic syndrome after six and 12 months was 6.8% and 14.7%, respectively. Analysis of various components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that patients had significantly higher overall prevalence of hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in their six- and 12-month followups, but blood pressure has not been changed in the same period except for diastolic blood pressure after six months. Conclusions: Although there was an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving intermittent ADT, it was lower than other studies that treated the same patients with continuous ADT. Also it seems that intermittent ADT has less metabolic complications than continuous ADT and could be used as a safe alternative in patients with advanced and metastatic PCa. PMID:27695584

  7. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder involving a combination of cardiovascular risk factors. Menopausal transition can be a key factor in the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The current study aims to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition, using a systematic review. Three reviewers conducted an article search in PubMed. The articles' quality was evaluated according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Based on the selected studies, prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases in the post-menopausal (as compared to pre-menopausal) period, regardless of the population and study design. The change was more significant for waist circumference and blood pressure, suggesting that these components have the greatest influence on prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  8. [Correction of psycho-emotional state by the biofeedback method in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichubekov, B K; Shaikhin, A M; Tabagari, S I; Sorokina, M A; Omarbekova, N K

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the important clinical problems of medicine. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of heart rate variability biofeedback method in correction of mental and emotional state in patients with metabolic syndrome. For this task was set to study the dynamics of indicators of mental and emotional stress by biofeedback based hardware-software complex "Amblyocor" in patients with metabolic syndrome. Course of heart rate variability biofeedback passed 10 patients with the metabolic syndrome. During biofeedback sessions conducted tests that assess psycho-emotional state by 5 characters. Data processing was performed using software package «Statistica 8.0» and showed a statistically significant decrease in indicators of mental and emotional stress, that demonstrates the effectiveness of biofeedback in the correction of mental and emotional stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and the Components of the Mediterranean Diet

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    Maria Luz Fernandez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities known to increase heart disease risk by two-fold and type 2 diabetes risk by five-fold. These disturbances include dyslipidemias, hypertension, hyperglycemia and central adiposity in addition to insulin resistance and low grade inflammation. The prevalence of MetS is about 34% in the United States with variations according to ethnicity and race. Lfestyle factors including smoking, lack of exercise, poor dietary habits as well as low socioeconomic status are associated with the development of MetS. Diet is considered one of the major contributors to MetS. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (high intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, olive oil, fish, low-fat dairy products, and moderate wine consumption has been associated with lower prevalence of MetS. Interventions utilizing this dietary approach have proven to be successful in reducing some of the associated metabolic abnormalities. In this review, evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies showing the benefits of the Mediterranean diet is presented. The effect of the specific components of the Mediterranean diet is also discussed.

  11. Designing future prebiotic fiber to target metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Nyman, Margareta; Fåk, Frida

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, is a growing epidemic worldwide, requiring new prevention strategies and therapeutics. The concept of prebiotics refers to selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host. Sequencing the gut microbiome and performing metagenomics has provided new knowledge of the significance of the composition and activity of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease. As knowledge of how a healthy gut microbiota is composed and which bacterial metabolites are beneficial increases, tailor-made dietary interventions using prebiotic fibers could be developed for individuals with MetS. In this review, we describe how dietary fibers alter short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of prebiotics on host metabolism. We focus on several key aspects in prebiotic research in relation to MetS and provide mechanistic data that support the use of prebiotic fibers in order to alter the gut microbiota composition and SCFA profiles. Further studies in the field should provide reliable mechanistic and clinical evidence for how prebiotics can be used to alleviate MetS and its complications. Additionally, it will be important to clarify the effect of individual differences in the gut microbiome on responsiveness to prebiotic interventions.

  12. The developmental origins, mechanisms, and implications of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Hanson, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a combination of cardio-metabolic risk determinants, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, and microalbuminuria. The prevalence of MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide, largely as a consequence of the ongoing obesity epidemic. Environmental factors during periods early in development have been shown to influence the susceptibility to develop disease in later life. In particular, there is a wealth of evidence from both epidemiological and animal studies for greater incidence of features of MetS as a result of unbalanced maternal nutrition. The mechanisms by which nutritional insults during a period of developmental plasticity result in a MetS phenotype are now beginning to receive considerable scientific interest. This review focuses on recent data regarding these mechanisms, in particular the epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of key metabolic genes in response to nutritional stimuli that mediate persistent changes and an adult MetS phenotype. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually allow specific interventions, with a favorable impact on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in the future.

  13. Cyclic vomiting syndrome masking a fatal metabolic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, Marianne

    2013-05-01

    Disorders of fatty acid oxidation are rare but can be fatal. Hypoglycaemia with acidosis is a cardinal feature. Cases may present during early childhood or can be delayed into adolescence or beyond. We present a case of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), an extremely rare disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Our 20-year-old patient presented with cardiovascular collapse, raised anion gap metabolic acidosis and non-ketotic hypoglycaemia. She subsequently developed multi-organ failure and sadly died. She had a previous diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) for more than 10 years, warranting frequent hospital admissions. The association between CVS and MADD has been made before though the exact relationship is unclear. All patients with persistent severe CVS should have metabolic investigations to exclude disorders of fatty acid oxidation. In case of non-ketotic hypoglycaemia with acidosis, the patient should be urgently referred to a specialist in metabolic diseases. All practitioners should be aware of these rare disorders as a cause of unexplained acidosis.

  14. Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, I Caroline; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2005-04-01

    The "fetal" or "early" origins of adult disease hypothesis was originally put forward by David Barker and colleagues and stated that environmental factors, particularly nutrition, act in early life to program the risks for adverse health outcomes in adult life. This hypothesis has been supported by a worldwide series of epidemiological studies that have provided evidence for the association between the perturbation of the early nutritional environment and the major risk factors (hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity) for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome in adult life. It is also clear from experimental studies that a range of molecular, cellular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and physiological adaptations to changes in the early nutritional environment result in a permanent alteration of the developmental pattern of cellular proliferation and differentiation in key tissue and organ systems that result in pathological consequences in adult life. This review focuses on those experimental studies that have investigated the critical windows during which perturbations of the intrauterine environment have major effects, the nature of the epigenetic, structural, and functional adaptive responses which result in a permanent programming of cardiovascular and metabolic function, and the role of the interaction between the pre- and postnatal environment in determining final health outcomes.

  15. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: Pathophysiology and Intervention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. LaGuardia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, including abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure and glucose concentrations, and dyslipidemia. The presence of this clinical entity is becoming more pervasive throughout the globe as the prevalence of obesity increases worldwide. Moreover, there is increased recognition of the complications and mortality related to this syndrome. This paper looks to examine the link between metabolic syndrome and the development of chronic kidney disease.

  16. The effects of changes in the metabolic syndrome detection status on arterial stiffening: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Hirayama, Yoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yambe, Minoru; Yamada, Jiko; Koji, Yutaka; Motobe, Kohki; Shiina, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Yamashinai, Akira

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a prospective study to examine the effects of alterations of the metabolic syndrome detection status on the rate of progression of arterial stiffness, which is recognized as a marker of arterial damage and an indicator of cardiovascular risk. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as an index of arterial stiffening was recorded twice over a 3-year period in 2080 Japanese men (age, 42 +/- 9 years). At the start of the prospective study, pulse wave velocity was higher in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (n=125) than in those without metabolic syndrome (n=1,955) even after adjusting for mean blood pressure. The annual rate of increase of the pulse wave velocity was higher in the group with persistent metabolic syndrome (27 +/- 51 cm/s/year, n=71) than in the group with regression of metabolic syndrome (6 +/- 39 cm/s/year, n=54) or the group in which metabolic syndrome was absent (13 +/- 37 cm/s/year, n=1843; p changes in blood pressure. In conclusion, the changes in the metabolic syndrome detection status of the subjects during the study period affected the annual rate of progression of arterial stiffening, and persistent metabolic syndrome during the study period was associated with acceleration of arterial stiffening in middle-aged Japanese men. On the other hand, resolution of metabolic syndrome may be associated with attenuation of the progression of arterial damage. Therefore, the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome may be at least partly mediated by acceleration of the progression of arterial stiffening.

  17. Dietary intake is not associated to the metabolic syndrome in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Maria Bruscato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is a complex metabolic disturbance due to an interaction between genetic factors, poor dietary habits and physical inactivity. Aims: To investigate the role of dietary intake on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a population of elderly, socially active women in Brazil. Patients and Methods : A total of 284 women with mean age 69.3 ± 6.3 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional retrospective study. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. The dietary intake was evaluated through a questionnaire for 24-hour dietary recall. The groups with or without the metabolic syndrome were compared for dietary intake and risk factors for metabolic syndrome by the multiple regression model adjusted for age, smoking, physical activity, educational level, total energy intake and fiber contents of the diet. The odds ratio for the presence of the metabolic syndrome was calculated for each nutrient by quartile for total energy intake adjusted by the residue method. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 32% in the sample. There was not found any association between dietary intake, including all macronutrients and several micronutrients, and the presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion : No associations were observed between nutritional factors and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in elderly women, a result possibly due to the fact that these factors have an influence in earlier phases of life, or to a recent modification of dietary habits, which however was not able to prevent the establishment of the syndrome.

  18. Reduced flexibility associated with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Vin Chang

    Full Text Available The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population.A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force, lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test, flexibility (sit-and-reach test, and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test. Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables.Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI (odds ratio (OR, 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.25-2.07 and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99 compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI.Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in the

  19. Nature and Nurture in the Early-Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Garcia-Contreras, Consolacion; Vazquez-Gomez, Marta

    The combination of genetic background together with food excess and lack of exercise has become the cornerstone of metabolic disorders associated to lifestyle. The scenario is furthermore reinforced by their interaction with other environmental factors (stress, sleeping patterns, education, culture, rural versus urban locations, and xenobiotics, among others) inducing epigenetic changes in the exposed individuals. The immediate consequence is the development of further alterations like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and other adverse health conditions (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, reproductive, immune and neurological disorders). Thus, having in mind the impact of the metabolic syndrome on the worldwide public health, the present review affords the relative roles and the interrelationships of nature (genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome) and nurture (lifestyle and environmental effects causing epigenetic changes), on the establishment of the metabolic disorders in women; disorders that may evolve to metabolic syndrome prior or during pregnancy and may be transmitted to their descendants.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in white European men presenting for primary couple's infertility: investigation of the clinical and reproductive burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, E; Capogrosso, P; Colicchia, M; Boeri, L; Serino, A; Castagna, G; Clementi, M C; La Croce, G; Regina, C; Bianchi, M; Mirone, V; Damiano, R; Montorsi, F; Salonia, A

    2016-09-01

    Despite complex interactions between obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and the reproductive axis, the impact of metabolic syndrome on human male reproductive function has not been analysed comprehensively. Complete demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 1337 consecutive primary infertile men were analysed. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (categorised 0 vs. 1 vs. 2 or higher). NCEP-ATPIII criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Semen analysis values were assessed based on the 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) reference criteria. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models tested the association between semen parameters and clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was found in 128 (9.6%) of 1337 men. Patients with metabolic syndrome were older (p metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome patients had lower levels of total testosterone (p metabolic syndrome. Conversely, the two groups did not differ significantly in further hormonal levels, semen parameters, and rate of either obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, testicular volume (OR: 0.90; p = 0.002) achieved independent predictor status for WHO pathological semen concentration; conversely, age, Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, metabolic syndrome, and inhibin B values did not. No parameters predicted normal sperm morphology and total progressive motility. Metabolic syndrome accounts for roughly 9% of men presenting for primary couple's infertility. Although metabolic syndrome patients have a lower general male health status, semen analysis values seem independent of the presence of metabolic syndrome.

  1. The basic mechanisms the influence of metabolic syndrome on the risk and prognosis of breast cancer (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Schepotin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer and metabolic syndrome remains one of the most urgent problems of modern medicine worldwide. In this review, highlights the molecular pathways that underlie the negative impact of metabolic syndrome on the risk and prognosis of breast cancer. A better understanding of these pathways will help to optimize prevention and treatment of breast cancer in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  2. The obese Göttingen minipig as a model of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to induce obesity in the female Göttingen minipig to establish a model of the human metabolic syndrome. Nine- to ten-month-old female Göttingen minipigs received a high-fat high-energy (HFE) diet or a low-fat, low-energy (LFE) diet. The energy contents...... of the metabolic impairments seen in obese humans, and may thus serve as a model of the metabolic syndrome....

  3. Symposium introduction: metabolic syndrome and the onset of cancer1, 2, 3, 4

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jin-Rong; Blackburn, George L.; Walker, W. Allan

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and related metabolic disorders are among the most pressing of today’s health care concerns. Recent evidence from epidemiologic and basic research studies, as well as translational, clinical, and intervention studies, supports the emerging hypothesis that metabolic syndrome may be an important etiologic factor for the onset of cancer. On March 15–16, 2006, The Harvard Medical School Division of Nutrition hosted the symposium “Metabolic Syndrome and the Onset of Cancer” as a...

  4. Metformin in the treatment of breast cancer among patients with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer among women worldwide. In 2005, the International Diabetes Federation (International Diabetes Federation) declared metabolic syndrome is one of the main problems of modern medicine, as it increases the total mortality and the prevalence has reached pandemic levels. Several studies have shown that the metabolic disorders associated with metabolic syndrome, affect the carcinogenesis of BC. Improving the efficiency of chemotherapy in patients w...

  5. Choice of method of diagnosis hypogonadism in obesity and metabolic syndrome in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kuznetsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered as symptoms of male hypogonadism, which underlines the need for hormonal screening in these patients. However, remain unsolved some questions of laboratory diagnostics testosterone deficiency. In particular, there are contradictions in the choice of research method of free testosterone. The objectives of our work was to conduct a comparative evaluation of methods for studying androgen status of young and middle-aged men with obesity and metabolic syndrome, and determining the relationship between hormonal indicators and metabolic profile, blood pressure, anthropometric characteristics of obesity. The study included 51 patients with symptoms of obesity and metabolic syndrome, aged from 20 to 50 years, the control group consisted of 19 equal-age men with normal body weight. A significant decrease in total testosterone in men with metabolic syndrome was revealed. The dependence of the concentration of total testosterone with age and content sex-steroid-binding globulin was found. The role of free testosterone in the formation of the metabolic syndrome was shown. It was found that free saliva testosterone significantly correlated with the level of calculated serum free testosterone. In patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome there are a statistically significant increase in saliva testosterone indicators compared to calculated serum free testosterone, while at normal body weight differences are absent. It is concluded that saliva testosterone is more sensitive and appropriate marker for obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Metabolic and functional connectivity changes in mal de debarquement syndrome.

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    Yoon-Hee Cha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS experience a chronic illusion of self-motion triggered by prolonged exposure to passive motion, such as from sea or air travel. The experience is one of rocking dizziness similar to when the individual was originally on the motion trigger such as a boat or airplane. MdDS represents a prolonged version of a normal phenomenon familiar to most individuals but which persists for months or years in others. It represents a natural example of the neuroplasticity of motion adaptation. However, the localization of where that motion adaptation occurs is unknown. Our goal was to localize metabolic and functional connectivity changes associated with persistent MdDS. METHODS: Twenty subjects with MdDS lasting a median duration of 17.5 months were compared to 20 normal controls with (18F FDG PET and resting state fMRI. Resting state metabolism and functional connectivity were calculated using age, grey matter volume, and mood and anxiety scores as nuisance covariates. RESULTS: MdDS subjects showed increased metabolism in the left entorhinal cortex and amygdala (z>3.3. Areas of relative hypometabolism included the left superior medial gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right amygdala, right insula, and clusters in the left superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri. MdDS subjects showed increased connectivity between the entorhinal cortex/amygdala cluster and posterior visual and vestibular processing areas including middle temporal gyrus, motion sensitive area MT/V5, superior parietal lobule, and primary visual cortex, while showing decreased connectivity to multiple prefrontal areas. CONCLUSION: These data show an association between resting state metabolic activity and functional connectivity between the entorhinal cortex and amygdala in a human disorder of abnormal motion perception. We propose a model for how these biological substrates can allow a limited period of motion exposure to lead

  7. Sudden infant death syndrome and abnormal metabolism of thiamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Derrick

    2015-12-01

    Although it has been generally accepted that moving the infant from the prone to the supine position has solved the problem of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), it has been hypothesized that this is an insufficient explanation and that a mixture of genetic risk, some form of stressful incident and marginal brain metabolism is proportionately required. It is suggested that each of these three variables, with dominance in one or more of them, act together in the common etiology. Much has been written about the association of thiamin and magnesium but the finding of extremely high concentrations of serum thiamin in SIDs victims has largely caused rejection of thiamin as being involved in the etiology. The publication of abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials strongly suggests that there are electrochemical changes in the brainstem affecting the mechanisms of automatic breathing and the control of cardiac rhythm. The brainstem, cerebellum and limbic system of the brain are known to be highly sensitive to thiamin deficiency (pseudo-hypoxia) and the pathophysiology is similar to a mild continued deprivation of oxygen. Little attention has been paid to the complex metabolism of thiamin. Dietary thiamin requires the cooperation of the SLC19 family of thiamin transporters for its absorption into cells and recent information has shown that transporter SNPs may be relatively common and can be expected to increase genetic risk. Thiamin must be phosphorylated to synthesize thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), well established in its vital action in glucose metabolism. TPP is also a cofactor for the enzyme 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) in the peroxisome, emphasizing its importance in alpha oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis in cell membrane physiology. The importance of thiamine triphosphate (TTP) in energy metabolism is still largely unknown. Thiamin metabolism has been implicated in hyperemesis gravidarum and iatrogenic Wernicke encephalopathy has been reported when the

  8. Overlapping Clinical Features Between NAFLD and Metabolic Syndrome in Children

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    Anna Alisi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a cluster of pathological liver conditions of emerging importance in overweight and obese children. NAFLD is associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia, which are considered to be the main features of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Prevention of the adverse outcomes of NAFLD, as well as the risk of MetS, depends on the identification of genetic background and environmental factors that modulate susceptibility to these diseases. However, several lines of evidence highlight the strong correlation and co-currency of these two chronic diseases, both in children and in adults. In the present review, we provide an overview of the current clinical proofs on the link between NAFLD and MetS in children, with particular focus on all the possible overlapping features that connect them at paediatric age.

  9. Clinical utility of metabolic syndrome severity scores: considerations for practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Gurka, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup. These scores are correlated with long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clinical use of scores like these provide a potential opportunity to identify patients at highest risk, motivate patients toward lifestyle change, and follow treatment progress over time.

  10. Impact of Bioflavonoids from Berryfruits on Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Lila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical constituents which comprise many edible berry fruits have increasingly been linked to modulation of biomarkers associated with conditions of diabetes, overweight/obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD, all components of metabolic syndrome. While many wild berries have long been valued in traditional medicine as health protective, it is only recently that the ability of berry bioactives to affect particular clinical targets has been demonstrated. In addition to the widely recognized antioxidant power of berry extracts, both commercial berry varieties and wild species have been linked to hypoglycemic activity, inhibition of adipogenesis, amelioration of CVD risk factors, anti-inflammatory capacity, and ability to induce satiety/counteract overweight. In some cases, proanthocyanidin constituents or anthocyanin pigments have been shown to be the active agents, but in many other cases, interactions between co-occuring phytochemical constituents potentiate bioactivity of berry extracts.

  11. Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L; Poudyal, H; Panchal, S K

    2015-11-01

    Obesity as part of metabolic syndrome is a major lifestyle disorder throughout the world. Current drug treatments for obesity produce small and usually unsustainable decreases in body weight with the risk of major adverse effects. Surgery has been the only treatment producing successful long-term weight loss. As a different but complementary approach, lifestyle modification including the use of functional foods could produce a reliable decrease in obesity with decreased comorbidities. Functional foods may include fruits such as berries, vegetables, fibre-enriched grains and beverages such as tea and coffee. Although health improvements continue to be reported for these functional foods in rodent studies, further evidence showing the translation of these results into humans is required. Thus, the concept that these fruits and vegetables will act as functional foods in humans to reduce obesity and thereby improve health remains intuitive and possible rather than proven.

  12. Long Noncoding RNAs in Metabolic Syndrome Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Losko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleic acids (RNAs are very complex and their all functions have yet to be fully clarified. Noncoding genes (noncoding RNA, sequences, and pseudogenes comprise 67% of all genes and they are represented by housekeeping noncoding RNAs (transfer RNA (tRNA, ribosomal RNA (rRNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA, and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA that are engaged in basic cellular processes and by regulatory noncoding RNA (short and long noncoding RNA (ncRNA that are important for gene expression/transcript stability. In this review, we summarize data concerning the significance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs in metabolic syndrome related disorders, focusing on adipose tissue and pancreatic islands.

  13. Oxidative stress and DNA methylation regulation in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara, Sabrina; Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Levy, Emile

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is implicated in tissue-specific gene expression and genomic imprinting. It is modulated by environmental factors, especially nutrition. Modified DNA methylation patterns may contribute to health problems and susceptibility to complex diseases. Current advances have suggested that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is a programmable disease, which is characterized by epigenetic modifications of vital genes when exposed to oxidative stress. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to critically review the central context of MS while presenting the most recent knowledge related to epigenetic alterations that are promoted by oxidative stress. Potential pro-oxidant mechanisms that orchestrate changes in methylation profiling and are related to obesity, diabetes and hypertension are discussed. It is anticipated that the identification and understanding of the role of DNA methylation marks could be used to uncover early predictors and define drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay or reverse epigenetic changes, thereby combating MS burden.

  14. Uncoupling proteins, dietary fat and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warden Craig H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been intense interest in defining the functions of UCP2 and UCP3 during the nine years since the cloning of these UCP1 homologues. Current data suggest that both UCP2 and UCP3 proteins share some features with UCP1, such as the ability to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, but they also have distinctly different physiological roles. Human genetic studies consistently demonstrate the effect of UCP2 alleles on type-2 diabetes. Less clear is whether UCP2 alleles influence body weight or body mass index (BMI with many studies showing a positive effect while others do not. There is strong evidence that both UCP2 and UCP3 protect against mitochondrial oxidative damage by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species. The evidence that UCP2 protein is a negative regulator of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells is also strong: increased UCP2 decreases glucose stimulated insulin secretion ultimately leading to β-cell dysfunction. UCP2 is also neuroprotective, reducing oxidative stress in neurons. UCP3 may also transport fatty acids out of mitochondria thereby protecting the mitochondria from fatty acid anions or peroxides. Current data suggest that UCP2 plays a role in the metabolic syndrome through down-regulation of insulin secretion and development of type-2 diabetes. However, UCP2 may protect against atherosclerosis through reduction of oxidative stress and both UCP2 and UCP3 may protect against obesity. Thus, these UCP1 homologues may both contribute to and protect from the markers of the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome: What's New and What Predicts Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of abnormalities that confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Five organizations have proposed definitions of the syndrome. Despite differences in specific criteria among the definitions, there is agreement that the major characteristics of the syndrome include central obesity (except in one definition), elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose metabolism or insulin resistance. Large variations exist in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome across countries and regions, ethnic groups, and gender. The prevalence is high and increasing, particularly in North and South American countries. The high prevalence, combined with the large number of people at risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other related disorders, suggests that the metabolic syndrome may present a major worldwide public health challenge in future.

  16. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Boucher, Jackie L; Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Knickelbine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN). The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes) revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  17. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases.

  18. Total body fat as a possible indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a set of factors related to insulin resistance, which increases the likelihood of coronary events. It is important timely onset identifying to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To explore the percentage of total body fat as indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults from Soledad, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. n=99 adults (non-pregnant, nor subjects with psychomotor disturbances. Blood samples were taken: total cholesterol, HDL; triglycerides and glucose. Waist circumference, Body Mass Index and body fat by bioimpedance and skinfold thickness were measured. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to NHLBI/AHA, ATP III and IDF criteria. Subjects with and without metabolic syndrome according to total body fat averages were compared. Results: The average percentage of body fat was higher (p0.05 in the classification according to ATP III in women, where the average fat percentage was 39.31 % in those with metabolic syndrome and 37.7% in those not suffering. Conclusions: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher mean total body fat, significantly, compared with those who did not, so it could be considered the values of total body fat obtained by bioimpedance as future indicators of metabolic syndrome, both as screening and control.

  19. Remission of screen-detected metabolic syndrome and its determinants: an observational study

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    den Engelsen Corine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of the metabolic syndrome may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess remission of the metabolic syndrome and its determinants after a population based screening without predefined intervention in the Netherlands. Methods In 2006 we detected 406 metabolic syndrome cases (The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III definition among apparently healthy individuals with an increased waist circumference. They received usual care in a primary care setting. After three years metabolic syndrome status was re-measured. We evaluated which baseline determinants were independently associated with remission. Results The remission rate among the 194 participants was 53%. Baseline determinants independently associated with a remission were the presence of more than three metabolic syndrome components (OR 0.46 and higher levels of waist circumference (OR 0.91, blood pressure (OR 0.98 and fasting glucose (OR 0.60. Conclusions In a population with screen-detected metabolic syndrome receiving usual care, more than half of the participants achieved a remission after three years. This positive result after a relatively simple strategy provides a solid basis for a nation-wide implementation. Not so much socio-demographic variables but a higher number and level of the metabolic syndrome components were predictors of a lower chance of remission. In such cases, primary care physicians should be extra alert.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome Remodels Electrical Activity of the Sinoatrial Node and Produces Arrhythmias in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of “metabolic syndrome rats”, compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats. PMID:24250786

  1. Plasma lipidomics discloses metabolic syndrome with a specific HDL phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Cabré, Rosanna; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-12-01

    Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma. In this study, we have performed an in-depth lipidomic analysis of human plasma from healthy individuals and subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in order to determine the lipidomic profile that allows prognosis of a pathological subpopulation with altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. The MetS population was categorized as having pathological or nonpathological HDL. Anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk markers, and lipoprotein subclasses of HDL and low-density lipoproteins were also evaluated. Lipidomic analysis revealed 357 differential molecules that were clustered (k means) in the two groups. The molecules identified in the whole lipidome showed that MetS subjects presented lower levels of glycerolipids and higher levels of glycerophospholipids with respect to control subjects. In contrast, when only statistically differential lipids were taken into account, differences were found between the two groups in almost cases. Furthermore, levels of saturated fatty acids were higher in patients with pathological HDL levels than in controls, whereas levels of unsaturated fatty acids were lower. These results highlight the potential of lipidomics as a clinical tool for risk assessment and monitoring of disease.

  2. Chagas disease, adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fnu Nagajyothi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection of the adipose tissue of mice triggers the local expression of inflammatory mediators and a reduction in the expression of the adipokine adiponectin. T. cruzi can be detected in adipose tissue by PCR 300 days post-infection. Infection of cultured adipocytes results in increased expression of cytokines and chemokines and a reduction in the expression of adiponectin and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ³, both of which are negative regulators of inflammation. Infection also results in the upregulation of cyclin D1, the Notch pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and a reduction in the expression of caveolin-1. Thus, T. cruzi infection of cultured adipocytes leads to an upregulation of the inflammatory process. Since adiponectin null mice have a cardiomyopathic phenotype, it is possible that the reduction in adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Adipose tissue may serve as a reservoir for T. cruzi from which parasites can become reactivated during periods of immunosuppression. T. cruzi infection of mice often results in hypoglycemia. In contrast, hyperglycemia as observed in diabetes results in increased parasitemia and mortality. Adipose tissue is an important target tissue of T. cruzi and the infection of this tissue is associated with a profound impact on systemic metabolism, increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Copper and zinc metabolism in aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Torres-Rodríguez, G A; Cruz, C; Mainero, A; Tapia, E; Ibarra-Rubio, M E; Silencio, J L

    1994-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were measured in urine, serum and tissues from rats with nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced with a single subcutaneous dose of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN; 15 mg/100 g BW). Control animals were pair-fed. Urine was collected daily, and the rats were sacrificed on day 10. PAN-nephrotic rats had proteinuria (days 3-10), high urinary Cu (days 1, 2, 4-10) and Zn (days 3-10) excretion. On day 10, nephrotic rats had: (a) albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, high urine and low serum levels of ceruloplasmin; (b) low Cu and Zn serum levels; (c) high clearance and fractional excretion of Cu and Zn, and (d) low kidney and liver Cu content and essentially normal tissue Zn levels. The alterations in Cu metabolism were more intense than those in Zn metabolism. Urine Cu and Zn showed a positive correlation with urine total protein on days 3-10 which suggests that high urinary excretion of Cu and Zn may be due to the excretion of its carrier proteins. In conclusion, these rats did not show a typical Zn deficiency but a clear decrease in Cu in the liver and kidney.

  4. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  5. Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment.

  6. Influence of metabolic syndrome on upper gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Masahiro; Okahisa, Toshiya; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    A recent increase in the rate of obesity as a result of insufficient physical exercise and excess food consumption has been seen in both developed and developing countries throughout the world. Additionally, the recent increased number of obese individuals with lifestyle-related diseases associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, defined as metabolic syndrome (MS), has been problematic. Although MS has been highlighted as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and arteriosclerotic diseases, it was also recently shown to be associated with digestive system disorders, including upper gastrointestinal diseases. Unlike high body weight and high body mass index, abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation is implicated in the onset of various digestive system diseases because excessive visceral fat accumulation may cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, inducing the release of various bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review article focuses on upper gastrointestinal disorders and their association with MS, including obesity, visceral fat accumulation, and the major upper gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Obesity and metabolic syndrome as related to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Angeliki; Kadoglou, Nikolaos P E

    2012-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) constitutes a multifaceted disorder, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension, associated with an increased propensity towards cardiovascular disease (CVD). Besides this, accumulating data suggest the involvement of nontraditional, novel, cardiovascular risk factors in MetS. Among them, insulin resistance seems to possess a predominant role in MetS-related CVD in obese patients. Furthermore, adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism, increased incidence of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, and excessive production of adipocyte derivatives, known as adipokines, have all been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD in obese patients with MetS. Lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and increased physical activity, have long been the cornerstone for the treatment of obesity-related disorders. With the exception of obesity, pharmaceutical interventions targeting each disorder of MetS have yielded considerable improvement in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The long-term management of obesity and its complications seems promising but requires further investigation.

  8. Integrated approach in the treatment of metabolic syndrome

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    V A Uchamprina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the integrated approach for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MS aiming to correct all of its components versus standard therapy using clinical outcomes (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid levels, assessment of psychological status (Beck Depression Inventory, and quality of life (SF-36. Methods: A total of 60 patients with MS were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects mean age 41.0±11 years, women - 23 (76.7%, men - 7 (23.3% received the complex therapy of MS - pharmacotherapy of obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy (statins or fibrates, antihypertensive therapy. Control group (30 patients mean age 43.4±9.5 years, women - 26 (86.7%, men - 4 (13.3% was treated with statins or fibrates and received antihypertensive therapy when needed. At the inclusion in the study and after 6 months of therapy all patients underwent clinical and laboratory investigation, assessment of depression and quality of life. Results: We found a more significant reduction of all clinical outcomes (body weight, blood pressure, improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, a significant decrease in the prevalence and severity of the depression, and an improvement in the quality of life in patients of study group compared with standard therapy. Conclusion: Complex treatment of the MS, including pharmacotherapy of obesity (orlistat, Xenical and insulin resistance (metformin, Glucophage is characterized by a greater clinical efficacy compared with standard therapy.

  9. Cardio-Metabolic Features of Type 2 Diabetes Subjects Discordant in the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

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    Sa Rah Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study is to investigate the cardio-metabolic parameters and surrogate markers of insulin resistance in a discordant group of type 2 diabetes (T2DM subjects who satisfy the Adults Treatment Panel (ATP III criteria, but not the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria, for metabolic syndrome (MetS.MethodsWe assessed the prevalence of MetS in T2DM subjects (n=167 who were selected from subjects registered at the diabetes center of Dong-A University Medical Center. We used the ATP III criteria and the IDF criteria for the diagnosis of MetS and sorted the subjects into 2 MetS groups: one group diagnosed per ATP III criteria (MetSa and one diagnosed per IDF criteria (MetSi. We then compared the clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and uric acid values and co-morbidities (prevalence of microalbuminuria, fatty liver, and cardiovascular disease between the MetSa, MetSi, and discordant MetS groups.ResultsThe prevalence of MetS in the MetSa group (73.6% was higher than in the MetSi group (62.2%. The MetS prevalence in the discordant group was 11.4%. The discordant group showed no significant differences in clinical characteristics (except waist circumference and body mass index, metabolic parameters, or prevalence of co-morbidities, as compared with subjects with MetS by both criteria.ConclusionIn this study, cardio-metabolic features of the subjects diagnosed with MetS using ATP III criteria, but not IDF criteria, are not significantly different from those of subjects diagnosed with MetS using both criteria.

  10. Sterol Lipid Metabolism in Down Syndrome Revisited: Down Syndrome Is Associated with a Selective Reduction in Serum Brassicasterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, insights into sterol metabolism have improved our understanding of the relationship between lipids and common conditions such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). A better understanding of sterol lipid metabolism in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) may help elucidate how this population’s unique metabolic characteristics influence their risks for atherosclerosis and AD. To revisit the question of whether sterol lipid parameters may be altered in DS subje...

  11. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

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    Smith CJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caitlin J Smith, Kelli K Ryckman Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative. Keywords: epigenetics, metabolic syndrome, fetal programming, maternal, pregnancy complications

  12. Metabolic Syndrome Based on IDF Criteria in a Sample of Normal Weight and Obese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Y V; Poh, B K; Ismail, M N

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome was once reported only in adults but is now occurring more frequently in children. This study compared the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components among normal and obese children using the 2007 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) pediatric definition for metabolic syndrome. Subjects comprised 78 school children aged 8-10 years, with 34 obese and 44 normal weight children. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and body mass index was calculated. Clinical profiles measured included fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined using the 2007 IDF pediatric criteria. Obese subjects had a significantly (psubjects (15.1 ± 0.8 kg/m2). Only one obese subject (1.3% of subjects) had metabolic syndrome based on the IDF definition, but all obese subjects had at least one component of metabolic syndrome. In comparison, no normal weight subjects had metabolic syndrome and only 9.1% of normal weight subjects had at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The most common component was central obesity, observed in 43.6% of subjects having WC equal to or greater than the 90th percentile. In concurrence with central obesity as the core feature of the IDF criteria, WC showed the strongest correlation with indicators of obesity such as BMI (r=0.938, p< 0.001), fat mass (r=0.912, p< 0.001) and fat-free mass (r=0.863, p< 0.001). We conclude that the problem of metabolic syndrome is more prominent among obese children, although the incidence of MS as defined by the 2007 pediatric IDF criteria, is low in this population (1.3%).

  13. Determinants of increased cardiovascular disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazzana, N; Santilli, F; Sestili, S; Cuccurullo, C; Davi, G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and adipose tissue is recognised as an important player in obesity-mediated CVD. The diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MS) appears to identify substantial additional cardiovascular risk above and beyond the individual risk factors, even though the pathophysiology underlying this evidence is still unravelled. The inflammatory response related to fat accumulation may influence cardiovascular risk through its involvement not only in body weight homeostasis, but also in coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance (IR) and atherosclerosis. Moreover, there is evidence that oxidative stress may be a mechanistic link between several components of MS and CVD, through its role in inflammation and its ability to disrupt insulin-signaling. The cross-talk between impaired insulin-signaling and inflammatory pathways enhances both metabolic IR and endothelial dysfunction, which synergize to predispose to CVD. Persistent platelet hyperreactivity/activation emerges as the final pathway driven by intertwined interactions among IR, adipokine release, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress and provides a pathophysiological explanation for the excess risk of atherothrombosis in this setting. Despite the availability of multiple interventions to counteract these metabolic changes, including appropriate diet, regular exercise, antiobesity drugs and bariatric surgery, relative failure to control the incidence of MS and its complications reflects both the multifactorial nature of these diseases as well as the scarce compliance of patients to established strategies. Evaluation of the impact of these therapeutic strategies on the pathobiology of atherothrombosis, as discussed in this review, will translate into an optimized approach for cardiovascular prevention.

  14. The Mediterranean diet adoption improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory abnormalities in Algerian metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkouche, L; Bouchenak, M; Malaisse, W J; Yahia, D Ait

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of Mediterranean diet (MD) adoption on insulin resistance, oxidative, and inflammatory status in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. Eighty four patients with MS were randomly recruited in the medical centers of Oran, Algeria. Eighteen healthy participants were selected as a control group. Among these 84 patients, only 36 patients completed the nutritional advices for 3 months. Patients were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet and received some other selected nutritional and physical activity instructions. Anthropometric measurements were performed and a questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 3 months of nutritional intervention from all subjects. At baseline, the MS patients were obese and had altered anthropometric parameters, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and lower albumin compared to healthy subjects. A decrease in plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet antioxidant enzymes, and a rise in lipid and protein oxidation, plasma CRP, and fibrinogen were noted in the MS patients. Moreover, they had an unbalanced dietary pattern when compared to Mediterranean recommendations. Patients following the Mediterranean-style diet had significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, CRP, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, lipid and protein oxidation, and higher plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, a lifestyle intervention based mainly on nutritional advices improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory abnormalities of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Association between C-reactive protein and features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fröhlich, M; Imhof, A; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of circulating levels of C-reactive protein, a sensitive systemic marker of inflammation, with different components of the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, BMI , and prevalence...... concentrations in subjects grouped according to the presence of 0-1, 2-3, and > or =4 features of the metabolic syndrome were 1.11, 1.27, and 2.16 mg/l, respectively, with a statistically highly significant trend (P metabolic syndrome...

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Scott Rector; John P Thyfault; Yongzhong Wei; Jamal A Ibdah

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary choices are leading to a weight gain epidemic in westernized countries,subsequently increasing the risk for developing the metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is estimated to affect approximate 30% of the general US population and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome.Recent findings linking the components of the metabolic syndrome with NAFLD and the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) will be reviewed;in particular, the role of visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and adipocytokines in the exacerbation of these conditions. While no therapy has been proven effective for treating NAFLD/NASH, common recommendations will be discussed.

  17. The Role and Influence of Gut Microbiota in Pathogenesis and Management of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

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    Parth J. Parekh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Aside from poor diet hygiene and genetics, there are many other factors thought to play a role in the emergence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. There has been a paradigm shift towards further investigating the gut microbiota and its implications in the pathogenesis of a variety of disease states, including inflammatory bowel disease, Clostridium difficile, and most recently obesity and the metabolic syndrome. This article is intended to evaluate the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome and its influence in future management.

  18. PREVALENCE OF NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME AND ITS CORRELATION WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

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    Mariana Drechmer ROMANOWSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women at childbearing age. Metabolic syndrome is present from 28% to 46% of patients with PCOS. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered the hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome. There are few published studies that correlate PCOS and NAFLD. Objective To determine the prevalence of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in patients with PCOS, and to verify if there is a correlation between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in this population. Methods Study developed at Gynecology Department of Clinical Hospital of Federal University of Parana (UFPR. The sessions were conducted from April 2008 to January 2009. One hundred and thirty-one patients joined the analysis; 101 were diagnosed with PCOS and 30 formed the control group. We subdivided the PCOS patients into two subgroups: PCOS+NAFLD and PCOS. All the patients were submitted to hepatic sonography. For hepatoestheatosis screening, hepatic ecotexture was compared do spleen’s. For diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, we adopted the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III criteria, as well as the criteria proposed by International Diabetes Federation. Statistical analysis were performed with t of student and U of Mann-Whitney test for means and chi square for proportions. Results At PCOS group, NAFLD was present in 23.8% of the population. At control group, it represented 3.3%, with statistical significance (P=0.01. Metabolic syndrome, by NCEP/ATP III criteria, was diagnosed in 32.7% of the women with PCOS and in 26.6% of the women at control group (no statistical difference, P=0.5. At PCOS+DHGNA subgroup, age, weight, BMI, abdominal circumference and glucose tolerance test results were higher when compared to PCOS group (P<0.01. Metabolic syndrome by NCEP/ATPIII criteria was present in 75% and by International Diabetes Federation criteria in 95.8% of women with

  19. Assessment of 25(OHD vitamin concentration in plasma of residents of Lodz with metabolic syndrome in pre- and postmenopausal period

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    Małgorzata Godala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome disorders and the occurrence of these disorders greatly contributes to the deficiency of vitamin D. Postmenopausal women are particularly prone to that deficiency. Aim : The aim of the study was to assess vitamin D concentration in the plasma of pre- and postmenopausal women, with or without metabolic syndrome. Material and methods : The study included 141 women aged 26-77 (the mean age 58.74 years old, divided into 4 groups depending on the pre- or postmenopausal period and diagnosed or not with metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria (2005. Vitamin D concentration was assessed by LIAISON® test using chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA technology. Results: The mean vitamin D concentration was the highest among premenopausal women without metabolic syndrome (24.32 ng/ml, it was insignificantly higher than in postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome (23.52 ng/ml and significantly higher than in both groups with metabolic syndrome – premenopausal (19.86 ng/ml and postmenopausal women (9.32 ng/ml. The recommended plasma 25(OHD concentration was not found in any of postmenopausal women with diagnosed metabolic syndrome. Conclusions : Postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome had a significantly lower 25(OHD vitamin concentration in plasma than postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in women with metabolic syndrome was very high, significantly higher than in women without metabolic syndrome.

  20. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus: focus on peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR

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    Fisman Enrique Z

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent clinical entity. The recent Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III guidelines have called specific attention to the importance of targeting the cardiovascular risk factors of the metabolic syndrome as a method of risk reduction therapy. The main factors characteristic of this syndrome are abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (with or without glucose intolerance, prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. An insulin resistance following nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR deactivation (mainly obesity-related is the key phase of metabolic syndrome initiation. Afterwards, there are 2 principal pathways of metabolic syndrome development: 1 with preserved pancreatic beta cells function and insulin hypersecretion which can compensate for insulin resistance. This pathway leads mainly to the macrovascular complications of metabolic syndrome; 2 with massive damage of pancreatic beta cells leading to progressively decrease of insulin secretion and to hyperglycemia (e.g. overt type 2 diabetes. This pathway leads to both microvascular and macrovascular complications. We suggest that a PPAR-based appraisal of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes may improve our understanding of these diseases and set a basis for a comprehensive approach in their treatment.

  2. Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 induced by ROS contributed to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aibin; Liu, Jingyi [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, General Hospital of Beijing Command, PLA, Beijing (China); Liu, Peilin; Jia, Min; Wang, Han [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Tao, Ling, E-mail: lingtao2006@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Metabolic syndrome exacerbated MI/R induced injury accompanied by decreased Nur77. • ROS led to Nur77 translocation in metabolic syndrome. • Inhibiting relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria reduced ROS-induced cardiomyocyte injury in metabolic syndrome. - Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis which contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Nur77, a nuclear orphan receptor, is involved in such various cellular events as apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism in several cell types. Apoptosis is positively correlated with mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 in the cancer cells. However, the roles of Nur77 on cardiac myocytes in patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether Nur77 may contribute to cardiac apoptosis in patients with metabolic syndrome after I/R injury, and, if so, to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible. We used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice to make metabolic syndrome models. In this report, we observed that, accompanied by the substantial decline in apoptosis inducer Nur77, MI/R induced cardiac dysfunction was manifested as cardiomyopathy and increased ROS. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured in a high-glucose and high-fat medium, we found that excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} led to the significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. However, inhibition of the relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria via Cyclosporin A reversed the changes in membrane potential mediated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and reduced myocardial cell injury. Therefore, these data provide a potential underlying mechanism for cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and the suppression of Nur77 translocation may provide an effective approach to reduce cardiac injury in the

  3. Association of low vitamin D levels with metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Damghani, Samaneh; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahboob; Razeghi, Effat; Maziar, Sima; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2016-04-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been linked to metabolic syndrome in the general population. In the present study, the relationship between inadequate serum concentrations of vitamin D and metabolic syndrome in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis was explored. In a cross-sectional setting, 145 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Serum concentration of 25(OH) vitamin D was determined by a commercially available enzyme immunosorbent assay method. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 53.1%. The prevalence rate of severe vitamin D deficiency (30 ng/mL) 29.0%. With the increasing number of metabolic abnormalities, vitamin D levels significantly decreased (P for trend = 0.028). Among the components of metabolic syndrome, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with central obesity (odds ratio [OR], 95% confident interval [CI] = 2.80, 1.11-7.04, P = 0.028). A positive, but nonsignificant association between vitamin D deficiency and raised fasting plasma glucose was noted (OR, 95% CI = 2.40, 0.94-6.11, P = 0.067). Both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of having metabolic syndrome (P metabolic syndrome by more than threefold (OR, 95% CI = 3.26, 1.30-8.20, P = 0.012). Low levels of vitamin D are frequent among hemodialysis patients and are associated with the metabolic syndrome.

  4. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

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    Blanka Stibůrková

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C, SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A. A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables. RESULTS: The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Do the interactions between glucocorticoids and sex hormones regulate the development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

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    Marià eAlemany

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response don't seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release. These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e. levels of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment. Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies.

  6. Kapalabhati pranayama: An answer to modern day polycystic ovarian syndrome and coexisting metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Breath, the vital force of life, is controlled positively by pranayama to ensure homeostasis and wellbeing in humans. Kapalabhati is the rapid breathing technique of pranayama, which is considered as a cure for various ailments. The possible use of this technique to combat metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been discussed in this article. Various published literature from PubMed, Scopus, and theses were reviewed to reinforce the hypothesis that this technique is the answer to ailments due to modernization. It was worthwhile to note that Kapalabhati does combat various features of MS, but its efficacy against PCOS is yet to be proven. However, since both syndromes arise due to a common factor hyperinsulinemia primarily induced by stress in this modern world, it is hypothesized that Kapalabhati holds good against PCOS too. Hence, in conclusion, it can be said that it would be beneficial to conduct a study on PCOS women to ascertain the efficacy of Kapalabhati in their population.

  7. "Prevalence and criteria of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Yazd Healthy Heart Project "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrbafoghi SM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a complex of metabolic disorders that contemporary occurrence in a person is more than the risk of occurrence of each one separately. this syndrome has gained researcher's attention because of its relationship with cardiovascular disease and diabetes type II and its high prevalence in populations Methods: A cross-sectional study performed on 1110 participants, 20-74 years old with cluster sampling. All of them had interview and special questionnaire were filled. Epidemiologic and demographic data were about hypertention cardio vascular disease and related lab data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 32.1% that it was significantly more in women than men .this prevalence increased with age and BMI in both sexes .the most common metabolic disorder was TG>=150. 19.2% have none, 21.1% have one, 27.6% have two, 20.8% have three,9% have four and 2.3% have all criteria of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Approximately one third of population of Yazd have metabolic syndrome and according to other statistics of Iran, this prevalence is more than U.S and Europe. It seems there is an urgent need for a national multicenter program for determinding risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  8. QT correction formulas and laboratory analysis on patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sara; Rivera, Pedro; Rodríguez, María. G.; Severeyn, Érika; Altuve, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a study of ventricular repolarization in diabetic and metabolic syndrome subjects. The corrected QT interval (QTc) was estimated using four correction formulas commonly employed in the literature: Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham and Hodges. After extracting the Q, R and T waves from the electrocardiogram of 52 subjects (19 diabetic, 15 with metabolic syndrome and 18 control), using a wavelet-based approach, the RR interval and QT interval were determined. Then, QTc interval was computed using the formulas previously mentioned. Additionally, laboratory test (fasting glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) were also evaluated. Results show that metabolic syndrome subjects have normal QTc. However, a longer QTc in this population may be a sign of future complication. The corrected QT interval by Fridericia's formula seems to be the most appropriated for metabolic syndrome subjects (low correlation coefficient between RR and QTc). Significant differences were obtained in the blood glucose and triglyceride levels, principally due to the abnormal sugar metabolization of metabolic syndrome and diabetic subjects. Further studies are focused on the acquisition of a larger database of metabolic syndrome and diabetics subjects and the repetition of this study using other populations, like high performance athletes.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease:Asian deifnitions and Asian studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gao Fan; Yong-De Peng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as conventionally recognized, is a metabolic disorder largely conifned to residents of aflfuent industrialized Western countries. However, obesity and insulin resistance are not restricted to the West, as witnessed by their increasingly universal distribution. In particular, there has been an upsurge in metabolic syndrome in the Asia-Paciifc region, although there are critical differences in the extent of adiposity between Eastern and Western populations. DATA SOURCES:An English-language literature search using PubMed (1999-2007) on obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, focusing on Asian deifnitions and Asian studies. RESULTS:NAFLD appears to be of long-standing insulin resistance and likely represents the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. With insulin resistance as a common factor, the disease is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. All features of the metabolic syndrome and related events are assessed for practical management of NAFLD, although the criteria for the diagnosis of obesity and central obesity differ across racial groups. CONCLUSIONS:The increasing prevalence of obesity, coupled with diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and ultimately metabolic syndrome, puts a very large population at risk of developing NAFLD in the coming decades. The simultaneous identiifcation and appropriate treatment of the components of metabolic syndrome are crucial to reduce hepatic as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions