WorldWideScience

Sample records for agglutination

  1. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  2. Spelling Correction in Agglutinative Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to spelling correction in agglutinative languages that is based on two-level morphology and a dynamic programming based search algorithm. Spelling correction in agglutinative languages is significantly different than in languages like English. The concept of a word in such languages is much wider that the entries found in a dictionary, owing to {}~productive word formation by derivational and inflectional affixations. After an overview of certain issues and relevant mathematical preliminaries, we formally present the problem and our solution. We then present results from our experiments with spelling correction in Turkish, a Ural--Altaic agglutinative language. Our results indicate that we can find the intended correct word in 95\\% of the cases and offer it as the first candidate in 74\\% of the cases, when the edit distance is 1.

  3. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mar Mar Khin; Jie Song Hua; Hah Cong Ng; Bow Ho; Torkel Wadstrorr

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms.METHODS Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A ),fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas ( Lotus A ) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori-lectin agglutination. Interestingly, heating of H.pylori cells at 60℃ for 1 hour was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during theevents of morphological transformation,resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection.This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease.

  4. High Fidelity, High Volume Agglutinate Manufacturing Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Up to 65% of the lunar soils are comprised of agglutinates. Although the importance of agglutinate in simulants is often debated, the fact is that agglutinates...

  5. DNA & Protein detection based on microbead agglutination

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-06-06

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microparticles in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Agglutination-based tests are most often used to explore the antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for mode protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin two-component system, as well as a hybridization based two-component assay; however, as our work shows, two-component systems are prone to self-termination of the linking analyte and thus have a lower sensitivity. Three component systems have also been used with DNA hybridization, as in our work; however, their assay requires 48 hours for incubation, while our assay is performed in 5 minutes making it a real candidate for POC testing. We demonstrate three assays: a two-component biotin/streptavidin assay, a three-component hybridization assay using single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules and a stepped three-component hybridization assay. The comparison of these three assays shows our simple stepped three-component agglutination assay to be rapid at room temperature and more sensitive than the two-component version by an order of magnitude. An agglutination assay was also performed in a PDMS microfluidic chip where agglutinated beads were trapped by filter columns for easy observation. We developed a rapid (5 minute) room temperature assay, which is based on microbead agglutination. Our three-component assay solves the linker self-termination issue allowing an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over two–component assays. Our stepped version of the three-component assay solves the issue with probe site saturation thus enabling a wider range of detection. Detection of the agglutinated beads with the naked eye by trapping in microfluidic channels has been shown.

  6. Penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination in media that support capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, T; Rickard, J P; Aitken, R J; de Graaf, S P

    2016-02-01

    Ram spermatozoa are difficult to capacitate in vitro. Here we describe a further complication, the unreported phenomenon of head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa following dilution in the capacitation medium Tyrodes plus albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP). Sperm agglutination is immediate, specific and persistent and is not associated with a loss of motility. Agglutination impedes in vitro sperm handling and analysis. So the objectives of this study were to investigate the cause of sperm agglutination and potential agents which may reduce agglutination. The percentage of non-agglutinated, motile spermatozoa increased when bicarbonate was omitted from complete TALP suggesting that bicarbonate ions stimulate the agglutination process. d-penicillamine (PEN), a nucleophilic thiol, was highly effective at reducing agglutination. The inclusion of 250 μM PEN in TALP reduced the incidence of motile, agglutinated spermatozoa from 76.7 ± 2.7% to 2.8 ± 1.4%. It was then assessed if PEN (1 mM) could be included in existing ram sperm capacitation protocols (TALP +1 mM dibutyryl cAMP, caffeine and theophylline) to produce spermatozoa that were simultaneously capacitated and non-agglutinated. This protocol resulted in a sperm population which displayed high levels of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and lipid disordered membranes (merocyanine-540) while remaining motile, viable, acrosome-intact and non-agglutinated. In summary, PEN (1 mM) can be included in ram sperm capacitation protocols to reduce sperm agglutination and allow for the in vitro assessment of ram sperm capacitation.

  7. Towards a high throughput droplet-based agglutination assay

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-22

    This work demonstrates the detection method for a high throughput droplet based agglutination assay system. Using simple hydrodynamic forces to mix and aggregate functionalized microbeads we avoid the need to use magnetic assistance or mixing structures. The concentration of our target molecules was estimated by agglutination strength, obtained through optical image analysis. Agglutination in droplets was performed with flow rates of 150 µl/min and occurred in under a minute, with potential to perform high-throughput measurements. The lowest target concentration detected in droplet microfluidics was 0.17 nM, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than a conventional card based agglutination assay.

  8. Production of latex agglutination reagents for pneumococcal serotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortika Belinda D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current ‘gold standard’ for serotyping pneumococci is the Quellung test. This technique is laborious and requires a certain level of training to correctly perform. Commercial pneumococcal latex agglutination serotyping reagents are available, but these are expensive. In-house production of latex agglutination reagents can be a cost-effective alternative to using commercially available reagents. This paper describes a method for the production and quality control (QC of latex reagents, including problem solving recommendations, for pneumococcal serotyping. Results Here we describe a method for the production of latex agglutination reagents based on the passive adsorption of antibodies to latex particles. Sixty-five latex agglutination reagents were made using the PneuCarriage Project (PCP method, of which 35 passed QC. The other 30 reagents failed QC due to auto-agglutination (n=2, no reactivity with target serotypes (n=8 or cross-reactivity with non-target serotypes (n=20. Dilution of antisera resulted in a further 27 reagents passing QC. The remaining three reagents passed QC when prepared without centrifugation and wash steps. Protein estimates indicated that latex reagents that failed QC when prepared using the PCP method passed when made with antiserum containing ≤ 500 μg/ml of protein. Sixty-one nasopharyngeal isolates were serotyped with our in-house latex agglutination reagents, with the results showing complete concordance with the Quellung reaction. Conclusions The method described here to produce latex agglutination reagents allows simple and efficient serotyping of pneumococci and may be applicable to latex agglutination reagents for typing or identification of other microorganisms. We recommend diluting antisera or removing centrifugation and wash steps for any latex reagents that fail QC. Our latex reagents are cost-effective, technically undemanding to prepare and remain stable for long periods of

  9. Effects of Plant Lectins on Human Erythrocyte Agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubcevic Nadja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins or phytohaemagglutinins present in most plants, especially seeds and tubers, which include cereals, potatoes and beans. Lectins have great significance in the diet because of their involvement in gastrointestinal difficulties and erythrocyte agglutination. Blood agglutination activity against A, B, AB and O groups was shown after exposing blood to extracts obtained from 55% of tested plants, while in 45% of plants, agglutination was absent. The results of our study have shown that in humans, 40% of plant extracts exhibited activity against A, 40% of plant extracts exhibited activity against B, and 50% of plant extracts exhibited activity against AB and O groups in humans. The concentration of plant lectins depends on the part of the plant. Lectins from the seeds of certain plants cause the greatest percentage of erythrocyte agglutination, while the lowest agglutination was caused by plant bulbs and leaves. However, lectins derived from all plant species of the family Fabaceae agglutinated erythrocytes of all blood types to some extent.

  10. Disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis with negative latex agglutination test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-guang; BI Xin-ling; WU Jian-hua; XU Hong; LIAO Wan-qing

    2012-01-01

    We reported an unusual case of disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis in an immunocompetent host who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy,which were the only two symptoms and signs.Latex agglutination test of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were negative,while lymph node biopsy showed Cryptococcus neoformans.A diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis was made.Then the patient was treated with amphotericin B for 15 days as initial therapy and itraconazole for 6 months as maintenance therapy respectively.The patient received re-examination per 6 months and was followed up for 2 years.Swollen lymph nodes diminished gradually,and no fever or other symptoms were found.Latex agglutination test of serum and CSF were negative throughout the follow-up period,and anti-HIV,syphilis and tuberculosis antibody were all negative.

  11. Interpretation of microscopic agglutination test for leptospirosis diagnosis and seroprevalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Rajada Inwattana; Yong Poovorawan; Duangjai Suwancharoen

    2014-01-01

    Determination of antibody titer by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) has been used as a tool for leptospirosis diagnosis. Four fold or greater rise in antibody titers between acute and convalescent sera suggests recent Leptospira infection. In addition, results obtained by MAT have been used to predict infecting serovars. However, cross reactivity among various Leptospira serovars have been reported when patient sera were tested with a battery of Leptospira serovars. This study demonstrates cross- reactivity among several Leptospira serovars when MAT was performed on leptospirosis sera. The data support a role of MAT as a tool for diagnosis. However, for information on infecting serovars, Leptospira isolation and molecular identification should be performed.

  12. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction based on lectin-induced erythrocyte agglutination: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocsi, József; Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Reichert, Thomas; Laffers, Wiebke; Marecka, Monika; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Piltz, Joachim; Esche, Hans-Jürgen; Wolf, Günther; Dähnert, Ingo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute life-threatening disease with a high incidence worldwide. Aim of this study was to test lectin-carbohydrate binding-induced red blood cell (RBC) agglutination as an innovative tool for fast, precise and cost effective diagnosis of MI. Five lectins (Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA), Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), Artocarpus agglutinin (ArA), Triticum agglutinin (TA)) were tested for ability to differentiate between agglutination characteristics in patients with MI (n = 101) or angina pectoris without MI (AP) (n = 34) and healthy volunteers (HV) as control (n =68) . RBC agglutination was analyzed by light absorbance of a stirred RBC suspension in the green to red light spectrum in an agglutimeter (amtec, Leipzig, Germany) for 15 min after lectin addition. Mean cell count in aggregates was estimated from light absorbance by a mathematical model. Each lectin induced RBC agglutination. RCA led to the strongest RBC agglutination (~500 RBCs/aggregate), while the others induced substantially slower agglutination and lead to smaller aggregate sizes (5-150 RBCs/aggregate). For all analyzed lectins the lectin-induced RBC agglutination of MI or AP patients was generally higher than for HV. However, only PHA induced agglutination that clearly distinguished MI from HV. Variance analysis showed that aggregate size after 15 min. agglutination induced by PHA was significantly higher in the MI group (143 RBCs/ aggregate) than in the HV (29 RBC-s/aggregate, p = 0.000). We hypothesize that pathological changes during MI induce modification of the carbohydrate composition on the RBC membrane and thus modify RBC agglutination. Occurrence of carbohydrate-lectin binding sites on RBC membranes provides evidence about MI. Due to significant difference in the rate of agglutination between MI > HV the differentiation between these groups is possible based on PHA-induced RBC-agglutination. This novel assay

  13. Quantitative Determination of Fibrinogen of Patients with Coronary Heart Diseases through Piezoelectric Agglutination Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. In addition, the standard curve between plasma agglutination time and fibrinogen concentration was established to determinate fibrinogen content quantitatively. The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. The correlation coefficient was 0.91 (γ = 0.91. The determination can be completed within 10 minutes. The fibrinogen concentration in the coronary heart disease group was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group (P < 0.05. The results reveal that high fibrinogen concentration is closely correlated to the incurrence, development and prognosis of coronary heart diseases. Compared with other traditional methods, the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor has some merits such as operation convenience, small size, low cost, quick detecting, good precision and the common reacting agents with paramagnetic particle method.

  14. Assessment of Surfactant Protein A (SP-A dependent agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomers of the collectin surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A are arranged in trimers and higher oligomers. The state of oligomerization differs between individuals and likely affects SP-A's functional properties. SP-A can form aggregates together with other SP-A molecules. Here we report and assess a test system for the aggregate forming properties of SP-A in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples. Methods Anti-SP-A antibodies fixed to latex beads bound SP-A at its N-terminal end and allowed the interaction with other SP-A molecules in a given sample by their C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD to agglutinate the beads to aggregates, which were quantified by light microscopy. Results SP-A aggregation was dependent on its concentration, the presence of calcium, and was dose-dependently inhibited by mannose. Unaffected by the presence of SP-D no aggregation was observed in absence of SP-A. The more complex the oligomeric structure of SP-A present in a particular sample, the better was its capability to induce aggregation at a given total concentration of SP-A. SP-A in serum agglutinated independently of the pulmonary disease; in contrast SP-A in lung lavage fluid was clearly inferior in patients with chronic bronchitis and particularly with cystic fibrosis compared to controls. Conclusions The functional status of SP-A with respect to its aggregating properties in serum and lavage samples can be easily assessed. SP-A in lung lavage fluid in patients with severe neutrophilic bronchitis was inferior.

  15. Imaging based agglutination measurement of magnetic micro-particles on a lab-on-a-disk platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wantiya, P.; Burger, Robert; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne;

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a magnetic micro beads based agglutination assay on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. An imaging based method is used to quantify bead agglutination and measure the concentration of antibodies or C-reactive protein in solution.......In this work we present a magnetic micro beads based agglutination assay on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. An imaging based method is used to quantify bead agglutination and measure the concentration of antibodies or C-reactive protein in solution....

  16. Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Nabi, Md Mahamodun; Nurujjaman, Md; Abu Reza, Md; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Uz Zaman, Rokon; Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Khandaker Md; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Md Masudul Hasan; Hossain, Md Anowar; Uddin, Md Salim; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2015-03-01

    In last three decades, several studies were carried out on the D-galactose-specific lectin of Momordica charantia seeds (MCL). In the present study, in vitro growth inhibition (8-23 %) at different concentrations (6-24 μg/ml) of MCL was observed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MCL also showed 28, 45, and 75 % growth inhibitions against EAC cells when administered 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.), respectively for five consequent days in vivo in mice. After lectin treatment, the level of red blood cell and hemoglobin was increased significantly with the decrease of white blood cell and maintained the normal level when compared with EAC-bearing control and normal mice without EAC cells. Although MCL caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells, any irregular shape or apoptotic morphological alterations in the lectin-treated EAC cells was not observed by an optical and fluorescence microscope. Lectin showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC50 value of 49.7 μg/ml. Four out of seven pathogenic bacteria were agglutinated by MCL in the absence of inhibitory sugar D-lactose/D-galactose. In conclusion, MCL showed strong cytotoxic effect and therefore can be used as a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25542240

  17. The Cenozoic Diversity of Agglutinated Foraminifera - Evidence for a late Oligocene to early Miocene diversification event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael; Setoyama, Eiichi; Kender, Sev; Cetean, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The agglutinated foraminifera are among the most abundant micro-organisms in the deep marine environment and have a diversity record extending back to the late Precambrian. We present an updated diversity curve for agglutinated foraminiferal genera based on the stratigraphic ranges of all the agglutinated genera recognized as valid in the classification of Kaminski (2014). The data set for this analysis is based on the stratigraphic ranges of agglutinated genera published in Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification, which has been subsequently updated based on published studies and our new observations. The mean standing diversity of agglutinated foraminiferal genera was compiled by counting the number of boundary crossers rather than the number of genera in each stage. In this study, we report the stratigraphic and geographical occurrence of a benthic foraminiferal diversification event that has previously received little attention. In the latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene a number of trochospiral agglutinated genera with alveolar or canaliculate walls first appeared in the fossil record. Our studies of late Oligocene of the Congo fan, offshore Angola (Kender et al., 2008; Cetean and Kaminski, 2011) have revealed a diverse assemblage that includes new taxa of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. In a biostratigraphic study of the Miocene foraminiferal assemblages Kender et al. (2008) noted steadily increasing diversity and proportions of infaunal agglutinated foraminiferal morphotypes over the lower Miocene interval. The proportion of infaunal agglutinated foraminifera assigned to the order Textularida increased dramatically in the lower mid-Miocene, suggesting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone into deeper waters. In addition to the trochospiral alveolar genera, several species of Reticulophragmium and Cyclammina display rapid diversification into numerous separate lineages that are at present not reflected in our generic diversity record owing to

  18. Capsular Gene Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Compared to Serotyping by Latex Agglutination

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, K.; Poulsen, K.; Maione, D.; Rinaudo, C. D.; Baldassarri, L.; Telford, J L; Sorensen, U. B. S.; Kilian, M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated three different PCR-based capsular gene typing methods applied to 312 human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) isolates and compared the results to serotyping results obtained by latex agglutination. Among 281 human isolates 27% could not be typed by latex agglutination. All 312 isolates except 5 could be typed by the three PCR methods combined. Two of these methods were multiplex assays. Among the isolates that were typeable by both latex agglutina...

  19. A latex slide agglutination test for rapid detection of antimyeloperoxidase antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, K.H.; S. S. Lee; Lawton, J W

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To develop and test a new latex slide agglutination test (MPO-LSAT) to detect antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) antibody in serum. METHODS: Latex bead coating was adjusted to give maximum sensitivity by attending to latex size, MPO to latex ratio for coupling, ratio of diluted serum to MPO-latex, reaction time and temperature for coupling, and reaction time for agglutination. Inhibition studies were performed using MPO, proteinase 3, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein, and lactofe...

  20. Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen in Dog Saliva Using a Latex Agglutination Test

    OpenAIRE

    Kasempimolporn, S.; Saengseesom, W.; Lumlertdacha, B.; Sitprija, V.

    2000-01-01

    Dog bites are responsible for more than 90% of human rabies deaths in Asia. We developed a simple and inexpensive test based on latex agglutination (LA) for rabies virus antigen detection in dog saliva. Rabies virus antigen could be detected by agglutination on a glass slide using latex particles coated with gamma globulin. By evaluation of paired saliva-brain specimens from 238 dogs, the LA test using saliva was 99% specific and 95% sensitive compared to the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) o...

  1. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, D. B.; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.

  2. Rheologic characterization of vegetal lectins by dissociation of induced erythrocyte agglutinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia, R J; Valverde, J R; Gentils, M; Cauchois, C; Stoltz, J F

    1997-01-01

    Energy evolved from hemagglutination reaction or spent in dissociating erythrocyte agglutinates has been proved to be an excellent parameter for analyzing cell-cell interactions mediated by bridging molecules such as antibodies or lectins. We developed a new rheo-optical method to estimate the energy of dissociation of red blood cell agglutinates. In a Couette shear field agglutinates can be dissociated until a suspension of monodispersed cells is obtained. Intensity of light backscattered by suspended agglutinates increases during their mechanical dissociation. Variation of backscattered light intensity correlates with the energy spent in the process. The adhesive energy of erythrocyte agglutination induced by lectins has been estimated by applying this method. Two specific lectins (Dolichus Biflorus agglutinin and Ulex Europaeus agglutinin) and a new lectin obtained from Amarantus Cruentus seeds which specificity is unknown were studied. Results obtained in this work for Dolichus Biflorus lectin are comparable with values published by other authors. An asymptotic decrease of adhesive energy was observed when the mechanical dissociation was applied several times on the same sample. Our results suggest that the cell detachment is accompanied by the extraction of membrane receptors. This finding is consistent with results obtained by other authors.

  3. A comparative experiments for tube agglutination test of pullorum antiserum with gamma ray Co60 irradiated salmonella pullorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agglutinability between naturally infected positive chicken serum of pullorum disease and hyperimmunized rabbit antiserum was compared. And the following results were obtained and summarized. On the agglutinability, Salmonella pullorum antigen which irradiated gamma-ray was better than another both formalized and heated antigen. Time of judgemented as positive titer in the tube agglutination test to the naturally infected positive chicken serum was it most suitable for 12 hours at 37°C. Agglutination titer of positive immune chicken serum against gamma-ray irradiate Salmonella pullorum were as 320 approximately 640x. (author).

  4. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, A.; Stephan, R.; Corti, S; Johler, S.

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate ...

  5. Comparative evaluation of slide agglutination and Widal tube agglutination test in detecting enteric fever among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Jahan; Razia Khatoon; Amrita,; Sudhir Mehrotra; Swatantra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is a major public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although, isolation of causative organism from blood is the standard laboratory method, but due to frequent use of self-medication by patients, and its long turnaround time, it is seldom used, and enteric fever is usually diagnosed by using serological methods. Widal tube agglutination test is the standard serological test used, which is now a days replaced by slide agg...

  6. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-28

    This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

  7. Development and evaluation of a latex agglutination test for the rapid serodiagnosis of tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia; Chróst, Anna; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) was developed for a rapid detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis. The assay is performed by mixing serum with antigen-coated latex beads and read within 5 min. Developed LAT has been proved to be a specific, sensitive, fast, easy-to-perform and cost-efficient tool for the routine diagnosis of tularemia.

  8. Seasonal variation in agglutination of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Theander, T G; Staalsø, T;

    1998-01-01

    Agglutination and rosette formation are in vitro characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, which have been associated with host protective immune responses and also with parasite virulence. The present study was carried out in an area of seasonal and unstable malaria...

  9. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology.

  10. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  11. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology. PMID:25952731

  12. A critical role for the regulation of Syk from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng

    2014-01-10

    Agglucetin, a tetrameric glycoprotein (GP) Ibα agonist from Formosan Agkistrodon acutus venom, has been characterized as an agglutination inducer in human washed platelets (WPs). In platelet-rich plasma (PRP), agglucetin dramatically elicits a biphasic response of agglutination and subsequent aggregation. For clarifying the intracellular signaling events from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets, we examined the essential signaling molecules involved through the detection of protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP). In WPs, an anti-GPIbα monoclonal antibody (mAb) AP1, but not a Src kinase inhibitor PP1, completely inhibited agglucetin-induced agglutination. However, PP1 but not AP1 had a potent suppression on platelet aggregation by a GPVI activator convulxin. The PTP analyses showed agglucetin alone can cause a weak pattern involving sequential phosphorylation of Lyn/Fyn, Syk, SLP-76 and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2). Furthermore, a Syk-selective kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, significantly suppressed the aggregating response in agglucetin-activated PRP. Analyzed by flow cytometry, the binding capacity of fluorophore-conjugated PAC-1, a mAb recognizing activated integrin αIIbβ3, was shown to increase in agglucetin-stimulated platelets. Again, piceatannol but not PP1 had a concentration-dependent suppression on agglucetin-induced αIIbβ3 exposure. Moreover, the formation of signalosome, including Syk, SLP-76, VAV, adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) and PLCγ2, are required for platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-activated platelets. In addition, GPIbα-ligation via agglucetin can substantially promote the interactions between αIIbβ3 and fibrinogen. Therefore, the signal pathway of Lyn/Fyn/Syk/SLP-76/ADAP/VAV/PLCγ2/PKC is sufficient to trigger platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-pretreated platelets. Importantly, Syk may function as a major regulator for the response from GPIbα-initiated agglutination to

  13. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  14. [Isolation of an agglutinating anti-E. coli K 88+ serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, M; Belchev, K; Ganovski, D

    1981-01-01

    An agglutinating anti-K 88+ serum was obtained through immunizing rabbits with geometrically rising amounts of cell-free K 88 antigenic extraction. Use was made of bacterial suspensions cultured in Minka agar and homogenized at 8000 r. p. m. to remove the K 88 pili. The cell depot was removed by centrifugation at 15 000 r. p. m., and the protein in the supernatant was determined by the method of Kingsey. The titer of the K88 serum was within the 1:320-1:640 range. The specificity and activity of the serum was evaluated by the hemagglutination test, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunodiffusion. The serum is highly specific and yields positive agglutination results with all K 88+ Escherichia coli strains. It does not react with antigen - K 88-negative E. coli organisms as well as with the O antigen of the investigated strains.

  15. Scalable DNA-Based Magnetic Nanoparticle Agglutination Assay for Bacterial Detection in Patient Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezger, Anja; Fock, Jeppe; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of bacteria causing urinary tract infections in patient samples with a total assay time of 4 h. This time is significantly shorter than the current gold standard, plate culture, which can take several days depending on the pathogen....... The assay is based on padlock probe recognition followed by two cycles of rolling circle amplification (RCA) to form DNA coils corresponding to the target bacterial DNA. The readout of the RCA products is based on optomagnetic measurements of the specific agglutination of DNA-bound magnetic nanoparticles...... (MNPs) using low-cost optoelectronic components from Blu-ray drives. We implement a detection approach, which relies on the monomerization of the RCA products, the use of the monomers to link and agglutinate two populations of MNPs functionalized with universal nontarget specific detection probes...

  16. Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strains using a monoclonal-based polystyrene agglutination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva;

    1996-01-01

    A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS......-PAGE and Western blotting, A total of 205 A. pleuropneumoniae, strains including all 12 serotype reference strains and 13 strains representing 8 common bacterial species associated with swine or related to A, pleuropneumoniae, were tested by mixing 25 mu L of polystyrene reagent with the same volume of a dense...... suspension of bacterial cells grown for 18 h. All A, pleuropneumoniae strains had been previously serotyped using standard procedures, The polystyrene agglutination test was rapid (less than 3 min) and easy to perform. Overall a very good correlation (97.3%) with the standard techniques was found...

  17. Evaluation of a latex agglutination assay for the identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Brea D; Elrod, Mindy G; Gee, Jay E; Chantratita, Narisara; Tandhavanant, Sarunporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Cases of melioidosis and glanders are rare in the United States, but the etiologic agents of each disease (Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, respectively) are classified as Tier 1 select agents because of concerns about their potential use as bioterrorism agents. A rapid, highly sensitive, and portable assay for clinical laboratories and field use is required. Our laboratory has further evaluated a latex agglutination assay for its ability to identify B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates. This assay uses a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the capsular polysaccharide produced by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, but is absent in closely related Burkholderia species. A total of 110 B. pseudomallei and B. mallei were tested, and 36 closely related Burkholderia species. The latex agglutination assay was positive for 109 of 110 (99.1% sensitivity) B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates tested.

  18. Rapid detection of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients by an agglutination inhibition test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subclinical elevation of urinary albumin excretion (UAlbE) early in the course of diabetes mellitus has been suggested to predict later clinical proteinuria and mortality. UAlbE is currently measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA) or radial immunodiffusion methods. However, these procedures are expensive and time-consuming and cannot be used as screening methods. Recently, an agglutination test (AT) has been suggested as a routinary method for the screening of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. In this paper the results obtained are compared with an AT procedure and RIA method in a screening program of microproteinuria in diabetic patients. An immunological test (a latex agglutination assay) for the analysis of albuminura is used, which human albumin was adsorbed to latex beads (about 0.3 μl of a urine sample. Urine samples containing an albumin concentration >40 μg/ml were found to inhibit the agglutination of latex beads with antiserum. The RIA and AT results showed good agreement when urine samples were assayed soon after collection or after a short period of storage (≤3 weeks at -20 grade centigrades). The AT procedure has been adjusted in order to give a positive response (no agglutination) over the range of supranormal concentrations of urinary albumin (>40 μg/ml), which are on the other hand undetectable by Albustix. In addition, it is possible to perform a semiquantitative test using various dilutions of urine samples with albumin concentration > 40 μg/ml, so to estimate approximately the UAlbE. The AT method is simple, fast and specific, and has proved to be useful for the identification of diabetic patients at risk for developing clinical nephropathy. Therefore, it may be used in screening programs for diabetic microproteinuria

  19. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Mohan; Hari Mohan Saxena; Puneet Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cat...

  20. Preliminary observations on the use of latex agglutination test for the detection of mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae in cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, R C; Barnum, D A

    1986-01-01

    A commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of Group B streptococcal antigens was used to detect infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae in whey of bovine milk samples. Fifteen out of 17 known infections were detected, but it was necessary to incubate the wheys at 37 degrees C for 18 hours in nine of the samples. It was found that the latex agglutination test could detect Group streptococcal carbohydrate antigens in whey samples from artificially infected quarters from one to fo...

  1. D-penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination by reducing the disulphide bonds of a copper-binding sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, T; Rickard, J P; Aitken, R J; de Graaf, S P

    2016-05-01

    Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrode's capacitation medium with albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP) and ameliorated by the addition of the thiol d-penicillamine (PEN). To better understand the association and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent. Chelation is not the main mechanism of action, as the broad-spectrum chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the copper-specific chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid were inferior anti-agglutination agents compared with PEN. Oxidative stress is also an unlikely mechanism of sperm association, as PEN was significantly more effective in ameliorating agglutination than the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and catalase. Only the reducing agents cysteine and DL-dithiothreitol displayed similar levels of non-agglutinated spermatozoa at 0 h compared with PEN but were less effective after 3 h of incubation (37 °C). The addition of 10 µM Cu(2+) to 250 µM PEN + TALP caused a rapid reversion of the motile sperm population from a non-agglutinated state to an agglutinated state. Other heavy metals (cobalt, iron, manganese and zinc) did not provoke such a strong response. Together, these results indicate that PEN prevents sperm association by the reduction of disulphide bonds on a sperm membrane protein that binds copper. ADAM proteins are possible candidates, as targeted inhibition of the metalloproteinase domain significantly increased the percentage of motile, non-agglutinated spermatozoa (52.0% ± 7.8) compared with TALP alone (10.6% ± 6.1).

  2. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at Different Temperatures in Case of Cold Agglutination Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto-antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which arise or worsen upon exposure to low temperatures. We describe a case who presented with fever and symptoms of asthenia. His investigations yielded bizarre RBC parameters which le...

  3. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Johler, S

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate the latex agglutination phenotype of Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk with data on clonal complexes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance to (1) determine the virulence profiles of the Staphaureux test positive and Staphaurex test negative groups, and (2) provide data needed to improve treatment of bovine mastitis and to identify potential vaccine targets. Seventy-eight Staph. aureus strains isolated from 78 cows on 57 Swiss farms were characterized. Latex agglutination was tested by Staphaureux kit, and resistance profiles were generated by disk diffusion. A DNA microarray was used to assign clonal complexes (CC) and to determine virulence and resistance gene profiles. By the Staphaureux test, 49% of the isolates were latex-positive and 51% were latex-negative. All latex-negative strains were assigned to CC151, whereas latex-positive strains were assigned to various clonal complexes, including CC97 (n=16), CC8 (n=10), CC479 (n=5), CC20 (n=4), CC7 (n=1), CC9 (n=1), and CC45 (n=1). Although the latex-negative isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, 24% of latex-positive isolates were classified as intermediate with regard to cefalexin-kanamycin and 13% were resistant to both ampicillin and penicillin. Microarray profiles of latex-negative isolates were highly similar, but differed largely from those of latex-positive isolates. Although the latex-negative group lacked several enterotoxin genes and sak, it exhibited significantly

  4. Evaluation of latex agglutination test for diagnosis of leptospirosis using native strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 24 June, 2009 ; Accepted 16 September, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Leptospirosis is a common zoonosis throughout the world and common in the flat area of Guilan, Iran, with seasonal incidence, especially in rice farmers. Clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult, because its symptoms are similar to several acute infective diseases. Serological assays are important in diagnosis of the disease and microscopic agglutination test (MAT is a gold standard, however, it is not a routine test in diagnostic laboratories. Thus, a simple and reliable test is a necessity. In this study, we evaluated a latex agglutination test using native strains of leptospires.Materials and methods: A number of 98 positive cases and 54 negative cases which were screened by MAT, along with 30 sera of other diseases as control samples, were examined by latex agglutination test, using an antigenic suspension (whole antigen, which was extracted from 4 common native strains.Results: False positive and false negative rate were 15 and 12 consequently. Sensivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 89.0%, 84.5%, 86.7%, 87.2%, and 87.0% respectively.Conclusion: Regarding the considerable rate of sensivity and specificity of the test which is compatible to other performed studies, in addition to the simple performance test, does not need a complex laboratory facility, which may also be carried out in rural regions, therefore, this test is valuable for primary screening.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(71: 27-32 (Persian The study of 101 cases o

  5. Use of commercial extenders and alternatives to prevent sperm agglutination for cryopreservation of brown bear semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Alves, S; Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Lopez-Urueña, E; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragan, S; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different bovine and canine commercial semen extenders for cryopreservation of brown bear ejaculates and the effect of semen collection directly into extender on sperm agglutination. Semen samples were obtained by electroejaculation from 13 adult males. In experiment 1, eleven ejaculates from eight bears were used to evaluate Bioxcell and Andromed as extenders, whereas in experiment 2, nine ejaculates from six bears were used to evaluate Triladyl canine, CaniPro, and Extender 2 as extenders. An extender specifically developed for brown bears (Test-Tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol, TTF-ULE/bear) served as a control extender in both experiments. After thawing, total and progressive sperm motility and sperm viability were greater (P < 0.05) for TTF-ULE/bear and Andromed extenders than for Bioxcell in experiment 1 and greater (P < 0.05) for TTF-ULE/bear extender than for Triladyl Canine, CaniPro, and Extender 2 in experiment 2. In experiment 3, addition of handling extender (TTF-H) to the semen collection tube for eight ejaculates from seven bears resulted in less (P < 0.05) sperm agglutination in fresh samples (score 0.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4 in diluted and control samples, respectively) with no effect on pre-freeze and post-thawing semen quality. In conclusion, TTF-ULE/bear is the most suitable extender for brown bear semen cryopreservation, but comparable results can be obtained with the commercial extender Andromed. In addition, collection of ejaculates directly in TTF-H extender decreases sperm agglutination in fresh samples. PMID:24950618

  6. Nanoscale Mineralogy and Composition of Experimental Regolith Agglutinates Produced under Asteroidal Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Cintala, M. J.; Keller, L. P.; See, T. H.; Horz, F.

    2013-01-01

    On the Moon, the energetics of smaller impactors and the physical/chemical characteristics of the granular regolith target combine to form a key product of lunar space weathering: chemically reduced shock melts containing optically-active nanophase Fe metal grains (npFe0) [1]. In addition to forming the optically dark glassy matrix phase in lunar agglutinitic soil particles [1], these shock melts are becoming increasingly recognized for their contribution to optically active patina coatings on a wide range of exposed rock and grain surfaces in the lunar regolith [2]. In applying the lessons of lunar space weathering to asteroids, the potential similarities and differences in regolith-hosted shock melts on the Moon compared to those on asteroids has become a topic of increasing interest [3,4]. In a series of impact experiments performed at velocities applicable to the asteroid belt [5], Horz et al. [6] and See and Horz [7] have previously shown that repeated impacts into a gabbroic regolith analog target can produce melt-welded grain aggregates morphologically very similar to lunar agglutinates [6,7]. Although these agglutinate-like particles were extensively analyzed by electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as part of the original study [7], a microstructural and compositional comparison of these aggregates to lunar soil agglutinates at sub-micron scales has yet to be made. To close this gap, we characterized a representative set of these aggregates using a JEOL 7600 field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and JEOL 2500SE field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) both optimized for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) compositional spectrum imaging at respective analytical spatial resolutions of 0.5 to 1 micron, and 2 to 4 nm.

  7. Evolution of magma feeding system in Kumanodake agglutinate activity, Zao Volcano, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Yoshinori; Ban, Masao

    2015-10-01

    The Kumanodake agglutinate of Zao Volcano in northeastern Japan consists of pyroclastic surge layers accumulated during the early part of the newest stage of activity (ca. 33 ka to present). Our petrologic study of this agglutinate based on systematically collected samples aims to reveal the evolution of magma feeding system. To understand the magma evolution, we have examined samples from the agglutinate by using petrologic data including, petrography, analysis of minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine), glass compositions, and whole rock major element and trace element (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Rb, Zr, Nb, and Y) compositions. Agglutinate are mixed, medium-K, calc-alkaline olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite (55.2-56.2% SiO2). Results show that the magma feeding system comprised a shallow felsic chamber injected by mafic magma from depth. The felsic magma (59-62% SiO2, 950-990 °C), which was stored at a shallower depth, had orthopyroxene (Mg# = 60-69), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 65-71), and low-An plagioclase (Anca. 58-70). The mafic magma is further divisible into two types: less-differentiated and more-differentiated, designed respectively as an initial mafic magma-1 and a second mafic magma-2. The original mafic magma-1 was olivine (Fo~ 84) basalt (ca. 48-51% SiO2, 1110-1140 °C). The second mafic magma-2, stored occasionally at 4-6 km depth, was basalt (1070-1110 °C) having Foca. 80 olivine and high-An (Anca. 90) plagioclase phenocrysts. These two magmas mixed (first mixing) to form hybrid mafic magma. The forced injections of the hybrid mafic magmas activated the felsic magma, and these two were mixed (second mixing) shortly before eruptions. The explosivity is inferred to have increased over time because the abundance of large scoria increased. Furthermore, the erupted magma composition became more mafic, which reflects increased percentage of the hybrid mafic magma involved in the second mixing. At the beginning of activity, the mafic magma also acted as a heat

  8. Comparative evaluation of coagglutination and latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur M

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagglutination test was compared with commercially available latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus in faecal samples from clinically suspected cases of viral gastroenteritis. Out of 80 test samples 16 (20% and 20 (25.3% were positive for rota virus antigen by Rotalex kit and coagglutination test respectively. All the 40 controls were negative for viral antigen by Rotalex kit and only one gave positive result by coagglutination test. Coagglutination test was found to be economical, sensitive and specific for screening and rapid diagnosis of Rota virus diarrhoea.

  9. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (pBrucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032

  10. Cost-effective method of serotyping streptococcus pneumoniae using staphylococcal co-agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi B

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae to determine the serotype prevalence has paved the way for polyvalent vaccines to prevent invasive pneumococcal infection. Variation of serotype prevalence in different geographical areas necessitates typing of strains from these areas for effective vaccine protection. High cost of antisera very often is a hindering factor in undertaking this exercise. We have tried to evaluate typing by co-agglutination to reduce cost. Clinical isolates of S.pneumoniae from Pondicherry and surrounding Tamil Nadu were serotyped using antisera coated Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain and compared with standard quellung reaction. There was hundred percent correlation. By this method we could determine the serotypes causing invasive infections in this area. A commercially available Pneumotest kit was used as source of type specific antisera. Serotype 1 was found to be the major isolate (20.1% by both the tests. Twenty-four isolates (13% belonged to the nonvaccine types. Rest of the isolates was made up by serotypes 6, 5, 19, 23 and 12. Co-agglutination method was found to be a simple rapid and economical technique. Ten milliliters of the reagent could be made, using 0.1 ml of standard antisera. Shelf life was found to be six months at 40C.

  11. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in HIV-infected patients using a microparticle agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Vengatesan, A; Kownhar, Hayath; Solomon, Suniti; Rao, Usha Anand

    2006-06-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is increasingly recognized as a common and important pathogen in community settings, and is responsible for various pulmonary and extrapulmonary conditions in the normal population. However, the seroepidemiology of acute M. pneumoniae infection in HIV-infected individuals is still unclear worldwide. This study examined the seroprevalence of antibodies to M. pneumoniae in HIV-infected patients admitted with respiratory complaints at a tertiary AIDS care centre in Chennai, India. A commercial gelatin microparticle agglutination test (Serodia-Myco II, Fujirebio) was used for the determination of antibodies against M. pneumoniae in acute serum specimens. Of the 200 HIV-infected patients with underlying pulmonary conditions tested, 34 (17 % positivity; 95 % CI 12-23 %) had antibodies specific to M. pneumoniae, while among the 40 patients with no underlying pulmonary symptoms, five (12.5 % positivity; 95 % CI 4-27 %) had evidence of anti-M. pneumoniae antibody. This shows that the incidence of M. pneumoniae seropositivity is greater in patients with underlying pulmonary complaints. Most positive titres were found in the age group 28-37 years in the symptomatic and symptom-free groups (64.7 and 60 %, respectively). The positive titres ranged from 40 to >20 480. High titres (> or =320) were found in 10 out of the 39 patients (25.6 %). This seroprevalence study reports a 16.2 % prevalence of M. pneumoniae infections in HIV-infected patients by a particle agglutination test.

  12. Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Fasiha Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods ( Latex agglutination test. Materials and Methods: 100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized according to standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 cases studied, 31 cases were diagnosed as ABM by Gram stain, culture and latex agglutination test as per WHO criteria. The hospital frequency of ABM was 1.7%. 15 (48.38 cases were culture positive. Gram stain was positive in 22(70.96 cases and LAT in 17(54.83 cases. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common causative agent of acute bacterial meningitis followed by S.pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 45.16%.The sensitivity and specificity of LAT was 66.66% and 87.91% respectively. Conclusion : Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and early diagnosis and treatment is life saving and reduces chronic morbidity. LAT was more sensitive compared to conventional Gram stain and Culture technique in identifying the fastidious organisms like H.influenzae, S.pneumoniae and Group B Streptococcus. However, the combination of Gram stain, Culture and LAT proved to be more productive than any of the single tests alone.

  13. Detection of Acute Childhood Meningitis by PCR, Culture and Agglutination Tests in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is one of the hazardous and life threatening infections and is associated with mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine etiological agents of childhood bacterial meningitis. The culture, Gram staining, agglutination and PCR assays were used to examine CSF specimens from 277 patients with presumed bacterial meningitis for the occurrence of 4 most common infectious agents consist of N. meningitis, H. influnsae, S. pneumoniae and S. agalactiae between 2008 and 2009 at different wards of the Children Hospital of Tabriz. The mean age of patients was 35±2 (Mean±SEM month, (minimum 11 days maximum14 years, of all cases 59.6% male and 40.4% female. Overall the diagnosis was confirmed with a CSF culture in 11/277 (3.97%, by agglutination test in 14/277 (5.05%. The isolated bacteria included S. pneumoniae 5 cases, H. influnsae 2 cases, N. meningitis 3 cases and P. aeroginusae 1 case. A positive PCR assay allowed us to diagnose bacterial meningitis in 19 patients (6.8%. In the present study, we found PCR to be a useful and sensitive method for the detection of bacterial DNA in the CSF samples from suspected meningitis patients. Furthermore, to maximize management of meningitis cases, a combination of culture and PCR is necessary.

  14. Exploring new biological functions of amyloids: bacteria cell agglutination mediated by host protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Torrent

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs are important effectors of the innate immune system that play a vital role in the prevention of infections. Recent advances have highlighted the similarity between AMPs and amyloid proteins. Using the Eosinophil Cationic Protein as a model, we have rationalized the structure-activity relationships between amyloid aggregation and antimicrobial activity. Our results show how protein aggregation can induce bacteria agglutination and cell death. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we have tracked the formation in situ of protein amyloid-like aggregates at the bacteria surface and on membrane models. In both cases, fibrillar aggregates able to bind to amyloid diagnostic dyes were detected. Additionally, a single point mutation (Ile13 to Ala can suppress the protein amyloid behavior, abolishing the agglutinating activity and impairing the antimicrobial action. The mutant is also defective in triggering both leakage and lipid vesicle aggregation. We conclude that ECP aggregation at the bacterial surface is essential for its cytotoxicity. Hence, we propose here a new prospective biological function for amyloid-like aggregates with potential biological relevance.

  15. Comparison of optomagnetic and AC susceptibility readouts in a magnetic nanoparticle agglutination assay for detection of C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Parmvi, Mattias; Strömberg, Mattias;

    2016-01-01

    conjugated with CRP antibodies. Both methods detect agglutination as a shift to lower frequencies in measurements of the dynamics in response to an applied oscillating magnetic field. The magnetic susceptibility method probes the magnetic response whereas the optomagnetic technique probes the modulation...... of laser light transmitted through the sample. The two techniques provided highly correlated results upon agglutination when they measure the decrease of the signal from the individual MNPs (turn-off detection strategy), whereas the techniques provided different results, strongly depending on the read...

  16. Seroprevalence of bovine leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in Southeast of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalili; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian; Gholamreza Abdollahpour; Saeed Sattari Tabrizi; Elham Mohammadi Damaneh; Sajad Hossini-nasab

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate serological findings of bovine leptospirosis which is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution caused by Leptospira interrogans. Methods: One hundred and sixty seven sera were collected from 9 commercial dairy herds in jiroft suburbs, from July to October 2011. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used to evaluates serological findings of bovine leptospirosis in Jiroft suburb dairy farms, Kerman province, Iran. Results:Antibodies were found by MAT at least against one serovar of Leptospira interrogans in 29 samples (17.36%) among 167 sera at a dilution 1:100 or higher, and Leptospira pomona was the most prevalent serovar. Positive titers against more than one serovar were detected in 6 sera of the positive samples. Conclusion:This study is the first report of leptospirosis in Southeast Iran and showed that Leptospira pomona was the most and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae the least prevalent serovars in Southeast Iran.

  17. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  18. [Evaluation of gelatin particle agglutination method for detection of Treponema pallidum antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, M; Hosotsubo, H; Yamashita, N; Ohmine, T; Asari, S

    1994-10-01

    Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (HA) is one of the most frequently used methods for the detection of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) antibodies. Recently, an innovative agglutination method using artificial carriers was newly developed, and is now available as a routine method. In order to compare the newly developed particle agglutination (PA) method (FUJIREBIO INC.) with the conventional HA method, T. pallidum antibody titers of numerous sera were measured by respective methods. In the stability study, reconstituted reagent was stable for at least three weeks. Sample inactivation (56 degrees C/30 min) demonstrated no effect on the test results. Among 800 sera, 132 (16.6%) positives (+), 633 (79.1%) negatives (-) and (4.3%) indeterminates (+) were obtained by HA method. Meanwhile, 144 (18.0%) positives (+), 627 (78.4%) negatives (-) and 29 (3.6%) indeterminates (+) were obtained by PA method. The correlation between PA and HA method was 97.8%, and the antibody titers obtained by PA method showed good correlation with HA method. Those samples which showed discrepancy between PA and HA method in the above study were further examined with fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) method. The results obtained from FTA-ABS method were almost consistent with those obtained from PA method. For respective syphilis patients in stage I and II, antibody titer was monitored by HA, PA and RPR method. The results indicated that changes in antibody titer obtained from PA method was approximately the same as the titer changes obtained from RPR method. Namely, PA method detected the presence of IgM earlier than HA method.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A galectin from Eriocheir sinensis functions as pattern recognition receptor enhancing microbe agglutination and haemocytes encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Huang, Mengmeng; Yi, Qilin; Guo, Ying; Gai, Yunchao; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Galectins are a family of β-galactoside binding lectins that function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The cDNA of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis galectin (designated as EsGal) was cloned via rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. The full-length cDNA of EsGal was 999 bp. Its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 218 amino acids containing a GLECT/Gal-bind_lectin domain and a proline/glycine rich low complexity region. The deduced amino acid sequence and domain organization of EsGal were highly similar to those of crustacean galectins. The mRNA transcripts of EsGal were found to be constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues and mainly in hepatopancreas, gill and haemocytes. The mRNA expression level of EsGal increased rapidly and significantly after crabs were stimulated by different microbes. The recombinant EsGal (rEsGal) could bind various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and glucan (GLU), and exhibited strong activity to agglutinate Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pichia pastoris, and such agglutinating activity could be inhibited by both d-galactose and α-lactose. The in vitro encapsulation assay revealed that rEsGal could enhance the encapsulation of haemocytes towards agarose beads. These results collectively suggested that EsGal played crucial roles in the immune recognition and elimination of pathogens and contributed to the innate immune response against various microbes in crabs. PMID:27095174

  20. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  1. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories

  2. Agglutination of human erythrocytes by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine-651 on the extracellular domain of band 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Kento; Ochiai, Hideharu; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    Clustering of band 3, chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, has been reported in Zn(2+)-treated human erythrocytes. However, the agglutination of human erythrocytes is also induced by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine on band 3. Identification of histidine that interacts with Zn(2+)ion remains to be determined. The Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes was unaffected by chymotrypsin cleavage of the small loop region containing His-547 in the extracellular domain of band 3. On the other hand, papain digestion of the large loop region containing His-651 in band 3 inhibited such Zn(2+)-induced agglutination. Moreover, Zn(2+)-induced erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited by the peptide (ARGWVIHPLG) containing His-651, but not by the peptide such as ARGWVIRPLG, which His-651 was substituted by arginine. Among 10 kinds of animal erythrocytes tested, interestingly, no agglutination by Zn(2+)ions was observed in cow cells only that the forth amino acid in the upstream from His-669 on the large loop of cow band 3 is aspartate (Asp-665) instead of glycine. As expected, the agglutination of human erythrocytes by Zn(2+) ions was inhibited in the presence of aspartate. These data indicate that the interaction of Zn(2+) ion with His-651 residue of band 3 plays an important role in the Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes. PMID:26859120

  3. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  4. The evolution of pretransfusion testing: from agglutination to solid-phase red cell adherence tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, F V; Sinor, L T; Rachel, J M

    1989-01-01

    Hospital transfusion services and blood centers still use manual hemagglutination tests for most of their serological procedures. Automation of hemagglutination reactions has proven to be difficult, primarily because hemagglutination lacks an objective endpoint which can be easily interpreted by inexpensive instruments. Alternatively, solid-phase red cell adherence assays for ABO cell and serum grouping, Rh typing, red cell and platelet antibody screening, red cell and platelet crossmatching, IgA deficiency screening, hepatitis B surface antigen, and HIV antibody screening have been developed. The performance of these assays compares favorably with current hemagglutination and enzyme immunoassay methods. All of these tests share a common objective endpoint of adherence or nonadherence of indicator red cells. This uniformity allows easy interpretation of results visually, spectrophotometrically, or by image analysis. The latter technique has the potential to revolutionize the reading and interpretation of all agglutination tests. Solid-phase red cell adherence tests in microplates are ideal for batch processing large numbers of specimens. However, adherence tests are not restricted to this format. Therefore, blood grouping dipsticks have been produced, which permit testing of individual blood samples even outside of the laboratory.

  5. Evaluation of glycerin as preserving agent of chicken serum for plate agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.

  6. Detection of leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in north-east of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Gholam Reza Abdollah pour

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in north-east of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate prevalence of human leptospiral infections by MAT, using six current reference strains of Leptospira interrogans in north-east of Iran. A total of 285 serum samples were collected from three north-east provinces of Iran, from December, 2009 to June, 2010. Results: Antibodies were detected at least against one serovar of Leptospira interrogans in 45 sera (15.79 %) among 285 samples at a dilution 1:100 or greater. Positive titers against more than one serovar were detected in 24 sera of the positive samples. Therefore, there were 75 positive reactions against different serovar of Leptospira interrogans. Positive titers were recorded against serovar icterohaemorrhagiae (31 samples), hardjo (26 samples), grippotyphosa (7 samples), pomona (5 samples), canicola (4 samples) and ballum (2 sample).Conclusions:In present study the most prevalent (Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae) and the least prevalent (Leptospira ballum) serovar are different from previous studies. Maybe, species and prevalence of serovars change during the time in one area and between regions.

  7. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT and Milk Ring Test (MRT in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 % of cow milk and 6 samples (12 % of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 % positive, 3 (6 % suspicious and 43 (86 % negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 % positive, 2 (4 % suspicious and 45 (90 % negative samples were determined according to antibodies titre of serum agglutination test (Whey-AT. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 196-203

  8. An acousto-optical method for registration of erythrocytes' agglutination reaction—sera color influence on the resolving power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Medvedeva, M. F.; Torbin, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption spectra of agglutinating sera were used to determine blood groups. It was shown experimentally that the sera color significantly affects the resolving power of the acousto-optical method of blood typing. In order to increase the resolving power of the method and produce an invariance of the method for sera color, we suggested introducing a probing light beam individually for different sera. The proposed technique not only improves the resolving power of the method, but also reduces the risk of false interpretation of the experimental results and, hence, error in determining the blood group of the sample. The latter is especially important for the typing of blood samples with weak agglutination of erythrocytes. This study can be used in the development of an instrument for instrumental human blood group typing based on the acousto-optical method.

  9. Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Willem; Pelt, Cindy; Luijendijk, Ad; Verbrugh, Henri; Goessens, Wil

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) antigen in 87 of 90 genetically diverse methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) stock culture strains, leading to a sensitivity of 97%. The three discrepant MRSA strains displayed positive results only after induction o...

  10. Evaluation of latex agglutination tests for fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in the forensic identification of menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The identification of menstrual blood is important when discriminating menstruation from vaginal trauma in sexual assault cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate two fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP)-latex agglutination test kits, FDPL® Test (FDP-L) and FDP Plasma "RD" (FDP-P), for their ability to forensically identify menstrual blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the two kits were compared for menstrual blood and various body fluids, and the sensitivity of the FDP-latex agglutination test kit was also compared with that of an immunochromatographic test for human hemoglobin. The robustness of the FDP-latex agglutination test was compared with that of gene expression analysis of menstrual blood specific markers. The FDP-L kit was more sensitive than the FDP-P kit, but it cross-reacted with peripheral bloodstains from healthy volunteers. The FDP-P kit was specific for menstrual blood, with the exception of postmortem blood samples, and was not affected by other body fluids. In an FDP-negative menstrual blood sample, the sensitivity of human hemoglobin detection was lower than for FDP-positive samples and peripheral blood stains, suggesting that determination of human hemoglobin could be useful in interpreting negative results in the FDP-latex agglutination test. In menstrual blood samples incubated in wet conditions, FDP was found to be a robust marker in the identification of menstrual blood compared with mRNA markers. FDP-P testing was shown to be a suitable and highly efficient rapid screening test for the laboratory identification of menstrual blood.

  11. Modern agglutinated Foraminifera from the Hovgaard Ridge, Fram Strait, west of Spitzbergen: Evidence for a deep bottom current

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, M.A.; Niessen, Frank; Bazhenova, E.; De La Guardia, L C.; Coakley, B.; de Vernal, A.; Eagles, Graeme; Eisermann, Hannes; Forwick, Matthias; Gebhardt, Catalina; Geissler, Wolfram; Horner, T.; Jensen, Laura; Jin, H.; Jokat, W.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-water agglutinated foraminifera on the crest of the Hovgaard Ridge, west of Spitsbergen, consist mostly of large tubular astrorhizids. At a boxcore station collected from the crest of Hovgaard Ridge at a water depth of 1169 m, the sediment surface was covered with patches of large (1 mm diameter) tubular forms, be longing mostly to the species Astrorhiza crassatina Brady, with smaller numbers of Saccorhiza, Hyperammina, and Psammosiphonella. Non-tubular species consisted mainly of ...

  12. Latex agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for cytomegalovirus serologic screening of transplant donors and recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, S W; Scott, K M

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of three serologic assays (two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs] and latex agglutination) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) serologic matching of donors and recipients was assessed over a 2-year period in a major organ transplant program. Sera with equivocal test results were investigated by repeat testing of serum samples and additional specimens from the individuals involved and monitoring of CMV infection in recipients. An in-house ELISA identified all CMV-infective don...

  13. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza. PMID:2066386

  14. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  15. Ammolagena clavata (Jones and Parker, 1860), an agglutinated benthic foraminiferal species - first report from the Recent sediments, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Saraswat, R.

    The rare presence of the agglutinated foraminiferal species Ammolagena clavata is presented for the first time from the Recent sediments of the Indian Ocean region. This species has previously been reported in Recent sediments from all other oceans...

  16. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  17. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  18. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  19. Agglutinating secretory IgA preserves intestinal epithelial cell integrity during apical infection by Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Amandine; Longet, Stéphanie; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-08-01

    Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyer's patches are commonly considered the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidence suggests that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to the lamina propria. Passive delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA), the major immunoglobulin secreted at mucosal surfaces, has been shown to protect rabbits from experimental shigellosis, but no information exists as to its molecular role in maintaining luminal epithelial integrity. We have established that the interaction of virulent S. flexneri with the apical pole of a model intestinal epithelium consisting of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers resulted in the progressive disruption of the tight junction network and actin depolymerization, eventually resulting in cell death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific agglutinating SIgAC5 monoclonal antibody (MAb), but not monomeric IgAC5 or IgGC20 MAbs of the same specificity, achieved protective functions through combined mechanisms, including limitation of the interaction between S. flexneri and epithelial cells, maintenance of the tight junction seal, preservation of the cell morphology, reduction of NF-κB nuclear translocation, and inhibition of proinflammatory mediator secretion. Our results add to the understanding of the function of SIgA-mediated immune exclusion by identifying a mode of action whereby the formation of immune complexes translates into maintenance of the integrity of epithelial cells lining the mucosa. This novel mechanism of protection mediated by SIgA is important to extend the arsenal of effective strategies to fight against S. flexneri mucosal invasion. PMID:23753631

  20. A comparative study on microscopic agglutination test and counterimmunoelectrop- horesis for early detection of human leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal bacterial disease that mimics many diseases; therefore, laboratory confirmation is pivotal. Though microscopic agglutination test (MAT is accepted as World Health Organisation (WHO reference test, it has got many pitfalls such as being hazardous, tedious, cumbersome and expensive. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE is popularly used for diagnosing many infectious diseases but rarely for Leptospirosis. The aim of this study is to find suitability of CIE for the routine laboratory diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: Repeat sampling (paired sera was possible from 401 subjects of which 181 were in-patients of Salem Government General and Private Hospitals and the remaining 220 MAT negative healthy College students gave their consent for the study. All the 802 sera samples were collected from January 2009 to November 2012 and subjected to the present study. After carrying out MAT and CIE on the suspected and control samples, a comparative evaluation was conducted. McNemars test method was used to find out the significant difference between the two tests in the early diagnosis. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive value (PPV, Negative Predictive value (NPV and Efficiency test for CIE were 96.80%, 89.28%, 95.23%, 92.59% and 94.47%, respectively. The corresponding values for MAT were 95.90%, 89.83%, 95.08%, 91.37% and 93.92%, respectively. There was no significant difference between MAT and CIE at 95% and 99% confidence intervals according to McNemars test. P value in the early stage of illness was greater for CIE than MAT when Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was used as Gold Standard of diagnosis. Interpretation and conclusion: It was concluded that the CIE could be advantageous over MAT due to its safety, rapidity, simplicity, economic and easy for large number of samples. It can answer little earlier than MAT and found as reliable as that of MAT. Since both the

  1. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the validity and the usefulness of a new test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique. A total of 315 sera from 82 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, 157 sera from patients in whom brucellosis was suspected but not confirmed, and 412 sera from people living in rural areas with endemic brucellosis were studied. The seroagglutination test (SAT), Coombs anti-Brucella test, and Brucellacapt test were evaluated. All the initial sera from the 82 patients proved to be positive in Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, while only 75 (91.4%) were positive in the SAT. If a ≥1/160 diagnostic threshold titer was defined for the Brucellacapt test, Coombs test, and SAT, the sensitivities were 95.1, 91.5, and 65.8%, respectively. Taking the same diagnostic threshold titer for the 157 sera from the unconfirmed but suspected patients, the specificities of the Brucellacapt, Coombs, and SAT were 81.5, 96.2, and 100%, respectively; for the 412 control sera, the specificities were 99.0, 99.8, and 100%. The diagnostic efficiency (area below the receiver operating characteristic curve) of Brucellacapt was 0.987852 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95109 to 0.99286), very similar to the diagnostic efficiency of the Coombs test (0.97611; 95% CI, 0.94781 to 0.99146) and higher than that of SAT (0.91013; 95% CI, 0.86649 to 0.94317). The results of the Brucellacapt test were compared with those of the Coombs test (correlation coefficient, 0.956; P = 0.000) and SAT (correlation coefficient, 0.866; P = 0.000). The study shows very good correlation between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, with a high concordance between titers obtained in the two tests. Nevertheless, lower correlation and concordance were found between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests when the results for titers of ≥1/160 were compared (0.692; P = 0.000). In acute brucellosis, the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests render positive titers of ≥1/160. When the titers

  2. The Life Cycle of Entzia, an Agglutinated Foraminifer from the Salt Marshes in Transylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael; Telespan, Andreea; Balc, Ramona; Filipescu, Sorin; Varga, Ildiko; Görög, Agnes

    2013-04-01

    The small salt marshes associated with Miocene salt domes in Transylvania are host to a variety of marine organisms, including communities of halophytic plants as well as an agglutinated foraminifer that is normally found in coastal salt marshes worldwide. Originally described as the species Entzia tetrastoma by Daday (1884), the foraminifer is more widely known by the name Jadammina macrescens (Brady, 1870). Because the genus name Entzia has priority over Jadammina, the valid name of this taxon is Entzia macrescens (Brady, 1870). In 2007, we discovered a living population of Entzia inhabiting a small salt marsh just outside the town of Turda in central Transylvania, only a kilometer from the famous Maria Theresa Salt Mine. This is the first discovery of a living population of Entzia in Transylvania since the species was originally described in 1884. To determine whether or not the specimens we found represent a breeding population, samples were collected from the marsh on a monthly basis over the span of a year. This species can be found among the roots of the halophytic plants, in the uppermost one or two centimeters of the mud. Sediment samples were preserved in Vodka with Rose Bengal to distinguish living and dead specimens, and examined quantitatively. To document the life cycle of the species the following metrics were carried out: test size, abundance, number of chambers, ratio between live and dead specimens, and the diameter of the proloculus. An increase in the mean diameter of specimens was found from October to December. However the mean diameter decreased again in January, which suggests that asexual reproduction had apparently taken place. Small specimens again appeared in March, when sexual reproduction is presumed to have taken place. The median proloculus diameter was smallest in April and May, but the monthly changes in mean proloculus size within the population over the span of a year are not significant. However, specimens with largest

  3. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-01-01

    In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT) in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 %) of cow milk and 6 samples (12 %) of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 %) positive, 3 (6 %) suspicious and 43 (86 %) negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 %) positive, 2 (4 %) suspicious and 45 (90 %) negativ...

  4. Effect of Dillenia pentagyna Extract on Sialic Acid Content and Agglutinability of Normal and Tumor Cells with Concanavalin A and Wheat Germ Agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rongpi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antitumor potential of methanol extract of D. pentagyna and its effect on the level of sialic acid and agglutinability of normal and transformed cells with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin were reported in order to find the possible role of sialic acid in the antitumor activity of D. pentagyna. Methanol extract of stem bark of D. pentagyna showed maximum survivability of Dalton`s lymphoma-bearing mice at a dose of 20 mg kg-1 (%ILS ~ 70%. The present finding shows a significant D. pentagyna extract-mediated decrease in sialic acid content of normal and transformed cells and increase in ascites supernatant. The plant extract treatment decreases DL cells agglutinability with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin in vitro and in vivo. It also decreases normal lymphocytes agglutinability with wheat germ agglutinin while increased agglutinability was observed with concanavalin A. D. pentagyna-mediated release of sialic acid from the surface of DL cells and decrease in the degree of cell agglutination with conA and wheat germ agglutinin suggested the occurrence of topographical changes on the cell surface and rendering them more immunogenic or accessible to the cells of immune system in the hosts.

  5. Study of polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorins using microscopic image digital analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, B.; Dumas, D.; Relancio, F.; Fontana, A.; Alessi, A.; Foresto, P.; Grandfils, C.; Stoltz, J.; Valverde, J.

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study synthetic polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin using image digital analysis. Polycations are oligomers or polymers of natural or synthetic origin, which bear a great number of positive charges at pH 7.4. Several of these polycations are nowadays used in clinic for human and veterinary purposes. New applications of polycations to the development of new drug delivery systems are investigated, in order to promote the drug absorption through the gastro-intestinal and blood brain barriers. However, up to now, there are no clear relationships between macromolecular features of polycations (molecular weight, mean charge density, charge repartition, etc.) and their interactions with blood elements (which bear superficial negative charges). The interaction on the red blood cell membrane with synthetic polycations having well-controlled macromolecular features and functionalized with pendent polyethylene glycol segments was investigated. The alterations over stationary and dynamic viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes were analyzed through laser diffractometry. Image digital analysis was used to study erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin. Results show different reactivities of the polycations on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings could provide more information about the mechanisms of polycation interaction on erythrocyte membranes. We consider that this work could provide useful tools to understand and improve the haemocompatibility of polycations and enlarge their potential in clinic.

  6. [Evaluation of commercial usefulness for microparticle agglutination Serodia-Myco II test for serodiagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumonia infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Kałuzewski, Stanisław; Jagielski, Marek; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of Serodia-Myco II agglutination test (Fujirebio, Japan) for diagnosis of the M. pneumoniae infections was evaluated. A total of 66 serum samples obtained from patients with respiratory tract infections were tested by Serodia-Myco II test, complement fixation (CF) test, ELISA-IgG/-IgM, and by latex agglutination (LA) test prepared in our laboratory. Using CF test and ELISA as the reference tests, Serodia-Myco II test gave too many false positive results. This test in relation to CF test, ELISA-IgM, ELISA-IgG, and LA test showed a very high sensitivity, virtually 100%, with a low specificity, below 50%. It seems that oversensitivity of the Serodia-Myco II test is caused by too low cut off (40) value recommended by the manufacturer. The Serodia-Myco II test may be used in routine serodiagnosis of mycoplasmosis under condition that cut off value will be raised to 160 and the positive results of this test will be confirmed by the CF test or ELISA.

  7. Insights into the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Human RNase6: Structural Determinants for Bacterial Cell Agglutination and Membrane Permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, David; Arranz-Trullén, Javier; Prats-Ejarque, Guillem; Velázquez, Diego; Torrent, Marc; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Boix, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Human Ribonuclease 6 is a secreted protein belonging to the ribonuclease A (RNaseA) superfamily, a vertebrate specific family suggested to arise with an ancestral host defense role. Tissue distribution analysis revealed its expression in innate cell types, showing abundance in monocytes and neutrophils. Recent evidence of induction of the protein expression by bacterial infection suggested an antipathogen function in vivo. In our laboratory, the antimicrobial properties of the protein have been evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive species and its mechanism of action was characterized using a membrane model. Interestingly, our results indicate that RNase6, as previously reported for RNase3, is able to specifically agglutinate Gram-negative bacteria as a main trait of its antimicrobial activity. Moreover, a side by side comparative analysis with the RN6(1–45) derived peptide highlights that the antimicrobial activity is mostly retained at the protein N-terminus. Further work by site directed mutagenesis and structural analysis has identified two residues involved in the protein antimicrobial action (Trp1 and Ile13) that are essential for the cell agglutination properties. This is the first structure-functional characterization of RNase6 antimicrobial properties, supporting its contribution to the infection focus clearance. PMID:27089320

  8. Insights into the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Human RNase6: Structural Determinants for Bacterial Cell Agglutination and Membrane Permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, David; Arranz-Trullén, Javier; Prats-Ejarque, Guillem; Velázquez, Diego; Torrent, Marc; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Boix, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Human Ribonuclease 6 is a secreted protein belonging to the ribonuclease A (RNaseA) superfamily, a vertebrate specific family suggested to arise with an ancestral host defense role. Tissue distribution analysis revealed its expression in innate cell types, showing abundance in monocytes and neutrophils. Recent evidence of induction of the protein expression by bacterial infection suggested an antipathogen function in vivo. In our laboratory, the antimicrobial properties of the protein have been evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive species and its mechanism of action was characterized using a membrane model. Interestingly, our results indicate that RNase6, as previously reported for RNase3, is able to specifically agglutinate Gram-negative bacteria as a main trait of its antimicrobial activity. Moreover, a side by side comparative analysis with the RN6(1-45) derived peptide highlights that the antimicrobial activity is mostly retained at the protein N-terminus. Further work by site directed mutagenesis and structural analysis has identified two residues involved in the protein antimicrobial action (Trp1 and Ile13) that are essential for the cell agglutination properties. This is the first structure-functional characterization of RNase6 antimicrobial properties, supporting its contribution to the infection focus clearance. PMID:27089320

  9. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis. PMID:27084465

  10. Prozone effects in microscopic agglutination tests for leptospirosis in the sera of mice infected with the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Hiroto Shimabukuro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice experimentally infected with a pathogenic strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola produced false negative results (prozone effect in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT. This prozone effect occurred in several serum samples collected at different post-infection times, but it was more prominent in samples collected from seven-42 days post-infection and for 1:50 and 1:100 sample dilutions. This phenomenon was correlated with increased antibody titres in the early post-infection phase. While prozone effects are often observed in serological agglutination assays for the diagnosis of animal brucellosis and human syphilis, they are not widely reported in leptospirosis MATs.

  11. [Standardization of neutralization tests using the COBL cell line and comparison with the particle agglutination test for measles serology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Yalçinkaya, Tülay; Ozkaya, Etem; Kurtoğlu, Demet; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Miyamura, Kikuko

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was the detection and comparison of measles antibody titers with particle agglutination (PA) and neutralization (Nt) methods, in the sera samples of 364 subjects from different age groups. PA method was performed with a commercial test kit (Serodiameasles, Fujirebio Com. Japan), and Nt test which was standardized in this study, by using COBL (cord blood) cell lines, has been started to use in our laboratory as a reference method. As a result, antibody titers detected by PA were in parallel to the titers which detected by Nt test, and it was concluded that the differences in antibody titers would arise from the differences of test principles and viral antigens.

  12. A rapid latex agglutination test for the detection of anti-cysticercus antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCHA Sérgio M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and rapid latex-based diagnostic tests have been used for detecting specific antigens or antibodies in several diseases. In this article, we present the preliminary results obtained with a latex agglutination test (LAT for diagnosing neurocysticercosis by detection of antibodies in CSF. A total of 43 CSF samples were assayed by the LAT: 19 CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis and 24 CSF samples from patients with other neurologic disorders (neurosyphilis, n = 8; neurotoxoplasmosis, n = 3; viral meningitis, n = 4, chronic headache, n = 9. The LAT exhibited 89.5% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The use of LAT seems to be an additional approach for the screening of neurocysticercosis with advantage of simplicity and rapidity. Further studies could be performed using purified antigens and serum samples.

  13. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Christine J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA. Methods Canine (n = 247 and feline (n = 74 blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories. A subset of canine samples was categorized as having idiopathic IMHA, secondary IMHA, or no IMHA. Results The kappa values for agreement between the tests were in one laboratory 0.86 for canine and 0.58 for feline samples, and in the other 0.48 for canine samples. The lower agreement in the second laboratory was caused by a high number of positive canine DATs for which the gel test was negative. This group included significantly more dogs with secondary IMHA. Conclusions The gel test might be used as a screening test for idiopathic IMHA and is less often positive in secondary IMHA than the DAT.

  14. Performance of commercial latex agglutination tests for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans in routine diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssanthou, E; Fernandez, V; Petrini, B

    2007-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is phenotypically similar to Candida albicans and may therefore be underdiagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test for rapid species identification of C. dubliniensis was prospectively evaluated on 111 vaginal and 118 respiratory isolates. These had presumptively been identified as C. albicans/C. dubliniensis by their green colonies on CHROMagar Candida plates. Bichro-Dubli test identifed 2 (1.8%) vaginal and 6 (5.1%) respiratory isolates as C. dubliniensis. The test was also positive for 37 C. dubliniensis control strains characterised by 18S-28S DNA-sequencing. Bichro-Dubli test is thus a sensitive and accurate tool for rapid diagnostics in routine laboratories. PMID:18092961

  15. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  16. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J Waggoner

    Full Text Available Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens.478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay. The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic, and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6% were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3% in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9% by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02. Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818, the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5% to 133 (16.3%.This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  17. Comparison of Brucella immunoglobulin M and G flow assays with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zeytinoglu; A. Turhan; I. Altuglu; A. Bilgic; T.H. Abdoel; H.L. Smits

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic value of Brucella IgM/IgG flow assays was evaluated in comparison with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests by testing a selection of serum samples submitted to the laboratory because of clinical suspicion of brucellosis. All 39 admission and 11 follow-up samples that agglu

  18. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    We present a biosensing platform for the detection of proteins based on agglutination of aptamer coated magnetic nano- or microbeads. The assay, from sample to answer, is integrated on an automated, low-cost microfluidic disc platform. This ensures fast and reliable results due to a minimum of ma...

  19. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  20. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the modified agglutination test and bioassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Serological tests, including the modified agglutination test (MAT), are often used to determine exposure to the parasite. The MAT can be used for all hosts because it does not need species-specific reagents and has been shown to...

  1. Misidentification of Vibrio cholerae O155 isolated from imported shrimp as O serogroup O139 due to cross-agglutination with commercial O139 antisera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Mazur, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    Fish and shellfish products imported into Denmark are routinely analyzed for pathogenic Vibrio spp., particularly Vibrio cholerae, if products originate from subtropical or tropical areas. A V. cholerae strain that agglutinated commercial O139 antiserum but not the O1, Inaba, or Ogawa antisera...

  2. Properties of Streptococcus mutans Grown in a Synthetic Medium: Binding of Glucosyltransferase and In Vitro Adherence, and Binding of Dextran/Glucan and Glycoprotein and Agglutination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Yuan, Christine D.; Tai, Stella; Slade, Hutton D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of culture media on various properties of Streptococcus mutans was investigated. Strains of S. mutans (serotypes c, d, f, and g) were grown in a complex medium (Todd-Hewitt broth [THB]) or a synthetic medium (SYN). The SYN cells, in contrast to THB cells, did not bind extracellular glucosyltransferase and did not produce in vitro adherence. Both types of cells possessed constitutive levels of glucosyltransferase. B13 cells grown in SYN plus invertase-treated glucose possessed the same level of constitutive enzyme as THB cells. In contrast to THB cells, the SYN cells of seven serotype strains did not agglutinate upon the addition of high-molecular-weight dextran/glucan. Significant quantities of lower-molecular-weight (2 × 104 or 7 × 104) dextran and B13 glucan were bound by SYN cells. SYN cells agglutinated weakly in anti-glucan serum (titers, 0 to 16), whereas THB cells possessed titers of 32 to 256. Evidence for the existence of a second binding site in agglutination which does not possess a glucan-like polymer has been obtained. B13 cells grown in invertase-treated THB agglutinated to the same degree as normal THB cells. The nature of this site is unknown. SYN cells possess the type-specific polysaccharide antigen. B13 cells did not bind from THB a glycoprotein which reacts with antisera to the A, B, or T blood group antigens or which allows agglutination upon the addition of dextran. The results demonstrate that S. mutans grown in a chemically defined medium possesse markedly different biochemical and biological activities than cells grown in a complex organic medium. PMID:457252

  3. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  4. Development and evaluation of a rapid latex agglutination test using a monoclonal antibody to identify Candida dubliniensis colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cell component extraction suggested that the specific epitope probably resides on a protein moiety absent from C. albicans. However, we failed to identify the target protein by Western blotting, owing to its sensitivity to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate. MAb 12F7-F2 was further used to develop a commercial latex agglutination test to identify C. dubliniensis colonies (Bichro-dubli Fumouze test; Fumouze Diagnostics). The test was validated on yeast strains previously identified by PCR and on fresh clinical isolates; these included 46 C. dubliniensis isolates, 45 C. albicans isolates, and other yeast species. The test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose, CHROMagar Candida, and CandiSelect media and 97.8% sensitivity for C. dubliniensis grown on Candida ID medium. The test is rapid (5 min) and easy to use and may be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories and for epidemiological investigations. PMID:16390961

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFICACY OF ROSE BENGAL PLATE TEST (I{BPT AND SERUM AGGLUTINATION TEST (SAT FOR DETECTING THE INCIDENE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BUFFALOES (Bubolus bubolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid, Ishtiaq Ahmad and Umer Hayat

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT were applied for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 240 buffaloes maintained at organized livestock farms in Punjab, to measure their comparative efficacy. Based on RBPT and SAT, 11.25 (n=27 and 10.42 percent (n=25 buffaloes were found seropositive, 11.67 (n 28 and 4.58 percent (n= 11 animals showed doubtful results, while 77.08 (n= 185 and 85 percept (n= 204 animals were found seronegative, respectively. Rose Bengal Plate Test detected higher percentages of seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases than those detected by Serum Agglutination Test, which showed lower percentages or seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases. This study indicated that SAT is more sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for the detection of Brucella aborlus, antibodies in buffaloes.

  6. Comparison of immunofluorescence, particle agglutination, and enzyme immunoassays for detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I antibody in African sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, M; Denis, F; Leonard, G; Sangare, A; Patillaud, S; Prince-David, M; Essex, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of four screening tests for detecting antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was determined by using 2,700 African serum specimens. The tests studied were indirect immunofluorescence, particle agglutination from Fujirebio, and two enzyme immunoassays, one from Abbott Laboratories that used virus lysate from HUT 102 cells and the other from Cambridge BioScience Corp. that used an env recombinant protein. Positive and doubtful sera were confirmed by Western im...

  7. Risk Factors Analysis Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep and Goats in Southeastern Iran Using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT)

    OpenAIRE

    N Zia-Ali; H Kamyabi; M Fasihi Harandi; M Beigzadeh; M Bahrieni

    2008-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in many species of warm-blooded animals including human. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii from slaughtered sleep and goats by mod­ified agglutination test (MAT) in Kerman region, southeastern Iran. Methods: Altogether 1340 blood samples were collected from 562 sheep and 778 goats from April to September 2005 in Kerman slaughterhouse. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies by MA...

  8. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco; Fock, Jeppe; Creagh, Michael; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Boisen, Anja

    2016-11-15

    We present a biosensing platform for the detection of proteins based on agglutination of aptamer coated magnetic nano- or microbeads. The assay, from sample to answer, is integrated on an automated, low-cost microfluidic disc platform. This ensures fast and reliable results due to a minimum of manual steps involved. The detection of the target protein was achieved in two ways: (1) optomagnetic readout using magnetic nanobeads (MNBs); (2) optical imaging using magnetic microbeads (MMBs). The optomagnetic readout of agglutination is based on optical measurement of the dynamics of MNB aggregates whereas the imaging method is based on direct visualization and quantification of the average size of MMB aggregates. By enhancing magnetic particle agglutination via application of strong magnetic field pulses, we obtained identical limits of detection of 25pM with the same sample-to-answer time (15min 30s) using the two differently sized beads for the two detection methods. In both cases a sample volume of only 10µl is required. The demonstrated automation, low sample-to-answer time and portability of both detection instruments as well as integration of the assay on a low-cost disc are important steps for the implementation of these as portable tools in an out-of-lab setting. PMID:27183287

  9. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  10. [Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, H A; González, S R; Prat, M I; Baldi, P C

    2006-01-01

    Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the tube agglutination test (SAT), the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19 (CYT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free cytosolic proteins (CP). Out of a total of 325 samples analyzed, 17.8% reacted positively to BPA, 13.8% to SAT, 8.0% to 2-ME, 21.0% to ELISA-CYT and 10.0% to ELISA-CP. These results agree with the few data available in our country and suggest that brucellosis screening should be extended to other regions. PMID:17037254

  11. Outbreak of uncommon O4 non-agglutinating Salmonella typhimurium linked to minced pork, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, January to April 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Alt

    Full Text Available In January 2013, the National Reference Centre for Salmonella (NRC detected a salmonellosis cluster in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, caused by uncommon O4 non-agglutinating, monophasic Salmonella (S. Typhimurium DT193. Circulating predominant monophasic S. Typhimurium DT193 clones typically display resistance phenotype ASSuT. We investigated common exposures to control the outbreak, and conducted microbiological investigations to assess the strains' phenotype.We conducted a case-control study defining cases as persons living or working in Saxony-Anhalt diagnosed with the O4 non-agglutinating strain between January and March 2013. We selected two controls contemporarily reported with norovirus infection, frequency-matched on residence and age group, per case. We interviewed regarding food consumption, especially pork and its place of purchase. We calculated odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI using logistic regression. The NRC investigated human and food isolates by PCR, SDS-PAGE, MLST, PFGE, MLVA and susceptibility testing.Altogether, 68 O4 non-agglutinating human isolates were confirmed between January and April 2013. Of those, 61 were assigned to the outbreak (median age 57 years, 44% female; 83% cases ≥ 60 years were hospitalized. Eating raw minced pork from butcheries within 3 days was associated with disease (31 cases, 28 controls; OR adjusted for sex: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.0-13. Phage type DT193 and MLST ST34 were assigned, and isolates' lipopolysaccharide (LPS matched control strains. Isolates linked to Saxony-Anhalt exhibited PFGE type 5. ASSuT- and ACSSuT phenotype proportions were 34 and 39% respectively; 54% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Three pork isolates matched the outbreak strain.Raw minced pork was the most likely infection vehicle in this first reported outbreak caused by O4 non-agglutinating, mostly chloramphenicol-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193. High hospitalization proportions demand awareness on the risk of

  12. High influx of carbon in walls of agglutinated foraminifers during the Permian-Triassic transition in global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestell, Galina P.; Nestell, Merlynd K.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Basu, Asish R.; Ghosh, Nilotpal; Phuong Lan, Luu Thi; Rowe, Harry D.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Ratcliffe, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    The Permian–Triassic mass extinction is postulated to be related to the rapid volcanism that produced the Siberian flood basalt (Traps). Unrelated volcanic eruptions producing several episodes of ash falls synchronous with the Siberian Traps are found in South China and Australia. Such regional eruptions could have caused wildfires, burning of coal deposits, and the dispersion of coal fly ash. These eruptions introduced a major influx of carbon into the atmosphere and oceans that can be recognized in the wallstructure of foraminiferal tests present in survival populations in the boundary interval strata. Analysis of free specimens of foraminifers recovered from residues of conodont samples taken at aPermian–Triassic boundary section at Lung Cam in northern Vietnam has revealed the presence of a significant amount of elemental carbon, along with oxygen and silica, in their test wall structure, but an absence of calcium carbonate. These foraminifers, identified as Rectocornuspira kalhori, Cornuspira mahajeri, and Earlandia spp. and whose tests previously were considered to be calcareous, are confirmed to be agglutinated, and are now referred to as Ammodiscus kalhori and Hyperammina deformis. Measurement of the 207Pb/204Pb ratios in pyrite clusters attached to the foraminiferal tests confirmed that these tests inherited the Pb in their outer layer from carbon-contaminated seawater. We conclude that the source of the carbon could have been either global coal fly ash or forest fire-dispersed carbon, or a combination of both, that was dispersed into the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean immediately after the end-Permian extinction event.

  13. Application of Direct Agglutination Test (DAT for the Diagnosis and Seroepide-miological Studies of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Charehdar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is one of the most important parasitic diseases which is endemic in different parts of Iran. Serological studies were conducted by direct agglutination test (DAT on 12144 human serum samples, collected from four geographical zones of Iran. Sero prevalence, geographical distribution, clinical signs and symptoms for human visceral leishmaniasis based on DAT for the period of 2002 through 2005 were determined. From 516 kala-azar cases detected: 50.6% were from Meshkin-shahr and Moghan districts in Ardabil Province, northwest of Iran and 49.4% were detected from other areas of Iran. In physical examination of seropositive cases, which were detected by DAT with anti-leishmanial antibodies at titers of 1: 3200 to 1: 102400, almost 50% of suspected individuals showed the classical kala-azar signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 233 hospitalized patients with anti-Leishmania antibodies at 1:3200 and higher, were fever (88.0% and splenomegaly (84.5%. Statistically significant difference was found between males (58% and females (42% (P< 0.01. Moreover, 93.6% of the VL patients were < 5 yr of age, and 6.4% were older than 5 yr that this difference was statistically significant (P< 0.01. From 1383 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in the villages that are known as endemic foci of human leishmaniasis, 152 (11.0% were positive by DAT (≥ 1:320. Parasitological and serological examinations that were performed in 30 wild canines showed that 10% of these animals were infected by L. infantum. L. infantum Lon49 is the principal agent of the disease in human as well as animal reservoir hosts in different parts of Iran. For the first time in Iran, L. tropica isolated from both skin lesions in the face and bone marrow aspiration in a HIV+ man who co-infected with VL as well as in an infected dog from Ardabil Province.

  14. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-11-28

    A method for detecting the presence of an analyte in a sample can include adding a plurality of microparticles of a first-type to the sample, where each microparticle of the first-type includes a first binding partner configured to interact with at least a first portion of the analyte, adding a plurality of microparticles of a second-type to the sample, where each microparticle of the second-type includes a second binding partner configured to interact with at least a second portion of the analyte, the first portion of the analyte being different from the second portion of the analyte, and identifying an aggregate including at least one microparticle of the first-type, at least one microparticle of the second-type and the analyte, where the aggregate indicates the presence of the analyte.

  15. Comparison of the Serodia Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination, Captia Syphilis-G, and SpiroTek Reagin II Tests with Standard Test Techniques for Diagnosis of Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Victoria; Fears, Martha B.; Morrill, William E.; Castro, Arnold; Kikkert, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    We compared the microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP), a treponemal test, with two other treponemal tests, the Serodia Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay and the Captia Syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay, using 390 clinical serum samples. We also compared two nontreponemal tests, the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) card test and the SpiroTek Reagin II test. Agreements of the MHA-TP with the TP-PA test and the Syphilis-G test were 97.4 and 97.7%, respectively. T...

  16. Comparison of immunofluorescence, particle agglutination, and enzyme immunoassays for detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I antibody in African sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, M; Denis, F; Leonard, G; Sangare, A; Patillaud, S; Prince-David, M; Essex, M

    1990-09-01

    The effectiveness of four screening tests for detecting antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was determined by using 2,700 African serum specimens. The tests studied were indirect immunofluorescence, particle agglutination from Fujirebio, and two enzyme immunoassays, one from Abbott Laboratories that used virus lysate from HUT 102 cells and the other from Cambridge BioScience Corp. that used an env recombinant protein. Positive and doubtful sera were confirmed by Western immunoblot and radioimmunoprecipitation assay with Food and Drug Administration seropositivity criteria. The best results were obtained with the two enzyme immunoassays, which were more sensitive (100 and 98.6% [Abbott and Cambridge, respectively]) and more specific (98.7 and 96.5%). Indirect immunofluorescence exhibited difficulties for reading and interpretation. With particle agglutination, prozone was observed for 9 of 78 HTLV-I-positive serum specimens. False-positives in any of the tests were not linked to cross-reactions with human immunodeficiency viruses. However, confirmation tests remain necessary for HTLV-I screening.

  17. Particle agglutination test "Serodia HIV-1/2" as a novel anti-HIV-1/2 screening test: comparative study on 3311 serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, M; Zener, N; Seme, K; Kristancic, L

    1997-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are most widely used screening tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Nevertheless, the need of simpler, noninstrumented tests is evident in many parts of the world, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV incidence is high. A recently developed variant of gelatin-particle agglutination tests, Serodia HIV-1/2 (Fujirebio Inc., Tokyo, Japan), is one of such simple and noninstrumented tests. To evaluate its utility, 3311 serum samples (281 anti-HIV-1 positive, 8 anti-HIV-2 positive and 3022 anti-HIV-1/2 negative) obtained from 2632 individuals from Slovenia, other parts of former Yugoslavia and Senegal were investigated. No false-negative results and only one false-positive result were obtained during the procedures, giving overall sensitivity and specificity of the particle agglutination test of 100% and 99.97%, respectively. We have concluded that Serodia HIV-1/2 test is highly specific and sensitive for detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys.

  18. COMPARISON STUDY BETWEEN IN-HOUSE IGM DOT-ELISA AND THE MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST (MAT FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kumar A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was compared with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for the diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis. Blood samples from a total number of 319 HBsAg negative suspected leptospirosis case’s were received from Government Hospital and from a few private hospitals of Salem district, Tamilnadu, India. The serum samples were examined for the presence of anti leptospiral antibodies using a commercial qualitative method of an in-house Dot-ELISA assay and the results were compared with WHO standard Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. The following interesting results were noted, 132 (41.7 % serum samples were positive to Dot-ELISA, while 130 (40.7 % were positive to MAT. All samples positive to MAT were positive to Dot-ELISA, on of the samples were positive for MAT and negative to Dot-ELISA. The Dot-ELISA showed 100% sensitivity compared to MAT. The current diagnostic Dot-ELISA appears as a rapid, non hazardous and better alternative to MAT for the diagnosis of human Leptospirosis.

  19. Low yield of screening for cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination assay on serum and cerebrospinal fluid from Danish patients with AIDS or ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, S; Stenderup, J; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due to Cryptoc......From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due...... to Cryptococcus neoformans diagnosed by microscopy and culture in 3 HIV-1 infected patients are presented. Stored specimens of serum and CSF from these patients were assayed for cryptococcal antigen, and in all 3 the onset of meningitis was preceded by the presence of cryptococcal antigen in serum....... It is concluded that the low occurrence of cryptococcosis in our patient population does not justify a routine serum screening for cryptococcal antigen....

  20. Kinetics and time dependence of the differential agglutination of acetone [AC]- and formalin [HS]-fixed Toxoplasma tachyzoites by serum of mice with experimental toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; Habib, Khaled Sayed Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    Researches to specify a serologic diagnostic test capable of determining the stage of toxoplasmosis, whether recent or latent, have been hampered by lack of knowing the real time of infection. Studying the precise kinetics of the differential agglutination of acetone [AC]-fixed versus that of formalin [HS]-fixed tachyzoites (differential agglutination test or AC/HS test) by sera of mice during the course of toxoplasmosis and assessment of its value in the differentiation between recent and latent infections in mice were the aims of the present work. Experimental toxoplasmosis was induced in mice, sera were collected sequentially and AC/HS test, FAST-ELISA to determine levels of IgM and IgG and microscopic examination of brain for Toxoplasma cysts were done. Both AC and HS specific patterns in the AC/HS test were noted to be dependent on the time from the onset of infection. Acute patterns of the AC/HS test were observed early in infection till before the appearance of brain cysts. Non-acute patterns were obtained late on 28th day post infection coinciding with the disappearance of IgM, persistence of IgG and presence of cysts in brains. The AC antibody was high in the recent phase of infection, and then it declined to be replaced by high sustained level of HS antibody late in infection. In conclusion, in the presence of both IgM and IgG, the appearance of either equivocal pattern or the non-acute pattern in the AC/HS test is significant in ruling out acute infection in mice.

  1. Mechanistic Evaluation for Mixed-field Agglutination in the K562 Cell Study Model with Exon 3 Deletion of A1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-Ping; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Chi-Jui; Wang, Wei-Ting; Sun, Chien-Feng

    2015-01-01

    In the case of blood type B3 with typical mixed-field agglutination of RBCs in the presence of anti-B or anti-AB antibody, a number of genetic alternations have been reported. It is well known that the IVS3+5G→A mutation in the B gene destroys the consensus of the splice donor site leading to exon 3 skipping during mRNA splicing. The lack of exon 3 likely causes a short stem region, producing an unstable B3 protein, and is concomitant with a decrease in B3 protein expression. Whether the phenomenon also appears in the type A blood group is of question. In this study, we evaluate whether exon 3 deletion in the blood type A gene also results in mixed-field phenotype. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate cDNA encoding A1 gene with exon 3 deletion. The cDNA was stably expressed in K562 cells. The expression of A antigen was compared with expression in parental K562 cells that did not express A antigen and in the stable K562 cell line expressing A(1) cDNA by flow cytometry analyses. The expression of A antigen in A1 stable cells and parental K562 cells was set as 100% and 0%, respectively. The mean relative percentage of A antigen expression for the cells of A1 with exon 3 deletion was 59.9% of A1 stable cells. Consistent with the observations of B3, which is B gene with exon 3 deletion, mixed field agglutination was observed for the cells expressing A1 with exon 3 deletion. Exon 3 deletion results in mixed field phenotype in both type A and B RBCs. However, the degree of antigen expression change for exon 3 deletion in A gene was less severe when compared with the deletion occurred in B gene. PMID:26663798

  2. Purification of Soybean Agglutinin and Its Agglutination Activity Toward Different Cancer Cell Lines%大豆凝集素的纯化及其凝集不同肿瘤细胞的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆剑; 赵翔; 张页

    2003-01-01

    A novel and efficient method for purification of soybean agglutinin(SBA) from soybean was reported.The method was characterized by selective extraction of SBA from soybean homogenate with barbiturate buffer(pH 6.2) ,removal of impurity by hydroxyapatite,and the final purification of SBA by guaran affinity chromatography.The purified SBA showed a single band of 27.5kD by SDS-PAGE.The lowest concentration of SBA that caused agglutination of the rabbit red blood cells was 0.31 mg/L.Agglutination of different cancer cell lines by the purified SBA was examined.Strong agglutination of the human nasopharyngeal CNE cells.mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells.and rat mammary adenocarcinoma R3230AC cells was observed.However,SBA could not agglutinate the human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402cells,suggesting that unlike the above-mentioned three cell lines,the BEL-7402 cells may not express N-acetylgalactosamine(GalNAc) or galactose(Gal) residues in significant amount at the non-reducing terminals of their cell surface glycans.

  3. Evaluation of four commercial IgG- and IgM-specific enzyme immunoassays for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody: comparison with particle agglutination assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soo Jin; Oh, Hye-Jeon; Shin, Bo-Moon

    2007-10-01

    Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is important due to its variable clinical manifestations and absence of response to beta-lactams. Introduction of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for serologic diagnosis of M. pneumoniae has made it possible to separate the analyses of specific IgG and IgM antibodies. We compared four different commercial EIAs, ImmunoWELL IgG, IgM (GenBio), Medac IgG, IgA, IgM (Medac), Platelia IgG, IgM (Sanofi Pasteur), and Ridascreen IgG, IgA, IgM (r-Biopharm) with indirect particle agglutination assay (PA), Serodia-MycoII (Fujirebio). We tested 91 specimens from 73 pediatric patients (2-17 yr) hospitalized at a tertiary-care hospital between December 2005 and January 2006. The measurements of IgM EIAs were correlated with PA titers (Spearman's correlation coefficient, from 0.89 to 0.92) with high concordance rates, ranging from 82.4% to 92.3%. However, some negative IgM-EIA results in PA-positive specimens indicated that serial samplings with convalescent sera would be necessary to confirm M. pneumoniae infection.

  4. Risk Factors Analysis Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep and Goats in Southeastern Iran Using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zia-Ali

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in many species of warm-blooded animals including human. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii from slaughtered sleep and goats by mod­ified agglutination test (MAT in Kerman region, southeastern Iran. Methods: Altogether 1340 blood samples were collected from 562 sheep and 778 goats from April to September 2005 in Kerman slaughterhouse. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies by MAT using an antibody titer of 1:20 or higher considered positive. The statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test and logistic regressions to analyze the influ­ence of all examined factor (age, sex and type of animals on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis.Results: Antibodies were found in sera of 262 out of 1340 (19.6% samples. of 262 seropositive sera, 139 sheep (24.7% and 123 goats (15.8% were infected. Seropositive animals more than one year were 1.6 times more likely to be seropositive than the others were. Sheep were 1.5 times more likely to be infected than goats were (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.15-2.04, p=0.004.Conclusion: Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among sheep and goats slaughtered in Kerman region and suggest that consumption of raw and undercooked meat of these animals can be a probable source of human toxoplasmosis.

  5. Latex agglutination assays for detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marjorie B; Shelver, Weilin L; Fratamico, Pina M; Fortis, Laurie; Tillman, Glenn; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C; Esteban, Emilio; Debroy, Andchitrita

    2012-05-01

    Latex agglutination assays utilizing polyclonal antibodies were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through protein A/G columns, and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgGs) were covalently immobilized onto polystyrene latex particles. The resulting latex-IgG complex had a protein (IgG) load of 0.20 to 0.28 mg/ml in a 1% latex suspension. Optimum conditions for the agglutination assay consisted of utilizing 20 μm l of latex-IgG reagent containing 2.0 to 2.8 μm g IgG in a 0.5% latex suspension. Agglutination or flocculation was observed almost instantly after mixing the colonies with the latex-IgG, indicating STEC strains. More than 100 target and nontarget strains were tested in more than 3,000 test replicates. All target organisms produced positive results, but three antisera (anti-O26, anti-O103, and anti-O145) cross-reacted with some other STECs. The anti-O103 and anti-O145 latex reagents cross-reacted with O26 strains, and the anti-O26 cross-reacted with O103 strains. The latex-IgG reagents are stable for at least 1 year and are easy to prepare. These agglutination assays can be used for identification of presumptive non-O157 STEC colonies from agar media. The techniques used to prepare the latex reagents also can be utilized for testing other STEC serogroups, other E. coli serotypes, or other pathogens to ensure safe foods to consumers. PMID:22564929

  6. Latex agglutination assays for detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marjorie B; Shelver, Weilin L; Fratamico, Pina M; Fortis, Laurie; Tillman, Glenn; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C; Esteban, Emilio; Debroy, Andchitrita

    2012-05-01

    Latex agglutination assays utilizing polyclonal antibodies were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through protein A/G columns, and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgGs) were covalently immobilized onto polystyrene latex particles. The resulting latex-IgG complex had a protein (IgG) load of 0.20 to 0.28 mg/ml in a 1% latex suspension. Optimum conditions for the agglutination assay consisted of utilizing 20 μm l of latex-IgG reagent containing 2.0 to 2.8 μm g IgG in a 0.5% latex suspension. Agglutination or flocculation was observed almost instantly after mixing the colonies with the latex-IgG, indicating STEC strains. More than 100 target and nontarget strains were tested in more than 3,000 test replicates. All target organisms produced positive results, but three antisera (anti-O26, anti-O103, and anti-O145) cross-reacted with some other STECs. The anti-O103 and anti-O145 latex reagents cross-reacted with O26 strains, and the anti-O26 cross-reacted with O103 strains. The latex-IgG reagents are stable for at least 1 year and are easy to prepare. These agglutination assays can be used for identification of presumptive non-O157 STEC colonies from agar media. The techniques used to prepare the latex reagents also can be utilized for testing other STEC serogroups, other E. coli serotypes, or other pathogens to ensure safe foods to consumers.

  7. H-deficient Bombay and para-Bombay red blood cells are most strongly agglutinated by the galactophilic lectins of Aplysia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that detect I and P1 antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Garber, N; Sudakevitz, D; Levene, C; Rahimi-Levene, N; Yahalom, V

    2006-01-01

    The galactophilic lectins Aplysia gonad lectin (AGL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IL), which detect human I and P1 RBC antigens, were examined for hemagglutination of H+ (group O and B) and H-deficient (Bombay and para-Bombay phenotype) RBCs. The results were compared with those obtained using two other galactophilic lectins, Maclura pomifera lectin (MPL) and Arachis hypogaea (peanut) agglutinin (PNA), which share T-antigen affinity, and two fucose-binding H-specific lectins, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IIL), as well as with those achieved with anti-I serum. The results revealed that, in contrast to UEA-I and PA-IIL, which preferentially agglutinated H+ RBCs, and to MPL and PNA, which similarly agglutinated all examined RBCs, AGL, PA-IL, and the anti-I serum agglutinated the H-deficient RBCs more strongly than did the H+ RBCs. These findings could be attributed to increased levels of I and P1 antigens on those RBCs resulting from the use of the free common H-type 2 precursor for their synthesis. Since both PA-IL and PA-IIL are regarded as potential pathogen adhesins, it would be interesting to statistically compare the sensitivities of individuals of H+ and H-deficient RBC populations to P. aeruginosa infections.

  8. Stability of Freeze-Dried Sera Stored at Different Temperatures for the Detection of Anti-Leishmania infantum Antibodies Using Direct Agglutination Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kakooei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate freeze-dried sera as an alternative to non-freeze dried for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies over the course of 11 months using the direct agglutination test (DAT.Altogether, 60 serum samples (30 from humans and 30 from dogs were collected from various geographical locations in Iran. All the collected sera were pooled and each pooled serum sample contained 10 different sera. In the beginning, the human and dog pooled sera were categorized as positive (weak and strong and negative based on anti-L. infantum antibodies using the DAT. All the freeze-dried and non-freeze-dried sera were stored at -70°C, -20°C, 4°C, 22-28°C and 56°C for 11 months. The positive and negative human and dog pooled sera were separately tested using the DAT each month and the results were compared to non-freeze-dried sera kept under the same conditions.We found strong agreement (100% between the results obtained from freeze-dried human and dog in strong DAT positive sera kept at -70°C, -20°C, 4°C and 22-28°C during this study. The human and dog pooled sera stored at 56°C were corrupted after 2 weeks. The DAT results were highly reproducible using freeze-dried human pooled sera in the beginning and month 11 of this study (CV = 0.036.Freeze-dried human and dog strong DAT positive sera are highly stable under different temperature conditions, are easy to transport and are safe for use as positive and negative serum controls in laboratories.

  9. Development of a Rapid Agglutination Latex Test for Diagnosis of Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection in Developing World: Defining the Biomarker, Antibody and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Danielle D.; Cardoso, Lucas T. A.; Luz, Daniela E.; Andrade, Fernanda B.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC) are human intestinal pathogens responsible for diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries. In research laboratories, EPEC and EHEC are defined on the basis of their pathogenic features; nevertheless, their identification in routine laboratories is expensive and laborious. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and simple assay for EPEC/EHEC detection. Accordingly, the EPEC/EHEC-secreted proteins EspA and EspB were chosen as target antigens. Methodology First, we investigated the ideal conditions for EspA/EspB production/secretion by ELISA in a collection of EPEC/EHEC strains after cultivating bacterial isolates in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) or DMEM containing 1% tryptone or HEp-2 cells-preconditioned DMEM, employing either anti-EspA/anti-EspB polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies developed and characterized herein. Subsequently, a rapid agglutination latex test (RALT) was developed and tested with the same collection of bacterial isolates. Principal findings EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal antibody as the tool for EPEC/EHEC diagnosis; the production of EspB was better in DMEM medium. RALT assay has the sensitivity and specificity required for high-impact diagnosis of neglected diseases in the developing world. Conclusion RALT assay described herein can be considered an alternative assay for diarrhea diagnosis in low-income countries since it achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% efficiency. PMID:25254981

  10. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding DLA test were 100, 55.5, 63.6 and 100 %, respectively. In conclusion, a chromogenic agar, such as SBS, and a DLA test can be used for rapid detection of GBS in pregnant women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated. PMID:25082944

  11. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: a comparative study of real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and direct agglutination on sera for the detection of Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadiha, A; Haghighi, A; Mohebali, M; Mahdian, R; Abadi, A R; Zarei, Z; Yeganeh, F; Kazemi, B; Taghipour, N; Akhoundi, B; Barati, M; Mahmoudi, M R

    2013-02-18

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in northwestern Iran. This study aimed to compare real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and the direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis Leishmania infantum infection in 167 serum samples of domestic dog. Bone marrow was used for parasitological examination (smears and/or culture) in symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, and serum was used for detection of L. infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) by both conventional PCR and real-time PCR, while anti-L. infantum antibodies in sera were measured by DAT. The sera were collected from 37 symptomatic and 112 asymptomatic dogs during April to May 2011. Eighteen presumed negative samples were obtained from healthy dogs kept in non-endemic areas with no history of CVL and used as controls. All 18 samples were negative by DAT and Dipstick rK39. DAT confirmed previous exposure to L. infantum for all 149 serum samples collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in CVL endemic areas of Iran. Among the 37 symptomatic dogs, 20 (54%), 25 (67.6%), 36 (97.3%), and 37 (100%) showed L. infantum infection by parasitological methods, conventional PCR, real-time PCR, and DAT (≥ 1:80), respectively. Of 112 asymptomatic dogs, 79 (70.5%), 111 (99.1%), and 112 (100%) were shown to be positive by conventional PCR, and DAT (≥ 1:80), respectively. For ethical reasons, no asymptomatic or healthy control dogs were examined by parasitological methods. Three (16.7%) control dogs were positive by real-time PCR, but were negative by DAT, dipstick rK39, and conventional PCR methods. Parasitemia levels were measured by real-time PCR targeting kDNA using SYBR(®) green assay. This quantitative technique detected infection in 89.9% (150/167) of the domestic dogs that harbored L. infantum kDNA, ranging from 0.01 49 to 310.1 parasites/ml. The average was 16.60 parasites/ml. A good agreement (0.97) was found between real-time PCR and DAT at ≥ 1:80 titer, used as cut-off value by Kappa analysis. Thus

  12. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  13. A Constitutively Mannose-Sensitive Agglutinating Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain, Carrying a Transposon in the Fimbrial Usher Gene stbC, Exhibits Multidrug Resistance and Flagellated Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsun Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Static broth culture favors Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce type 1 fimbriae, while solid agar inhibits its expression. A transposon inserted in stbC, which would encode an usher for Stb fimbriae of a non-flagellar Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LB5010 strain, conferred it to agglutinate yeast cells on both cultures. RT-PCR revealed that the expression of the fimbrial subunit gene fimA, and fimZ, a regulatory gene of fimA, were both increased in the stbC mutant when grown on LB agar; fimW, a repressor gene of fimA, exhibited lower expression. Flagella were observed in the stbC mutant and this phenotype was correlated with the motile phenotype. Microarray data and RT-PCR indicated that the expression of three genes, motA, motB, and cheM, was enhanced in the stbC mutant. The stbC mutant was resistant to several antibiotics, consistent with the finding that expression of yhcQ and ramA was enhanced. A complementation test revealed that transforming a recombinant plasmid possessing the stbC restored the mannose-sensitive agglutination phenotype to the stbC mutant much as that in the parental Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LB5010 strain, indicating the possibility of an interplay of different fimbrial systems in coordinating their expression.

  14. Títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes induzidos por vacinas comerciais contra leptospirose bovina Agglutinating antibody titers induced by commercial vaccines against bovine leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Godoy Cravo Arduino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, 100 fêmeas bovinas foram divididas em cinco grupos de 20 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam quatro diferentes vacinas comerciais (B, C, D e E, e um grupo permaneceu como controle. Amostras foram colhidas no dia da aplicação da primeira dose e nos dias 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 e 180 pós-vacinação (PV. A triagem dos animais foi feita pela análise sorológica com 6 antígenos de leptospiras, escolhendo-se os animais não reagentes. Os títulos de anticorpos foram monitorados pela soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM com os sorovares Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona e Wolffi. Todas as vacinas induziram, aos 3 dias PV, títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes para os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi, que persistiram até o 150º dia PV. Os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi induziram os maiores títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes. A vacina D, apesar de não possuir o sorovar Wolffi em sua composição foi capaz de induzir anticorpos aglutinantes contra este sorovar. Somente foram detectados anticorpos contra o sorovar Canicola nos animais vacinados com a bacterina D. A vacina que induziu os maiores títulos médios de anticorpos, considerando todos os sorovares testados foi a D.In the investigation 100 heifers were used, divided into 5 groups of 20 animals each. The four experimental groups were vaccinated using distinct commercial polyvalent bacterines: B, C, D and E, and A group was the control. Samples were collected at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 and 180 from the first injection of the vaccine. The selection of the animals for the experimental groups was done based on a serological screening with 6 antigens of Leptospira sp. constituted by non-reagent animals. The vaccine titers were monitored using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Wolffi

  15. 血清凝集、基因测序联合检测群霍乱弧菌的应用%Application of DetectingVibrio Cholerae Combined with Serum Agglutination and Gene Sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万静; 王多春; 唐倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:避免霍乱弧菌检测假阳性,提高检测正确率。方法随机选取2013年1~7月,全国各省市 CDC 送往中国CDC 霍乱初筛阳性菌株14株;用 LB 营养琼脂培养12 h,挑取单菌落进行霍乱弧菌血清凝集,同时水煮模板法提取菌株的DNA。针对弧菌属16SrDNA 序列设计引物,进行弧菌16SrDNA PCR 检测,电泳观察16SrDNA 产物,将16SrDNA 阳性产物送测序公司测序,测序结果在 NCBI 网站上进行 Blast 比对,分析比较血清凝集和 Blast 比对结果。结果共选取14株菌进行实验,血清凝集阳性12株,2株未凝。经弧菌16SrDNA 扩增,电泳观察14株菌均扩增出相应的片段,说明所选菌株均为弧菌属。将14株菌的16SrDNA 阳性产物测序,并将测序结果进行 Blast 比对:2株血清未凝集菌均是哈维氏弧菌;12株血清凝集阳性的菌中,1株是需钠弧菌,其余11株是霍乱弧菌。结论血清凝集和基因测序联合检测群霍乱弧菌,可避免霍乱弧菌检测假阳性,提高检测正确率。%Objective To avoid false positive detection ofVibrio cholerae and improve the detection correct rate.Methods 1~7 months of 2013 were randomly selected,the national various provinces and cities CDC to China cholera CDC positive screening 14 strains.LB nutrient agar 12 hours,take single colony to Vibrio cholera serum agglutination,extraction of strain DNA at the same time boiled template method.For Vibrio 16SrDNA sequence and design primers for PCR detection of Vib-rio,16SrDNA,electrophoresis were used to observe the 16SrDNA products,16SrDNA positive products sent to sequencing company sequencing,sequencing results were Blast comparison on the NCBI website for the analysis and comparison of ser-um agglutination and Blast alignment.Results 12 strains was positive for agglutination and 2 strains of non agglutination in 14 strains.The Vibrio 16SrDNA amplification,electrophoresis were used to observe the 14

  16. Evaluation of Two rK39 Dipstick Tests, Direct Agglutination Test, and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a New Epidemic Site in Highland Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañavate, Carmen; Herrero, Merce; Nieto, Javier; Cruz, Israel; Chicharro, Carmen; Aparicio, Pilar; Mulugeta, Abate; Argaw, Daniel; Blackstock, Anna J.; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the performance characteristics of two rK39 immunochromatographic tests, a direct agglutination test (DAT), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in the site of a new epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in northwestern Ethiopia. The study population was composed of 179 patients with suspected VL and 67 controls. The sensitivities of Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT in 35 polymerase chain reaction–confirmed VL cases were 94.3%, 91.4%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities were 98.5%, 94%, 98.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. In a Bayesian latent class analysis of all 246 specimens, the estimated sensitivities were 90.5%, 89%, 88.8%, and 96% for Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT, respectively; DAT showed the highest estimated specificity (97.4%). Both rK39 immunochromatographic tests perform as well as DAT, and are suitable for VL diagnosis in first-level health centers in this area of Ethiopia. PMID:21212210

  17. Comparison of counter-current immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and radioimmunoassay in detection of soluble capsular polysaccharide antigens of Haemohpilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis of groups A or C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three serological methods, radioimmunoassay (RIA), latex agglutination (LX), and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), for sensitivity in the detection of the capsular polysaccharide antigen of Haemophilus influenzae type b or Neisseria meningitidis groups A and C were compared. RIA was consistently the most sensitive, LX the next, and CIEP the least sensitive. When RIA and LX were used to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with meningitis, they gave very similar results. In only two out of 47 samples, in which RIA detected one of the three antigens, was the amount of the specific polysaccharide too low to be detected by LX. By the serological methods evidence of specific pathogen could be detected in 49 samples, including nine from patients who had received intensive antimicrobial treatment for up to three days and from whom specimens yielded no bacteria on culture. The reactions were specific in all cases except two out of 47 tests positive to LX. From these two CSF samples N. meningitidis group B could be cultivated, whereas the LX was recorded positive for N. meningitidis of group A in one case, and of group C in the other. The nonspecific reactions could be due to antibodies to bacterial components other than the capsular polysaccharide. (author)

  18. 杂交瘤细胞凝集试验诊断血吸虫病的实验研究%Experimental study on Hybridoma Cells Agglutination Test for Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文琪; 李雍龙; Andreas Ruppel

    2003-01-01

    目的用杂交瘤细胞凝集试验(hybridoma cells agglutination test,HCAT)诊断实验日本血吸虫病,并探讨杂交瘤细胞在特异性血清中凝集的机制.方法分泌抗血吸虫31/32 kDa抗原单抗的杂交瘤细胞H226经特定处理后分别与感染日本血吸虫尾蚴10、30和50条的小鼠血清孵育,动态观察感染后不同时间的凝集反应.上述杂交瘤细胞涂片后与日本血吸虫感染兔血清进行间接免疫荧光试验(IFT),以探讨凝集机制.结果杂交瘤细胞在感染鼠血清中呈现凝集反应:感染后2 wk时,50条尾蚴感染组中70%HCAT阳性,至第5周,全部感染小鼠均出现阳性反应.抗原滴度在感染后逐步升高,感染后6 wk时达到最高.重度感染鼠的抗原滴度明显高于中、轻度感染鼠.IFT显示,在杂交瘤细胞膜表面呈现特异性的黄绿色荧光,而细胞内未见显色.结论HCAT是一种血吸虫病诊断新方法.

  19. 运用"磁性医院"模式对医院离职管理的探究%Discussion on applying agglutinant hospital mode on hospital turnover management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雷辉; 周春艳; 徐袁瑾

    2016-01-01

    目的:借鉴"磁性医院"模式,结合某三甲医院近3年医务人员离职现状,分析影响离职因素,提出有效减少医院离职率的对策与建议,实现医院可持续发展.方法:问卷调查、数据分析和专家咨询.结果:某三甲医院近3年离职人数递增,集中在低层次学历和护士岗位,并且离职高发期在职业生涯初期.离职原因主要包括组织、个人和社会3大因素,离职后去向明显.结论:从医院层面、个人层面和社会层面3个方面让医院像磁铁一样吸引职工留下,减少离职率.%Objectives: To analyze influence factors of turnover and give countermeasures for effective reducing turnover rate in hospital according to agglutinant hospital mode and current 3 years turnover data in a tertiary A level hospital. Methods: questionnaire, data analysis and expert consultation were used. Results: The turnover staff were increasing year by year during the current 3 years which was focused on poor education group and nursing group. The climaxes of turnover are in the beginning of career stage. Main influence factors involve organization, individual and society. Conclusions: It is considered to reduce turnover rate from aspects of hospital, individual and society.

  20. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN FOWLS USING MODIFIED AGGLUTINATION TEST%改良凝集试验用于检测禽类弓形虫感染的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述义; 魏梅雄; 虞坚颐; 周忠勇

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in fowls was examined using modified agglutination test (MAT) with whole-formalized tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Five (6.5%) of 77 fowls belonging to five orders, five families, thirteen genera and twenty-one species were sero-positive for MAT. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 4 rare birds in titers of 1∶20 (3 birds) and 1∶640 (1 bird), and 1 chicken in titer of 1∶40. The sero-positive rate of anti-T. gondii antibodies was higher in rare fowls (11.1%) than that in chickens (2.4%). Statistically, the difference between the prevalence of rare birds and that of chickens was not significant(P>0.05).%本文报道了应用改良凝集试验(MAT) 检测禽类的弓形虫抗体水平.共检测了包括41只家鸡在内的77份禽类(隶属5目、5科、13属、21种)的血清,结果MAT阳性5份,阳性率为6.5%.4只阳性珍禽的弓形虫抗体滴度分别为1∶20(3禽)和1∶640(1禽),1只阳性家鸡的抗体滴度为1∶40.珍禽的弓形虫抗体阳性率(11.1%)高于家鸡的抗体阳性率(2.4%),但二者无显著差异(P>0.05).本文结果表明,简便、快速的MAT适合于禽类弓形虫感染的血清学检测.

  1. Campylobacter: detection by latex agglutination techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2014-01-01

    The traditional methods for the isolation and confirmation of foodborne pathogens usually consist of (pre)enrichment followed by isolation on selective media, subculturing of suspect colonies on nonselective media, and, finally, confirmation of isolates. The traditional confirmations might take too

  2. Latex agglutination vs. counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis Aglutinación de partículas de látex vs. contrainmunoelectroforesis en meningitis bacteriana aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witer Elena Vallejo López

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A comparison was made between latex particles agglutination (LPA and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE in the diagnosis of 57 children with acute bacterial meningitis; reagents were utllized to detect infection by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neísseria meningitídís. Results of both tests were similar for diagnosis of H. ínfluenzae and S. pneumoniae; in contrast only 30.0% of cases due to N. meningitidis gave a positive result with LP A and none was detected with CIE.in 12 patients (21.0% LPA and CIE were the only tests that allowed a precise determination ot the etiology of the disease. The authors recommend LPA for the particular situation of limited availability of funds since it is more economic than CIE and the quality of the results is similar.

    Se estudiaron 57 pacientes con meningitis aguda, de etiología bacteriana comprobada; 47.4% (27 casos fueron causados por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b; 21.0% (12 casos por Streptococcus pneumoniae; 17.5% (10 casos por Neisseria meningitidis; 5.3% (3 casos por Staphylococcus aureus,. 5.3% (3 casos por enterobacterias y 3.5% (2 casos por gérmenes no Identificados por cultivos. Se comparó la aglutinación de partículas de látex (APL con la contralnmunoelectroforesis (CIE en los pacientes con cultivo positivo. La exactitud de ambas fue similar para el H. influenzae tipo b y el S. pneumoniae. Tres de los 10 casos con cultivo positivo para N. meningítidis fueron positivos en la APL pero ninguno lo fue en la CIE. Se presentó un falso positivo para H. ínfluenzae con la APL que correspondió a meningitis por Salmonella typhí, Las pruebas inmunológicas estuvieron plenamente justificadas en 12 de los 57 pacientes (21.0%, previamente tratados, en quienes la bacteriología tradicional fue negativa o se quería identificar el germen porque lo único positivo era el gram y se justificaba utilizar el

  3. Sm10.3, a member of the micro-exon gene 4 (MEG-4 family, induces erythrocyte agglutination in vitro and partially protects vaccinated mice against Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente P Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke that causes schistosomiasis. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control disease is a combination of drug treatment and immunization with an anti-schistosome vaccine. Numerous antigens that are expressed at the interface between the parasite and the mammalian host have been assessed. Among the most promising molecules are the proteins present in the tegument and digestive tract of the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we evaluated the potential of Sm10.3, a member of the micro-exon gene 4 (MEG-4 family, for use as part of a recombinant vaccine. We confirmed by real-time PCR that Sm10.3 was expressed at all stages of the parasite life cycle. The localization of Sm10.3 on the surface and lumen of the esophageal and intestinal tract in adult worms and lung-stage schistosomula was confirmed by confocal microscopy. We also show preliminary evidence that rSm10.3 induces erythrocyte agglutination in vitro. Immunization of mice with rSm10.3 induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type response, as IFN-γ, TNF-α, and low levels of IL-5 were detected in the supernatant of cultured splenocytes. The protective effect conferred by vaccination with rSm10.3 was demonstrated by 25.5-32% reduction in the worm burden, 32.9-43.6% reduction in the number of eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, a 23.8% reduction in the number of granulomas, an 11.8% reduction in the area of the granulomas and a 39.8% reduction in granuloma fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Sm10.3 is a potential candidate for use in developing a multi-antigen vaccine to control schistosomiasis and provide the first evidence for a possible role for Sm10.3 in the blood feeding process.

  4. 81例微柱凝胶法交叉配血试验次侧凝集的临床因素分析%Analysis of clinical factors for hypo-side agglutination in 81 cases in cross match blood test with microcolumn gel assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒯迪文; 郭黠

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the etiological factor for hypo-side agglutination in cross match blood test(CMT)with microcolumn gel assay,and to provide a guide to the clinical blood transfusion.Methods The data were collected and analyzed about 81 cases with hypo-side agglutination in CMT with microcolumn gel assay and direct antiglobulin test(DAT)positive from Jan.2007 to Oct.2008.Results Among the 81 hype-side agglutinated cases,most were with kidney disease,liver and gall disease,hematologic disease and immunologic disease.Specially,the kidney disease was most,accounting for 16.2%.Conclusion The analysis contributes to disposal in CMT and the safety of clinical blood transfusion.%目的 分析使用微柱凝胶法进行交叉配血试验出现次侧凝集的各种病因,为临床输血提供指导作用.方法 收集本院2007年1月至2008年10月间所有使用微柱凝胶法进行交叉配血试验次侧出现凝集,且患者红细胞直接Coombs试验抗体为阳性的患者并进行统计分析.结果 81例次侧凝集的患者中大部分为肾脏疾病、肝胆疾病、血液疾病以及免疫性疾病,其中又以肾脏疾病最多,占16.2%.结论 本结论对不同疾病的交叉配血试验和安全输血有一定的指导作用.

  5. Study and evaluation on tumor cell agglutinating activity of human sera%血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性及其意义的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广超; 翟庆云; 石渊渊; 王玉兰

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨血清对肿瘤细胞凝集的影响以及血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性测定的意义。方法:采用体外细胞凝集实验和实验性转移模型等,以及以热变性、酶消化和盐析等方法处理血清。结果:血清诱导促进高转移潜能肿瘤细胞凝集,以恶性肿瘤患者血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性最高,其对恶性肿瘤诊断的灵敏度为90.6%,特异性为92.1%,准确性为91.3%。糖肽能有效地抑制血清诱导的黑色素瘤B16细胞凝集及其实验性肺转移。此外蛋白酶及高碘酸处理血清可使血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性极大的降低,正常人及良性瘤患者血清活性对热较稳定,而恶性肿瘤患者血清活性则比较敏感等。结论:血清中存在肿瘤细胞凝集因子,正常人及良性瘤患者血清中因子可能主要是糖蛋白,恶性肿瘤患者血清中的则可能还有少量氨基多糖和凝集素类。血清可能通过诱导肿瘤细胞凝集促进肿瘤转移。此外,血清凝集肿瘤细胞活性与肿瘤转移相关,其在恶性肿瘤的临床诊断及预后方面可能具有重要的应用价值。%Objective:To probe into the effect of human sera on tumor cell aggregation and evaluate tumor cell agglutinating activity of human sera.Methods:The aggregation of human nasopharyngeal carcinom a cells(CNE-2L2)with high metastatic potential induced by human sera in vitro and the experimental lung metastasis of B16 murine melanoma were quant ified.Human sera were treated by hot,pronase,salt out or periodate oxidation,etc .Results:L2 cell aggregatin was introduced and enhanced b y the sera of normal persons, benign tumor or malignant tumor patients,and the tumor cell aggregating activity of malignant tumor patients’ sera was the highe st.The diagnostic sensity to malignant tumor was 90.6%,the specificity was 92.1% and the accuracy was 91.3%.The experimental metastasis of B16 cells and t umor a ggregation were inhibited by

  6. Comparative study between immunoturbidimetric and latex agglutination methods for the detection of rheumatoid factor Estudo comparativo entre as técnicas de aglutinação em látex e de imunoturbidimetria para a detecção de fator reumatoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Cristina Rocha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The rheumatoid factor (RF is the most common antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is an inflammatory chronic disease characterized by articular involvement, inflammation of synovial fluid, tissue infiltration by leucocytes and joint destruction, which ultimately determine articular deformities. The rheumatoid factor is found in 70%-80% of the adult population and in 10% of the young population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to compare immunoturbidimetric and latex agglutination methods for the detection of RF in serum. RESULTS: The immunoturbidimetric method displayed sensitivity (95.2%, specificity (89.4% and high positive correlation (R² = 0,8077 with the latex agglutination method in positive serum samples. CONCLUSION: The study allowed to demonstrate that both immunoturbidimetric and latex agglutination methods equally discriminate between negative and positive serum samples for RF.INTRODUÇÃO: O fator reumatoide (FR é o autoanticorpo mais comum encontrado em pacientes com artrite reumatoide, uma doença crônica inflamatória caracterizada pelo envolvimento articular com inflamação do líquido sinovial, infiltração de tecido por leucócitos e destruição das articulações, que acaba por determinar deformidades articulares. O FR é encontrado em 70%-80% da população adulta e em 10% da população juvenil. OBJETIVO: Comparar os métodos de imunoturbidimetria e aglutinação (prova do látex para a determinação de FR em soro. RESULTADO: Foi possível observar que o método imunoturbidimétrico apresenta sensibilidade (95,2%, especificidade (89,4% e correlação positiva elevada (R² = 0,8077 com o método de aglutinação pelo látex em amostras de soro positivas. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo permitiu demonstrar que o método imunoturbidimétrico e o método de aglutinação pelo látex são igualmente capazes de discriminar amostras negativas e positivas para FR.

  7. Study on the Performance of Microtube Column Agglutination Systems in the Detection of Red Cell Alloantibodies%微柱凝胶抗球蛋白技术检测红细胞同种抗体能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏宇清; 喻琼; 梁延连

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究微柱凝胶抗球蛋白技术检测红细胞同种抗体的能力.方法 采用微柱凝胶抗球蛋白技术对127例含有红细胞同种抗体的样本进行检测,使用经典的试管抗球蛋白法平行检测,比对两种方法的检测结果.结果 微柱凝胶抗球蛋白法对于红细胞同种抗体的检出率为98.4%,试管抗球蛋白法的检出率为80.3%.其中,试管抗球蛋白法对抗-D,-E,-C,-c,-e,-C+e,-E+c,-Mur,-Dia,-Dib,-Fyb,-Jka,-Jkb,-Lea和-P1抗体均能检出,但对于MNS血型系统抗M抗体的检出率仅为36.4%,对未知抗体特异性的冷抗体检出率为57.7%;而微柱凝胶抗球蛋白法对所有样本包含的红细胞同种抗体均能检出,除了Kidd血型系统,漏检率为33.3%.结论 微柱凝胶抗球蛋白法对于红细胞同种抗体的检出率高于试管抗球蛋白法,但是可能会漏检Kidd血型系统同种抗体,建议实验室在使用微柱凝胶抗球蛋白法的同时,应结合试管抗球蛋白方法,可以更有效地检出抗体,特别是输血前相容性试验.%Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of microtube column agglutination systems in the detection of red cell alloantibodies. Methods In this study,127cases,to contain red cell alloantibodies,were tested in parallel by the tube IAT and microtube columm gel coombs test. Results Our data indicated that 125(98. 4%) sera reacted in gel IAT,102(80. 3%) in the tube IAT. The rate of detection of clinically significant alloantibodies varied between the test sys-tems:in tube IAT,all sera of antibody to D,E,C,c,e,C + e,E + c,Mur,Dia,Dib, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, Lea and P1 were detected. But only 36. 4% sera contained anti-M were detected and 57. 7% sera contained cold alloantibody were detected. In the microtube column gel coombs test,all sera of antibody were detected except anti-Jka,Jkb. A rather high number (33. 3%) of antibodies (anti-Jka,-Jkb) were missed in gel test. Conclusion The IAT performed in microtube column

  8. 精液黏度增高对混合抗球蛋白反应(MAR)检测结果的影响及对策%Phenomenon and Solutions of Non-specific Results of Mixed Agglutination Reaction (MAR) Test with High Viscosity Semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 吴文苑; 纪玲; 陈晓兰

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the non-specific influences and solutions of high viscosity semen on mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) test. Methods: While specific viscositise of semen samples were reduced gradually in high viscosity group(n=23) and normal viscosity group (n=22), the concomitant changes were traced of antisperm antibodies detected by MAR test. Various high viscosity seminal plasma was added into another 31 normal viscosity semen samples to make up high viscosity semen specimens.The latter was treated by setting up an assay blank control (method A), washing spermatozoa (method B) and pipetting fibrinolysin into specimen(method C), respectively.The MAR test results of post-treated high viscosity samples and normal viscosity samples where high viscosity seminal plasma was not added were compared. Results: The results of MAR test were associated with viscosity in high viscosity group (r=0.912, P0.05). In general, MAR results were significant higher in high viscosity group than in normal viscosity group (P0.05). Compared with the homogeneous sperm which high viscosity seminal plasma was not inserted, MAR results of post-treated high viscosity samples were not significant different by method A and method C (P>0.05). Conclusion: Semen specimen of high viscosity can result in false position consequence of MAR test. This influence can be removed by pipetting fibrinolysin into high viscosity semen or setting up an assay blank control.%目的:探讨精液黏度增高对混合抗球蛋白反应(mixed agglutination reaction,MAR)检测结果的非特异性影响及处理措施.方法:④连续监测高黏度组(n=23)及正常黏度组n=22)精液标本黏度逐渐降低时MAR检测结果的伴随变化;②分别在31例黏度正常的活动精子中添加高黏度精浆以制备高黏度精液标本,同时应用设立空白测定对照法(A法)、洗涤精子法(B法)和加入纤维蛋白溶酶法(C法)3种方法同步处理制备的高黏度精液标本,比较处理后

  9. Rapid serum agglutination and agar gel immunodiffusion tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis Teste de soro aglutinação rápida e do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar associados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Nakada Nozaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agar gel immunodiffusion and the rapid serum agglutination tests associated to clinical signs in rams experimentally infected with Brucella ovis. The serological profile during the 12 months of infection showed a large fluctuation of antibodies that favors the failure in the diagnostic. The evaluation of tests after the experimental infection allowed to suggest that none of the tests were able to detect the infection throughout the period of study. The study reinforces the importance of considering the clinical signs to support the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar e o teste sorológico de aglutinação rápida comparados aos sinais clínicos em carneiros infectados experimentalmente com Brucella ovis para o diagnóstico confirmatório da brucelose ovina. O perfil sorológico durante os 12 meses pós-infecção mostrou flutuação da resposta por anticorpos, que favorece a falha no diagnóstico. A avaliação dos testes indicou que nenhum dos testes foi capaz de detectar a infecção durante todo o período de estudo. O estudo ressalta a importância de considerar os sinais clínicos para apoiar o diagnóstico confirmatório da infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros.

  10. A Comparison of Bovine Brucellosis ELISA Kit from Standard Tube Agglutination Test(SAT) in the Serological Investigation of Brucellosis in Xinjiang Region of China%牛布鲁氏菌抗体ELISA试剂盒与国标血清学SAT试验在布病检测中的比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多里坤·努尔沙发; 阿曼古力·马木提; 阿布都热衣木·塞提; 米吉提; 地力夏提; 阿达来提; 巴哈尔

    2011-01-01

    采集的牛血清100份、羊血清250份,分别进行国标布病虎红平板凝集试验(RBn,在牛血清中检出13份布病阳性血清,羊均为阴性。对牛的13份阳性血清分别进行动物布病试管凝集试验(SAT)和牛布鲁氏菌抗体ELISA试验。经SAT试验结果为10份阳性,ELISA试验结果为13份阳性。结果表明牛布鲁氏菌抗体ELISA试剂盒快速,操作简便,敏感性好,特异性优待研究,如果能够证明特异性高,在布病血清学检测的有效的方法。%100 serum samples from cattle and 250 serum samples from sheep were detected by GB Bengal test (RBT),the result showed that 13 positive in cattle,sheep almost obtain negative results. 13 positive serum samples from cattle differently detected by Standard tube agglutination test (SAT) and bovine brucellosis ELISA kit ,The tests showed that SAT detected 10 positive ,and ELISA kit detected 13 positive ,the date suggested that the bovine brucellosis ELISA kit was of high sensitivity and convenient fast operation ,the specificty needs futher tests,if it confirmed, provides an effective means for the serological test methods of brucellosis.

  11. Foraminíferos bentónicos aglutinados de los Depósitos turbidíticos. Área Nápoles, Sur de San Marcos de Tarrazú, Costa Rica Agglutinated foraminifera from turbiditic deposits, Nápoles Area, South of San Marcos, Tarrazú, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Campos

    2012-12-01

    ú, located within a broad structural belt not yet fully defined at the boundary between and Térraba and Valle Central sedimentary basins, the sample LOR-10 provided an faunal assemblage of exclusively agglutinated benthic foraminifera. As there were not found planktonic foraminifera, biostratigraphic determinations were not possible to obtain. Of the identified individuals, these correspond to 3 suborders, 9 superfamilies and 33 species. Regarding to the Shannon diversity index (H, the result for paleoecological interpretations was of H = 1.4, indicating conditions of marshes and marginal marine environments. On the other hand, the benthic foraminifera identified in the sample to species level, have very wide ranges of existence: from Triassic to Recent. From the point of view regarding to paleoecological salinity, there were determined the following percentages: rotaliids 53.3%, texturaliids 41.9% and miliolids 2.2%, values that are indicative of brackish lagoon environments, estuarine and shelf, these mix of environments is indicative of an allochthonous reworked deposit. The presence of Portatrochammina sp. (4.3% that appears between 500 and 2000 m, but is abundant approximately between 600 and 700 m and of Cibicides lobatulus (3.2% indicative of the upper middle bathyal zone (500-1500 m, confirm the interpretation of the deposit environment as a submarine fan of middle bathyal waters. Likewise, the preeminence of agglutinated foraminifera suggests an important contribution of detritus into the basin. Finally, stratified, cold, deep, basins with high sedimentation rates favor the preservation of agglutinated foraminifera instead carbonate ones.

  12. Hematology and agglutination titer after polyvalent immunization and subsequent challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Hematología y título de aglutinación después de inmunización polivalente y desafío con Aeromonas hydrophila a tilapias del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Bailone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of polyvalent vaccination on the hematological and serum agglutination responses in Nile tilapia challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Two dosis, 1 x 10(4 and 1 x 10(8 Colony Forming Units (CFU/mL, of vaccine containing the same amount of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus durans formalin-inactivated were tested by intraperitoneal (i.p injection. Fish were challenged ten days after vaccination i.p. with a DL50-96h of 1 x 10(7 CFU A. hydrophila/mL. Samples were collected 48 h after challenging fish to check the hematological parameters, antimicrobial activity and agglutination titer of serum, samples were collected 48 h after challenge. Before challenge, the number of erythrocytes was higher in fish vaccinated with 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL. After challenge, total number of thrombocytes was higher in fish that received the greatest dose of vaccine. Before and after challenge, total number of leukocytes and the number of lymphocytes showed the highest values in vaccinated fish. Before challenge, increased number of monocytes in vaccinated and saline-injected fish was observed. The highest agglutination titer against A. hydrophila, P. aeruginosa and E. durans was related in 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL vaccinated fish. Before challenge, high values of antimicrobial activity in non-vaccinated fish and 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL vaccinated ones was also related. Therefore, after challenge, non-vaccinated fish and saline-injected ones showed the highest antimicrobial activity. This study showed that 10 days after immunization with a polyvalent vaccine at a concentration 1 x 10(8 CFU/mL, there was an increase on erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes and circulating lymphocytes production, while the glucose levels were reduced.Este trabajo evaluó el efecto de la vacuna polivalente sobre las respuestas hematológicas y inmunológicas de tilapias del Nilo desafiadas con Aeromonas hydrophila. Dos dosis, 1 x 10(4 y 1 x 10

  13. Bacterial antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid by the latex agglutination test Detecção de antígenos bacterianos no líquido cefalorraquidiano através do teste de aglutinação de latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Maria Landgraf

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighty purulent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with clinical evidence of meningitis were studied using the Directigen latex agglutination (LA kit to determine the presence of bacterial antigen in CSF. The results showed a better diagnostic performance of the LA test than bacterioscopy by Gram stain, culture and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE, as far as Neisseria meningitidis groups B and C, and Haemophilus influenzae type b are concerned, and a better performance than bacterioscopy and culture considering Streptococcus pneumoniae. Comparison of the results with those of culture showed that the LA test had the highest sensitivity for the Neisseria meningitidis group C. Comparing the results with those of CIE, the highest levels of sensitivity were detected for N. meningitidis groups B and C. Regarding specificity, fair values were obtained for all organisms tested. The degree of K agreement when the LA test was compared with CIE exhibited better K indices of agreement for N. meningitidis groups B and C.Oitenta amostras purulentas de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com evidência clínica de meningite foram estudadas empregando-se Kit Directigen de aglutinação de latex (AL para demonstrar antígeno bacteriano no LCR. Os resultados mostraram que o teste de AL apresentou melhor desempenho diagnóstico do que bacterioscopia através da coloração de Gram, cultura e imunoeletroforese cruzada (IEC em relação à Neisseria meningitidis grupos B e C, e ao Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, e melhor do que coloração de Gram e cultura quando Streptococcus pneumoniae foi avaliado. A comparação dos resultados com os de cultura mostrou o maior nível de sensibilidade considerando-se N. meningitidis grupo C. Quanto à especificidade, os valores foram satisfatórios para todos os microrganismos testados. O grau de concordância K em relação à IEC exibiu melhores índices K de concordância para N. meningitidis grupos B e C.

  14. Seroprevalencia de leptospirosis canina en perros atendidos en clínicas veterinarias, mediante aglutinación microscópica y comparación con las técnicas de aislamiento e inmunofluorescencia indirecta Frequency of canine leptospirosis in dogs attending veterinary practices determined through microscopic agglutination test and comparison with isolation and immunofluorescence techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Silva

    2007-01-01

    estos individuos reaccionaron al test de aglutinación microscópica - MAT (14% y a la inmunofluorescencia indirecta - IFI (10%. El suero hiperinmune obtenido para la realización de esta última técnica no sería serovar específico. El test de aglutinación microscópica presentó mayor sensibilidad y especificidad que las técnicas de aislamiento e inmunofluorescencia indirectaThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency of leptospirosis in 400 dogs from rural and urban areas that attended veterinary practices in Valdivia (Chile, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. Each serum sample was tested against eight serovars of leptospira (hardjo, pomona, canicola, ballum, icterohaemorrhagiae, tarassovi, grippotyphosa, autumnalis, 14.8% of the dogs showed a positive leptospirosis title with the majority of them reacting to the serovars canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae and ballum. Most of these sera had titles between 1/400 and > 1/1600. The results presented in this study do not show a significant difference in relation to gender, origin (urban/rural, breed or vaccination status. A relationship was found between the state of dogs living in the wild and the probability of contracting the disease and vaccinated dogs in relation to the infection with the serovar ballum, being much more likely for vaccinated dogs to contract an infection with this serovar than it is for unvaccinated dogs. Additionally, the study compared the MAT, isolation and indirect immunofluorescence (IFl techniques using renal tissue of 50 urban dogs. For the IFl study, hyperimmuneserum was obtained from rats inoculated with the serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. Isolation from renal tissue was unsuccessful, although 14% showed a positive response to MAT and 10% were positively identified with IFL The hyperimmuneserum used in the IFl technique was not serovar specific. The Microscopic Agglutination Test showed a higher sensibility and specificity compared to the isolation and

  15. Comparison of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rats / Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do teste de aglutinação modificado na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and affects a lot of species of carnivores and omnivores, including the human. The rodents are important in the transmition cycle because they act as an infection font to felines, the definitive host of this protozoan. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT for the serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in rats, comparing with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT, which has been considered the golden standard in animal toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Kappa test was used for comparing the serologic tests (IFAT and MAT and for determination of cutoff appropriate to MAT in this animal species. 182 rats were caught on local recycling of solid waste and solid residue storage in Londrina city, Paraná. Out of the 182 rats, nine (4.94% were positive to IFAT at a dilution of 1:16, and 17 (9.34% and five (2.75% were reactive to MAT in dilutions 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. The comparison of results between the techniques presented kappa coefficients of 0.26 and 0.55, respectively at 1:25 and 1:50 dilutions of MAT. It can be concluded that the dilution 1:50 is the most suitable to be used as cutoff for detecting T. gondii antibodies in rats using MAT, because agreed with IFAT.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii que acomete várias espécies carnívoras e onívoras, incluindo o ser humano. Os roedores são importantes na cadeia epidemiológica da doença por servirem de fonte de infecção aos felídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos deste protozoário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT na detecção de anticorpos contra T. gondii em ratos, comparando-o à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose animal. Empregou-se o teste kappa para a comparação dos testes sorológicos (RIFI e MAT e para a determinação do ponto de corte

  16. Leptospirosis serosurvey in bovines from Brazilian Pantanal using IGG ELISA with recombinant protein LipL32 and microscopic agglutination test Sorodiagnóstico de leptospirose em bovinos do Pantanal brasileiro utilizando ELISA IgG com proteína recombinante LipL32 e soroaglutinação microscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Graça Pinto Tomich

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out in Brazilian Pantanal: region with important biodiversity. This region's climatic conditions, hydrology and geomorphology as well as the existence of great variety of wild species favor the maintenance of the Leptospira in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate IgG ELISA with recombinant protein LipL32 in comparison with microscopic agglutination test (MAT and additionally contribute to the knowledge of the distribution of the one of most important worldwide zoonotic infection, assessing the seropositivity of bovine leptospirosis in beef cattle herds of Brazilian Pantanal, an important ecological preserved area, where cattle constitute not only the most important economic resource but also the major activity compatible of the conservation of natural resource of the region. Out of 282 samples of cattle serum analyzed, 143 (50.71% were positive in MAT. The serovar Hardjo (genotypic Hardjoprajitno and Hardjobovis, Wolffi and Ballum showed the largest frequency of reactive samples. In the IgG ELISA rLipL32, 161 samples (57.09% were positive. This result was higher than obtained by MAT (pEste estudo foi realizado no Pantanal brasileiro: região que apresenta importante biodiversidade. As condições de clima, hidrologia e geomorfologia dessa região, bem como a existência de grande variedade de espécies animais silvestres, favorecem a manutenção da Leptospira no meio ambiente. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o ELISA IgG com proteína recombinante LipL32 em comparação com a soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM para o diagnóstico sorológico de Leptospira. Adicionalmente, contribuir para o conhecimento da distribuição da leptospirose bovina, uma das mais importantes zoonoses mundialmente distribuída. Foi avaliada a soropositividade para essa bactéria em rebanhos bovinos de corte da região do Pantanal, uma área onde o bovino constitui não apenas o recurso econômico mais importante

  17. Comparison of two slide agglutination serotyping methods and PCR-based capsule typing for the characterization of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes Comparação de dois métodos de sorotipagem de cápsula por aglutinação em lamina e o método de PCR para a caracterização de sorotipos de Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E.N. Bonifácio da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-three nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae isolates were serotyped by two slide agglutination methods (SAST 1 and SAST 2 and the results compared with those obtained by capsule type-specific PCR. SAST 1 presented a low correlation with results obtained by PCR (75.2% while SAST 2 showed a better agreement with the molecular technique results (93.5%. These findings suggest that SAST 2 could be an alternative method for adequate detection of H.influenzae type b.Noventa e três isolados nasofaringeanos de H. influenzae foram sorotipados através de 2 métodos de aglutinação em lamina (SAST 1 e SAST 2 e os resultados foram comparados com a sorotipagem por PCR. SAST 1 apresentou uma baixa correlação com os resultados obtidos por PCR (75,2% enquanto que SAST 2 mostrou uma melhor concordância com os resultados da técnica molecular (93,5%. Estes resultados indicam que SAST 2 pode ser um método alternativo para a correta detecção de H. influenzae tipo b.

  18. Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hynes, Sean; Hirmo, Siiri; Wadström, Torkel; Moran, Anthony P.

    1999-01-01

    Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for α-l-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for β-N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SB...

  19. Rheological characterization of the dissociation of erythrocyte agglutinates induced by lectins

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltz, J.; Rasia, R.; Valverde, J.; Pla, L.

    1998-01-01

    Энергия, выделяющаяся при реакции слипания эритроцитов или затрачивающася в процессах распада агглютинаций (склеенных групп) эритроцитов, оказывается прекрасным параметром для описания взаимодействия клеток, вызванных вызванных такими молекулами как антитела и лектины. В данной работе развит новый рео-оптический метод для оценки энергии распада агглютинаций красных кровяных клеток. Распад агглютинаций происходит в сдвиговом течении Куэтта вплоть до образования суспензии монодисперсных клеток....

  20. The false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Binici

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to assess prozone phenomenon that is quite rare and causes false negativity in serological diagnosisof brucellosis with standard dilution titers.Materials and methods: In this study the tests of four cases that have false negative serological results were evaluated.Blood cultures were obtained from all cases while cerebrospinal fluid cultures were studied in the two cases. Standardagglutination test (SAT and Coombs test were performed to all patients.Results: SAT and Coombs test was negative in titers up to 1/640 in all cases. The SAT and Coombs tests in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF of the two cases with neurobrucellosis diagnosis were negative, as well. Since the clinical and laboratoryfindings suggested the brucellosis, the serums were restudied by diluting up to 1/10240 titer and we saw that the first3 cases became positive at a titer of 1/1280. The fourth case remained negative and therefore, we applied high dilutionCoombs test. This time the test gave a positive result at 1/10240 titer beginning from 1/2560 titer. B.melitensis wasisolated from two cases.Conclusion: SAT and Coombs’ test must be diluted to titers 1/2560 or more in order to exclude false sero-negativity incases with clinical and laboratory findings suggesting brucellosis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 1(3:110-113

  1. Evaluation of a rapid strip and a particle agglutination tests for syphilis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Uribe-Salas, Felipe; García-Cisneros, Santa; Olamendi-Portugal, María; Conde-Glez, Carlos J

    2007-10-01

    The availability of new diagnostic approaches, which are easier and faster to perform than conventional tests, offers the opportunity to improve the attention given to public health problems as syphilis. This study aimed to evaluate a rapid immunochromatographic strip test (Determine TP; Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL) and a nonequipment demanding particle microagglutination test (Serodia TP-PA; Fujirebio, Japan) for qualitative detection of treponemic antibodies. Sera from 548 women belonging to 3 population groups were tested; one of them showing low syphilis seroprevalence (1.5%) and the other 2 showing higher seroprevalences (>15%). By comparison with the gold standard (Venereal Disease Research Laboratories plus fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption), sensitivity and specificity values for both diagnostic tests were calculated. Sensitivity values of both tests evaluated were higher than 95% for 2 groups of 3 addressed; in one of the high syphilis prevalence groups, Serodia TP-PA showed 88.6% sensitivity. Specificity values were above 95% for all 3 groups. The use of simple/rapid treponemic tests as those included here may prove to be a suitable replacement for the traditional syphilis serology diagnosis approach, particularly at primary care settings.

  2. Seroprevalence of bovine leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: This study is the first report of leptospirosis in Southeast Iran and showed that Leptospira pomona was the most and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae the least prevalent serovars in Southeast Iran.

  3. [Assessment of a commonly available latex particle agglutination test in rapid, bacteriologic cerebrospinal fluid diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbauer, H M; Dornbusch, H J; Zobel, G; Thiel, W

    1988-01-01

    36 cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) from patients with bacterial meningitis were tested for the presence of bacterial antigens with the "Slidex Meningite Kit" (Bio Merieux). This kit has latex particles coated with antibodies against hemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and neisseria meningitidis (NM) group A and C. With the LAT we could detect the bacterial antigens in 84% of bacterial meningitis cases, 23 of the 27 of Hib meningitis (85.2%), all of the 6 cases of SP meningitis (100%) and two of the three NM meningitis cases. The test is handicapped by the fact, that there is no antiserum against NM sero-group B, the main cause of NM meningitis in Austria. There were no false positive results with the LAT. False negative results were obtained in 19.2% of Hib and in one case of NM. Even under sufficient antibiotic therapy and with negative culture we could detect 9 Hib- and 1 NM-cases during the first 12-48 hours of therapy with this method. The LAT-Kit is a useful addition to standard methods of CSF examinations in bacterial meningitis. With the LAT a rapid bacteriological diagnosis is possible within 15 minutes. The Kit is also able to identify bacterial antigens even with negative culture and after initiation of antibiotic treatment. PMID:3133628

  4. Simple, Rapid Latex Agglutination Test for Serotyping of Pneumococci (Pneumotest-Latex)

    OpenAIRE

    Slotved, H.-C.; Kaltoft, M.; Skovsted, I. C.; Kerrn, M. B.; Espersen, F

    2004-01-01

    The “gold standard” for epidemiological typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the capsular reaction test (Neufeld test) with antisera against the 90 pneumococcal polysaccharide capsules, i.e., serotyping. The method is labor intensive and requires a certain level of experience to be performed satisfactory, and thus it has been restricted for use in specialized reference or research laboratories. Surveillance of the serotype distribution of pneumococci that cause infections is i...

  5. Comparison of Coombs' and immunocapture-agglutination tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurittin Ardic; Mustafa Ozyurt; Ogun Sezer; Ali Erdemoglu; Tuncer Haznedaroglu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella encountered in animals such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs as well as in humans. It is one of the most widely seen infections and nearly half a million cases are declared annually. Endemic infections occur especially in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Latin America and Asia.1 Seropositiveness ratios vary between 2% and 12% in Turkey.2 The average annual number of cases declared to the Turkish Ministry of Health between 1991 and 2000 was 9000.3

  6. Agglutinated Foraminifera indicate a deep bottom current over the Hovgaard Ridge, West of Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael; Frank, Niessen

    2015-04-01

    The Hovgård Ridge is situated in Fram Strait, west of Spitsbergen. The ridge either represents a submerged fragment of continental crust or an upwarped fragmant of ocean crust within the Fram Strait. Its crest rises to a water depth of approx. 1170 m. During Expedition 87 of the Icebreaker POLARSTERN in August 2014, a sediment-echosounding profile was recorded and a boxcore station was collected from the crest of Hovgård Ridge at 1169 m water depth. The surficial sediment at this station consists of dark yellowish brown pebbly-sandy mud with a minor admixture of biogenic components in the coarse fraction. Patches of large tubular foraminifera and isolated pebbles were clearly visible on the sediment surface. The sediment surface of the boxcore was covered with patches of large (>1 mm diameter) large tubular astrorhizids belonging mostly to the species Astrorhiza crassatina Brady, with smaller numbers of Saccorhiza, Hyperammina, and Psammosiphonella. Non-tubular species consist mainly of opportunistic forms such as Psammosphaera and Reophax. The presence of large suspension-feeding tubular genera as well as opportunistic forms, as well as sediment winnowing, point to the presence of a deep current at this locality that is strong enough to disturb the benthic fauna. This is confirmed by data obtained from sediment echosounding, which exhibit lateral variation of relative sedimentation rates within the Pleistocene sedimentary drape covering the ridge indicative of winnowing in a south-easterly direction.

  7. THE PERSISTENCE OF LEPTOSPIRAL AGGLUTININS TITERS IN HUMAN SERA DIAGNOSED BY THE MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete C. ROMERO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of agglutinins detected by MAT has created some problems to the interpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to examine the data of serology from 70 patients with serologically confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis by during 3-13 months after being affected with leptospires in order to elucidate the interpretation of the persistence of agglutinins detected by MAT. Sixty-one patients sera (87.14% had titers equal or greater than 800. Of these, two individuals maintained titers of 800 thirteen months after the onset. This study showed that only one sample of sera with high titers is not reliable to determine the time at which infection occurred.Persistência de títulos de aglutininas anti-leptospiras em soros humanos diagnosticados pelo teste de aglutinação microscópica A persistência de aglutininas detectadas por MAT tem criado problemas na interpretação dos resultados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar os resultados da sorologia de 70 pacientes com confirmação sorológica de leptospirose durante 3-13 meses após terem sido infectados para se poder elucidar a interpretação da persistência de aglutininas detectadas por MAT. Sessenta e um soros de pacientes (87,14% apresentaram títulos iguais, ou maiores, que 800. Destes, 2 indivíduos mantiveram títulos de 800 treze meses após terem sido infectados. Este estudo mostra que apenas uma amostra de soro, mesmo com alto título de aglutininas, não pode ser considerada para determinar a fase da doença.

  8. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1 147.1 Section 147.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... °C. (average room temperature) in a dark closet or chest, following incubation for from 24 to 36... should be incubated 48 hours at 37 °C., and the surface growth washed off with sufficient phenolized...

  9. Detection of Rocky Mountain spotted fever antibodies by a latex agglutination test.

    OpenAIRE

    Hechemy, K E; Anacker, R L; Philip, R N; Kleeman, K T; MacCormack, J. N.; Sasowski, S J; Michaelson, E E

    1980-01-01

    A latex test for immunodiagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, using erythrocyte-sensitizing substance from Rickettsia rickettsii adsorbed to latex particles, has been developed. The test was evaluated with a total of 123 single and 118 paired human sera submitted for Rocky Mount spotted fever testing. This test is simple, sensitive, and specific. Its efficiency, relative to the reference microimmunofluorescence test, was 95.1% for single sera and approached 100% for paired sera.

  10. Genes of pyelonephritogenic E. coli required for digalactoside-specific agglutination of human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, F P; Lund, B; Normark, S

    1984-01-01

    Most pyelonephritic Escherichia coli strains bind to digalactoside-containing glycolipids on uroepithelial cells. Purified Pap pili (pili associated with pyelonephritis) show the same binding specificity. A non-polar mutation early in the papA pilin gene abolishes formation of Pap pili but does not affect the degree of digalactoside-specific hemagglutination. Three novel pap genes, papE , papF and papG are defined in this report. The papF and papG gene products are both required for digalacto...

  11. Non-Agglutinating Groups Vibrio Outbreak in Qom Province in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami- Joushin M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Vibrio Cholera outbreaks have constantly been a worldwide health report in recent years and always have posed major threats to public’s health. In present study, we aimed to identify the routes of cholera distribution and its determinants which might help to spread of cholera outbreak in Qom Province in 2011. Materials and methods: In a case-control study 100 qualified cases (Our criterion to enter a cholera positive case into study was to be staying in Qom province 5 days before onset of clinical symptoms from total 100 positive cases and 100 control cases who were pair matched (in terms of age, gender and district of residence with positive cases were entered into the study. Frequency tabulations were used to conduct descriptive analyses. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify outbreak determinants. Results: Mean and standard deviation of age variable among cases and controls were 34+- 16 and 35+-6 respectively. Fifty-eight percent of cases in case group and 55% of cases in control group were men. Regarding occupational status, 30% and 31.5% of subjects among cases and controls were housekeepers respectively. Mean and standard deviation of household size for cases and controls was 5+-1.6 and 3+-1.5 respectively. Consumption of non-disinfected vegetables AOR=3.5 (1.9-6.5 was the main reason of Vibrio distribution among the population. There was no significant relationship between cholera morbidity and consumption of ice-cream, home-made fruit juice, cubic ice (produced in ice factories and water that is sold by water tankers and shops. Conclusions: As with past years, consumption of non-disinfected vegetables is keeping a high risk for cholera outbreak and, consequently, much more attempts are needed to solve this problem.

  12. New cause for false-positive results with the Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappe, R; Schulze-Berge, A

    1993-01-01

    The Pastorex Aspergillus antigen test for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis is used in many clinical laboratories. A serum sample contaminated with Penicillium chrysogenum gave a strongly positive reaction (1:128) which was heat stable, was not eliminated by pronase treatment, and was not detected by a normal rabbit globulin control. This observation was shown to be due to cross-reactions of the monoclonal antibody EB-A2 used by...

  13. DEFINITION OF SALMONELLAS IN FOWL AND ON WORKING SURFACES POULTRY-FARMING AND POULTRY-FARM THE ENTERPRISES WITH THE HELP OF TESTS - SYSTEMS ON THE BASIS OF LATEX - AGGLUTINATION Определение сальмонелл в мясе птицы и на рабочих поверхностях птицеводческих и птицеперерабатывающих предприятий с помощью тест-систем на основе латекс-агглютинации

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brovkina A. N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic preparations created on the basis of polymeric carriers, find wide application in diagnostics of various diseases with the purpose of detection of small quantity of antibodies or antigenes in various substrata. Due to the physical and chemical properties, polymeric particles are convenient carriers at creation of various diagnostic tests - systems in area immunoassay. It is possible to attribute the following moments to advantages of reaction of latex - agglutination: simplicity and speed of performance, absence of necessity for the complex equipment, reproducibility and accuracy, an opportunity of reception of the big parties of standard and homogeneous polymeric suspensions

  14. Beta-Hemolytic, Multi-Lancefield Antigen-Agglutinating Enterococcus durans from a Pregnant Woman, Mimicking Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Savini, Vincenzo; Franco, Alessia; Gherardi, Giovanni; Marrollo, Roberta; Argentieri, Angela Valentina; Pimentel de Araujo, Fernanda; Amoruso, Roberta; Battisti, Antonio; Fazii, Paolo; Carretto, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    A beta-hemolytic Lancefield antigen A-, B-, C-, D-, F-, and G-positive Enterococcus durans strain was cultivated from the rectovaginal swab of a pregnant woman who underwent antenatal screening for Streptococcus agalactiae. The isolate raised concern as to what extent similar strains are misrecognized and lead to false diagnosis of group B streptococci.

  15. Direct Agglutination Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishma-niasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkari B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or Kala azar is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of vis-ceral leishmaniasis patients using ELISA and DAT methods."nMethods: A total of 30 urine samples were collected from VL patients referred to Shiraz (southeast of Iran hospitals. Moreover 31 urine samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases such as malaria, brucellosis, hydatidosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collected samples were examined to detect anti-Leishmania antibod-ies in urine, using ELISA and DAT."nResults: Anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in urine of 18 out of 30 (60% VL patients by DAT while ELISA detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine of 28 out of 30 (93.3% of VL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-based DAT was 60% and 83.9%, respectively while sensitivity and specificity of urine-based ELISA were 93.3% and 93.5%, corre-spondingly. "nConclusion: Urine-based DAT and ELISA have a reasonable specificity and sensitivity in diagnosis of VL. Accordingly, urine-based ELISA might be a suitable alternative for serum based assays for diagnosis of VL.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid Latex Agglutination Test Using a Monoclonal Antibody To Identify Candida dubliniensis Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cel...

  17. Influence of knot on the agglutination properties of Chinese larch glulam%节子对落叶松胶合木胶合性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢力生; 刘佳权; 乔鹭婷

    2016-01-01

    采用水性高分子-异氰酸酯(API)胶黏剂对含有木节的兴安落叶松(Larix gmelinii)层板按照工程胶合木的胶合工艺进行常温加压胶合,探讨木节及其大小对兴安落叶松工程胶合木胶合性能的影响.通过对试件进行胶缝剪切强度试验和浸渍剥离与煮沸剥离试验,发现节子对胶缝常态剪切强度、木破率、浸渍剥离率和煮沸剥离率均有显著的影响,随着木节直径的增大其胶缝剪切强度和木破率可下降40%和67%以上,浸渍二次总剥离率和煮沸二次总剥离率可增大至16%和37%以上.研究表明:两胶合面中仅一面有小木节(占板宽1/7~ 1/6),只能用于室内结构用集成材,不能用于室外结构用集成材;只有尺寸小于木板宽度1/10的木节与无节面胶合才能满足室外用工程胶合木的要求.

  18. Evaluation of Four Commercial IgG- and IgM-specific Enzyme Immunoassays for Detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae Antibody: Comparison with Particle Agglutination Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Soo Jin; Oh, Hye-Jeon; Shin, Bo-Moon

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is important due to its variable clinical manifestations and absence of response to beta-lactams. Introduction of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for serologic diagnosis of M. pneumoniae has made it possible to separate the analyses of specific IgG and IgM antibodies. We compared four different commercial EIAs, ImmunoWELL IgG, IgM (GenBio), Medac IgG, IgA, IgM (Medac), Platelia IgG, IgM (Sanofi Pasteur), and Ridascreen IgG, IgA, IgM (r-Biopharm) with in...

  19. Rapid Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen by an Agglutination Assay Mediated by a Bispecific Diabody against Both Human Erythrocytes and Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Ping; Qiao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Hong-Song; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhuozhi

    2007-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies have immense potential for use in clinical applications. In the present study, a bispecific diabody against human red blood cells (RBCs) and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) was used to detect HBsAg in blood specimens. The bispecific diabody was constructed by crossing over the variable region of the heavy chains and the light chains of anti-RBC and anti-HBsAg antibodies with a short linker, SRGGGS. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, this bispecific diabody ...

  20. Validation of the Dri-Dot Latex agglutination and IgM lateral flow assays for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in an Egyptian population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Nakhla; H. El Mohammady; A. Mansour; J.D. Klena; K. Hassan; Y. Sultan; R. Pastoor; T.H. Abdoel; H. Smits

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory confirmation of typhoid fever is essential for appropriate medical treatment. Blood culture is a standard test for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but well-equipped diagnostic facilities to perform culture are seldom available in endemic areas. We retrospectively compared 2 diagnostic field t

  1. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  2. 软体动物粗蛋白对藻类的凝集作用%Agglutination of Algal Cells to the Crude Proteins of Mollusks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寅山; 张鹭; 郑怡

    2002-01-01

    采用绿色巴夫藻(Pavlova viridis)、盐藻(Dunaliella salina)、塔胞藻(Pyramimonas sp.)、海产小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)、亚心型扁藻(Platymonas cordiformis)、蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa)、紫球藻(Porphyridium purpureum)等7种单细胞藻类对福建省10种常见软体动物粗蛋白提取物进行凝集活性筛选,其中有7种动物粗蛋白显示出对藻类细胞有凝集活性.同时,发现紫球藻的敏感性强于其它种类.这些粗蛋白的凝集活性在不同酸碱度和高温下表现出较强的稳定性,尤其是薄壳绿螂、菲律宾蛤仔、斑玉螺、短蛸的粗蛋白在95℃恒温15min后仍有活性.这些动物粗蛋白对紫球藻的凝集活性可以被0.02mol/L和0.04mol/L的EDTA所抑制,同时还能为9种糖类所抑制.

  3. Study of Latex Agglutination Test for the Detection of Serum Antibodies against Infectious Coryza in Chickens%乳胶凝集试验检测鸡传染性鼻炎血清抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何启盖; 陈焕春; 张小飞; 汪超; 吴斌

    2000-01-01

    将A型和C型鸡副嗜血杆菌培养后,菌落计数,离心计数,离心后用0.01M pH7.4磷酸盐缓冲液洗涤菌体2次.经过对致敏温度、致敏时间、致敏乳胶的菌体浓度及菌体的处理方式等条件的选择,建立了检测鸡传染性鼻炎血清抗体的乳胶凝集试验.与琼脂扩散试验相比,特异性一致,但更加敏感,且操作简便、快速.结果说明,该方法有较好的应用前景,尤其适用于本病的现场快速诊断.

  4. Application of agglutinative limulus test to monitor bacterial endotoxin in fluconazole and glucose injection%凝胶法鲎试验检测氟康唑葡萄糖注射液细菌内毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄循明

    2005-01-01

    目的:建立用鲎试剂检查氟康唑葡萄糖注射液细菌内毒素的方法.方法:参照中国药典2000年版二部细菌内毒素检查法进行试验.结果:氟康唑葡萄糖注射液对鲎试剂的细菌内毒素检查无干扰.结论:鲎试剂可用于氟康唑葡萄糖注射液的细菌内毒素检查.

  5. Aspects of studying the Turkic root and the characteristics of types of monosyllabic root bases as a reflection of evolution process in development of agglutinative structure of the Turkic word form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikhulov A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of establishment of monosyllabism (or non-monosyllabism of the Turkic and Mongolian morpheme are directly connected with the characteristics regarding the dissoluble unit (or indissoluble unit of mentioned root bases. In the present work the author uses the term “root bases” keeping in mind a big and transparent closeness of root morpheme to the base on the range of its features and structural accordance as in the Turkic as well as in Mongolian languages. As it is known in Turkic scientific researches in last two decades of the leaving age division of monosyllabic root bases (names and verbs on to smaller lexical-grammatical ones are considered as relatively new statement of the problem that has been treated skeptically enough. The majority of scholars were convinced in the possibility of holding such operation of “splitting” for purposeful searching and ascertaining of convincing arguments. They came to conclusion that monosyllabic roofs represented the category of historical one. It is supposed that everything that nowadays has removed in the researched Turkic languages of Ural-Volga region (as in all Altay languages into the “passive stock of lexical order” used to be active and viable. This phenomenon presents certain interest for studying the process of the historical development of root’s structure as in turkology, so in Altaic studies, in which all the researchers who systematically studied the structure of a root using big linguistic material recognize availability of “dead roots”. At the same tune, some researchers consider “dead ones” those root elements that are not used in the linguistic practice self-dependently other ones the same root elements that cannot be removed from the derivative basis.

  6. Correlation of energy-dependent cell cohesion with social motility in Myxococcus xanthus.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimkets, L J

    1986-01-01

    An agglutination assay was used to study cell cohesion in the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Vegetative cells agglutinated in the presence of the divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+. Agglutination was blocked by energy poisons that inhibit electron transport, uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, or inhibit the membrane-bound ATPase. However, energy was not required for the maintenance of cells in the multicellular aggregate. Cyanide, a strong inhibitor of agglutination, did not cause cells to di...

  7. 乳胶凝集法检测小儿急性胃肠炎粪便中轮状病毒抗原%Detection of rotavirus antigen in stool specimens in infants with acute gastroenteritis by latex-agglutination assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛; 谈意隽; 沈霞

    2004-01-01

    轮状病毒是引起婴幼儿脱水性腹泻的重要病原体之一,世界范围内估计每年有9百万人发病,导致87300人死亡,是发展中国家婴幼儿死亡的主要病因。因此快速、准确检测轮状病毒感染具有重要的临床意义。我们对2001年1月至2004年4月新华医院住院和门诊急性水样或蛋花样便腹泻患儿的粪便用乳胶凝集试验进行轮状病毒抗原检测.总结如下。

  8. 3株与O139群霍乱弧菌血清交叉凝集的麦氏弧菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of 3 strains of vibrio metschnikovii isolates which cross-agglutinated with Vibrio Cholerae O139

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映霞; 许少洪; 黄芳; 吴琪; 曾雅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect and identify 3 suspected vibrio cholerae O139 isolates which isolated from 2011 to 2012.Methods The samples were isolated and cultured,serological tested and biochemical identified according to inspection standard.Results The 3 strains were identified as vibrio metschnikovii,and the 3 strains were cross-reacted with vibrio cholerae O139 diagnostic serum.Conclusions The 3 strains were not the vibrio cholerae O139,but vibrio metschnikovii.In order to prevent the possibility of false-positive results,the accuracy of identification should be assured.Especially when dealing with the cholera outbreak,the correct identification of pathogenic bacteria can provide scientific basis for control and prevent epidemics.%目的 2011-2012年对3株疑似O139群霍乱弧菌进行检测与分离鉴定.方法 依据检验标准对样本进行分离培养、血清学试验、生化反应等鉴定.结果 该3株菌为麦氏弧菌,与O139群霍乱弧菌诊断血清有交叉凝集.结论 该3菌株不是O139群霍乱弧菌,而是麦氏弧菌.为避免实验结果出现假阳性,必须进行系统生化鉴定,以确保菌株鉴定的准确性.特别是在处理霍乱疫情时,病原菌的正确鉴定可为控制疫情提供科学依据.

  9. Apollo 14 soils - Size distribution and particle types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, D. S.; Heiken, G. H.; Taylor, R. M.; Clanton, U. S.; Morrison, D. A.; Ladle, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    Particle size characteristics are discussed together with particle types, abundances, variation in the soils, questions of soil maturity, coarse fines, and ropy glasses. It is found that agglutinates are formed primarily by micrometeorite impact into lunar soil. Agglutinates appear to be the major particle type now being formed on the lunar surface. Agglutinate content of a soil increases with particle track densities and with surface exposure time.

  10. Infecção em cão por Brucella abortus: relato de caso Brucella abortus infection in dog: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Megid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus infection is reported in a dog from a rural area that presented at clinical evaluation left testicular enlargement and right testicular decrease. Serum resulted negative to rapid agglutination test and agar gel immunodifusion with Brucella ovis antigen but positive to buffered plate agglutination test, tube agglutination test and 2- Mercapthoetanol with B. abortus antigen. Brucella isolation was negative in blood, testicular material, semen and urine. Brucella DNA was detected in PCR from urine and blood.

  11. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  12. Para-Bombay phenotype: report of a rare blood group

    OpenAIRE

    A.Yashovardhan; I.S.Chaitanya Kumar; K.V. Sreedhar Babu; B. Suresh Babu; Anju Verma; Jothi Bai, D.S.; B. Siddhartha Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The blood sample of a 54-year-old male patient who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of anaemia was submitted to the Blood Bank for blood grouping and cross-matching. In forward grouping, no agglutination was observed with A, B and AB antisera, but agglutination was noticed with D antiserum (Group O). In reverse grouping, there was agglutination in tube labelled A and no agglutination in tubes B and O (Group B) resulting in discrepancy between forward and reverse grouping. Furth...

  13. 75 FR 39545 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... vaccines are produced in chicken eggs, a production method that is disadvantaged by lengthy vaccine... proteins properly fold, form oligomers, bind fetuin, agglutinate red blood cells and induce...

  14. Activity of antibodies against Salmonella dublin, Toxoplasma gondii, or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in sera after treatment with electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Lind, Peter; Preuss, T.;

    1996-01-01

    was used as an estimate for the relative posttreatment activity. For a Toxoplasma gondii indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay as well as for a Salmonella dublin indirect ELISA, the posttreatment activity was more than 89% of the pretreatment activity when the samples...... inactivation, especially when used in indirect ELISA or in the T. gondii agglutination assay....

  15. Evaluation of four methods for cytomegalovirus antibody detection for use by a bone marrow transplantation service.

    OpenAIRE

    Leland, D S; Barth, K A; Cunningham, E B; Jansen, J; Tricot, G J; French, M L

    1989-01-01

    Four methods, latex agglutination, indirect fluorescent antibody, enzyme immunoassay, and complement fixation, were compared for cytomegalovirus antibody screening and for pre- and posttransplant determinations on bone marrow transplant recipients. Latex agglutination was most sensitive (98%) and specific (97%) for screening and pretransplant determinations and was quickest and easiest to perform. In posttransplant sera from allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, all methods except com...

  16. New vision technology for multidimensional quality monitoring of continuous frying of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Søren Blond; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2010-01-01

    . The vision technology can also detect even slight increases in the agglutination of the fried minced meat during the process. This agglutination is undesirable, but very difficult to measure on-line. The results indicate that multi-spectral vision technology may partially or totally Substitute visual...

  17. Field evaluation of a fast anti-Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hailu; G.J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2006-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitol

  18. Preshipment testing success: resolution of a nasal sinus granuloma in a captive koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) caused by Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Pye, Geoffrey W; Meyer, Wieland; Sykes, Jane E

    2012-12-01

    A 3-yr-old female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) was diagnosed with a nasal sinus granuloma caused by Cryptococcus gattii after a pre-shipment examination revealed a latex cryptococcal agglutination titer of 1:512. Successful medical and surgical treatment of the granuloma was monitored using serial latex cryptococcal agglutination titers, serum levels of antifungal drugs, and advanced imaging.

  19. Characterization of a lipopolysaccharide mutant of Leptospira derived by growth in the presence of an anti-lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zapata; G. Trueba; D.M. Bulach; D. Boucher; B. Adler; R. Hartskeerl

    2010-01-01

    A lipopolysaccharide mutant of Leptospira interrogans (LaiMut) was obtained by growth in the presence of an agglutinating monoclonal antibody (mAb) against lipopolysaccharide. Agglutination reactions with anti-lipopolysaccharide mAbs and polyclonal antibodies showed that LaiMut had lost some serogro

  20. The lipopolysaccharide (R type) as a common antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. II. Use of hen antiserum to gonococcal lipopolysaccharide in a rapid slide test for the identification of N. gonorrhoeae from primary isolates and secondary cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R; Ashton, F E; Ryan, A; Diena, B B

    1978-02-01

    An antiserum has been prepared in hens to R-type gonococcal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and used in a simple slide-agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anti-LPS serum agglutinated gonococcal cells representative of the four colony types of N. gonorrhoeae. Absorption of the antiserum with LPS removed the agglutinating activity. Secondary cultures (1120) were tested without observation of the colony type and all were agglutinated. No agglutination occurred with strains of Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica, non-pathogenic Neisseria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Branhamella catarrhalis, or with species of lactobacilli and Acinetobacter. Cross-reactivity of the antiserum occurred with some streptococci. The anti-LPS serum was used to identify N. gonorrhoeae in primary isolates from the cervix, urethra, and pharynx. Of 251 gonococcal isolates tested, 249 were agglutinated by the antiserum, while all of the corresponding second cultures were agglutinated. The antiserum did not agglutinate N. meningitidis found in primary isolates from pharyngeal specimens. Anti-LPS hen serum should be useful for the rapid identification of N. gonorrhoeae in primary isolates or secondary cultures. PMID:417781

  1. First reported case of Staphylococcus condimenti infection associated with catheter-related bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Misawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient who experienced a catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by Staphylococcus condimenti, which was first isolated from soy sauce mash. This is the first reported case of human infection. Although blood culture isolates and the catheter tip tube did not reveal coagulase or clumping factor, false-positive results were obtained from latex agglutination tests for clumping factor and protein A due to self-agglutination. Care is needed when performing only latex agglutination test without a coagulase test. Further studies are needed to determine the pathogenic potential of S. condimenti based on appropriate identification.

  2. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  3. SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF CANINE BRUCELLLOSIS IN A KENNEL OF KOLKATA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against Brucella canis was detected in 5 out of 10 Labrador bitches tested for brucellasis by 2-mercapto-ethanol rapid slide agglutination Test and lateral flow immunechromatographic assay at Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

  4. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agglutination tests (a specific type of antigen-antibody reaction) for the detection of antibodies to rickettsia... belonging to the genus Rickettsiae and provide epidemiological information on these diseases. Rickettsia...

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-udløst autoimmun hæmolyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anne Lisbeth; Aagaard, Thomas Granum; Birgens, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is naturally resistant to betalactamase antibiotics but is sensitive to macrolides. Occasionally, infections with M. pneumoniae can lead to severe anaemia due to its ability to cause haemolysis when cold agglutination occurs. Increasing bacterial resistance to macrolid...

  7. HBsAg detection by passive hemagglutination (Hepanosticon--Organon). Advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balş, M G; Hagiescu, L

    1976-01-01

    Investigated comparatively with immunodiffusion, electroimmunodiffusion, complement fixation and Latex agglutination, passive hemagglutination with the Hepanosticon--Organon reagent proved to be an easy, rapid, highly reproducible method for HBsAg detection.

  8. A hemolysis-hemagglutination assay for characterizing constitutive innate humoral immunity in wild and domestic birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, K.D.; Ricklefs, R.E.; Klasing, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Methods to assess immunocompetence requiring only a single sample are useful in comparative studies where practical considerations prevent holding or recapturing individuals. The assay for natural antibody-mediated complement activation and red blood cell agglutination described here, requiring ~100

  9. Anti-gammaglobulin factors in human sera revealed by enzymatic splitting of anti-Rh antibodies. Vox Sang 1963;8:133-52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterland, C K; Harboe, M; Kunkel, H G

    1993-01-01

    Human sera were found that contained antibody activity which caused agglutination of red cells or particles sensitized with immunoglobulin G that had first been degraded by pepsin proteolysis. The agglutinating activity was specific for a determinant that was not present on the untreated, native immunoglobulin. It was found most frequently in sera from rheumatoid arthritis patients and its titre showed some correlation with disease activity. PMID:7685972

  10. The study of immunological effects of irradiated p. multocida vaccine in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inactivated p.multocida vaccine can be made with gamma irradiation. The vaccine is used for immunizing rabbits for the prevention of pasteurellosis. The result is reasonably good. The highest titer of the tube agglutination test was 800. The immunity persists for about five months. As the control, formol vaccine is used. The highest titer of the tube agglutination test is 320. The immunity persists for about four months. (author)

  11. Sialidase-Enhanced Lectin-Like Mechanism for Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii Hemagglutination

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, R P; Fillery, E D; Chan, K.H.; Grove, D A

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory strains representing six numerical taxonomy clusters and fresh isolates of human Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii were studied by standard flocculation slide tests for the ability to hemagglutinate erythrocytes (RBC) from various animal species. Human AB and horse RBC were agglutinated more frequently and rapidly than others; guinea pig RBC were agglutinated by only a few strains. Human AB RBC were selected for studies of hemagglutination mechanisms. Treatment of RBC...

  12. Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    ERDOĞRUL, Özlem

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enteritidis in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. The method suggested by USDA-FSIS was used for the isolation and identification of L. monocytogenes. S. enteritidis was identified and sero-grouped by co-agglutination test and slide agglutination test. Y. enterocolitica was isolated in Trypticase-Soy Broth, with bile-oxalate-sorbose medium for enrichment. Both enrichment cultures w...

  13. Brucellosis- Advanced Diagnostic Methods and Update on Epidemiology/ Epizootology in the Balkan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2005-01-01

    Brucellosis is a typical zoonotic disease caused by organisms of genus brucella, a potential bio-warfare agent. Humans become infected by ingestion of animal food products, direct contact with infected animals or inhalation of infectious aerosols. Different diagnostic tests, ranging from culture, serologic test (Slide Agglutination Test, Tube Agglutination Test, Antihuman Globulin Test, 2-Mercaptoethanol Test, Fluorescent Polarization Test, ELISA) and numerous PCR-based assays are availab...

  14. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies of two dynamically expressed cell surface determinants on Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J E

    1986-01-01

    Variability in the expression of two different cell surface carbohydrate determinants was examined with two agglutinating immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies (H9 and C6) and immunoelectron microscopy during growth of three strains of Candida albicans. A single strain of Candida parapsilosis did not express either antigen at any time during growth. Antigens were detected on the surface of C. albicans by agglutination tests with either H9 or C6 over a 48-h growth period. The difference in sp...

  15. Screening of Lectins in Crab and Shrimp from Fujian Coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Congjie

    2005-01-01

    Twelve species of crustacean from Fujian coast were examined for lectins with different animal erythrocytes. Serum extracts fromall of 12 species showed agglutinating activity against at least two types of the erythrocytes used, which revealed the existence of lectins in these species. There were five species ( Penaeus japonicus,Lophosquilla costata, Charybdis feriatus, Portunus pelagicus, Scylla serrata ) whose serums could agglutinate all the erythrocytes tested. The lowest serum protein concentration required to produce erythrocytes agglutination varied remarkably,ranging from 0.7 μ g/mL to 8 080 μ g/mL. The strongest activity was shown in the agglutination of rabbit erythrocyte by serum of Penaeus vanaminas. Inhibition assays performed with seven mono- and bisaccharides showed that agglutination of quail erythrocytes by serums of three species (Portunus pelagicus, Scylla serrata and Sesarma sp. ) were not inhibited by any sugars, while others were inhibited by at least three types of sugars. The assay of temperature influence on agglutinating activity showed that only Penaeusjaponicus retained activity when the serum was heated to 90 ℃, and other serums lost their activity at 40 ℃, 50 ℃, 60 ℃, 70 ℃, 80 ℃ for 10 minutes, respectively.

  16. Effect of superposition and masking between red blood cell autoantibodies and alloantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, D Q

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the law of superposition and masking between autoantibodies and alloantibodies, and to ensure the detection of alloantibodies and to improve the safety of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia patients. Eight kinds of commercial IgG red blood cell antibody reagents were serially diluted, and 3 kinds of antibodies at dilutions showing a continuous gradual decline in agglutination strength with the corresponding antigen red blood cells were treated as the target antibodies. Anti-D and anti-M were treated as simulated autoantibodies, and anti-Fya was treated as a simulated alloantibody. Four concentrations, 4+, 3+, 2+ and 1+, of autoantibodies and three concentrations, 3+, 2+ and 1+, of alloantibodies were combined, and 12 kinds of hybrid antibodies were detected and evaluated by the anti-human globulin micro-column gel assay. When the simulated strong autoantibody (4+) was used, the alloantibodies (3+, 2+, 1+) had no effect on the final agglutination strength; when the strength of agglutination produced by the simulated autoantibody was less than 4+, and at the same time there were alloantibodies (3+, 2+, 1+), the differences in agglutination strength with a panel of RBCs could be clearly observed. Strong autoantibodies (4+) can exert a masking effect, leading to alloantibodies being undetected; autoantibodies less than 4+, will produce the superimposed effect with alloantibodies, resulting in differences in agglutination strength. PMID:25036516

  17. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Mosul city by indirect ELISA and conventional serological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. KH. AL-Hankawe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 126 cattle (94 females and 32 males of different ages (1->5 years randomly selected from July 2007 to August 2008 in Mosul. Indirect ELISA test and other traditional tests (rose Bengal test, tube agglutination test and 2- mercapto-ethanol test were used to determine the incidence of bovine brucellosis. The highest incidence of disease was recorded by Indirect ELISA, 23.01%, whereas it was 18.25%, 11.90% and 4.76% by rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2- Mercapto-ethanol tests, respectively. The highest incidence was in females in all serological tests and the highest incidence was in females at the age between 1-3 years whereas in males more than 3 years of age it was 23.07%. The results of tube agglutination test revealed the titer 1/40 occurred mostly compared with other titers. Six chronic cases were determined by 2-mercapto-ethanol test. The degree of agreement of negative samples with rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA, tube agglutination, and 2- mercapto-ethanol tests was 94.17%, 100% and 100%, respectively, and by indirect ELISA with rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2-mercapto-ethanol tests was 79.31%, 51.72% and 20.68%, respectively.

  18. An alternative chemical redox method for the production of bispecific antibodies: implication in rapid detection of food borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Owais

    Full Text Available Bi-functional antibodies with the ability to bind two unrelated epitopes have remarkable potential in diagnostic and bio-sensing applications. In the present study, bispecific antibodies that recognize human red blood cell (RBC and the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes were engineered. The procedure involves initial reduction of a mixture of anti-RBC and anti-Listeria antibodies followed by gradual re-oxidation of the reduced disulphides. This facilitates association of the separated antibody chains and formation of hybrid immunoglobulins with affinity for the L. monocytogenes and human RBC. The bispecific antibodies caused the agglutination of the RBCs only in the presence of L. monocytogenes cells. The agglutination process necessitated the specific presence of L. monocytogenes and the red colored clumps formed were readily visible with naked eyes. The RBC agglutination assay described here provides a remarkably simple approach for the rapid and highly specific screening of various pathogens in their biological niches.

  19. Molecular dynamic simulation of Copper and Platinum nanoparticles Poiseuille flow in a nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghraie, Davood; Mokhtari, Majid; Afrand, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, simulation of Poiseuille flow within nanochannel containing Copper and Platinum particles has been performed using molecular dynamic (MD). In this simulation LAMMPS code is used to simulate three-dimensional Poiseuille flow. The atomic interaction is governed by the modified Lennard-Jones potential. To study the wall effects on the surface tension and density profile, we placed two solid walls, one at the bottom boundary and the other at the top boundary. For solid-liquid interactions, the modified Lennard-Jones potential function was used. Velocity profiles and distribution of temperature and density have been obtained, and agglutination of nanoparticles has been discussed. It has also shown that with more particles, less time is required for the particles to fuse or agglutinate. Also, we can conclude that the agglutination time in nanochannel with Copper particles is faster that in Platinum nanoparticles. Finally, it is demonstrated that using nanoparticles raises thermal conduction in the channel.

  20. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Apollo 17 drill core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Lithologic abundances obtained from modal analyses of a continuous string of polished thin sections indicate that the Apollo 17 deep drill core can be divided into three main zones: An upper zone (0-19 cm depth) characterized by high abundances of agglutinates (30%) and a high ratio of mare to non-mare lithic fragments (less than 0.8); a coarse-grained layer (24-56 cm) rich in fragments of high-Ti mare basalts and mineral fragments derived from them, and poor in agglutinates (6%); and a lower zone (56-285 cm) characterized by variable but generally high agglutinate abundances (25%) and a low ratio of mare to nonmare lithic fragments (0.6). Using observations of the geology of the landing site, the principles of cratering dynamics, and the vast amount of data collected on the core, the following depositional history for the section of regolith sampled by the Apollo 17 drill core: was devised.

  1. P System antigenic determiners expression in Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce De León Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The P System antigens have been detected in numerous parasites, bacterias and viruses, nevertheless the clinical significance is still unknown. The aim was to study the presence of P1 antigenic determiners in A. lumbricoides extracts by means of the use of 6 different monoclonal antibodies of well-known concentrations and Ig class. We worked with 14 A. lumbricoides extracts. Inhibition Agglutination Test was made in a bromelin enzymatic medium and 4 masculineC temperature. Titre, Score and Sensitivity Parameter were determined for each monoclonal antibody against red cells suspension used as revealing system. Ten extracts inhibited the agglutination of all anti P1 monoclonal antibodies. The 4 remaining extracts only inhibited the agglutination of some of them. It is demonstrated that the extracts have P1 activity. This activity is independent of titre, Score, Sensitivity Parameter, concentration and Ig class and it depends on the epitope at which the monoclonal antibody is directed.

  2. Chart-driven Connectionist Categorial Parsing of Spoken Korean

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, W I; Lee, J H; Lee, WonIl; Lee, Geunbae; Lee, Jong-Hyeok

    1995-01-01

    While most of the speech and natural language systems which were developed for English and other Indo-European languages neglect the morphological processing and integrate speech and natural language at the word level, for the agglutinative languages such as Korean and Japanese, the morphological processing plays a major role in the language processing since these languages have very complex morphological phenomena and relatively simple syntactic functionality. Obviously degenerated morphological processing limits the usable vocabulary size for the system and word-level dictionary results in exponential explosion in the number of dictionary entries. For the agglutinative languages, we need sub-word level integration which leaves rooms for general morphological processing. In this paper, we developed a phoneme-level integration model of speech and linguistic processings through general morphological analysis for agglutinative languages and a efficient parsing scheme for that integration. Korean is modeled lexi...

  3. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR test for simultaneous identification and serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5, and 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessing, Stine Graakjær; Angen, Øystein; Inzana, Tomas J.

    2003-01-01

    6 were combined with the already existing species-specific primers used in a PCR test based on the omlA gene. The PCR test was evaluated with serotype reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae as well as 182 Danish field isolates previously serotyped by latex agglutination or immunodiffusion. For all...... cross-reacted by the latex agglutination test were of serotype 2, 5, or 6. Determination of the serotype by PCR represents a convenient and specific method for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories....

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thulliez, P.; Weigel, R.M.;

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were compared in 1,000 naturally exposed sows, using isolation of viable T gondii as the definitive test. Serum samples obtained from heart blood of 1,000 sows from Iowa were examined for T gondii...... antibodies by use of the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and ELISA. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 170 hearts of 1,000 sows by bioassays in mice and cats. The percentage of samples diagnosed as positive for each of the serologic...

  5. Evaluation of four phenotypic methods for the rapid identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasinga R. Bandaru

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The cefoxitin disc diffusion method, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI was found to be a reliable method for MRSA detection but it should be supplemented with some other method like latex agglutination to enhance the isolation rate of MRSA. We recommend that along with cefoxitin disc diffusion with another reliable method, preferably latex agglutination should be routinely used in all microbiology diagnostic laboratories to detect MRSA which help for its control of spread. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2271-2275

  6. Evaluation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, E; Singhal, A; Verghese, S; D'Lima, D; Mathai, D; Ganesh, A; Thomas, K; Moses, P

    1996-06-01

    Brucela serology using ELISA and standard agglutination test was performed on 23 patients with prolonged fever where the test was requested, on 26 randomly chosen patients with prolonged fever where it was not requested and on 17 controls. ELISA was positive in 39.1, 26.9 and 0 per cent respectively in these groups. Brucellosis may often be unsuspected because of its varied clinical manifestations and may be a more important cause of fever than previously considered. Our data reaffirm that ELISA is superior to the standard agglutination test for the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  7. [Seroepidemiologic survey of leptospirosis among environmental sanitation workers in an urban locality in the southern region of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, L P; Martins, L F; Brod, C S; Germano, P M

    1994-02-01

    Sera from 386 environmental sanitation workers, concerned with water supply, drains and drainage galleries, sewers, garbage collection and road sweepers, were examined for leptospiral agglutinins by the microscopic agglutination test. Altogether 40 of the 386 workers (10.4%) were positive to one or more serovars; however, the difference in seropositivity between the professional categories was not significant (p 0.05). Of the seropositive workers, 86.9% had agglutination titres > or = 100 and < or = 400; the rates for titres 100 and 400 were higher than 800, 1,600 and 3,200 (p < 0.05). PMID:7997826

  8. Anti-tumour efficacy of mouse spleen cells separated with Dolichos biflorus lectin (DBA) in experimental pulmonary metastasis of B16 melanoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, T.; Higuchi, M.; Takano, M; Maruyama, T.; Imai, Y; Osawa, T

    1990-01-01

    Anti-tumour effector cells were generated through 4 days culture of normal C57BL/6 splenocytes in a medium containing concanavalin A supernatant and then fractionated with Dolichos biflorus lectin (DBA) into DBA+ (agglutinable with DBA) and DBA- (non-agglutinable with DBA) cells. The DBA- cells, infused intravenously into mice together with B16 melanoma cells, or adoptively transferred into mice 3 days after the injection of B16 cells, caused a marked decrease in the number of lung nodules, w...

  9. Some characteristics of salt-dependent haemagglutinating measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirodaria, P V; Dermott, E; Gould, E A

    1976-10-01

    Several strains of measles virus which did not agglutinate monkey erythrocytes in phosphate-buffered saline did so in buffer containing 0-8 M-ammonium sulphate. Haemadsorption to cells infected with these viruses was also salt-dependent. In a series of tests salt-dependent agglutinin was shown to be a stable structural component of the infectious virion. The relevance of these findings is discussed in the light of previous reports that many measles virus preparations do not agglutinate erythrocytes. PMID:62022

  10. XAFS Study of Active Tungsten Species on WO3/TiO2 as a Catalyst for Photo-SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of the photo-assisted selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (photo-SCR) was enhanced by the addition of WO3 to TiO2. From the result of XAFS analysis, the W species on TiO2 had a WO4 tetrahedral structure and agglutination took place as the addition of WO3 was increased. We conclude that the isolated W species enhances the surface acidity and photo-SCR activity whereas the agglutinated W species is an inactive species

  11. Rapid detection of hemagglutination using restrictive microfluidic channels equipped with waveguide-mode sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Awazu, Koichi; Fu, Mengying; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Tanaka, Torahiko; Makishima, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    Hemagglutination is utilized for various immunological assays, including blood typing and virus detection. Herein, we describe a method of rapid hemagglutination detection based on a microfluidic channel installed on an optical waveguide-mode sensor. Human blood samples mixed with hemagglutinating antibodies associated with different blood groups were injected into the microfluidic channel, and reflectance spectra of the samples were measured after stopping the flow. The agglutinated and nonagglutinated samples were distinguishable by the alterations in their reflectance spectra with time; the microfluidic channels worked as spatial restraints for agglutinated red blood cells. The demonstrated system allowed rapid hemagglutination detection within 1 min. The suitable height of the channels was also discussed.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO SOROLÓGICA DE Parainfluenzavirus Tipo 1, Salmonella spp., Mycoplasma spp. E Toxoplasma gondii EM AVES SILVESTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Marietto Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease, salmonellosis and mycoplamosis are the most important infectious diseases in poultry. Toxoplamosis is a common disease in urban environment. The present study investigated serologic evidence of these diseases in captive and wildlife birds, with rapid plate agglutination test, haemagglutination inhibition test, and modified agglutination test. In a total of 117 blood serum samples, 20 showed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Salmonella spp. antibodies. Amazona aestiva was the specie with the highest number of positive individuals (13/20. We also verified the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in birds of prey from Mivalgo chimachima and Rupornis magnirostris species.

  13. Journal of Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D S; Romand, D. H. S.; Thulliez, P.; Kwok, O. C. H.; J.C.R. Silva; Oliveira-Camargo, M. C.; Gennari, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona were determined in serum samples of 502 domestic cats from Brazil using direct agglutination tests with the respective antigens. Antibodies to S. neurona were not found in 1:50 dilution of any serum in the S. neurona agglutination test, suggesting that domestic cats from Sao Paulo city were not exposed to S. neurona sporocysts from opossums. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 60 (11.9%) of 502 cats with titers of 1:40 in 36 cats, 1:80...

  14. Radioimmunological determination of native and heat denaturated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, E.J.; Glatz, F.

    1981-01-01

    Precipitation radioimmunoassay, solid phase radioimmunoassay and passive hemagglutination were examined for their efficiency in the determination of native or denaturated soy proteins. Native as well as autoclaved soy protein could be determined quantitatively in the precipitation radioimmunoassay, using antisera directed against the native product. In the solid phase technique only the autoclaved soy protein could be detected with high sensitivity. In the passive hemagglutination reaction, no agglutination could be observed with erythrocytes coated with autoclaved soy protein. Only antisera against the denaturated (autoclaved) soy protein agglutinated these erythrocytes.

  15. 21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proteins derived from plants and lower animals that cause cell agglutination in the presence of certain... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lectins and protectins. 864.9550 Section 864.9550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  16. Comparison of automated von Willebrand factor activity assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Annette; Hillarp, Andreas; Philips, Malou;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Measurement of von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity in plasma is often based on platelet agglutination stimulated by the ristocetin cofactor activity. Novel assays, based on latex beads with recombinant...

  17. Evaluation of the PANBIO Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Araj, George F.; Kattar, Mireille M.; Fattouh, Layla G.; Bajakian, Kayane O.; Kobeissi, Sara A.

    2005-01-01

    PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were assessed against Brucella standard agglutination tube and Coombs tests. The sensitivities of ELISA IgG and IgM were 91% and 100%, respectively, while the specificity was 100% for both. These ELISAs are simple, rapid, and reliable for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

  18. Studies on the relationship between lectin binding carbohydrates and different strains of Leishmania from the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schottelius

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available The culture forms of L. mexicana pifanoi (LRC L-90, L. mexicana mexicana (LRC L-94, M-379; L. braziliensis braziliensis (LRC L-77, L-1, M-2903, H-LSS and L. mexicana amazonensis (H-JMMO, M-JOF, H-21, H-PLL,M-1696 were tested with the following lectins: Canavalia ensiformis, Ricinus communis-120, Axinella polypoides, Phaseolus vulgaris, Evonymus europaeus, lotus tetragonolobus, Dolichos biflorus, Aaptos papillata II, Laburnum alpinum, Ulex europaeus, Arachis hypogaea and Soja hispida. All examined strains of Leishmania were agglutinated by C. ensiformis, R. communis-120 and A. popypoides. No agglutination reactions were observed with P. vulgaris, D.biflorus, A. papillata II, E. europaeus and L. tetragonolobus. Only L. m. pifanoi and the L. m. amazonensis strains H-JMMO and MJOF showed agglutination reactions with S. hispida, U. europaeus, L. alpinum and A. hypogaea, while L. m. mexicana (LRC L-94; M-379 strains, L. b. braziliensis H. LSS, LRC L-77; L-1; M-2903 and the L. m. amazonensis strains, H-PLL, H-21, M-1696 showed no agglutination reactions with these four lectins.

  19. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  20. A Live Vaccine from Brucella abortus Strain 82 for Control of Cattle Brucellosis in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first half of the 20th century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially nonexistent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950...

  1. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  2. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  3. Neuraminidase-enhanced attachment of Bacteroides intermedius to human erythrocytes and buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, K; Ono, M.; Kato, T.

    1989-01-01

    Bacteroides intermedius strains strongly agglutinated only neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes. The neuraminidase-dependent hemagglutinating activity of B. intermedius was abolished by heating or treating with protease. The adherence of these microorganisms to human buccal epithelial cells was enhanced by neuraminidase pretreatment of the cells (P less than 0.01).

  4. Anti-glycosyl antibodies in lipid rafts of the enterocyte brush border: a possible host defense against pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Pedersen, Esben D K; Immerdal, Lissi;

    2005-01-01

    a major part of the immunoglobulins at the lumenal surface of the gut. The antibodies were associated with lipid rafts at the brush border, and they frequently (52%) coclustered with the raft marker galectin 4. A lactose wash increased the susceptibility of the brush border toward lectin peanut agglutin...... the lipid raft microdomains of the brush border against pathogens....

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in north-eastern Atlantic Harbor seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 47 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and 56 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) from the Atlantic coasts of United Kingdom and France. Antibodies to T. gondii assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) ...

  6. The exposure history of the Apollo 16 sites. An assessment based on methane and carbide measurements. [in lunar soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, C. T.; Eglinton, C.; Gowar, A. P.; Jull, A. J. T.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Soils from eight stations at the Apollo 16 landing site have been analyzed for methane and carbide. These results, in conjunction with published data from photogeology, bulk chemistry, rare gases, primordial and radionuclides, and agglutinate abundances have been interpreted in terms of differing contributions from three components, North and South Ray crater ejecta and Cayley Plains material.

  7. Pitfalls in Serological Diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, Kathrin; Hagen, Ferry; Han, Chang Ok; Seibold, Michael; Rickerts, Volker; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-01-01

    The detection of cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination tests (LATs), enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA), or lateral flow assay (LFA) is an important tool for diagnosis of a Cryptococcus infection. Cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum samples of 10 patients with cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus g

  8. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930... cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification. Vibrio cholerae serological reagents are devices that are used in the agglutination (an antigen-antibody clumping reaction) test to identify Vibrio...

  9. Review: Gp-340/DMBT1 in mucosal innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Mollenhauer, Jan; Holmskov, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    ) is secreted into broncho-alveolar surface lining fluid whereas DMBT(SAG) is present in the saliva. The two molecules were shown to be identical and both interact with and agglutinate several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium responsible for caries in the oral...

  10. 9 CFR 85.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test, except for approved differential pseudorabies tests other than the glycoprotein I (gpI) ELISA test; 5. Latex Agglutination Test (LAT); and 6. Particle Concentration Fluorescence... States Department of Agriculture (APHIS or Service). Approved differential pseudorabies test. Any...

  11. 9 CFR 114.9 - Outline of Production guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Principle of the test (ELISA, latex agglutination, etc.). 2. Antigen or antibody detection test. 3. Sample(s... exemption as provided in 9 CFR 113.4. B. Safety. In vitro products are exempt from safety tests. C. Potency..., conditions, age, and general health. B. Examination, preparation, care, quarantine, tests, and treatment...

  12. Para-Bombay phenotype: report of a rare blood group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yashovardhan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The blood sample of a 54-year-old male patient who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of anaemia was submitted to the Blood Bank for blood grouping and cross-matching. In forward grouping, no agglutination was observed with A, B and AB antisera, but agglutination was noticed with D antiserum (Group O. In reverse grouping, there was agglutination in tube labelled A and no agglutination in tubes B and O (Group B resulting in discrepancy between forward and reverse grouping. Further testing confirmed that the individual's blood group was Para-Bombay B (Para-BH, which is a rare entity. The Para-Bombay phenotype is very rare. Only a few cases of Para-Bombay were reported in India till now and none from Andhra Pradesh. This entity is characterized by the absence of H, A and B antigens on the red cells but their presence in saliva and secretions of gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Proper identification of this phenotype is very important; otherwise this particular blood group may be mislabelled as group O.

  13. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K;

    2009-01-01

    in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  14. Intelligent micro blood typing system using a fuzzy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABO typing is the first analysis performed on blood when it is tested for transfusion purposes. The automated machines used in hospitals for this purpose are typically very large and the process is complicated. In this paper, we present a new micro blood typing system that is an improved version of our previous system (Kang et al 2004 Trans. ASME, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126 766, Lee et al 2005 Sensors Mater. 17 113). This system, fabricated using microstereolithography, has a passive valve for controlling the flow of blood and antibodies. The intelligent micro blood typing system has two parts: a single-line micro blood typing device and a fuzzy expert system for grading the strength of agglutination. The passive valve in the single-line micro blood typing device makes the blood stop at the entrance of a micro mixer and lets it flow again after the blood encounters antibodies. Blood and antibodies are mixed in the micro mixer and agglutination occurs in the chamber. The fuzzy expert system then determines the degree of agglutination from images of the agglutinated blood. Blood typing experiments using this device were successful, and the fuzzy expert system produces a grading decision comparable to that produced by an expert conducting a manual analysis

  15. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  16. Morphophonemic Transfer in English Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Sze Wei; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Malay (Rumi) is alphabetic and has a transparent, agglutinative system of affixation. We manipulated language-specific junctural phonetics in Malay and English to investigate whether morphophonemic L1-knowledge influences L2-processing. A morpheme decision task, "Does this "nonword" sound like a mono- or bi-morphemic English word?", was developed…

  17. Semen analysis in an infertile man with seminal vesicles cysts associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Rocha, Fernando Tadeu

    2006-01-01

    A case of an infertile man with bilateral seminal vesicles cysts with ipsilateral renal agenesis is presented with emphasis on the semen analysis. Ejaculates showed very low concentration of fructose, leukocytospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, hyperviscosity, marked sperm agglutination and a poor hypoosmotic swelling test. Clinical value of these findings is discussed. PMID:16502061

  18. Effect of small concentrations of sulfur dioxide during chronic poisoning on the immunologic reactivity of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navrotzky, V.K.

    1959-01-01

    A concentration of 0.018 to 0.022 mg SO/sub 2//liter decreased agglutination titer of rabbit blood serum to immunization with typhoid vaccine 4 to 8 times and reduced duration of high titer 3 to 4 times. Titer of blood complement was not altered. SO/sub 2/ poisoning increases both blood acetylcholine and cholinesterase activity.

  19. Serum amyloid P component binds to influenza A virus haemagglutinin and inhibits the virus infection in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Vilsgaard Ravn, K; Juul Sørensen, I;

    1997-01-01

    that SAP can bind to influenza A virus and inhibit agglutination of erythrocytes mediated by the virus subtypes H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2. SAP also inhibits the production of haemagglutinin (HA) an the cytopathogenic effect of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. The binding of SAP to the virus requires...

  20. Toxoplasmosis in Caribbean islands: Seroprevalence in pregnant women in ten countries, and isolation and report of new genetic types of Toxoplasma gondii from dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in the Caribbean countries. We investigated the prevalence of IgG and IgMantibodies in 437 pregnant women from 10 English speaking Caribbean countries. Antibodies (IgG) to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT, cut-off 1:6) were f...

  1. Schizammina andamana n.sp., a large foraminiferan (Protozoa, Granuloreticulosa) from the shelf west of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendal, Ole Secher; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    A new species of Schizammina is described from the mid-shelf of the Andaman Sea at depths between 60 and 85 m. The test is agglutinating, up to about 30 mm high, and consists of dichotomously branching tubes. Tube diameter varies between 0.8 and 1.2 mm. The most closely related species are S. atl...

  2. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  3. Development of an in vitro assay based on humoral immunity for quality control of oil-adjuvant Pseudotuberculosis vaccine in Yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Fumiya; Imamura, Saiki; Nakajima, Nao; Yamamoto, Kinya; Uchiyama, Mariko; Nagai, Hidetaka; Kijima, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is an infectious pathogen that causes Pseudotuberculosis in Yellowtail fish. In Japan, several oil-adjuvant vaccines for Pseudotuberculosis have been approved for control of infectious diseases in aquaculture. Before distribution of an approved fish vaccine, an artificial challenge test for quality control is performed by the manufacturer and National Veterinary Assay Laboratory under Pharmaceutical Law of Japan to confirm potency. In this study, artificial challenge tests with a range of five diluted or undiluted approved vaccines was performed to determine the relationship between antigen levels and vaccine efficacy. Immunization of fish with the undiluted vaccine prevented Pseudotuberculosis. Results of artificial challenge tests demonstrated vaccine efficiency was dose dependent. Agglutination assays using immune sera were performed to determine agglutination titers, which were also dose dependent. These results suggest a link between survival rate in the artificial challenge tests and agglutination titers. Western blotting analysis identified a specific protein approximately 37 kDa in size in vaccinated fish. We confirmed antibodies were produced in vaccinated fish by immunoreactions with the approved vaccine. An agglutination assay based on humoral immunoreactions would be a useful alternative to the artificial challenge test for quality control of vaccines for aquaculture. PMID:24325870

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among turkeys on family farms in the state of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys and chickens on family farms in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In order to do so, 204 sera samples from turkeys were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination T...

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  7. An interesting case of childhood brucellosis with unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksugur, Sevil Bilir; Bekdas, Mervan; Gurel, Safiye; Tas, Tekin; Sarac, Esma Gokcen; Demircioglul, Fatih; Kismet, Erol

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection, which is still a major public health concern worldwide. Common clinical findings are usually nonspecific involving fever, arthralgia, myalgia, weakness and malaise. Since none of the symptoms of brucellosis is pathognomonic, it may have a similar course with various multisystemic diseases. In terms of focal involvement, sacroiliitis is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adult patients, while it is quite rare in pediatric patients. Blood culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of brucellosis. In the absence of culture facilities, the diagnosis traditionally relies on serologic testing with a variety of agglutination tests such as the Rose Bengal test and the serum agglutination test. However, these agglutination tests are accompanied by frequent false negative results such as seen in prozone phenomenon, which may lead to diagnostic delays. In this article we present a rarely encountered pediatric brucellosis patient who had sacroiliitis-spondylitis, which are rarely reported in children, and exhibited prozone phenomenon in agglutination tests. PMID:26058253

  8. Hemagglutinin inhibition assay with swine sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemagglutination is based on the ability of certain viruses to agglutinate red blood cells (RBC) of certain animal species by formation of cross-linking lattices between RBC. Antibodies that have the ability to inhibit the hemagglutination property of influenza A viruses are generally thought to pro...

  9. 46,XX真性半陰陽の1例

    OpenAIRE

    児玉, 光正; 石川, 泰章; 辻橋, 宏典; 国方, 聖司; 秋山, 隆弘; 奥山, 明彦

    1988-01-01

    A case of true hermaphroditism, in a 4-year-old, legally female, is reported. The external genitalia showed clitorism and labial agglutinate, and her karyotype from peripheral lymphocytoculture was 46,XX. She received gonadectomy at both sides, clitorectomy and plasty of vaginal orifice. Histopathological examination showed that both gonads were ovotestis.

  10. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of global distribution caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira . Humans are accidental hosts and usually become infected through contact with water or soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals such as rodents , dogs , cattle and pigs. In developing countries such as India , leptospirosis is often underdiagnosed because of it s protean clinical manifestations leading to significant morbidity and mortality. It occurs as a self - limited illness in 85% to 90% of the cases and icteric leptospirosis or Weil’s syndrome , a more serious , potentially fatal syndrome which occurs in 5% to 10% of the cases. Microbiological diagnosis of leptospirosis aims at demonstrating the leptospires , by culturing them or by demonstrating an appreciable antibody response to them. A definite diagnosis of leptospirosis is based either on isolation of the or ganism from the patient or on seroconversion or a rise in antibody titre in the MAT. Leptospires may be visualized in clinical material by DGM or by IF or light microscopy after appropriate staining. The sensitivity of blood cultures is low; hence culture is primarily used for retrospective diagnosis. There are numerous serological tests available for diagnosis of leptospirosis like Macroscopic agglutination test (MSAT, Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, Sensitised erythrocyte lysis test (SEL, Com plement fixation test (CFT, Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELISA, Microcapsule agglutination test (MCAT, Lepto - Dipstick, Latex agglutination test, Dried Latex agglutination test (Lepto Tek Dri - Dot, but they are only genus specific. To identify the specif ic serovar Microscopic agglutination test (MAT or culture has to be done. The various available options for a diagnosis of leptospirosis have been explored in this article. A thorough literary search was done in the various published data available - pub m ed search was done as well as

  11. Long-term humoral antibody responses by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with oocysts of four strains of Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Andrews, C.D.; Thulliez, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 16 pigs orally inoculated with 1000 or 10000 oocysts of one of the four strains (GT-1, ME-49, TS-2, TC-2) of T. gondii. Pigs were euthanized on postinoculation days 103-875 and their tissues were bioassayed for T. gondii. Antibody titers were...... measured in the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-preserved (test A) or acetone-preserved (test B) tachyzoites, latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHA), enzyme-linked immunobsorbant assay (ELISA), and the Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT). Toxoplasma gondii...... was isolated from all but two (one with GT-1 strain and one with TC-2 strain) of the inoculated pigs. Results of the serologic tests varied by test used, by strain of T. gondii and from pig to pig within groups. One pig inoculated with the TC-2 strain was considered not to be infected because it remained...

  12. Antibody responses measured by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with low numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J. P.; Andrews, C.D.; Lind, Peter;

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To follow antibody responses measured by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with low (less than or equal to 10 oocysts) numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Animals-24, 2- to 3-month-old pigs. Procedure-Pigs (n = 42) were inoculated orally with 10 (14 pigs) or 1 (28 pigs......) infective oocysts, and 6 pigs served as uninoculated controls. Blood (serum) samples were obtained at 1- to 3-week intervals until euthanasia. At necropsy, the brain, heart, and tongue of pigs were bioassayed in mice and cats for isolation of T gondii. Modified agglutination test (MAT), using whole, fixed...... tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol; latex agglutination test (LAT); indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT); Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT); and ELISA were used to evaluate serologic responses to T gondii. Results-T gondii was isolated from tissues of 13 of 14 pigs each fed 10 oocysts, 17 of 28 pigs each fed 1 oocyst...

  13. Solid-phase techniques in blood transfusion serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M L; Plapp, F V; Sinor, L T; Rachel, J M

    1986-01-01

    For nearly a century, erythrocyte agglutination has persisted as the most widely used method for the demonstration of antigen-antibody reaction in immunohematology. So far, no other system has been developed which can match its simplicity, versatility, and general reliability. The major disadvantage of agglutination reactions is the lack of an objective endpoint, which has severely hindered attempts to automate routine pretransfusion tests. To overcome this problem, we have designed a series of solid-phase assays for ABO and Rh grouping, antibody screening, compatibility, and hepatitis tests. Each of these solid-phase assays shares a common endpoint of red cell adherence, which is easily interpreted visually or spectrophotometrically. Computer interface permits the automatic interpretation and recording of results. We believe this solid-phase system should finally bring the blood bank laboratory into the age of automation.

  14. Probing the receptor recognition site of the FimH adhesin by fimbriae-displayed FimH-FocH hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Borch; Klemm, Per

    1998-01-01

    H. Surprisingly, it was also found that similar fusions containingbetween 56 and 66% FimH still conferred binding to yeast cells, D-mannose-BSA and D-mannose-beads but did not give riseto agglutination. The receptor binding capacity of fusions containing 50% or less of the FimH N-terminal region...... characteristics as type1 fimbriae. The receptor binding of fimbriae-presented chimeric FimH-FocH hybrids was studied. FimH-FocH fusionsencompassing 72% of the N-terminus of FimH fused to the complementary sector of FocH conferred agglutination oferythrocytes and yeast cells at a comparable level to Fim...... was virtuallyabolished. The results point to the presence of a D-mannose-receptor-binding core domain in FimH, the affinity of which ismodulated by other sectors of the protein to enable binding to extended mannose-containing targets....

  15. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. PMID:27033899

  16. Solar wind and micrometeorite effects in the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Using available data from the literature, an outline is formulated for the major physical and chemical effects expected during solar-wind bombardment of the lunar regolith. In agreement with results of Auger and other analyses of the composition of lunar grain surfaces, this outline predicts that solar-wind sputtering will tend to clean exposed grain surfaces by ejecting material at velocities exceeding lunar escape velocity. Results are also discussed which show that Fe is partially reduced in the outer few 10 nm of grain surfaces and that this reduced Fe forms 10-nm-diameter metal spheres throughout the glass during agglutinate formation by micrometeorite impacts. These metal spheres give the agglutinates their distinctive optical and magnetic properties and are partially responsible for the decreasing albedo of the lunar surface with exposure age.

  17. [Mistyping of ABO grouping by polyagglutination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Ishimaru, K; Sekiguchi, S

    1997-09-01

    Polyagglutination is a phenomenon that a sample of patient's red blood cells is agglutinated by most of normal human sera. In patients with bacterial infection or hematological diseases, red cells may become agglutinable due to an exposure of antigens (cryptoantigen) that are usually hidden as submembrane structures of normal red cells. Most of normal sera contain natural antibodies to the corresponding antigens. Polyagglutination can cause apparent discrepancies between ABO antigen and antibody tests with the patient's sample, resulting in mistyping of ABO grouping. In some cases, polyagglutination is observed only by the minor test of cross-matching without showing the discrepancies. Recently polyagglutination has been rarely seen probably because of increasing use of monoclonal antibodies and dispensing minor test for cross-matching. Because no obvious case of adverse reaction by polyagglutination through transfusion is recently reported, clinical significance of polyagglutination seems extremely low. PMID:9301304

  18. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  19. Rear Bumper Laminated In Jute Fiber With Polyester Resin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, R. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, a growing interest exists in the use of natural of fibers (sisal, coconut, banana, and jute, as reinforcement in composites. The aim of the present study is shows the use of jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin in the automobile industry in the production of a rear bumper of hatch vehicle. A simplified mathematical model was used for evaluation of the flaw on trunk center cover submitted to dynamic loads. The traverse section of the referred bumper is simplified by a channel formation. This study shows that a rear bumper made using jute fiber agglutinated with polyester resin will be possible. The molded part obtained good visual characteristics, good geometric construction and surface without bubbles and imperfections in the fiber and resin composite. The mathematical model to failure criterion showed that the rear bumper in jute fiber will not resist to an impact equivalent at 4.0 km/h.

  20. Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in Botucatu region, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Zetun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of natural ecosystems has caused several problems to humans and other animals; herein we investigate the close relationship among vampire bats, humans and domestic animals. Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. infections are two worldwide zoonoses that provoke serious damage to animals. To determine the prevalence of bats seropositive for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in the Botucatu region, 204 serum samples of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus were tested for T. gondii antibodies by modified agglutination test (MAT-t and for Leptospira spp. by microscopic agglutination test (MAT-l. No animal was tested positive for T. gondii while leptospiral positivity was 7.8% for Pyrogenes, Shermani and Javanica serovars, with titers varying from 100 to 1,600. Thus, it was verified that D. rotundus does not play a relevant role in toxoplasmosis epidemiology. However, these bats can be important in the maintenance of Leptospira spp. in the environment.

  1. Synthesis and characterisation of glucose-functional glycopolymers and gold nanoparticles: study of their potential interactions with ovine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Laura E; Phillips, Daniel J; Deller, Robert C; Davies, Gemma-Louise; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-03-20

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions can assist with the targeting of polymer- and nano-delivery systems. However, some potential protein targets are not specific to a single cell type, resulting in reductions in their efficacy due to undesirable non-specific cellular interactions. The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) is expressed to different extents on most cells in the vasculature, including human red blood cells and on cancerous tissue. Glycosylated nanomaterials bearing glucose (or related) carbohydrates, therefore, could potentially undergo unwanted interactions with these transporters, which may compromise the nanomaterial function or lead to cell agglutination, for example. Here, RAFT polymerisation is employed to obtain well-defined glucose-functional glycopolymers as well as glycosylated gold nanoparticles. Agglutination and binding assays did not reveal any significant binding to ovine red blood cells, nor any haemolysis. These data suggest that gluco-functional nanomaterials are compatible with blood, and their lack of undesirable interactions highlights their potential for delivery and imaging applications.

  2. DECIPHERING LEPTOSPIROSIS-A DIAGNOSTIC MYSTERY: AN INSIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bhatia, B L Umapathy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease which has been recognized as the most common zoonotic infection in the world. It affects human beings and many other species of vertebrates .Most commonly, the infection is acquired by direct or indirect exposure to urine of reservoir animals through contaminated soil, mud & water entering via small abrasions or breaches in the skin & mucous membranes during occupational, recreational or vocational activities. The signs & symptoms resemble a wide range of bacterial & viral diseases & sometimes can present as food poisoning, chemical poisoning & snake bite also due to which the diagnosis is often missed. This review article aims to focus on the role of Dark Field Microscopy (DFM, culture, Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA, Macroscopic Slide Agglutination test (MSAT, Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT and Faine’s criteria in the diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  3. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    The food of four species of Cephalaspidea (Philine aperta, Philine denticulata, Philine scabra and Cylichna cylindracea) was studied in animals collected on silty clay bottoms at 20-35 m depth on the west coast of Sweden. The specimens were dissected. Only calcareous foraminiferans were found in...... agglutinating foraminiferans surround themselves with a “secondary test”, a cyst or covering of foreign particles around the test. This structure has earlier been called a “reproductive cyst” or “feeding cyst” in some species. “Secondary tests” are primarily connected with feeding, but might also be a...... preadaptation for other purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough...

  4. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Lin

    Full Text Available Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC, and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids.

  5. [Clinical manifestations, complications and treatment of brucellosis: 45-patient study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, M; Ammari, L; Masmoudi, A; Tiouiri, H; Fendri, C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory findings and therapeutic features of patients with brucellosis. The diagnosis was made by clinical findings, automated blood culture, serology (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, standard tube agglutination (Wright) and immunofluorerescence). The susceptibility of 13 strains was tested in vitro. The base sequence was determined for four strains. Forty-five cases were collected (31 acute and 14 sub-acute). Contamination was digestive in 62%. Symptoms of patients were fever (93%), sweating (82%), arthralgia (78%) and splenomegaly (51%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined in 80%, leukopenia in 49% and anaemia in 37% of cases. Blood cultures were positives in 39% of cases. The four sequenced strains were identified as Brucella melitensis biovar abortus. Six strains were resistant to sufomethoxazol-trimetoprim (54%). In 93% of cases, the treatment was associated rifampicin and doxycyclin. One patient died. No relapse was reported. PMID:18387752

  6. Monitoring of Brucella reactor does following milk examination using different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Razik, K A Abd; Ghazi, Y A; Salama, E M

    2007-01-15

    Milk samples from 129 does were collected and monitored for Brucella antibodies using immunological tests such as Milk Ring Test (MRT), Whey Agglutination Test (WAT), Whey Antiglobulin Coombs Test (WCT) and milk ELISA (m ELISA) using Brucella Periplasmic protein antigen. Results obtained from these tests were compared to PCR and bacterial isolation. The highest incidence of positive reactors was given by Whey Antiglobulin and Whey Agglutination Test (9.3%) while the lowest incidence was given by bacterial isolation (Br. melitensis biovars 3, 3.8%). PCR showed the highest agreement with the bacterial isolation, while WAT and WCT showed the lowest one. PCR showed a high sensitivity of 1 x 10 B. melitensis CFU mL(-1) of milk. The results of mELISA here suggests its efficiency to be used as a screening test and/or confirmatory test, while the modified MRT still need more investigations to diagnosis caprine brucellosis. PMID:19070022

  7. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Lepstospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; da Silva, Vera M F; Rosas, Fernando C W; d'Affonseca Neto, José A; Lazzarini, Stella M; Ribeiro, Daniella C; Dubey, Jitender P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Gennari, Solange M

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated in 74 manatees (Trichechus inunguis [Mammalia: Sirenia]) kept in captivity in two rescue units in the northern region of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 29 (39.2%) of 74 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25). For antibodies against Leptospira spp., sera were diluted 1:50 and tested against 24 strains ofleptospires by microscopic agglutination microtechnique, and positive samples were end titrated. Twenty-three (31.1%) of 74 animals were reactive to four serovars (Patoc 21/23, Castellonis 2/23, Icterohaemorrhagiae 1/23, and Butembo 1/ 23), with titers ranging from 100 to 1,600. This is the first report of antibodies against T. gondii and Leptospira spp. in T. inunguis from the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Detection and identification of tissue specific lectins of the tsetse fly, Glossina tachinoides: Midgut lectin activity with lipopolysaccharide binding specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lectin that agglutinates human and animal red blood cells (RBCs) was demonstrated in midgut extracts of Glossina tachinoides. The highest haemagglutination titres were against pig and rabbit RBCs. Treatment of rabbit RBCs with pronase, trypsin, neuraminidase, bromelain, glutaraldehyde and periodate reduced the agglutination titres. The lectin is specific for amino, methyl and deoxy derivates of glucose, amino and methyl derivates of mannose, D-galactosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid and trehalose. In addition, very high reactivity against the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli K 235 was found. Lectin is secreted to the midgut lumen. It consists of a 27 kilodalton protein component that is not glycosylated. Sandwich ELISA permits quantification of lectin in tissue samples. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  9. Threshold effects and cellular recognition. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rando, R R

    1980-01-01

    In the first year we focused on developing the techniques required for the successful incorporation of synthetic glycolipids into cells. To these ends a new water-soluble spacer group (8-amino-3-6-dioxaoctanoic acid) was developed and incorporated into the cholesterol based synthetic glycolipids. These glycolipids could be incorporated into liposomes, rendering them susceptible to aggregation by the appropriate lectin. They also allowed us to define the minimal distance between the sugar moiety and membrane required for agglutination. Finally and most importantly, we were able to functionally incorporate these new glycolipids in cells and render them agglutinable with the appropriate lectins. Functional incorporation does not occur with glycolipids bearing hydropholic spacer groups. We are now in a position to begin using the new glycolipids to answer questions about the roles of cell surface sugars in cellular recognition, which is the subject of this renewal proposal.

  10. Malaria-induced acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ofori, Michael F; Dodoo, Daniel; Staalsoe, Trine;

    2002-01-01

    In areas of intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission, protective immunity is acquired during childhood in parallel with acquisition of agglutinating antibodies to parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed on parasitized red blood cells. In a semi-immune child in such an area......, clinical disease is caused mainly by parasites expressing VSA not recognized by preexisting VSA-specific antibodies in that child. Such malaria episodes are known to cause an increase in agglutinating antibodies specifically recognizing VSA expressed by the parasite isolate causing the illness, whereas...... donors (the malaria patient). The data from this first detailed longitudinal study of acquisition of VSA antibodies support the hypothesis that naturally acquired protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria is mediated, at least in part, by VSA-specific antibodies....

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in females buffaloes in Ninavah province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Al-Iraqi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the females of the local breed buffaloes. A 400 sera samples were collected from 49 herds from different nine geographical area in Ninavah province by using latex agglutination and modified latex agglutination tests. The results shows that the total prevalence rate of the antibodies was 30%, and this percentage was differ according to the region. The highest percentage appeared in Badosh and Qnetra at 52.3%, 51.2% respectively, while the lowest was in Hawiaslan 4.3%. The antibodies titer most appear was 80 in percentage 30.5%, while the titer 640 was lowest in percentage 1.7%. Also recorded that numbers of the active cases was highest in percentage 81.4% compared with inactive cases was lowest in percentage 18.6%, also noted that the seropositive samples decreased with age.

  12. Evidence of Space Weathering in Regolith Breccias II: Asteroidal Regolith Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah K.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Pieters, Carle M.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering products, such as agglutinates and nanophaase iron-bearing rims are easily preserved through lithifcation in lunar regolith breccias, thus such products, if produced, should be preserved in asteroidal regotith breccias as well. A study of representative regolith breecia meteorites, Fayetteville (H4) and Kapoeta (howardite), was undertaken to search for physical evidence of space weathering on asteroids. Amorphous or npFe(sup 0)-bearing rim cannot be positively identified in Fayetteville, although possible glass rims were found. Extensive friction melt was discovered in the meteorite that is difficult to differentiate from weathered materials. Several melt products, including spherules and agglutinates, as well as one irradiated rim and one possible npFe(sup 0)-bearing rim were identified in Kapoeta. The existence of these products suggests that lunar-like space weathering processes are, or have been, active on asteroids.

  13. Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Lectin from Dictyophora indusiata Fisch%长裙竹荪凝集素的分离纯化与部分生化性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉满; 苏爱华

    2003-01-01

    The lectin from Dictyophora indusiata Fisch was isolated and purified by physiological saline extraction,(NH4)2SO4 precipitation and Sephadex G-75 ,Sepharose 4B chromatography,It turned out to be a single band on PAGE.SDS-PAGE showed that it contained one subunit ,whose molecular mass was 53000. This lectin agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and human erythrocytes,it also agglutinated the peripheral lymphocytes cells and S180 tumor cells from mouse,The hemagglutination of the lectin on rabbit erythrocytes was inhibited by lactose and L-fucose among the sugar tested,Amino acid composition analysis showed that it contained 15 kinds of amino acid ,in which the content of aspartic acid and valine was relatively high.

  14. [The analysis of possibility to apply new preparations in serologic diagnostic of agent of cholera in working activity of specialized anti-epidemic brigades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrukho, A B; Tatarenko, O A; Alekseyeva, L P; Agafonova, V V; Shaly, O A; Pisanov, R V; Aiydinov, G V; Stupina, N A

    2013-05-01

    The approbation of diagnostic preparations on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies developed in the institute was carried out during tactical specialized exercise with building up of units on the basis of mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. It is established that diagnostic agglutinating and fluorescent monoclonal immunoglobulins by their sensitivity are equal to polyclonal commercial preparations and can be used at the stages of laboratory diagnostic of cholera both in conditions of stationary laboratory and mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. The method of dot immunoanalysis on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies can, on a par with such common methods as immunofluorescence, slide-agglutination and polymerase chain reaction, be applied in complex of methods of express-diagnostic of cholera.

  15. Plasticity of immunity in response to eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Rachel L; Butler, Michael W; Stahlschmidt, Zachary R

    2016-07-01

    Following a meal, an animal can exhibit dramatic shifts in physiology and morphology, as well as a substantial increase in metabolic rate associated with the energetic costs of processing a meal (i.e. specific dynamic action, SDA). However, little is known about the effects of digestion on another important physiological and energetically costly trait: immune function. Thus, we tested two competing hypotheses. (1) Digesting animals up-regulate their immune systems (putatively in response to the increased microbial exposure associated with ingested food). (2) Digesting animals down-regulate their immune systems (presumably to allocate energy to the breakdown of food). We assayed innate immunity (lytic capacity and agglutination) in cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus) during and after meal digestion. Lytic capacity was higher in females, and (in support of our first hypothesis) agglutination was higher during absorption. Given its potential energetic cost, immune up-regulation may contribute to SDA. PMID:27099367

  16. Monoclonal antibodies against the K99 antigen of Escherichia coli for diagnostic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, A F; Jansen, W H; Osterhaus, A D; Uytdehaag, F G; Maas, H M; Guinée, P A

    1986-04-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies against the K99 antigen of Escherichia coli were produced by the fusion of spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with P3/X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells. The seven hybridomas which produced the highest antibody titers in vitro, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Perma slide agglutination test (PSAT), were chosen for antibody production in vivo. No cross reaction was observed with K88ab, F41 and P987 antigens in the ELISA. The titer of each ascitic fluid was established by the ELISA and the slide agglutination (SAT) tests. The two ascitic fluids with the highest titer in the SAT were incorporated into the set of antisera used for serotyping at our laboratory. The results were satisfactory both in terms of stability and specificity.

  17. Biochemical and antigenic properties of Streptococcus bovis isolated from pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F; DEVRIESE, L.A.; Ducatelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical and serological properties of 60 strains of Streptococcus bovis isolated from healthy pigeons and from pigeons that died from S. bovis septicemia were determined. On the basis of the hemolysis of bovine erythrocytes, the production of polysaccharides on saccharose-containing media, and the fermentation of mannitol, inulin, trehalose, and L-arabinose, the isolates were classified in five biotypes and two subbiotypes. Slide agglutination and microagglutination tests using monospecif...

  18. Evaluation of the PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, George F; Kattar, Mireille M; Fattouh, Layla G; Bajakian, Kayane O; Kobeissi, Sara A

    2005-11-01

    PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were assessed against Brucella standard agglutination tube and Coombs tests. The sensitivities of ELISA IgG and IgM were 91% and 100%, respectively, while the specificity was 100% for both. These ELISAs are simple, rapid, and reliable for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. PMID:16275951

  19. Lectin characterization of gonococci from an outbreak caused by penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    OpenAIRE

    Schalla, W O; Rice, R J; Biddle, J W; Jeanlouis, Y; Larsen, S A; Whittington, W L

    1985-01-01

    A total of 40 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates, representing 19 penicillin-resistant isolates (from 8 heterosexual patients and 11 homosexual patients) and 21 penicillin-susceptible isolates (from 15 heterosexual patients and 6 homosexual patients) and obtained from the same geographic area, were examined. Lectin agglutination patterns were based on the reactivity of the isolates with the following 14 lectins: concanavalin A, Lens culinaris, Trichosanthes kinlowii, Griffonia simplicifolia I, Ar...

  20. New Forms and Functions of Subordinate Clause in Kurdish

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Hewa Salam; Hamamorad, Atta Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Kurdish is an agglutinative language, so that subject and object might appear as a dependent morpheme, and sometimes they would become a zero morpheme and disappear in sentence, but still they have obvious meaning. Kurdish speaker can distinguish between the meanings of sentences that consist in same word, but have different gist, because of rhythm. However, it becomes more challenging in writing and grammatical analyzes. Moreover, this complexity is advance more in complex sentences, which i...

  1. Systemic brucellosis with chronic meningitis : A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A young adult presenting with 11 months history of fever, headache, vomiting was found to have CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis with increased protein. His serum tested strongly positive for Brucella (standard tube agglutination titre 1: 320 whereas CSF was weakly positive. He became asymptomatic on treatment with tetracycline, rifampicin and streptomycin with significant CSF response. This case is reported because of its rarity.

  2. Comparison of an automated rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test with the conventional RPR card test in syphilis testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Han; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Min-Geol; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Objective We compared the automated non-treponemal reagin (rapid plasma reagin (RPR)) test with the conventional RPR card test for usefulness in clinical applications. Setting A comparative study of laboratory methods using clinical specimens in a single institute. Participants A total of 112 serum samples including 59 Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-positive and 53 TPPA-negative specimens were evaluated. Outcome measures HiSens Auto RPR LTIA (HBI, Anyang, Korea) was compared...

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in cats from Durango City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 105 domestic cats from Durango City, Mexico. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in (21%) of the 105 cats with titers of 1:25 in 3, 1:50 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 2, 1...

  4. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sr. Kitts, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 106 domestic cats from St. Kitts, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in 90 (84.9%) of the cats with titers of 1:20 in 23, 1:40 in 34, 1:80 in 18, 1:160 in 2, 1:32...

  5. Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Assay: a tubeless method for pretransfusion testing and other applications in transfusion science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Assay (SPRCA) is one of the two tubeless methods developed to improve sensitivity and specificity in blood group serology. The SPRCA (solid phase) and the column agglutination (gel) technology have gained wide acceptance following successful adaptation to fully automated platforms, The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, principle, procedures as well as laboratory and clinical applications of the SPRCA in transfusion medicine.

  6. Effect of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on some biochemical parameters in ewes

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. J. Al- Hussary; A. S. M. Al- Zuhairy

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of infection of ewes with toxoplasmosis and/or brucellosis on someserum biochemical parameters. Ninety six samples of blood were collected from aborted ewes at different stages of gestation,suspected to be infected with toxoplasmosis and /or brucellosis from different regions in Nineveh governorate. The percentageof toxoplasma and brucella infection depending on Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and Rose Bengal Test were 21.88% and23.96% re...

  7. rgf Encodes a Novel Two-Component Signal Transduction System of Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Spellerberg, Barbara; Rozdzinski, Eva; Martin, Simone; Weber-Heynemann, Josefine; Lütticken, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    The adhesion of gram-positive bacteria to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is regarded as an important determinant of pathogenicity. A comparison of the adhesion of Streptococcus agalactiae strain O90R to different ECM proteins showed that the most pronounced binding could be observed for immobilized fibrinogen. To investigate the genetic determinants of S. agalactiae fibrinogen binding, a pGhost9:ISS1 mutant library was screened for mutants displaying reduced agglutination of fibrinogen-c...

  8. Rapid method for identification of group B streptococci in neonatal blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, R. L.; Harada, W A

    1981-01-01

    A rapid technique used for the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B, from the blood cultures of two neonatal infants is reported. The method utilized the Phadebact Streptococcus Test System (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Piscataway, N.J.) and the supernatant from 13- and 14-h blood cultures. Additional studies with simulated neonatal blood cultures revealed that this method was reproducible. Additional studies also revealed that some non-specific agglutination did occur, wh...

  9. Evaluation of new streptococcal latex grouping kit.

    OpenAIRE

    Vicca, A F; Stansfield, R E; Masterton, R G

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate a new streptococcal latex grouping kit (Shield Diagnostics Ltd) and compare it against an established latex agglutination method (Streptex; Wellcome Diagnostics). METHODS: Two hundred and forty seven strains of streptococci and enterococci were tested with each kit by one operator and according to the manufacturer's instructions. Strains failing to group or giving discordant results were identified to species level. RESULTS: Two discrepant grouping results were observed and ...

  10. Neurobrucellosis: A Case Report from Himachal Pradesh, India, and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Human brucellosis is a multisystem disease that commonly presents as a febrile illness along with variable spectrum of clinical manifestations. Neurological complications include encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, radiculitis, myelitis, peripheral and cranial neuropathies, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and psychiatric manifestations. We report a case diagnosed as neurobrucellosis who presented with fever and bilateral upper motor neuron symptoms and signs along with bilateral sensorineural deafness. Diagnosis was confirmed by Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT).

  11. Diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children and adolescents: clinical picture limitations☆

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Aurelino Rocha; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Fontes, Maria Jussara Fernandes; Lasmar, Laura Maria de Lima Bezário Facury; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of clinical features for diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in pediatrics. METHODS: A total of 335 children aged 1-18 years old and presenting clinical manifestations of acute pharyngotonsillitis (APT) were subjected to clinical interviews, physical examinations, and throat swab specimen collection to perform cultures and latex particle agglutination tests (LPATs) for group A streptococcus (GAS) detection. Signs and symptoms of patients were compar...

  12. Diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children and adolescents: clinical picture limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelino Rocha Barbosa Júnior; Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira; Maria Jussara Fernandes Fontes; Laura Maria de Lima Bezário Facury Lasmar; Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of clinical features for diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in pediatrics.METHODS: A total of 335 children aged 1-18 years old and presenting clinical manifestations of acute pharyngotonsillitis (APT) were subjected to clinical interviews, physical examinations, and throat swab specimen collection to perform cultures and latex particle agglutination tests (LPATs) for group A streptococcus (GAS) detection. Signs and symptoms of patients were compare...

  13. Production of monoclonal antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 6.

    OpenAIRE

    Para, M F; Plouffe, J F

    1983-01-01

    To better define the surface antigens of Legionella pneumophila for clinical and experimental purposes, we have produced monoclonal antibodies to L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 6. Two hybridomas were produced in serogroup 1. One antibody, LP-I-17, recognized a serogroup-common antigen. The second antibody, LP-I-81, was specific for serogroup 1. This antibody was able to agglutinate bacterial cells belonging to the serogroup 1 reference strains. Philadelphia and Knoxville. Microagglutination ...

  14. [Species composition and distribution of foraminifers in the Deryugin Basin (Sea of Okhotsk)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, T A; Domanov, M M; Svinininnikov, A M

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the composition and quantitative distribution of foraminifers in bathyal sediments collected at 14 stations in the Deryugin Basin and at 11 stations in other regions of the Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific demonstrated specific foraminifer complex in the basin at depths from 1650 to 1800 m associated with cold barite/methane seeps. Oligomixed biocenosis with prevailing agglutinated foraminifers and Saccorhiza ramosa as the dominant was shown to develop in these zones. PMID:16634440

  15. Serological prevalence of tularemia in cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Cooper, M

    1990-04-01

    Sera of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) collected in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984 were screened for the presence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis by rapid slide agglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques; 6% of 118 and 16% of 119 samples were positive by these methods, respectively. Rabbits gained, lost and maintained titers over at least an 8 mo period. Francisella tularensis tularensis was isolated from one serologically negative, clinically healthy rabbit. PMID:2338733

  16. Significance of specific immunoglobulin M in the chronological diagnosis of 38 cases of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, V.; Canessa, A; Bruzzi, P.; Fiorelli, M A; Terragna, A.

    1989-01-01

    The persistence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in sera from 38 patients after toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy was investigated by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and an immunosorbent agglutination assay. Positive predictive values at 3 and 6 months after lymphadenopathy were, respectively, 45 and 73% for the indirect immunofluorescence assay, 25 and 45% for the double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass...

  17. Serotyping of Clostridium difficile.

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, S.; Lesiak, G; Magus, M; Lo, H L; Delmée, M.

    1988-01-01

    A total of 246 live Clostridium difficile cultures were serotyped by a slide agglutination technique. Fifteen grouping antisera were produced which serotyped 98% of the cultures (241 of 246). Our results indicated that certain serogroups may have specific pathogenicity. Strains of serogroups A, G, H, K, S1, and S4 were cytotoxigenic and were isolated mainly from adult patients with pseudomembranous colitis or antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Nontoxigenic strains of serogroups D and Cd-5 were i...

  18. Molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉起

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Shandong province.Methods A total of 13 strains of V.cholerae O139(9 clinical strains and 4 environmental strains)isolated from cholera epidemics in Shandong province since 1997 were recovered and confirmed with serum agglutination and biochemical reaction.Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE)was carried out for molecular subtyping.Virulence genes and

  19. A grammar of Upcountry Sri Lanka Malay

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhoff, S. (Stefan)

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka Malay is a variety of Malay which has undergone heavy influence from its adstrates Sinhala and Tamil since the first Malay immigrants arrived in Ceylon in the 17th century. While the lexicon is overwhelmingly Malay, the grammar has diverged considerably from its Austronesian origins and become solidly South Asian. Where other Malay varieties are morphologically isolating and have prepositions, postposed modifiers and verb-medial word order, Sri Lanka Malay is agglutinative and has p...

  20. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  1. Occurrence and detection method evaluation of group B streptococcus from prenatal vaginal specimen in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Yang, JunLan; Zhao, Peng; Jia, Hui; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and efficient detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant women is essential for prescription of prophylaxis at the time of delivery as GBS is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause infant mortality. In this report, two studies were conducted on the methods of GBS detection in Shaanxi province, China, a region lacking data for GBS detection and occurrence. For Study 1, 100 GBS culture-positive vaginal swabs were collected from 1,567 pregnant women for evaluation by direct latex agglutination test. In Study 2, 200 GBS vaginal swabs were evaluated by three culture methods (sheep blood agar (SBA), Columbia colistin-nalidixic agar (CNA), and selective carrot broth (SCB)) followed by analysis using a latex agglutination test. GBS was detected in 6.4 % of specimens in Study 1 and 10.5 % of specimens in Study 2. The results of the latex agglutination test in both studies were accurate with samples exhibiting high to moderate GBS growth, but the accuracy declined for samples with low GBS growth. The evaluation of culture methods for GBS detection revealed the sensitivity of SCB (95.2 %, p = 0.004) was significantly higher than that of the SBA medium (57.1 %). The sensitivity reported for SCB (95.2 %) was higher than CNA (76.0 %), but the difference was not statistically significant (p =0.078). These results indicate a selective broth, such as SCB, is ideal for accuracy at low growth levels, but a direct latex agglutination test could be used as an alternative for rapid detection of GBS in circumstances requiring immediate detection. PMID:26791082

  2. Immunochemical Properties of the Major Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    1983-01-01

    Antisera to the major outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae (molecular weight, 48,000) raised in rabbits (i) agglutinated several strains of V. cholerae and (ii) immunoprecipitated outer membrane proteins prepared from both the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae. Antibodies of all isotypes to the major outer membrane protein were detected in immune human sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that the major outer membrane protein was the common outer membrane ...

  3. Rapid identification of pneumococci, enterococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus from positive blood cultures enabling early reports

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Marie C; Karlsson, Ewa; Woksepp, Hanna; Frolander, Kerstin; Mårtensson, Agneta; Rashed, Foad; Annika, Wistedt; Schön, Thomas; Serrander, Lena

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic tests in order to introduce a diagnostic strategy to identify the most common gram-positive bacteria (pneumococci, enterococci, β-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus) found in blood cultures within 6 hours after signalling growth. METHODS: The tube coagulase test was optimized and several latex agglutination tests were compared and evaluated before a validation period of 11 months was performed on consecutive positive blood cultur...

  4. Pneumococci in nasopharyngeal samples from Filipino children with acute respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Lankinen, K. S.; Leinonen, M; Tupasi, T E; Haikala, R; Ruutu, P.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract was studied in 318 Filipino children less than 5 years old with an acute lower respiratory tract infection. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 292 children. With both quantitative bacterial culture and detection of capsular polysaccharide antigens by coagglutination, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and latex agglutination, pneumococci were found in 160 (70%) of the 227 samples eligible for analysis. Culture was posit...

  5. Assignment of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii strains to numerical taxonomy clusters by immunofluorescence based on antifibril antisera.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, R P; Grove, D A

    1985-01-01

    A previous observation, using a few representative laboratory strains, that rabbit antisera raised against isolated surface fibrils might be useful in identifying Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii isolates to their correct numerical taxonomy clusters was reexamined with a large culture collection, including clinical isolates from three different laboratories. Strains were first identified by a slower standard procedure, including agglutination with anti-whole-cell antisera, cata...

  6. Development, Evaluation, and Application of Lateral-Flow Immunoassay (Immunochromatography) for Detection of Rotavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples†

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Yousif, Yousif; Anderson, Joe; Chard-Bergstrom, Cindy; Kapil, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay (LFT) was developed to detect bovine rotavirus in fecal samples. Using samples (n = 74) from diarrheic calves, a comparison of the LFT with a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) and transmission electron microscopy (EM) was conducted. When EM was used as the reference method, initial studies of 29 samples indicated 70 and 80% sensitivities of the LFT and LAT, respectively, with both being 100% specific. When the LAT was the reference test, the LFT was 75% sens...

  7. Supplementation with humic substances affects the innate immunity in layer hens in posfasting phase

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Sanmiguel P.; Iang Rondón B

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. Asses the effect of supplementation with Humic substances (HS) over some innate immunity parameters (serum bactericidal activity, phagocytosis, bacterial agglutination, respiratory burst and lisozyme activity) in phase after fasting of layer hens. Materials and methods. 120 posfasting phase Hy Line Brown layer hens were taken which were distributed into four groups: The first and the second were supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% of HS, respectively. The third group was suppl...

  8. Monolayer Adsorption of a “Bald” Mutant of the Highly Adhesive and Hydrophobic Bacterium Acinetobacter sp. Strain Tol 5 to a Hydrocarbon Surface▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Hisami; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Tanji, Yasunori; Unno, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    The affinity of microbial cells for hydrophobic interfaces is important because it directly affects the efficiency of various bioprocesses, including green biotechnologies. The toluene-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5 has filamentous appendages and a hydrophobic cell surface, shows high adhesiveness to solid surfaces, and self-agglutinates. A “bald” mutant of this bacterium, strain T1, lacks the filamentous appendages and has decreased adhesiveness but retains a hydrophobic ...

  9. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Noble, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Space weathering processes - driven primarily by solar wind ion and micrometeorite bombardment, are constantly changing the surface regoliths of airless bodies, such as the Moon. It is essential to study lunar soils in order to fully under-stand the processes of space weathering, and how they alter the optical reflectance spectral properties of the lunar surface relative to bedrock. Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during micrometeorite impacts into the lunar regolith. The formation of the shock melt component in agglutinates involves reduction of Fe in the target material to generate nm-scale spherules of metallic Fe (nanophase Fe0 or npFe0). The ratio of elemental Fe, in the form of npFe0, to FeO in a given bulk soil indicates its maturity, which increases with length of surface exposure as well as being typically higher in the finer-size fraction of soils. The melting and mixing process in agglutinate formation remain poorly understood. This includes incomplete knowledge regarding how the homogeneity and overall compositional trends of the agglutinate glass portions (agglutinitic glass) evolve with maturity. The aim of this study is to use sub-micrometer scale X-ray compositional mapping and image analysis to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principal chemical components contributing to the shock melt composition variations. An additional focus is to see if agglutinitic glass contains anomalously high Fe sub-micron scale compositional domains similar to those recently reported in glassy patina coatings on lunar rocks.

  10. Frequencies and specificities of red cell alloantibodies in the Southern Thai population

    OpenAIRE

    Charuporn Promwong; Santi Siammai; Sarunya Hassarin; Jarin Buakaew; Tanongsak Yeela; Patravee Soisangwan; David Roxby

    2013-01-01

    Context: Detailed reports of red cell alloantibody frequencies and specificities in the Thai population are limited. The aims of this study were to determine the specificity and compare the frequency of alloantibodies detected using column agglutination technology (CAT) and conventional tube techniques in blood donors and previously transfused patients. Settings and Design: We retrospectively reviewed antibody screening and identification records for two time periods: January-December 2006 du...

  11. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood.

  12. Determination of the genus-specific antigens in outer membrane proteins from the strains of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira biflexa with different virulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗依惠; 严杰; 毛亚飞; 李淑萍

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the existence of genus-specific antigens in outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of leptospira with different virulence. Methods: Microscope agglutination test (MAT) was applied to detect the agglutination between commercial rabbit antiserum against leptospiral genus-specific TR/Patoc I antigen and 17 strains of Leptospira interrongans belonging to 15 serogroups and 2 strains of Leptospira biflexa belonging to 2 serogroups.The outer envelopes (OEs) of L.interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai strain lai (56601) with strong virulence and serogroup Pomona serovar pomona strain Luo (56608) with low virulence,and L.biflexa serogroup Semaranga serovar patoc strain Patoc I without virulence were prepared by using the method reported in Auran et al.(1972).OMPs in the OEs were obtained by treatment with sodium deoxycholate. SDS-PAGE and western blot were used for analyzing the features of the OMPs on electrophoretic pattern and the immunoreactivity to the antiserum against TR/Patoc I antigen, respectively. Results:All the tested strains belonging to different leptospiral serogroups agglutinated to the antiserum against leptospiral genus-specific TR/Patoc I antigen with agglutination titers ranging from 1:256-1:512. A similar SDS-PAGE pattern of the OMPs from the three strains of leptospira with different virulence was shown and the molecular weight of a major protein fragment in the OMPs was found to be approximately 60 KDa.A positive protein fragment with approximately 32 KDa confirmed by Western blot,was able to react with the antiserum against leptospiral genus-specific TR/Patoc I antigen, and was found in each the OMPs of the three stains of leptospira.Conclusion: There are genus-specific antigens on the surface of L.interrogans and L.biflexa. The OMP with molecular weight of 32 KDa may be one of the genus-specific protein antigens of leptospira.

  13. Determination of the genus-specific antigens in outer membrane proteins from the strains of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira biflexa with different virulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗依惠; 严杰; 毛亚飞; 李淑萍

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the existence of genus-specific antigens in outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of leptospira with different virulence. Methods: Microscope agglutination test (MAT) was applied to detect the agglutination between commercial rabbit antiserum against leptospiral genus-specific TR/Patoc I antigen and 17 strains of Leptospira interrongans belonging to 15 serogroups and 2 strains of Leptospira biflexa belonging to 2 serogroups. The outer envelopes (OEs) of L.interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai strain lai (56601) with strong virulence and serogroup Pomona serovar pomona strain Luo (56608) with low virulence, and L.biflexa serogroup Semaranga serovar patoc strain Patoc I without virulence were prepared by using the method reported in Auran et al.(1972). OMPs in the OEs were obtained by treatment with sodium deoxycholate. SDS-PAGE and western blot were used for analyzing the features of the OMPs on electrophoretic pattern and the immunoreactivity to the antiserum against TR/Patoc I antigen, respectively. Results: All the tested strains belonging to different leptospiral serogroups agglutinated to the antiserum against leptospiral genus-specific TR/Patoc I antigen with agglutination titers ranging from 1:256-1:512. A similar SDS-PAGE pattern of the OMPs from the three strains of leptospira with different virulence was shown and the molecular weight of a major protein fragment in the OMPs was found to be approximately 60 KDa. A positive protein fragment with approximately 32 KDa confirmed by Western blot, was able to react with the antiserum against leptospiral genus-specific TR/Patoc I antigen, and was found in each the OMPs of the three stains of leptospira. Conclusion: There are genus-specific antigens on the surface of L.interrogans and L.biflexa. The OMP with molecular weight of 32 KDa may be one of the genus-specific protein antigens of leptospira.

  14. [Contribution to the serologic study of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaglia, A; Grassi, R; Bocci, F; Innocenti, S; Avio, C M

    1983-09-01

    Toxoplasma antibodies in five women sera during the pregnancy were detected by direct agglutination and immunofluorescent tests both for IgG and IgM. The presence and the changes of the IgG and IgM titers are related to the abortion and/or foetal pathology. In order to prevent such a risk the authors suggest to test all the women before or early in the pregnancy for toxoplasma antibodies.

  15. A Comparative Study of Detection of Bordetella avium Antibodies in Turkeys by ELISA, SPAT, and AGID Test

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRKYILMAZ, Süheyla; TÜRKYILMAZ, Kenan; KAYA, Osman

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a serum plate agglutination test (SPAT) antigen and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test antigen for the serological detection of turkeys that have been exposed to Bordetella avium; to compare the sensitivity of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with SPAT, and AGID test, and to survey B. avium antibodies in turkey flocks in Aydın, Turkey. For these purposes, serum samples collected from 300 turkeys were examined by ELISA, SPAT, and AGI...

  16. Lectins of fungal pathogens as potential tools in selecting promising biological control agents of Trichoderma spp%植物病原菌凝集素用于筛选生防木霉菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合同; 唐文华; Maarten Ryder; 李纪顺; 郭勇; 周红姿

    2004-01-01

    In this article, lectins of eight pathogen strains were extracted and purified. By testing agglutination lectins with 19 Trichoderma spp. srains, all lectins from fungi agglutinated the conidia of Trichoderma spp. with different titers, except lectin from Alternaria solani Ms. Result indicated that the agglutination of Trichoderma conidia by fungal lectins was related to their effectiveness caused by the corresponding pathogens. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between titers of Fusarium lectin and the effectiveness of Trichoderma against the disease.The agglutination test might be applied to predict potential effectiveness of a given Trichoderma strain against the corresponding disease and the lectins could be employed in screening Trichoderma spp as biocontrol agents efficiently.%提取并纯化了番茄早疫病、黑根霉、棉花立枯病菌和黄瓜灰霉病菌等8个植物病原菌菌株的凝集素,试验观察凝集素与供试19个木霉菌株的凝集反应效价,结果表明除番茄早疫病外,木霉菌分生孢子不同浓度悬浮液与植物病原菌产生的凝集素均有凝集反应,并且木霉菌分生孢子与病原菌凝集素的凝集反应效价与木霉菌对其防效有显著相关性,统计分析表明镰刀菌产生的凝集素与木霉菌的凝集反应效价与木霉菌对它的防效具有显著相关性.因此可以利用凝集素筛选木霉高效生防菌株.

  17. The influence of the swine major histocompatibility genes on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to immunization with an aromatic-dependent mutant of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lumsden, J S; Kennedy, B. W.; Mallard, B A; Wilkie, B. N.

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) defined miniature pigs from 16 litters were examined for serum agglutinating antibody titer and O-polysaccharide (O-ps) specific peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenesis following two parenteral vaccinations with 1 x 10(8) aromatic-dependent (aroA) Salmonella typhimurium and following oral challenge with 1 x 10(12) virulent parent S. typhimurium. Least mean squares analysis allowed separate determinations of the ...

  18. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Domestic Animals from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Malzoni Furtado; Solange Maria Gennari; Cassia Yumi Ikuta; Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo; Zenaide Maria de Morais; Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena; Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio; Leandro Silveira; Rahel Sollmann; Gisele Oliveira de Souza; Natália Mundim Tôrres; José Soares Ferreira Neto

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospir...

  19. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  20. Rapid Leptospira identification by direct sequencing of the diagnostic PCR products in New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant Cyrille; Perez Julie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Most of the current knowledge of leptospirosis epidemiology originates from serological results obtained with the reference Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). However, inconsistencies and weaknesses of this diagnostic technique are evident. A growing use of PCR has improved the early diagnosis of leptospirosis but a drawback is that it cannot provide information on the infecting Leptospira strain which provides important epidemiologic data. Our work is aimed at evaluati...

  1. Das Stellungsproblem des Verbalkomplexes im Deutschen und des Verbalsyntagmas im Koreanischen

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contrast research for the linear structure of the predicate-expression in German as a inflectional language and in Korean as a typicial agglutinative language. It deals with positionsproblems of verbal elements in german verbalcomplex and in korean verbalsyntagma. These problems cause many difficulties not only for korean native speaker during the learning process of German, but also for German native speaker during the learning process of Korean. The contrast analysis of...

  2. Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Nahrevanian; Jafar Gholizadeh; Mahin Farahmand; Mehdi Assmar

    2008-01-01

    In addition to numerous immune factors, C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. The objective of this study was to detect CRP and NO inductions by agglutination latex test and Griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of Iran, including Southeastern (SE) (Sistan & Balouchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman) and Northwestern (NW) provinces (Ardabil). The results indicated that CRP and NO are produce...

  3. Study on Seroprevalence and Leptospiral Antibody Distribution among High-risk Planters in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ridzuan, J. Mohd; Aziah, B.D.; Zahiruddin, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the leptospirosis seroprevalence and to identify the predominant infecting serovars among oil palm plantation workers. Methods The cross-sectional study involved 350 asymptomatic oil palm plantation workers in Melaka and Johor. A serological test using the microscopic agglutination test was conducted in the Institute of Medical Research with a cut-off titre for seropositivity of ≥1:100. Results The overall seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 28.6%. The job cat...

  4. Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [Abbate, 2000] Abbate, Janet. 2000, Inventing the Internet, Cambridge MA, MIT Press. [Adler, 1997] Adler, Emanuel. “Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics”, European Journal of International Relations 3, 31963, 1997. [Aguiton & Cardon, 2007a] Aguiton, Christophe & Cardon, Dominique. « De la cooptation à l’agglutination. Culture participative et formes organisationnelles des forums sociaux », in Neveu, Catherine, Cultures et pratiques participatives. Perspectives comparati...

  5. Serology of Typhoid Fever in an Area of Endemicity and Its Relevance to Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    House, Deborah; Wain, John; Ho, Vo A.; To S. Diep; Chinh, Nguyen T.; Bay, Phan V.; Vinh, Ha; Duc, Minh; Parry, Christopher M.; Dougan, Gordon; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O) or flagellum (H) antigens of serotype Typhi (the Widal test). In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam i...

  6. P-antigen-recognizing fimbriae from human uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, T K; Väisänen, V; Saxén, H; Hultberg, H.; Svenson, S B

    1982-01-01

    P-antigen-recognizing fimbriae (P fimbriae) from four pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli strains and type 1 fimbriae from an E. coli strain and a Salmonella typhimurium strain were purified. The P fimbriae were morphologically similar to type 1 fimbriae. The purified P fimbriae agglutinated neuraminidase-treated human P1 and P2k erythrocytes but not p erythrocytes, which lack all P-blood group-specific glycosphingolipids. However, coating of neuraminidase-treated p erythrocytes with globosid...

  7. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Persad; Roxanne Charles; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8%) were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P < 0.05; χ 2) higher in adult water buf...

  8. Detection of cell-associated or soluble antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, Legionella bozemanii, Legionella dumoffii, Legionella gormanii, and Legionella micdadei by staphylococcal coagglutination tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, H W; Fikes, B J

    1981-01-01

    Current methods used for the detection of whole-cell isolates of Legionella or for the detection of Legionella soluble antigens are technically impractical for many clinical laboratories. The purpose of this study was to explore practical alternatives. The results showed that whole cell isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, Legionella bozemanii, Legionella dumoffii, Legionella gormanii, and Legionella micdadei were identified specifically by a simple slide agglutination test o...

  9. Uppermost Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy at ODP Site 765 on the Argo Abyssal Plain.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, M.A.; Gradstein, F.M.; Geroch, S.

    1992-01-01

    Benthic foraminifers were studied in 99 samples collected from the lower 200 m of Hole 765C. The studied section ranges from the Tithonian to Aptian, and benthic foraminifers can be subdivided into five assemblages on the basis of faunal diversity and stratigraphic ranges of distinctive species. Compared with deep-water assemblages from Atlantic DSDP sites and Poland, assemblages from the Argo Abyssal Plain display a higher diversity of agglutinated forms, which comprise the autochthonous ...

  10. TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN U.S. SWINE OPERATIONS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xianfeng; James Kliebenstein; Sharon PATTON; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Hallam, Arne; Roberts, Tanya; Eric BUSH

    1997-01-01

    Sera from hogs were analyzed using the modified direct agglutination test (MAT). Serum samples were collected from sows which were part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) swine survey. The blood sera on file represented 394 randomly selected hog farms throughout the United States. Additionally, the NAHMS survey included information on type of production facilities and level of cat, dog, or bird access to the facilities. Of the sows tested 19 percent tested positive for to...

  11. Quantitative analysis of Cd, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, W, and Zn in Zinc stearate by plasma emission spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc stearate is a material of nuclear interest because of its properties as lubricant and agglutinating. Such properties are applied in the sintering of uranium dioxide pellets for the nuclear fuel cycle. A control of impurities for zinc stearate is made by means of the Plasma Emission Spectrophotometry, comparing and certifying the analytical results with the Atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The analyzed elements were Cadmium, Molybdenum, Nickel, Lead, Tin, Tungsten and Zinc and the agreement between the methods were good. (Author)

  12. Undergraduate veterinary students’knowledge about leptospirosis and its reactogenecity, Villavicencio, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Diana S. Cristancho- Torres; Karen A. Benítez-Cabrera; Agustín Góngora-Orjuela

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of antibodies against Leptospira spp in veterinary students and their knowledge concerning leptospirosis The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used on 99 subjects’ sera obtained following them having given their informed consent; a survey containing 8 questions about the disease was also used Possible associations between knowledge,sociodemographic characteristics and affiliation with positivity were explored Seroprevalence was ...

  13. Leptospirosis: Endemic Disease in Dogs in Rural Areas of Monteria (Córdoba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alba E. Sánchez - García; Juan C. Ballut Pestana; Alfonso Calderón - Rangel; Virginia C. Rodríguez - Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The seroprevalence of leptospirosis was determined in a canine population in the rural area of the municipality of Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia). Blood samples were taken in 200 dogs of 28 townships, which were processed in the laboratory of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) by microscopic agglutination technique (MAT). Aseroprevalence of 12 % was determined and the seropositivity distributed among the serovars: canicola 7 %,icterohaemorrhagiae and grippotyphosa 2 %, bratislava 1 % a...

  14. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: a survey of dairy cattle in Tripoli, Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic Escherichia coli O157 pathogen represents a serious threat to human health. To investigate the occurrence and prevalence of E. coli O157 among the dairy cattle of Tripoli, Libya, fecal samples were collected intrarectally from 97 outwardly healthy animals and tested by selective plating (Sorbitol-MacConkey agar), biochemical testing (API20E bacterial identification system), and specific antigen detection (latex agglutination test). E. coli O157 were identified and confirmed in 6% (7/...

  15. Journal of Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, S. M.; Richardson, D J; Cheadle, M. A.; Zajac, A. M.; Lindsay, D S

    2002-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disc a 6 of horses in North America and is usually caused by Sarcocystis neuronal Natural cases of encephalitis caused by S. neurona have been reported in skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the only known definitive host. Sera from 24 striped skunks, 12 raccoons, and 7 opossums (D. virginiana) from Connecticut were., examined for agglutinating antibodies to S. neurona using t...

  16. Journal of Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, K.; Zajac, A. M.; Elvinger, F.; Lindsay, D S

    2004-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in North America and is usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Natural and experimentally induced cases of encephalitis caused by S. neurona have been reported in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and raccoons are an intermediate host for this parasite. A 3-yr-long serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to S. neurona in raccoons collected from Fairfax County, Virginia,...

  17. Protective immune response to experimental infection with Sarcocystis neurona in C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Witonsky, S. G.; Gogal, R. M.; Duncan, R. B.; Lindsay, D S

    2003-01-01

    Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were infected with Sarcocystis neurona merozoites to assess the protective immune response to active infection. Using a direct agglutination test, all infected mice seroconverted to S. neurona merozoite antigens by day 14 postinfection (PI). Further, mice developed splenomegaly and bilateral symmetrical lymphadenopathy by day 14 PI, which appeared to be resolving by day 28 PI. Histologic analysis revealed a marked increase in germinal center formation in the splee...

  18. Estimation of Canine Leishmania Infection Prevalence in Six Cities of the Algerian Littoral Zone Using a Bayesian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amel, A; Abatih, E.; N. Speybroeck; Soukehal, A; Boughedour, R; Boughalem, K; Bouhbal, A; Djerbal, M; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, D. (Dirk)

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (se...

  19. Využití výtvarné tvorby ve volném čase dětí

    OpenAIRE

    CHLOUPKOVÁ, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The children{\\crq}s leisure time is characterized as a time when children are free to choose an activity which they will perform on. It could be a drawing, molding, some cuttings, agglutination and/or composition. Paper, plasticine, colour-box, crayons, shoddy and skewers are used within children{\\crq}s activities. The children{\\crq}s needs are specific, according the children{\\crq}s age; consequently they put different demands on individuals.

  20. The Trade-Off between Accuracy and Accessibility of Syphilis Screening Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Pieter W.; David Mabey; John Changalucha; Julius Mngara; Benjamin Clark; Aura Andreasen; Jim Todd; Mark Urassa; Basia Zaba; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of rapid and sensitive methods to diagnose syphilis facilitates screening of pregnant women, which is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available. We have evaluated two screening methods in Tanzania: an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and a point-of-care test (POCT). We evaluated the performance of each test against the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) as the reference method, and the accessibility of testing in a rural district of Tanzania. ...

  1. Characterization of Sera with Discordant Results from Reverse Sequence Screening for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Kyunghoon Lee; Hyewon Park; Eun Youn Roh; Sue Shin; Kyoung Un Park; Myoung Hee Park; Eun Young Song

    2013-01-01

    Reverse sequence screening for syphilis (RSSS) (screening with treponemal tests, followed by confirmation with nontreponemal tests) has been increasingly adopted. CDC recommends confirmation of discordant results (reactive EIA/CIA and nonreactive nontreponemal test) with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA). We characterized sera with discordant results from RSSS with Architect Syphilis TP CIA. Among 15,713 screening tests using Architect Syphilis TP at Seoul National Unive...

  2. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hee Jin; Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2015-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and...

  3. Evaluation of the LIAISON Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Syphilis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Carrie S.; Crum, Mary A.; Hardy, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of an evaluation of the LIAISON Treponema pallidum-specific assay, a one-step sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), as a screening test and as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of syphilis. The assay was compared with the CAPTIA Syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and with a testing algorithm that also included the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and T. pallidum particle agglutination (PA) assays. As a screening test, the CLIA showed levels of agreement with the E...

  4. Evaluation of different confirmatory algorithms using seven treponemal tests on Architect Syphilis TP-positive/RPR-negative sera

    OpenAIRE

    S Jonckheere; Berth, M.; Esbroeck, M.; Blomme, S.; Lagrou, K.; Padalko, Elizaveta

    2015-01-01

    The Architect Syphilis TP is considered to be a suitable screening test due to its high sensitivity and full automation. According to the International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) 2014 guidelines, however, positive screening tests need confirmation with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP.PA). Among Architect-positive results, samples with a negative non-treponemal test present the major diagnostic challenge. In this multicenter study, we investigated if ot...

  5. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Livestock in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran, 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mombeni, Ehsan Gharib; MOMBEINI, Manoochehr Gharib; Khalaj, Mehdi; Asadi, Reza; REZAEI, Abdul Amir; AMIRI, Karim; BROMAND, Samed; KENARKOHI, Mostafa; MOMBENI, Afshin Gharib

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTBrucellosis is a zoonotic problem worldwide, especially in developing countries and specifically in Iran, where it is endemic. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among livestock in the 18 districts of Khuzestan Province in Southwest Iran. Serum samples of 87798 cattle and 119020 sheep were tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Test, and positive results were confirmed with serum agglutination tests (SAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol SAT (2ME-SAT). The seroprevalen...

  6. Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Machado, Gustavo Puglia; Cruvinel, Tatiane Morosini de Andrade; Cruvinel, Ciro Alexandre; Langoni, Helio

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, that affects all warm-blooded animals, including wild animals. The increased number of cases of parasitic infections is mainly due to the destruction of environmental conservation areas, which is driving wild animals out of their habitats and towards urban areas. In this study, the occurrence of T. gondii infection was investigated by the modified agglutination test (MAT...

  7. Screening for pulmonary embolism with a D-dimer assay: do we still need to assess clinical probability as well?

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Christopher J; Hassan, Tajek B.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical risk stratification and D-dimer assay can be of use in excluding pulmonary embolism in patients presenting to emergency departments but many D-dimer assays exist and their accuracy varies. We used clinical risk stratification combined with a quantitative latex-agglutination D-dimer assay to screen patients before arranging further imaging if required. Retrospective analysis of a sequential series of 376 patients revealed that no patient with a D-dimer of

  8. The hemagglutinin gene A (hagA) of Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 contains four large, contiguous, direct repeats.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, N.; Whitlock, J; Progulske-Fox, A.

    1996-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species strongly associated with adult periodontitis. One of its distinguishing characteristics and putative virulence properties is the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes. We have previously reported the cloning of multiple hemagglutinin genes from P. gingivalis 381. Subsequent sequencing of clone ST 2 revealed that the cloned fragment contained only an internal portion of the gene which lacked both start and stop codons. We he...

  9. Cell adhesion molecules: detection with univalent second antibody

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Identification of cell surface molecules that play a role in cell-cell adhesion (here called cell adhesion molecules) has been achieved by demonstrating the inhibitory effect of univalent antibodies that bind these molecules in an in vitro assay of cell-cell adhesion. A more convenient reagent, intact (divalent) antibody, has been avoided because it might agglutinate the cells rather than blocking cell-cell adhesion. In this report, we show that intact rabbit immunoglobulin directed against c...

  10. [Comparison of the diagnostic methods for studying parvovirus and rotavirus infections of dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl, S; Vogel, I; Modli, M; Gerstl, F

    1990-07-01

    79 feces samples of dogs between 7 weeks till 13.5 years of age, showing clinical signs of a hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, were tested by a commercial ELISA (DiaSystems Canine Parvo, Tech-America) for Canine Parvovirus (CPV) and by two Latex-Agglutination tests for Rotavirus (30 probes were tested by Rota Screen, 49 samples by Slidex Rota-Kit 2, both tests from BioMerieux). All samples were also examined by electron microscopy. The results of the simultaneous investigations showed 28 times positive and 28 times negative for CPV (70.9%). In 93.7% the investigations for Rotavirus-infection showed identical results by the Latex-Agglutination and electron microscopy: 73 samples were negative, one case showed a positive reaction. In 4 feces samples Rotavirus could only be detected by the Latex-test. In one sample a double-infection (CPV/Rotavirus) could be observed by all methods, in two cases the double-infection was only found by using the Latex-Agglutination. No other viruses could be found by the electron microscope than those described above. The results and the performance of the methods are discussed and compared with the data of other authors. PMID:2167658

  11. STUDY ON SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST CAMPYLOBACTOR JEJUNI%抗空肠弯曲菌单克隆抗体某些免疫学特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚楚铮; 袁洽劻; 黄莉莉; 刘滨磊

    1988-01-01

    Spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with formalinized Campylobacter jejuni were fused with NS-I myeloma cells,and antibodies in the cell culture supernatants and ascites were detected by ELISA.Ten hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni were obtained.These antibodies reaoted strongly in slide agglutination tests with live Campylobaoter and none of them reaoted in tube agglutination tests with formalinized whole bacteria,but agglutinated with boiled bacteria.None of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with unrelated enterobacteria which have been tested.These monoclonal antibodies displayed insignificant bactericidal effect on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro.%用空肠弯曲菌免疫的BALB/C小鼠脾细胞与NS-1骨髓瘤细胞融合,获得10株能稳定分泌抗空肠弯曲菌单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞株.这些单克隆抗体与空肠弯曲菌活菌做玻片凝集试验,呈强阳性反应;与福尔马林灭活的空肠弯曲菌做试管凝集试验,均为阴性结果,而与煮沸后的菌体做试验亦呈阳性反应.这些单克隆抗体在体外对空肠弯曲菌无杀菌作用.

  12. Sarcolectin: an interferon antagonist extracted from hamster sarcomas and normal muscles. Isolation, characterization, and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P H; Chany-Fournier, F; Robert-Galliot, B; Sarragne, M; Chany, C

    1983-10-25

    In the present work we show that sarcoma and normal hamster tissues contain a protein which agglutinates normal and transformed cells. The inhibition of agglutination by galacturonic acid and occasionally by fucose suggests a resemblance of this protein with vegetal lectins. When added 5 h after interferon, the crude semipurified and electrophoretically homogeneous preparations reduce within 20 h the antiviral state pre-established by interferon. These two biological tests have enabled us to monitor the subsequent purification steps. The isolation of the biologically active protein is greatly facilitated by its resistance to pepsin and nucleases, whereas its sensitivity to trypsin and Pronase suggests its proteinaceous character. Furthermore, the molecule is stable when heated 1-2 min at 100 degrees C in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. After pepsin treatment, Sephacryl G-200 gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, 25-40-fold purification can be obtained. When controlled by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a double band (DEAE-cellulose sample) or single band (octyl-agarose sample) is detected in the 65,000-dalton region and no other contaminator is present. The eluted protein retains full biological activity when assayed by the degradation of the interferon-induced antiviral protection in the cell or titrated by cell agglutination.

  13. Assessment of snapper (Pagrus auratus) natural IgM binding to bromelain treated sheep erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Richard N; Bruce Lyons, A; Nowak, Barbara F; Hayball, John D

    2005-01-01

    Normal snapper (Pagrus auratus Bloch and Schneider) serum was examined for natural IgM that binds to protease (bromelain) treated sheep erythrocytes (BrSRBC) in a model assay system that has been used to appraise natural IgM of various mammals. Normal snapper serum lysed BrSRBC while haemolysis was abrogated by heat inactivation of serum and in divalent cation-deficient conditions, indicative of classical complement mediated lysis. In addition, heat inactivated normal snapper serum agglutinated BrSRBC while phosphatidylcholine (PtC) liposomes partially inhibited both haemolysis and agglutination. Inhibition of haemolysis and agglutination may have been mediated by an interaction between immunoglobulin (Ig) and PtC as protein A purified snapper Ig bound to PtC liposomes. However it is not known if this binding was PtC specific nor if the binding was initiated by either the Fab and/or Fc domains of snapper Ig. BrSRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) were detected in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood of normal snapper. The greatest proportion of BrSRBC PFC per B cell was within the peritoneal cavity followed by the spleen, peripheral blood and head kidney. Together, these data suggest that normal snapper serum may contain natural Ig that binds BrSRBC, activating the classical complement cascade.

  14. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Nithya; Henry, Nittin; Rafi, Aboobacker Mohamed; Innah, Susheela J

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult) but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult) or O cord (Oicord) cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  15. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Mohanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult or O cord (Oicord cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  16. Purification and characterization of lectin from humoral fluids of Charybdis feriatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Congjie; Wang Guizhong; HE Jianfeng; LI Shaojing; HUANG Huiyang

    2006-01-01

    To search new sources of lectin, an experiment on lectin distribution in humoral serum of crab Charybdisferiatus (in short, CFL) was conducted March, 2002. When adding solid ammonium sulfate into the fluids up to 50% saturation at 4℃, most CFL activity showed precipitates who were then continually extracted by ammonium sulfate of different concentrations. The supernatant, which was called primary CFL fluids, was given a 17.60-fold purification and 45.70% recovery of total activity. Finally, by using Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, the CFL in the primary CFL fluid was highly purified.Compared to the original humoral fluids, the last purified CFL got a 203.90-fold purification and 30.48%recovery of total activity, and demonstrated a single band on SDS-PAGE. In thesame time, the purified CFL was detected for agglutination activity with 7 kinds of animal erythrocytes. Other characterization,such as sugar inhibition, and the effect of temperature on the agglutination activity of CFL were also studied. Our results indicate that agglutination activity of CFL was influenced by sugar and temperature.

  17. Semen analysis in post-pubertal patients with posterior urethral valves: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, A; Gaur, K K; Kumar, A; Bhatnagar, V

    2002-03-01

    The issues of sexual function and fertility are becoming relevant in patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV), as more of them reach adulthood. To evaluate the semen of post-pubertal patients with PUV as a determinant of future fertility, all such patients (age >16 years) attending the follow-up urology clinic of our department from 1985 to December 1999 were contacted. Of the nine patients contacted, eight agreed to form the study group. All eight patients were asked to provide a post-masturbation semen sample and urine. Semen was analysed for pH, viscosity, liquefaction time, sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and agglutination. The patients ages ranged from 16 to 21 years (mean 17.5 years). One patient with chronic renal failure awaiting a renal transplant refused to give a semen sample; two tried but failed to ejaculate on three consecutive visits. Their urine was negative for sperm. Of the five patients who gave semen, the liquefaction time was high in two. pH ranged from 7.2 to 8, sperm counts were 24-80 million. None of the patients had oligospermia. Abnormal sperm agglutination was present in four cases; a higher percentage of immotile sperm was also present in four. Semen abnormalities in the form of increased liquefaction time, abnormal sperm agglutination, and a high percentage of immotile sperm were thus seen in the present study. The bearing of these findings on subsequent sexual function and fertility remains a matter of speculation. PMID:11956780

  18. Frequency of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendee in combined military hospital abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency of syphilis among pregnant women attending Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad Study Design: Descriptive study. Material and Methods: A screening for syphilis of 500 married pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics was carried out using the qualitative Rapid Plasma Regent (RPR) test/ Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. The Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test was used as confirmatory test for all Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test positive cases. Results: A total of 8 women (1.6%) were positive for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Out of these 4 (0.8%) were positive for Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test. All of these cases have bad obstetrical history. Conclusion: The sero-positivity of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is (1.6%), considered high among pregnant women reporting in obstetrics clinics of Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad. Similarly sero-positivity of Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test is (0.8%) considered high among the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test population. Therefore Screening of syphilis in pregnancy especially in patients having bad obstetrical history (BOH) should be incorporated into the study. (author)

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel fucose-binding lectin from the gill of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Saikun; Tang, Jian; Gu, Xiaohong

    2010-02-15

    Lectins play an important role in many biological systems and are used increasingly in human disease therapy. To improve our understanding of fish lectins we purified and characterized a fucose-binding lectin from the gill of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 25mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5), separation on a DEAE-Sepharose FF ion exchange column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 HR and Superdex 200 10/300 GL columns. The purified lectin, designated GANL, had a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 37kDa when subject to SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. GANL is a homomultimeric glycoprotein with a native molecular mass of 220kDa and a carbohydrate content of approximately 13.4%. The purified lectin only agglutinated rabbit native erythrocytes, and did not require Ca(2+). Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- or disaccharides or glycoproteins tested, except for fucose. GANL contains a high proportion of Asp, Glu, Leu, Val, and Lys. The first 10 residues of the N-terminal region were determined as AGEQGGQCSA. The anti-microbial activity was assessed by measuring agglutination and inhibition of pathogen growth. Our results suggest that GANL agglutinates and inhibits the growth of Vibrio harveyi but has no antifungal activity. PMID:19709756

  20. [Purification of lectin from fruiting bodies of Lactarius rufus (Scop.: Fr.)Fr. and its carbohydrate specificity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchak, L V; Antoniuk, V O

    2007-01-01

    A lectin from fruiting bodies of Lactarius rufus (Scop.: Fr.)Fr. has been purified by affinity chromatography on copolymer of polyvinyl alcohol with a blood group B specific substance. The lectin gives a single band at disk-electrophoresis in acidic (pH 4.3) and alkaline (pH 8.6) buffer systems. Under electrophoresis in 10-20% SDS-PAGE, the lectin consists of identical subunits with molecular weight 17 +/- 1 kDa. Molecular weight of the lectin is 98 kDa according to gel-chromatography on Tojopearl HW-55. It is supposed that the lectin contains six subunits. The lectin is quite enough stable in pH 4.0-10.0, its activity does not depend upon bivalent metal ions. When heating the lectin solution to 65 degrees C it lost more than 85% of its activity. The lectin agglutinates human etrythrocytes without any marked group specificity, it agglutinates 2-4 times worse rabbit erythrocytes, very weakly crucian erythrocytes and does not agglutinate sheep erythrocytes. Mono- and disaccharides are not inhibitors of the lectin activity, while alpha-phenyl-N-acethyl-D-glucosaminopyranosid (0.08 mM) and 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucosamin are the best inhibitors of its activity. Among glycoproteins the best inhibitors of the lectin activity are: group-specific substances from human blood erythrocytes, asialosubmaxillary bovine mucin, human and bovine thyroglobulin and more weak inhibitors are fetuin, transferrin and human Ig G.

  1. Enrichment for CFU-C from murine and human bone marrow using soybean agglutinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse bone marrow and spleen cells agglutinated by soybean agglutinin (SBA) or peanut agglutinin (PNA) were previously shown to be enriched for spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) and sufficiently depleted of graft-versus-host reaction producing cells to allow hematologic reconstitution of lethally irradiated allogeneic recipient mice. A similar enrichment for cells capable of forming colonies in soft agar culture (CFU-C) has now been found in the SBA-agglutinated fraction of mouse bone marrow cells, in contrast to the finding that in human bone marrow the majority of the CFU-C are in the fraction not agglutinated by SBA. Cytofluorometric studies with fluorescein-labeled SBA (FITC-SBA) revealed that the majority of both mouse and human bone marrow cells bind the lectin. Experiments mixing the human marrow fractions separated by SBA reveal that true enrichment for CFU-C is achieved in the unagglutinated fraction, as opposed to a possible depletion of a suppressor cell population. Granulocytic, monocytic, and mixed cell colonies were all enriched in the SBA-unagglutinated cell fraction from human bone marrow

  2. Effects of CO2 hydrate on deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, E. R.; Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Barry, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    This study, conducted with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), is the first to investigate potential effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrates on benthic microfossils, specifically oraminifera. The experiment was conducted in September 2003 aboard the R/V Western Flier using the ROV Tiburon. Experimental (CO2 exposed) and control cores were collected at 3600m and stained to distinguish live (stained) from dead (unstained) individuals. Foraminifera are ideal for these investigations because of differing test composition (calcareous and agglutinated) and thickness, and diverse epifaunal and infaunal depth preferences. The effects of the CO2 on assemblages have been tracked both vertically (10cm depth) and horizontally, and between live and dead individuals. Increased mortality and dissolution of calcareous forms resulted from exposure to CO2 hydrate. Preliminary results suggest several major effects on surface sediment assemblages: 1) total number of foraminifera in a sample decreases; 2) foraminiferal diversity decreases in both stained and unstained specimens. The number of planktonic and hyaline calcareous tests declines greatly, with milliolids being more resistant to dissolution when stained; and 3) percentage of stained (live) forms is higher. Down-core trends (up to 10cm) indicate: 1) percent agglutinated forms decline and calcareous forms increasingly dominate; 2) agglutinated diversity decreases with depth; and 3) assemblages become increasingly similar with depth to those in control cores not subjected to CO2 hydrate. These results imply almost complete initial mortality and dissolution upon CO2 hydrate emplacement in the corrals. (Author)

  3. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW MANNOSE-SPECIFIC LECTIN FROM Hyacinthella аcutiloba K. Perss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Antonyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new lectin with 6.5 mg/kg yield was purified from fresh bulb Hyacinthella аcutiloba K. Perss. by combination of affinity chromathography on yeast mannan and by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-toyopearl. The best lectin inhibitor among tested mono- and disaccharides was D-turanose (Glcp ?1-3 Fruf. Very powerful inhibitor of lectin activity was yeast mannan. The lectin revealed weak affinity to ?-methyl-Dmannoside, D-fructose and 2-acetamido-D-galactopyranoside. The lectin interacted also with pig liver glycogen, starch and mannose-containing glycoproteins (ovoalbumin, ovomucoid and calf thyroglobulin, but don’t interacted with horsera dish peroxidase and calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. According to electrophoresis, in 20% SDS-PAAG containing SDS-Na the lectin consists with subunits of molecular weight 12 kDa. Molecular weight of the lectin is 48 kDa according to gelchromatography on Toyopearl HW-55. The lectin agglutinated best of all rabbit erythrocytes and worse agglutinated guinea-pig, very weak — rat erythrocytes and did not agglutinate human and goat erythrocytes. After dialysis against 1% EDTA sodium salt solution the lectin did not lose hemaglutinating activity and endured heating to +65 °C during one hour.

  4. Isolation of a galactose-binding lectin from the venom of the snake Bothrops godmani (Godmann's pit viper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, B; Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M; Ramírez, G

    1990-01-01

    A galactose-binding lectin, isolated from the venom of B. godmani by affinity chromatography, is an acidic protein (pI 4.9) with a subunit mol. wt of about 14,000, occurring mostly as a disulfide-linked dimer of 28,000. A small proportion of lectin appears as a monomer and as a tetramer. The lectin agglutinates erythrocytes from mice, rabbit, cow and human (all ABO types, either Rh positive or negative), but does not agglutinate horse, sheep, goat and snake (Oxybelis aeneus, Colubridae) erythrocytes. The agglutinating activity is inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. The lectin is devoid of lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities. It is not mitogenic for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The only effect observed was a moderate induction of edema in the footpad of mice, with a minimal edema-forming dose of 22 micrograms. This effect developed rapidly, and was significantly inhibited by i.p. administration of cyproheptadine, a histamine and serotonin antagonist, before injection of the lectin. Despite the edema-forming activity observed, the low concentration of lectin in crude venom, together with its relatively low potency, suggest that this lectin is not a key component in the development of edema following envenomations by B. godmani.

  5. Conduit changes and eruptive styles at Red Mountain cinder cone, AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, N. R.; Duffield, W. A.; Cashman, K. V.; Zimmer, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Red Mountain volcano is a Pleistocene (ca. 740 ky) cinder cone north of Flagstaff, AZ, in the northern Mio- Recent San Francisco volcanic field. Red Mountain erupted onto Permian sedimentary rocks with low topographic relief, likely covered in some places by older flows. The cone evolved through several stages that erupted and emplaced cinder, lava flow, agglutinate, and clastogenic lava. The transition from cinder eruption to mild hawaiian-type fountaining is contrary to observed activity at cinder cones, but may provide insight into conduit processes during basaltic eruptions. Earliest strombolian eruptions built a cone as much as 400 m high. Agglutinate is a relatively minor constituent as are vulcanian bombs < 1 m in diameter. Near the end of strombolian eruptions lava flowed from the base of the cone, primarily toward the west. Continued lava flow caused rafting of ~15% of the cone, including the vent area. Eruptions transitioned to mild hawaiian, with agglutinate emplacement, lava flow, clastogenic flow, and minor scoria eruption. Agglutinate at 200-350 m on the inner face of the rafted cone suggests a relatively low fountain height. Successions up to 30 m thick 4 km from vent expose interbedded welded cinder, agglutinate, clastogenic flow, and rooted lava flow. Activity at Red Mountain transitioned from strombolian to mild hawaiian, in opposition to most cinder cones. Hawaiian activity is generally attributed to a higher rate of magma flux than strombolian. Some change in the conduit clearly occurred causing either an increase in flux rate and/or a significant change in the vesiculation depth below the vent. We suggest two possibilities: 1) the rafting collapse of the cone, which decreased the conduit length by as much as 350 m, caused a significant change in the pressure profile, which in turn affected both the onset of bubble nucleation and the path length for bubble coalescence. This in turn caused less bubble/melt segregation and steadier (mild hawaiian

  6. Low Prevalence of Brucella Agglutinins in Blood Donors in Central Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Sofian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and has great economic importance. Despite its control in many countries, it remains endemic in Iran. Brucellosis was investigated in many high risk occupational groups; however, few studies on the prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors are available. To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis antibodies in blood donors, a serological study was carried out in central province of Iran.Materials and Methods: A total of 897 healthy blood donors with mean age 37.23 ± 10.9 years were enrolled in the study. Laboratory tests including Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were checked in all samples. STA dilution ≥ 1:80, and in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination ≥ 20 was considered positive.Results: Out of 897 cases, 11.9% were inhabitants of rural areas. 41.5% had history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and 9.3% had history of contact with domestic animals. A very low level of Brucella agglutinins was present in 3(0.33% of the samples and only one sample (0.11% was found to be truly positive for Brucella agglutinins. 2ME was negative in all samples. None of these 4 subjects showed signs and symptoms of brucellosis in 6 months follow-up.Conclusion: On the basis of our data, brucellosis has no epidemiological and clinical importance in our blood donors; therefore, it is not recommended to perform screening tests such as, STA and 2ME to identify brucellosis antibodies in the sera of blood donors.

  7. Selective zircon accumulation in a new benthic foraminifer, Psammophaga zirconia, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, A; Negri, A; Bartolini, A; Morigi, C; Boudouma, O; Dinelli, E; Florindo, F; Galeazzi, R; Holzmann, M; Lurcock, P C; Massaccesi, L; Pawlowski, J; Rocchi, S

    2016-07-01

    Benthic foraminifera are single-celled eukaryotes that make a protective organic, agglutinated or calcareous test. Some agglutinated, single-chambered taxa, including Psammophaga Arnold, 1982, retain mineral particles in their cytoplasm, but the selective mechanism of accumulation is not clear. Here, we report the ability of a foraminiferal species to select and accumulate zircons and other heavy minerals in their cytoplasm. In particular, the use of Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (SEM-EDS) enabled a representative overview of the mineral diversity and showed that the analysed Psammophaga zirconia sp. nov. individuals contained dominantly crystals of zircon (51%), titanium oxides (27%), and ilmenite (11%) along with minor magnetite and other minerals. The studied specimens occur in the shallow central Adriatic Sea where the sediment has a content of zircon below 1% and of other heavy minerals below 4%. For that reason we hypothesize that: (i) P. zirconia may be able to chemically select minerals, specifically zircon and rutile; (ii) the chemical mechanism allowing the selection is based on electrostatic interaction, and it could work also for agglutinated foraminifera (whether for ingestion, like Xenophyophores, or incorporation in the test as in many other described taxa). In particular, this aptitude for high preferential uptake and differential ingestion or retention of zircon is reported here for the first time, together with the selection of other heavy minerals already described in members of the genus Psammophaga. They are generally counted among early foraminifera, constructing a morphologically simple test with a single chamber. Our molecular phylogenetic study confirms that P. zirconia is a new species, genetically distinctive from other Psammophaga, and occurs in the Adriatic as well as in the Black Sea. PMID:27001345

  8. On Extraction of Lectin from Black Soya Been and Its Effect of Cruor%黑豆凝集素的提取及血凝效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐超; 王清吉

    2012-01-01

    采用70%饱和度硫酸铵盐析的方法,分别以蒸馏水、生理盐水、pH=7.2的磷酸缓冲液、pH=5.2的乙酸缓冲液和0.7 mol/L的甲酸作为浸提溶液,提取黑豆凝集素粗品,透析并用分子筛层析纯化黑豆凝集素,以鸡血凝集试验检测.结果表明:磷酸缓冲液为最佳浸提液,黑豆凝集素提取率最高,为9.17%,凝血效果最好.血凝试验表明分子筛层析图谱中出现的第1个峰即为黑豆凝集素,冷冻干燥后所得产品为白色粉末.%Crude lectin was extracted from the seeds of black soya been with distilled water, normal saline, phosphoric acid buffer (pH7. 2), acetic acid buffer (pH5. 2) and 0. 7 mol/L formic acid solution, and was purified with precipitation with 70% (NH4)2SO4, dialysis and molecular sieve chromatography. The change in agglutinating activity was tested with erythrocytes of chicken. The results showed that the treatment with phosphoric acid buffer solution agglutinated erythrocytes better and the extraction efficiency (9. 17%) was higher than other groups. It was confirmed by agglutinating examination that the first peak in the chromatograph was the lectin. The lectin of black soya been was white powder after lyophilization.

  9. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad A; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Arutyunov, Denis; Evoy, Stephane; Szymanski, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs), which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40) and 90% for C. coli (n = 19). CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  10. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Javed

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs, which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40 and 90% for C. coli (n = 19. CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  11. The earliest Foraminifera from southern Shaanxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vase-shaped microfossils(VSMs) described herein mainly occur as isolated individuals in thin bedded siltstone and silty carbonate of the Gaojiashan Member of the upper Ediacaran Dengying Formation(ca.551-541 Ma).Although these fossils are abundant,chained tests or other types of colonial aggregates have not been observed.Specimens in the siltstones can easily be isolated from the host rocks by ultrasonic vibrators.Compared with the co-occurring fossils Gaojiashania and Conotubus,VSMs are rarely pyritized,yet they are always three-dimensionally persevered with little deformation,suggesting that their tests were sturdy and possibly mineralized.Petrological observation and elemental mapping reveal two types of tests that are respectively calcareous and siliceous in composition.Calcareous tests typically consist of two to three crypto-crystal laminae,somewhat resembling bilamellar walls of foraminifers.Siliceous tests consist of fine-grained particles agglutinated with siliceous cement,similar to agglutinated walls of foraminifers.The Gaojiashan VSMs are broadly similar,at least in gross morphology,to the testate amoebae-like VSMs,but their relative large sizes(600-2400 μm) and possibly mineralized(rather than organic) tests argue against this comparison.They also show some similarities to other protozoans,especially tintinnids.However,tintinnids have robust pesudochitinous loricae consisting of both secreted and agglutinated materials.Moreover,tintinnid loricae differ in shape from the Gaojiashan VSM tests in having a constricted aboral end(sometimes with a caudal appendix) and a flaring oral opening.If the Gaojiashan VSMs are indeed related to foraminifers,they indicate that foraminifers were important players in late Ediacaran communities.

  12. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella N. Akange

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67

  13. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age. PMID:27237111

  14. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA, and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior

  15. A tandem-repeat galectin-9 involved in immune response of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Ke, Fei; Ma, Jingjing; Zhou, Shuaibang

    2016-04-01

    Galectins exclusively recognize and bind β-galactoside on cell surface by carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of extensive study of mammalian galectin importance in immune system, little is known about that of fish. To study the immune response of yellow catfish to pathogens, a tandem-repeat galectin-9 from yellow catfish was identified and named PfGAL9. Its full-length cDNA was 1314 bp, including a 117 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 951 bp of open reading frame (ORF), and a 246 bp of 3' UTR. The ORF encoded 316 amino acids (35.12 KDa), shared the highest 78% identity with the predicted galectin-9 of Ictalurus punctatus. This protein possessed two distinct CRDs with two highly conserved sugar binding motifs. Quantitative PCR showed that PfGAL9 was lowly expressed in skin, gill, fin, muscle, heart, and intestine, highly expressed in tested immune tissues (head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, spleen, and blood) in normal body. After inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, PfGAL9 was remarkably increased in head kidney and liver in a time-dependent manner. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, which not only agglutinated but also bond all examined bacteria. The binding activities are consistent with the size of aggregates formed by agglutinated bacteria. The agglutination must depend on its direct interaction with bacteria. These results suggested that PfGAL9 was involved in the innate immune response against bacterial infection and clearance of pathogens in yellow catfish. PMID:26892795

  16. Multifunctional role of β-1, 3 glucan binding protein purified from the haemocytes of blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus and in vitro antibacterial activity of its reaction product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjugam, Mahalingam; Iswarya, Arokiadhas; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-01-01

    β-1, 3 glucan binding protein (β-GBP) was isolated from the haemocytes of blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus and purified by laminarin coupled Sephadex G-100 affinity column chromatography. The purified β-GBP has the molecular mass of 100 kDa, confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The X-ray diffraction analysis of purified β-GBP indicates the crystalline nature of the protein and also the presence of single peak confirming the existence of β-glucan molecule. The results of agglutination assay showed that the purified β-GBP had the ability to agglutinate with yeast cell, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian erythrocytes. β-GBP can agglutinate with yeast cells at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. The phagocytic and encapsulation activity of purified β-GBP from P. pelagicus was determined with yeast cell S. cerevisiae and sepharose bead suspension respectively. This reveals that, β-GBP have the ability to detect the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) found on the surface of fungi and bacteria. The recognition of invading foreign substances and in the involvement of functional activities induces the activation of prophenoloxidase. This revealed that β-GBP play a major role in the innate immune system of crustaceans by stimulating the prophenoloxidase system. Moreover, it was obvious to note that β-GBP reaction product exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This study concludes the functional aspects of β-GBP purified from P. pelagicus and its vital role in the stimulation of prophenoloxidase cascade during the pathogenic infection. PMID:26611720

  17. Functional characterization of antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity protein loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica G Cole

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of a gonorrhea vaccine is challenged by the lack of correlates of protection. The antigenically variable neisserial opacity (Opa proteins are expressed during infection and have a semivariable (SV and highly conserved (4L loop that could be targeted in a vaccine. Here we compared antibodies to linear (Ab(linear and cyclic (Ab(cyclic peptides that correspond to the SV and 4L loops and selected hypervariable (HV(2 loops for surface-binding and protective activity in vitro and in vivo. METHODS/FINDINGS: Ab(SV cyclic bound a greater number of different Opa variants than Ab(SV linear, including variants that differed by seven amino acids. Antibodies to the 4L peptide did not bind Opa-expressing bacteria. Ab(SV (cyclic and Ab(HV2 (cyclic, but not Ab(SV (linear or Ab(HV2 linear agglutinated homologous Opa variants, and Ab(HV2BD (cyclic but not Ab(HV2BD (linear blocked the association of OpaB variants with human endocervical cells. Only Ab(HV2BD (linear were bactericidal against the serum resistant parent strain. Consistent with host restrictions in the complement cascade, the bactericidal activity of Ab(HV2BD (linear was increased 8-fold when rabbit complement was used. None of the antibodies was protective when administered vaginally to mice. Antibody duration in the vagina was short-lived, however, with <50% of the antibodies recovered 3 hrs post-administration. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an SV loop-specific cyclic peptide can be used to induce antibodies that recognize a broad spectrum of antigenically distinct Opa variants and have agglutination abilities. HV(2 loop-specific cyclic peptides elicited antibodies with agglutination and adherence blocking abilities. The use of human complement when testing the bactericidal activity of vaccine-induced antibodies against serum resistant gonococci is also important.

  18. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing. PMID:27126791

  19. Effects of CO2 Hydrate on Deep-Sea Foraminiferal Assemblages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, E R; Kennett, J P; Hill, T M; Barry, J P

    2005-06-01

    THE EFFECTS OF CO2 HYDRATE ON DEEP-SEA FORAMINIFERAL ASSEMBLAGES E. R. Ricketts*, J. P. Kennett and T. M. Hill Department of Geological Sciences University of California, Santa Barbara, CA USA Jim Barry Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Moss Landing, CA USA ABSTRACT This study, conducted with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), is the first to investigate potential effects of CO2 hydrates on benthic microfossils, specifically foraminifera. The experiment was conducted in September 2003 aboard the R/V Western Flier using the ROV Tiburon. Experimental (CO2 exposed) and control cores were collected at 3600m and stained to distinguish live (stained) from dead (unstained) individuals. Foraminifera are ideal because of differing test composition (calcareous and agglutinated) and thickness, and diverse epifaunal and infaunal depth preferences. The effects of the CO2 on assemblages have been tracked both vertically (10cm depth) and horizontally, and between live and dead individuals. Increased mortality and dissolution of calcareous forms resulted from exposure to CO2 hydrate. Preliminary results suggest several major effects on surface sediment assemblages: 1) total number of foraminifera in a sample decreases; 2) foraminiferal diversity decreases in both stained and unstained specimens. The number of planktonic and hyaline calcareous tests declines greatly, with milliolids being more resistant to dissolution when stained; and 3) percentage of stained (live) forms is higher. Down-core trends (up to 10cm) indicate: 1) percent agglutinated forms decline and calcareous forms increasingly dominate; 2) agglutinated diversity decreases with depth; and 3) assemblages become increasingly similar with depth to those in control cores not subjected to CO2 hydrate. These results imply almost complete initial mortality and dissolution upon CO2 hydrate emplacement.

  20. A repA-based ELISA for discriminating cattle vaccinated with Brucella suis 2 from those naturally infected with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Ning; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Qiu, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Chi-Young; Chang, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The commonest ways of diagnosing brucellosis in animals include the Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test, the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the slide agglutination test, the complement fixation test, and the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). However, these methods cannot discriminate the Brucella vaccine strain (Brucella suis strain 2; B. suis S2) from naturally acquired virulent strains. Of the six common Brucella species, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and B. suis are the commonest species occurring in China. To develop an ELISA assay that can differentiate between cows inoculated with B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, genomic sequences from six Brucella spp. (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, Brucella canis, Brucella neotomae and Brucella ovis) were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. One particular gene, the repA-related gene, was found to be a marker that can differentiate B. suis from B. abortus and B. melitensis. The repA-related gene of B. suis was PCR amplified and subcloned into the pET-32a vector. Expressed repA-related protein was purified and used as an antigen. The repA-based ELISA was optimized and used as specific tests. In the present study, serum from animals inoculated with the B. suis S2 vaccine strain had positive repA-based ELISA results. In contrast, the test-positive reference sera against B. abortus and B. melitensis had negative repA-based ELISA results. The concordance rate between B. abortus antibody-negative (based on the repA-based ELISA) and the Brucella gene-positive (based on the 'Bruce ladder' multiplex PCR) was 100%. Therefore, the findings suggest that the repA-based ELISA is a useful tool for differentiating cows vaccinated with the B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis. PMID:24941369

  1. 布洛芬注射液的特殊安全性评价%Special Safety Evaluation on Ibuprofen Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冲; 高梅; 杨麟珂; 张婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate safety of ibuprofen for injection based on the special safety experiments of ibuprofen injection, Methods Three experiments were used, including hemolysis and blood cell agglutination test in vitro and stimulation test in blood vessel, allergic test induced by ibuprofen injection in guinea pigs, to observe whether ibuprofen injection could induce hypersensitive response, vascular stimulation response, hemolytic reaction and agglutination or not. Results Ibuprofen injection caused no hemolysis and blood cell agglutination when its concentration was 4 mg·mL -1, neither vascular stimulation in rabbits nor allergic reaction in guinea pigs were observed when its concentrations were 4 mg·mL-1 and 25 mg·mL-1 respectively. Conclusion Ibuprofen injection is safe for intravenous injection.%目的:通过对布洛芬注射液特殊安全性进行试验研究,评价其用药的安全性。方法将布洛芬注射液配成适当浓度,分别进行溶血性试验,家兔血管刺激性试验及豚鼠全身过敏性试验,观察布洛芬注射液是否具有溶血作用,是否可引起过敏和对血管的刺激性。结果布洛芬注射液4 mg·mL-1未见溶血及凝集反应,静脉注射未见明显血管刺激性,25 mg·mL-1给药后未出现过敏反应。结论布洛芬注射液可供静脉注射试用给药。

  2. Fatty acid binding sites of serum albumin as membrane receptor analogs for streptococcal lipoteichoic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, W A; Ofek, I; Beachey, E H

    1980-01-01

    The ability of bovine serum albumin to inhibit the binding of group A streptococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) to human cells was investigated. Albumin blocked the ability of LTA to sensitize erythrocytes to agglutinate in the presence of anti-LTA in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of LTA binding to erythrocytes was demonstrated directly with radiolabeled LTA. At an albumin/LTA molar ratio of 1.5:1, albumin binding of the radiolabeled LTA at erythrocytes was inhibited by 45%. Analysis of...

  3. A morfologia prosódica e o comportamento transderivacional da hipocorização no português brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyse Brazilian Portuguese Hypocorization, inlight of the Prosodic Morphology model proposed by McCarthy &Prince (1990 and 1993. Agglutinative approaches refer to thisphenomenon as idiosyncratic, unpredictible and awkward,considering that the process deletes sound sequences ofanthroponims. Based on Prosodic Morphology, I argue against thishypothesis, showing that the process is highly regular if we consider(i prosodic primitives and (ii aspects of the phonology-morphologyinterface in Portuguese. By analyzing the phenomenon as a nonconcatenativeone, I claim that Hypocorization does not deletesound sequences of the base. Instead it is characterized by melodicsegment mapping of the first name onto a definite prosodic template.

  4. Clinical application of Brucella fast three tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis%布病快检三项在布鲁杆菌病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景瑶; 赵冬梅; 毕惠梅; 何晶晶; 张柠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of Brucella fast three tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis.Methods Choose to our hospital brucella patients and healthy physical examination as the research object,Fluorescence polarization assay、IELISA、Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT).Results Brucella fast three tests and test tube agglutination test (SAT) detection method of detecting results have good consistency (Kappa ≥ 0.75).Coincidence rate 98.3 % and sensitivity 97.2% of Brucella fast three slightly higher than tube agglutination test (SAT) method.Conclusions Brucella fast three more traditional serological method operation is simple,rapid,For clinical diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis saves time,Is worth popularizing in clinical brucellosis diagnostic applications.%目的 探讨布病快检三项在布鲁杆菌病诊断中的临床应用意义.方法 选取来黑龙江省农垦总局总医院就诊布鲁杆菌病患者和健康体检者为研究对象,分别用间接酶联免疫吸附试验(IELISA)、荧光偏振检测方法(FPA)、传统虎红试验(RBPT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)检测布鲁杆菌病.结果 布病快检三项与试管凝集试验(SAT)检测方法的检测结果均有较好的一致性(Kappa值均≥0.75).布病快检三项的符合率98.3%和灵敏度97.2%要稍高于试管凝集试验(SAT)检测方法.结论 布病快检三项较传统的血清学方法操作简单、快速,为临床布鲁杆菌病诊断和治疗节省了时间,值得在临床布鲁杆菌病诊断中推广应用.

  5. Coinfection by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats (Felis catus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Rennó Campos Braga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are important to public health. Methods Antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. were evaluated in cats from Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Serum samples from 50 asymptomatic cats were titrated for T. gondii by the immunofluorescence antibody test and modified agglutination test and for Leishmania spp. by the immunofluorescence antibody test. Results These two agents coinfected two (4% of the 50 tested animals. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the concomitant presence of two important zoonoses in cats from Brazilian endemic regions for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...... mink out of a total mink population of ten million might be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This large number of possible sero-positive mink in Denmark indicates that there exists a potential risk of acquiring toxoplasmosis by pelting mink....

  7. Immunoenzymatic detection of three kinds of 43,000-molecular-weight antigens by monoclonal antibodies in the insoluble fraction of Toxoplasma gondii.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, K.; Kasahara, T; Shioiri-Nakano, K; Igarashi, I; Suzuki, M.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (TpM 3, TpM 6, and TpM 19) against Toxoplasma gondii insoluble antigens were produced by the hybridization of NS-1, a mouse myeloma cell line, with spleen cells from mice immunized with T. gondii insoluble antigens. TpM 3, TpM 6, and TpM 19 were characterized by the dye test, the latex agglutination test, two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, using either T. gondii supernatant antigens or T. gondii insoluble antigens, and immunoperoxidase staining. TpM 3, TpM ...

  8. SERO-PREVALENCE OF BOVINE LEPTOSPIROSIS IN SOUTH ANANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 108 blood serum samples of bovine were collected from different regions of South Andaman to Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (RDDL, ER, Kolkata for sero-prevalence study of bovine leptospirosis. All the sera samples were tested by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT against eight serovars of Leptospira spp. Out of 108 serum samples tested, 75(69.44% were serologically positive. The most prevalent serovars were Automnalis (53.70% followed by Sejroe (28.70% and Hardjo (22.22%. This study suggests that bovine may have a role in maintaining Autumnalis serovar of Leptospira as reservoir in Anandaman and Nicobar Islands.

  9. Soroprevalência de brucelose canina na cidade de Alfenas, MG: dados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and two blood serum samples from dogs referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Alfenas University, were submitted to the agarose immune diffusion and to the fast serum-agglutination tests addressed to find antibodies anti- Brucella canis and B. abortus, respectively. Five samples (4.9% were positives for B. canis and none for B. abortus. This prevalence is considered by some as an alert for an epidemiologic and public healthy problems, considering the serious zoonotic aspect of canine brucellosis

  10. Phage display used for gene cloning of human recombinant antibody against the erythrocyte surface antigen, rhesus D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Nielsen, L K; Andersen, P S;

    1995-01-01

    A novel phage display system has been developed for PCR amplification and cloning of the Fab fragments of human immunoglobulin genes. Using this system, we have cloned an antibody from a mouse-human hybridoma cell line directed against the erythrocyte antigen rhesus D. Intact erythrocytes were used...... for absorption of the Fab phages. Soluble Fab fragments produced from the cloned material showed identical performance to the parental antibody in agglutination assays. Gel filtration confirmed that the Fab fragment consists of a kappa-Fd heterodimer. The successful use of intact cells for selection of specific...

  11. [Expert research on sera yielding false-positive results for HIV antibodies during screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, F S; Smol'skaia, T T; Konikova, R E; Borisova, V V; Leshchinskaia, N P; Noskova, O V; Lobanova, A L; Marennikova, S S; Matsevich, G R; Shelukhina, E M

    1992-04-01

    The significance of different serological methods and assay systems for the verification of false positive cases of HIV infection has been analyzed on the basis of materials obtained in arbitration studies. As demonstrated by this analysis, the use of such highly specific and sensitive systems as Huma-Lab, Enzygnost, Serodia and Erythrorecombinant has made it possible to obtain a reliable result as early as at the first stage of expert diagnosis in the enzyme immunoassay and the agglutination test. The methods of radioimmunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence have permitted a more precise differentiation of doubtful results than that achieved by immune blotting. PMID:1496871

  12. Immobilization of ion exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor; Inmovilizacion de resinas de intercambio ionico radiactivas del reactor nuclear Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, H.; Emeterio H, M.; Canizal S, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective to develop the process and to define the agglutinating material which allows the immobilization of the ion exchange radioactive resins coming from the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor contaminated with Ba-133, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Mn-54 through the behavior analysis of different immobilization agents such as: bitumens, cement and polyester resin. According to the International Standardization the archetype samples were observed with the following tests: determination of free liquid, leaching, charge resistance, biodegradation, irradiation, thermal cycle, burned resistance. Generally all the tests were satisfactorily achieved, for each agent. Therefore, the polyester resin could be considered as the main immobilizing. (Author)

  13. Immobilization of ion exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has the objective to develop the process and to define the agglutinating material which allows the immobilization of the ion exchange radioactive resins coming from the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor contaminated with Ba-133, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Mn-54 through the behavior analysis of different immobilization agents such as: bitumens, cement and polyester resin. According to the International Standardization the archetype samples were observed with the following tests: determination of free liquid, leaching, charge resistance, biodegradation, irradiation, thermal cycle, burned resistance. Generally all the tests were satisfactorily achieved, for each agent. Therefore, the polyester resin could be considered as the main immobilizing. (Author)

  14. Aspects pertinent to the usefulness of a solid phase radio-immuno-sorbent assay for the detection of spermatozoa antibodies in sera of infertility patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid phase Radio-Immuno-Sorbent Assay (RISA) is a highly sensitive and valid test to detect 125-iodinetagged antibodies to spermatozoa that allows qualitative and quantitative evaluations of sperm-incapacitating immunglobulin Ig G in sera from patients believed to be infertile for immunological reasons. The study failed to reveal any correlations between the results of RISA and those of micro-sperm-agglutination or micro-sperm-immobilisation tests. There was a major body of evidence pointing to possible links between female isoimmunity and male autoimmunity. (TRV)

  15. An unusual cause of an ankle mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Aditya; Roberts, Catherine; Doherty, Tom; Oddy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented with a 7-year history of a mass over the medial aspect of his right ankle, which had been gradually increasing in size. He had given up his occupation as a bus driver due to decreased movement of his ankle. An initial diagnosis of endemic syphilis was made after treponemal antibody and treponema pallidum particle agglutination tests were positive. However, following surgical debulking, cultures grew Fusarium solani and the diagnosis was changed to eumycetoma. He received prolonged treatment with antifungal agents and at 18 months follow-up remains well. PMID:25260425

  16. Analyses of gonococcal H8 antigen. Surface location, inter- and intrastrain electrophoretic heterogeneity, and unusual two-dimensional electrophoretic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The H8 protein is a surface-exposed antigen that is found, among members of the Neisseria genus, primarily on pathogenic species. In this study, the surface exposure of H8 was reassessed by four techniques. Results of slide agglutination, indirect fluorescent antibody binding, absorption of sera with whole gonococci, and immune electron microscopy all confirmed the presence of H8 in the outer membrane. The degree to which protein A-gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies bound to H8 was marked, an...

  17. Isolation of Naegleria fowleri from the cooling pond of an electric power plant in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dive, D.G.; Leclerc, H.; De Jonckheere, J.; Delattre, J.M.

    Eleven strains of Naegleria have been isolated from 126 samples of the cooling pond of an electric power plant near Metz, France. Three strains showed specific characters of N. fowleri (pathogenicity for mice after intranasal instillation, immunofluorescence with anti N. fowleri serum and non-agglutination with ConA up to 1 mg/ml. Some particular characteristics were noted; the cysts showed a high number of pores and the pathogenicity was is lower using Swiss mice than using NMRI mice. The need for a standardization of methods for isolation and characterization are discussed as well as the occurrence of N. fowleri at the site.

  18. Advances of Studies on Mechanisms of Drugs for Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Primary liver cancer is mainly characterized by the mass in hypochondriac region, stabbing pain at a fixative region, tenderness, dim complexion,vascular spider, vein exposure, livid tongue,ecchymosis, taut and uneven pulse and other symptoms of blood stasis. Experimental studies have found that the patient with liver cancer is often accompanied with disturbance of microcirculation,increase of blood viscosity and high blood agglutinative state. Therefore, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis is clinically an important therapy for primary liver cancer. A great number of studies on the mechanisms have been carried out in China and other countries. The follow is a review about the mechanisms.

  19. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  20. Soroepidemiologia da brucelose canina causada por Brucella canis e Brucella abortus na cidade de Alfenas, MG Seroepidemiology of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis and Brucella abortus in Alfenas, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Almeida

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of canine brucellosis was evaluated in the city of Alfenas, MG through the technique of agarose gel imunodifusion for Brucella canis and slow serum agglutination test with 2-mercaptoetanol for Brucella abortus. The prevalence was of 14.2% and 2.8%, respectively, for B. canis and B. abortus. The positives, characterized by animals above one year of age (77.8%, and mongrel dogs (56.2%, showed a prevalence of 50 and 48% for males and females, respectively. The canine brucellosis was prevalent in the city principally in dogs of outskirts.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yu CHANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis (CM and/or cryptococcal meningoencephalitis raised in recent years. These diseases often have occult onset and non-specific clinical features, so they are difficult to diagnose. This paper reviewed several related articles in the past few years, and found that combined use of repeated smear of cerebrospinal fluid, latex agglutination test and imageological examination is a good way to diagnose CM. Combined and long-term antifungal therapeutic strategy and surgery operation on occasion can improve the prognosis of CM patients. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.006

  2. Effect of doxycycline on immune response in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellahsene, A; Forsgren, A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of doxycycline on immune response has been studied in mice, cell-mediated immunity being evaluated with the split heart allograft technique. Survival duration of heart transplants in animals treated with 2.5 mg of doxycycline per kg per day from the day of transplantation until rejection was slightly but significantly longer than in untreated animals, 18.8 days (P less than 0.05) as compared with 14.5 days. In doxycycline-treated animals, both agglutinating and hemolytic antibody r...

  3. Application of Quantum-Dot Conjugates for Detection and Subspecies Differentiation of Vibrio cholerae by Optical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erohin, P. S.; Utkin, D. V.; Kouklev, V. E.; Ossina, N. A.; Miheeva, E. A.; Alenkina, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The application of bioconjugates of specific antibodies and CdSe quantum dots to identify two serovariants of Vibrio cholerae using fluorescence microscopy and optical spectroscopy is considered. It is found that a mixture of different bioconjugates with different emission maxima can be used without affecting the specificity of the method. Different V. cholerae serovariants are colored differently in fl uorescence microscopy (bright green and bright yellow), thereby allowing subspecies differentiation. The absorption spectrum of the bacterial suspension changed with homologous antigens in the sample and did not change with heterologous antigens. It is shown that the quantum-dot bioconjugates can serve as an alternative to the traditional fluorescence and agglutination diagnostics.

  4. Elemental Characterization of Hardpan Topping Selected Sections of Ajali Sand, Anambra Basin. Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajidahun, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The hardpan cap of selected sections of loose Ajali sand in Anambra Basin of Nigeria was investigated for elemental compositions using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence mapping (M4-Tornado ED-XRF); while bulk mineralogy was determined by X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany. Elemental maps of Fe, Si, Ti, Al, Cr etc. were used to highlight texture and mineral distribution. The Ajali sands are locally topped by iron rich hardpans. These hardpans consist of rock fragments up to several cm in length in a primary matrix and locally large pores. Besides laminated sandstone fragments, highly altered porphyritic volcanic rocks can be observed. The latter in the SEM appear highly spongeous, and show relics of phenochryts such as biotite, hornblende and pyroxene, corroded magmatic quartz, magnetite, Ilmenite, zircon or voids of former crystals in an almost entirely altered matrix Large pores show several generations of periodic infill of quartz sand / soil mixtures alternating with multiple layers of Fe rich precipitates, locally enriched in Al, P, S, Mn or Sr agglutinating the fines. Volcanic fragments show rims of elevated Cr content, and Cr and V-rich precipitates may separate generations of infill. A number of large open pore channels rimmed by Fe-rich matrix might act as water channels. They are coated by Al, K rich precipitates. Ajali sands can hardly be considered as the source for the agglutination of the hardpan cap. The source of Fe and other elements such as Al, K, Cr, V has to be attributed to the volcanic fragments, mainly to the matrix, but to the altered phenocrysts, too. Toxic elements such as Cr being mobile in the system are in part stabilized as precipitates. EDXRF-micro mapping provides excellent textural, chemical and even mineralogical information to get better insight into the sedimentation and agglutination history of the hardpan cap. Key

  5. Estudio epizootiológico de listeriosis, mediante encuesta serológica, en rumiantes de la provincia de Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    León Vizcaíno, L.; Carranza Guzmán, J.; Miranda García, Antonio; Hermoso De Mendoza, M; Perea-Remujo, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A serological inquiry on listeriosis of the domestic ruminants of the province of Cordoba (Spain) was made to know the epizootiology of the disease. The agglutination in tube with 2-mercaptoetanol technique was carried out using somatic antigens of the 1/2 and 4 serological types of Listeria monocytogenes. 2.685 samples of apparently healthy adult ruminants from 286 flocks have been investigated. In sheep we found 10 foci of the infection (11.9 per cent of the investigated flocks). In cattle ...

  6. A monomeric protein with hemagglutinating activity from seeds of Vigna mungo (Phaseolus mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S S; Rao, S L

    1991-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are shown to contain a lectin with certain unusual features. The lectin agglutinates only trypsinized red cells, and its sugar specificity is complex as none of the common sugars, oligosaccharides or complex polysaccharides exhibit any affinity for the lectin. The purified lectin has a molecular weight of 58 kDa and is a monomer. Unlike other plant lectins, antibodies to the P. mungo lectin do not exhibit any immunological cross reactivity. The clot forming ability of the lectin is unusual in that the clot once formed is rapidly disaggregated indicated that it induces, as yet undefined, certain membrane alterations.

  7. Detection of rotavirus using padlock probes and rolling circle amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Mezger

    Full Text Available Rotavirus infections are one of the most common reasons for hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal diseases. Rotavirus is often diagnosed by latex agglutination assay, chromatography immunoassay, or by electron microscopy, which are all quite insensitive. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, on the other hand, is very sensitive to variations at the genomic level. We developed a novel assay based on a set of 58 different padlock probes with a detection limit of 1,000 copies. Twenty-two patient samples were analyzed and the assay showed high concordance with a PCR-based assay. In summary, we present a new assay for sensitive and variation tolerant detection of rotavirus.

  8. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in cattle from Monte Negro municipality, western Amazon Prevalência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp em bovinos do município de Monte Negro, Amazônia Ocidental

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M. Aguiar; Gennari, Solange M.; Guacyara T. Cavalcante; Marcelo B Labruna; Silvio A . Vasconcellos; Aline A. R. Rodrigues; Zenaide M. de Moraes; Luis M.A. Camargo

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp antibodies was investigated in 2,109 female cattle from 86 herds of Monte Negro municipality, Rondônia, Brazil. Sera samples were evaluated by Microscopic Agglutination Test against 24 leptospira serovars. Titers =100 for at least one of 24 leptospira serovars were detected in 1,114 cows (52.8%) from 82 (95.3%) herds. The adjusted overall prevalence for Monte Negro municipality was 53.9% (49-58.7%; CI: 95%). The most prevalent serovars were Hardjo (14.5%)...

  9. Brucella canis: inquéritos sorológico e bacteriológico em população felina Brucella canis: serological and bacteriological surveys in the feline population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available De 134 soros de felinos domésticos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4 (3% foram positivos para Brucella canis, todos com título igual a 100. Não se obteve êxito na tentativa de isolamento de Brucella canis através de hemocultura desses animais.Of the 134 feline sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (3% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies, all with titer 100. It was not possible to isolate Brucella canis by blood culture in the case of these animals.

  10. Para Bombay phenotype--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Sathyabhama, S

    1997-10-01

    Bombay phenotype is peculiar in that red cells are not agglutinated by antisera A, B or H; while serum contains anti A, B and H. Existence of modifying genes at independent loci with variable expression of ABO genes is postulated. We report here a case of partial suppression where antigens could be detected by elution tests and unlike classical Bombay type, normal amount of appropriate blood group substances were present in saliva. This case of para Bombay phenotype was detected as a result of discrepancy in cell and serum group ng. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse grouping in ABO testing.

  11. Etched glass self-assembles into micron-size hollow platonic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhalfa, Sofiane

    2012-10-03

    The interaction between the spreading of a hydrofluoric acid-based drop on a glass surface and its etching rate gives rise to hollow crystals of various shapes, including cubes, triangles, and icosahedra. These geometries are dependent on their position with respect to the contact line, where a rim forms by agglutination, similar to the formation of a coffee stain. Atomic force microscopy indentation and transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that these crystals are hollow ammonium-fluosilicate-based cryptohalite shells. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. The value of immunoreactive lipase in acute pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    We have evaluated a new agglutination test for serum immunoreactive lipase in 24 patients with abdominal pain and hyperamylasaemia. On admission all 20 patients with acute pancreatitis had a positive lipase test, 3 of the 4 patients who did not have pancreatitis had a negative lipase test. The sensitivity of the lipase test on day 1 is 100%, the specificity 96% and predictive value of a positive test is 95.2% compared to 83% for amylase. A negative test excludes pancreatitis. In addition, the...

  13. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Keziban Asli; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Akbayram, Sinan; Aslan, Oktay; Kocaman, Selami; Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Üstyol, Lokman; Demir, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the frequency of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) and associated factors during the course of brucellosis in children and adolescents. Material/Methods The study included children and adolescents aged 0–18 years old diagnosed with brucellosis between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected from patient charts. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on titrations >1:160 in standard Wright tube agglutination tests and/or positive culture tests. SIADH diagnosis was made based on the following criteria: euvolemic hyponatremia, serum Na+ 25 mmol/L with normal dietary salt intake), low uric acid (brucellosis. PMID:27590789

  14. Predictive contribution of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olt, Serdar; Ergenç, Hasan; Açıkgöz, Seyyid Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated for the first time that NLR values were significantly associated with brucellosis. This situation can help clinicians during diagnosis of brucellosis.

  15. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM Detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos empregando uma combinação de SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test®

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria Lafayette Neves Gelinski; Gunnar Martin; Maria Teresa Destro; Mariza Landgraf; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection of motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample ...

  16. [Significance of human leptospirosis in Mexico. Detection of Leptospira antibodies in a blood donor population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldón, D G; Cisneros, M A; Rojas, N; Moles-Cervantes, L P

    1995-01-01

    The presence of specific serum antibodies has been used as a diagnostic test for human leptospirosis. The presence of these antibodies in humans is indicative of an active natural infection. Its detection after exposure denotes the presence of immunity. Serum samples from 206 adult blood donors were analyzed with a microscopic agglutination assay against 7 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A total of 7% were positive with the following serovar distribution; shermani 53%, canicola 33%, pyrogens 20%, pomona 13% and icterohaemorrhagiae 6%. The highest frequency of seropositivity was found in the 20 year to 39 age group. These results in asymptomatic individuals show that leptospirosis is a frequent zoonosis in Mexico. PMID:8582567

  17. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for leptospiral antibodies among cattle in the state of Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, V M; Solis-Calderon, J J; Segura-Correa, J C

    2003-08-01

    Sera obtained from cattle in the state of Yucatan, Mexico, were screened using the microscopic agglutination test against 13 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A total of 62.8% (461/734) cows were positive for one or more serovars. This seroprevalence probably reflects infection because vaccination against leptospirosis has not been practised in Yucatan. The most common antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars hardjo (54.1%) and tarassovi (53.3%). Region was the only risk factor associated with the seroprevalence of leptospirosis (p < 0.05). PMID:14509536

  18. Clinical-epidemiological study of leptospirosis in humans and reservoirs in Yucatán, México Estudio clínico-epidemiológico de leptospirosis en humanos y reservorios en Yucatán, México

    OpenAIRE

    VADO-SOLÍS Ignacio; María F. CÁRDENAS-MARRUFO; JIMÉNEZ-DELGADILLO Bertha; Alzina-López, Alejandro; LAVIADA-MOLINA Hugo; SUAREZ-SOLÍS Víctor; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    A leptospirosis clinical-epidemiological study was made in humans and reservoirs in the state of Yucatán, México. Interviews and serological analyses were made on 400 persons from an open population, 439 probable cases of leptospirosis and 1060 animal reservoirs (cows, pigs, dogs, rats and opossums). IgM Leptospira DipstickTM and Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) was used to detect human antibodies to leptospiras and serovar respectively. Leptospirosis incidence in humans was 2.2/100,000 i...

  19. Fate of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-Less Procyclin and Characterization of Sialylated Non-GPI-Anchored Surface Coat Molecules of Procyclic-Form Trypanosoma brucei▿ † ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Güther, Maria Lucia Sampaio; Beattie, Kenneth; Lamont, Douglas J.; James, John; Prescott, Alan R; Ferguson, Michael A. J.

    2009-01-01

    A Trypanosoma brucei TbGPI12 null mutant that is unable to express cell surface procyclins and free glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI) revealed that these are not the only surface coat molecules of the procyclic life cycle stage. Here, we show that non-GPI-anchored procyclins are N-glycosylated, accumulate in the lysosome, and appear as proteolytic fragments in the medium. We also show, using lectin agglutination and galactose oxidase-NaB3H4 labeling, that the cell surface of the TbGPI12 nul...

  20. Epidemiological Study of Animal Leptospirosis in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cédric Roqueplo; Olivier Cabre; Bernard Davoust; Angeli Kodjo

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa), 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7%) w...

  1. Bench Crater Meteorite: Hydrated Asteroidal Material Delivered to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, K. H.; Messenger, S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Frank, D. R.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    D/H measurements from the lunar regolith agglutinates [8] indicate mixing between a low D/H solar implanted component and additional higher D/H sources (e.g., meteoritic/ cometary/volcanic gases). We have determined the range and average D/H ratio of Bench Crater meteorite, which is the first direct D/H analysis of meteoritic material delivered to the lunar surface. This result provides an important ground truth for future investigations of lunar water resources by missions to the Moon.

  2. Latex immunoassay for rapid detection of rotavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J. H.; Tuomari, A V; Mann, D R; Hamparian, V V

    1984-01-01

    A latex agglutination (LA) test was evaluated for the detection of human rotaviruses in stool specimens. Both antiserum and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-sensitized latex particles were used, with IgG-coated beads being more sensitive for human rotavirus antigen detection. Latex beads sensitized with anti-simian-SA-11 IgG were stable for at least 8 months when stored at 4 degrees C. The sensitivity of the test was compared with that of the Rotazyme (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Div., North Chica...

  3. ABO Blood-Typing Using an Antibody Array Technique Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Toemsak Srikhirin; Armote Somboonkaew; Ratthasart Amarit; Boonsong Sutapun; Mongkol Kunakorn; Pimpun Kitpoka; Krisda Sudprasert; Patjaree Peungthum; Nongluck Houngkamhang; Apirom Vongsakulyanon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, readily available antibodies that are used in standard agglutination tests were evaluated for their use in ABO blood typing by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) technique. Five groups of antibodies, including mixed clones of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB, and single clones of anti-A and anti-B, were used to construct the five-line detection arrays using a multichannel flow cell in the SPR imager. The red blood cell (RBC) samples were applied to a multichannel flow...

  4. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  5. Micro gel column technique is fit for detecting mixed fields post ABO incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Fang; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Min

    2015-04-01

    How to choose suitable serologic method for assessment of the actual stages of ABO chimera is more important to establish transfusion strategy for patients post-ABO incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We reported ABO phenotypes of a patient post-ABO minor incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 1+ weak agglutination by tube method was obviously reaffirmed to mixed fields with 4+ positive reaction by micro gel column card. Hence, blood bank technologists must continually work together with hematologist to establish appropriate transfusion strategy, and micro gel column technique can be more appropriate for detecting mixed fields during the whole period of transplantation. PMID:25578650

  6. Evaluation of Bichro-Dubli Fumouze to distinguish Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahand, Ismail H; Moragues, María D; Robert, Raymond; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2006-06-01

    We have evaluated the ability of the Bichro-Dubli Fumouze (Fumouze Diagnostics, Levallois-Perret, France) latex agglutination test to identify colonies of Candida dubliniensis grown on different media. The test was positive for 103 of 106 isolates of C. dubliniensis and negative for Candida albicans and other Candida species studied. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 97.1% and 100%, respectively. The test is very rapid, simple, and reliable giving the same results independently of whether the colonies are grown previously on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHROMagar Candida medium, Candida ID2 medium, or CHROMagar-Pal's medium. PMID:16529902

  7. Occurrence of granulocyte cytotoxins and agglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, T; Bergh, O J; Terasaki, P I; Graw, R G

    1975-01-01

    Granulocyte cytotoxic activity in sera from over 257 patients was shown to be distinct from HL-A lymphocytoxic activity. Granulocyte cytotoxins occur in approximately 25 per cent of sera from patients having leukemia, 45 per cent with aplastic anemia, 22 per cent with kidney disease on hemodialysis, and 19 per cent of pregnant women. By testing sera on the same panel of cells, the granulocyte cytotoxic activity was shown not to be associated with granulocyte agglutination activity or lymphocytotoxic acitivty. It is likely that granulocyte cytotoxins and granulocyte agglutinins will be useful in transfusion and bone marrow transplantation as a separate tool from the more widely used lymphocyte cytotoxicity reaction. PMID:1129831

  8. DIFFICULTIES IN PROCESSING MALAYALAM VERBS FOR STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the difficulties in processing the Malayalam texts for Statistical Machine Translation (SMT, especially the verb forms. Mostly the agglutinative nature of Malayalam is the main issue with the processing of text. We mainly focus on the verbs and its contribution in adding the difficulty in processing. The verb plays a crucial role in defining the sentence structure. We illustrate the issues with the existing google translation system and the trained MOSES system using limited set of EnglishMalayalam parallel corpus. Our reference for analysis is English-Malayalam language pair.

  9. Use of saprophytic leptospira strains in the serodiagnosis of experimental leptospirosis in guinea-pigs (Cavia sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul J. S. Girio

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of four Leptospira biflexa strains (Buenos Aires, Patoc 1, Rufino and São Paulo as single antigen in the serodiagnosis in guinea-pigs experimentally infected with seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, tarassovi and wolffi was evaluated by the microscopic agglutination test. The four saprophytic strains were not able to reveal antibody titres in sera of guinea-pigs experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans. Serological cross-reactions were observed between strains Patoc 1 and São Paulo and between serovars wolffi and hardjo.

  10. Efficient Encoding of Inflection Rules in NLP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter BARABÁSS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The grammatical parsing unit is a core module in natural language processing engines. This unit determines the grammatical roles of the incoming words and it converts the sentences into semantic models. A special grammar rule in agglutinative languages is the inflection rule. The traditional, automata-based parsers are usually not very effective in the parsing of inflection transformations. The paper presents implementation alternatives and compares them from the viewpoint of time efficiency and accuracy. The prototype system was tested with examples from Hungarian.

  11. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  12. Serological response to an indirect and a competitive elisa in heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different serologic techniques for bovine brucellosis diagnosis have different abilities to detect antibodies after vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19. The humoral response in heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 was evaluated by using several serologic techniques. In the experimental field of INTA, Pilcaniyeu, Rio Negro province, sixteen 5 months old heifers were vaccinated subcutaneously with a standard dose (2ml, containing 20x109 to 10x109 living organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19. Sera from all the heifers were obtained on 18 occasions (one 87 days before vaccination, one immediately before vaccination and on 16 occasions after vaccination, during 488 days) and analyzed by buffered plate antigen test, rose bengal test, standard tube agglutination test, 2-mercaptoetanol test, complement fixation test, indirect ELISA, and competitive ELISA. Prior vaccination, 100% of the heifers gave negative results in all the techniques used, while 100% of them gave positive reaction in the first sampling after vaccination to all the techniques, with the exception of standard tube agglutination test that showed agglutinating titters of 1/100 or higher (positive threshold) in only 71.4% of the heifers. The indirect ELISA technique showed a reducing percentage of positive animals up until 316 days after vaccination, after which positive results were obtained. The competitive ELISA gave positive results in a variable number of heifers up to 253 days after vaccination when 100% of the sera were negative to this technique. Buffered plate antigen test was the technique that gave positive results for a longest period, being 100% of the animals negative to this technique at 450 days after vaccination. The other serological techniques assayed gave positive results during variable periods of time, intermediate between standard tube agglutination test and buffered plate antigen test. Although the present results were obtained from a limited number of

  13. CL-46, a Novel Collectin Highly Expressed in Bovine Tthymus and Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Soren; Holm, Dorte; Moeller, Vivi;

    2002-01-01

    Collectins are oligomeric molecules with C-type lectin domains attached to collagen-like regions via -helical neck regions. They bind nonself glycoconjugates on the surface of microorganisms and inhibit infection by direct neutralization, agglutination, or opsonization. During the characterization...... corresponding to the -helical neck region and the C-type lectin domain binds preferential N-acetyl-D-glucoseamine and N-acetyl-D-mannoseamine. The gene encoding CL-46 spans 10 kb and consists of eight exons, with high structural resemblance to the gene encoding human surfactant protein D. It is located...

  14. Crosstalk between Autophagy and Apoptosis: Potential and Emerging Therapeutic Targets for Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a cell survival process which is related to breaking down and reusing cytoplasm components. Moreover, autophagy regulates cell death under certain conditions. Apoptosis has the characteristics of chromatin agglutination and the shrinking of nuclear and apoptosis body form. Even if the mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis have differences, some proteins modulate both autophagy and apoptosis. Crosstalk between them exists. This review highlights recent advances in the interaction of autophagy and apoptosis and its importance in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Novel Molecular Variants of Allele I of the Escherichia coli P Fimbrial Adhesin Gene papG

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; Stell, Adam L.; Kaster, Nicholas; Fasching, Claudine; O'Bryan, Timothy T.

    2002-01-01

    P fimbriae of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli mediate digalactoside-specific adherence via the tip adhesin molecule PapG, which occurs in three known variants (I to III), which are encoded by the corresponding three alleles of papG. In the present study, newly discovered variants of papG allele I and the respective wild-type source strains were characterized. One of the new papG allele I variants conferred a unique agglutination phenotype that combined the phenotypes associated wi...

  16. Biological and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R.A.; Lindsay, D.S.; Howe, D.K.; Roderick, Constance L.; Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.; Baeten, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from brain or heart tissue from 15 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in cell cultures. These strains were used to infect mice that developed antibodies to T. gondii as detected in the modified direct agglutination test and had T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains at necropsy. Mouse brains containing tissue cysts from 4 of the strains were fed to 4 cats. Two of the cats excreted T. gondii oocysts in their feces that were infectious for mice. Molecular analyses of 13 strains indicated that they were all type II strains, but that they were genetically distinct from one another.

  17. Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, R L; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C; Ver Hoef, J M

    1997-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 892 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alaska (USA) from 1973 to 1987. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test. Two hundred twenty sera (25%) had titers > or = 25, the minimum threshold titer. Six hundred seventy-two sera (75%) had titers < 25. Antibody prevalence ranged from 9% (18 positive of 196 tested) in southern areas to 37% (162 of 433 tested) in northern areas. There was no readily apparent explanation for these discrepancies in location-specific prevalence.

  18. Novel Point-of-Care Test for Simultaneous Detection of Nontreponemal and Treponemal Antibodies in Patients with Syphilis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Arnold R.; Esfandiari, Javan; Kumar, Shailendra; Ashton, Matthew (British painter, active from 1728); Kikkert, Susan E.; Park, Mahin M.; Ballard, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a point-of-care immunochromatographic test for the simultaneous detection of both nontreponemal and treponemal antibodies in the sera of patients with syphilis that acts as both a screening and a confirmatory test. A total of 1,601 banked serum samples were examined by the dual test, and the results were compared to those obtained using a quantitative rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test and the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay. Compared to the RPR test, t...

  19. The Urtica dioica Agglutinin Is a Complex Mixture of Isolectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, E J; Broekaert, W F; Peumans, W J

    1988-02-01

    Rhizomes of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) contain a complex mixture of isolectins. Ion exchange chromatography with a high resolution fast protein liquid chromatography system revealed six isoforms which exhibit identical agglutination properties and carbohydrate-binding specificity and in addition have the same molecular structure and virtually identical biochemical properties. However, since the U. dioica agglutinin isolectins differ definitely with respect to their amino acid composition, it is likely that at least some of them are different polypeptides coded for by different genes. PMID:16665952

  20. Serological Detection of Listeriosis at a Farm

    OpenAIRE

    BÖRKÜ, Mehmet Kazım; URAL, Kerem; GAZYAĞCI, Serkal; ÖZKANLAR, Yunusemre; BABÜR, Cahit; KILIÇ, Selçuk

    2006-01-01

    Sera of 50 goats, 3 horses, 1 dog, and 6 herdsmen were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Listeria monocytogenes by the Osebold agglutination assay on a commercial farm in Akyurt, Ankara. Some of the goats exhibited clinical signs such as apathy, unilateral facial paralysis, incoordination, and abortion. Of the goat samples, 23 (46%) were seropositive and 10 (20%) were at the level of the suspected titer and 17 (34%) were below the cut-off titer in this assay. All horses, the do...

  1. Evaluation of Three Rapid Methods for Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, L.; Matsumura, S. O.; Choi, E; Louie, M; Simor, A E

    2000-01-01

    The probe-based Velogene Rapid MRSA Identification Assay (ID Biomedical Corp., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) and the latex agglutination MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Tokyo, Japan) were evaluated for their ability to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and to distinguish strains of MRSA from borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA; mecA-negative, oxacillin MICs of 2 to 8 μg/ml). The Velogene is a 90-min assay using a chimeric probe to detect the mecA ge...

  2. A micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunosorbent technique (RIST) for the detection of immunity to clinical tetanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and radioimmunosorbent assay (RIST) techniques for the detection of tetanus toxin antibodies are described. Both methods proved to be highly sensitive, and allowed the measurement of 5 x 10-3 units/ml tetanus antitoxin in human serum or plasma, sensitivity and reproducibility comparing well with other techniques previously described, and being superior to haemagglutination and latex agglutination tests. Results of the two methods correlated well, and reflected the immunization histories obtained. Micro ELISA and micro RIST would seem to be suitable for the detection of immunity, or non-immunity to clinical tetanus. (author)

  3. Down-Regulation of the kps Region 1 Capsular Assembly Operon following Attachment of Escherichia coli Type 1 Fimbriae to d-Mannose Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, William R.; Beck, Michael T.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Pinkner, Jerry; Woolever, Nathan L.; Larson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A differential-display PCR procedure identified the capsular assembly gene kpsD after Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial binding to mannose-coated Sepharose beads. Limiting-dilution reverse-transcribed PCRs confirmed down-regulation of the kpsD gene, and Northern blot and lacZ fusion analyses showed down-regulation of the kpsFEDUCS region 1 operon. KpsD protein levels fell, and an agglutination test showed less K capsular antigen on the surface following the bacterial ligand-receptor interactio...

  4. Three novel B-type mannose-specific lectins of Cynoglossus semilaevis possess varied antibacterial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Li; Li, Jun; Sun, Li

    2016-02-01

    Lectins are a group of sugar-binding proteins that are important factors of the innate immune system. In this study, we examined, in a comparative manner, the expression and function of three Bulb-type (B-type) mannose-specific lectins (named CsBML1, CsBML2, and CsBML3) from tongue sole. All three lectins possess three repeats of the conserved mannose binding motif QXDXNXVXY. Expression of CsBML1, CsBML2, and CsBML3 was most abundant in liver and upregulated by bacterial infection. Recombinant (r) CsBML1, CsBML2, and CsBML3 bound to a wide arrange of bacteria in a dose-dependent manner and with different affinities. All three lectins displayed mannose-specific and calcium-dependent agglutinating capacities but differed in agglutinating profiles. rCsBML1 and rCsBML2, but not rCsBML3, killed target bacteria in vitro and inhibited bacterial dissemination in fish tissues in vivo. These results indicate for the first time that in teleost, different members of B-type mannose-specific lectins likely play different roles in antibacterial immunity. PMID:26455466

  5. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  6. The distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the north-west coastal region of Malacca Straits, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khairun Yahya; Shuhaida Shuib; Fatin Izzati Minhat; Omar Ahmad; Anita Talib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in relation with environmental parameters in Penang Island (the northern part of Malacca Straits, west coast of Peninsula Malaysia). Methods: Foraminifera samples were obtained from 144 sediment samples collected bimonthly throughout a one year sampling period using Ponar grab. These samples were then fixed with 4%buffered formalin stained with Rose Bengal. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were detected in-situ at six sampling points within each transect approximately one metre above the seafloor. Sediment samples collected was also used to determine particle size. Results: A total of fourteen benthic foraminiferal genera obtained from two major groups belonging to the calcareous and agglutinated groups have been identified at all four sampling locations throughout the sampling period. The abundance of 13 out of 14 species were significantly affected by different sampling sites and times (P<0.05). Physicochemical variables comprising temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH differed among sites and sampling months (P<0.05).Conclusions:The distribution of foraminifera in terms of abundance and presence of species indicated dominance by calcareous genera of foraminifera contributed by significantly great abundances of Ammonia sp. and relatively low abundance of agglutinated taxa. This pattern of distribution could indicate a close association between foraminifera and physicochemical parameters.

  7. 对免疫布鲁氏菌A19株疫苗奶牛的检测%Examination of Dairy Cows Immunized with Brucella Strain A19 Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲敬伟; 袁立岗; 石琴; 周洁; 易新萍

    2013-01-01

    通过虎红平板凝集试验(RBPT)和标准试管凝集试验(SAT),对免疫布鲁氏菌A19株疫苗后的奶牛进行抽检,阳性头数分别为3头和2头。同时,在SAT检测阳性奶牛的奶样中,培养分离到疑似布鲁氏菌,经染色,在显微镜下观察到布鲁氏菌。%Rose bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT)and standard tube agglutination test(SAT)were used to examine dairy cows immunized with Brucella strain A19 vaccine resulting in 3 and 2 positive ones respectively. At the same time,suspected Brucella was isolated and cultured from SAT positive milk samples of the examined cows. Brucella was observed under microscope through staining.

  8. Clinical and MRI findings of brucellar spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: bozgeyik4@hotmail.com; Ozdemir, Huseyin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Demirdag, Kutbettin; Ozden, Mehmet [Department of Infection Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Sonmezgoz, Fitnet [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Ozgocmen, Salih [Division of Rheumatology, Department of PMR, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to report the clinical features and MR imaging findings of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis. Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients with spondylodiscitis, recruited among 152 patients with brucellosis referred from the Department of Infectious Diseases. Patients were diagnosed based on positive clinical findings, {>=}1/160 titers of brucella agglutination tests and/or positive blood cultures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to all of the patients with spondylodiscitis. Signal changes and enhancement of vertebral bodies, involvement of paravertebral soft tissues and epidural spaces, nerve root and cord compression and abscess formation were assessed. Results: All of the patients (n = 22; 7 F, 15 M) had {>=}1/160 titers of brucella agglutination test and blood culture was positive in 9. A great majority of the patients had involvement at only one vertebrae level (n = 21, 95.5%), whereas one patient (4.5%) had multilevel involvement. In MRI, eight patients had soft tissue involvement and three had abscess formation. All cases had vertebral and discal enhancement. Additionally epidural extension was detected in four cases, posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) elevation in five cases and root compression in two cases. Conclusion: Brucella is still a public health problem in endemic areas. MRI is a highly sensitive and non-invasive imaging technique which should be first choice of imaging in the early diagnosis of spondylodiscitis.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Peptide Mimics of Blood Group A Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoming TANG; Lin WANG; Lihua HU; Yirong LI; Tianpen CUI; Juan XIONG; Lifang DOU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate peptide mimics of carbohydrate blood group A antigen, a phage display 12-met peptide library was screened with a monoclonal antibody against blood group A antigen, NaM87-1F6. The antibody-binding properties of the selected phage peptides were evaluated by phage ELISA and phage capture assay. The peptides were co-expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins. RBC agglutination inhibition assay was performed to assess the natural blood group A antigen-mimicking ability of the fusion proteins. The results showed that seven phage clones selected bound to NaM87-1F6 specifically, among which, 6 clones bore the same peptide sequence, EYWYCGMNRTGC and another harbored a different one QIWYERTLPFrF. The two peptides were successfully expressed at the N terminal of GST protein. Both of the fusion proteins inhibited the RBC agglutination mediated by anti-A serum in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that the fusion proteins based on the selected peptides could mimic the blood group A an- tigen and might be used as anti-A antibody-adsorbing materials when immunoabsorption was applied in ABO incompatible transplantation.

  10. Study on Leishmania infection in cats from Ahar,East Azerbaijan Province and North West Iran by parasitological,serological and molecular methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taher; Nemati; Majid; Khanmohammadi; Ahad; Bazmani; Nasrin; Mirsamadi; Mohammad; Hassan; Kohansal; Koshki; Mehdi; Mohebali; Mohammad; Fatollahzadeh; Esmail; Fallah

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study Leishmania infection in cats and its potential role in triuismission of the disease to human by parasitological,serological and molecular methods in Ahar District,East Azerbaijan Province.Methods:In this study,65 cats from different parts of Ahar Province were trapped.The cats were anesthetized with chloroform and blood samples were taken from jugular vein and tested by direct agglutination lest.Spleen and liver smear samples were prepared in order to microscopically examine these organs,and also cultured in Novy-MucNeal-Nicolle and Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1 641) media.Finally,spleen tissue DNA was extracted to perform polymerase chain reaction analysis.Results:In direct agglutination test,4(6%) cats had a positive titer,while 14(22%) cats had a titer of 1:80 which was suspected for an infection and 47(729c) cats were negative.Culture results were negative and ill polymerase chain reaction no amplification was observed.Conclusions:Wc found no case of feline visceral leishmaniasis.It needs more extensive studies by using a larger number of cats to firmly establish leishmaniasis in this area.

  11. Evaluation of Meridian ImmunoCard Mycoplasma test for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific IgM in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, L; Domínguez, J; De Ory, F; García, N; Galí, N; Cardona, P J; Hernández, A; Rodrigo, C; Ausina, V

    1998-01-01

    The Meridian ImmunoCard Mycoplasma kit, a 10-min card-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was evaluated. We compared the ImmunoCard with the Fujirebio Serodia Myco II particle agglutination test, as well as with the complement fixation (CF) test to detect M. pneumoniae antibodies in paediatric patients. The ImmunoCard test and Serodia Myco II test agreed in 93.95%, and ImmunoCard test and CF test agreed in 83.51% of the 182 specimens tested. Nine specimens gave negative particle agglutination titres in the acute phase sample, and 28 specimens gave negative CF titres in the acute phase sample, although in the ImmunoCard test they were positive. These results may indicate that the ImmunoCard assay detects lower IgM levels of antibodies than the Serodia Myco II and CF test. The ImmunoCard appears to be a good screening assay test for M. pneumoniae IgM in children in whom M. pneumoniae IgM is found frequently.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen testing to detect HIV infection in female sex workers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R K; Ali, K; Thoe, S Y

    1995-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterised by seroconversion after a ¿window¿ period of 2 to 3 months. After this period antibodies are usually detectable by screening tests (enzyme immunoassay or particle agglutination) confirmed by Western blot analysis. We studied 1000 newly enrolled female sex workers who had not been previously tested for HIV to assess the usefulness of HIV antigen testing to improve the efficacy of HIV infection detection. Blood was taken at enrollment for HIV antigen and HIV antibody testing. The Abbott HIVAG-1 test was used to detect antigen; antibody detection was by the Abbott recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, the Fujirebio Serodia-HIV particle agglutination (PA) test for screening, and the Diagnostic Biotechnology HIV Blot 2.2 Western blot (WB) test for antibody confirmation. Of the 1000 samples, 26 were positive for HIV antibody testing (26/26 for EIA, 25/25 for PA, 26/26 for WB), giving a prevalence rate of 2.6%, Of these 26 seropositive samples 1 was positive on HIV antigen testing. There were no samples which were antigen-positive and antibody-negative. HIV antigen testing does not add to increased efficacy of HIV detection among female sex workers in Singapore.

  13. Serological study of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srifuengfung, Somporn; Techachaiwiwat, Wanida; Dhiraputra, Chertsak

    2004-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody was determined in 811 sera of different patients admitted to Siriraj Hospital with respiratory tract infection from July 1, 2000 to August 31, 2003 by agglutination with gelatin particle agglutination test kit (SERODIA-MYCO II, Fujirebio Inc. Japan) in microtiter plates. Three hundred and three sera were positive (37.36%). The five most positive titer were found in patients 5-9 yr (40.26%), followed by patients 1-4 yr (24.75%), 10-14 yr (19.80%), 30-39 yr (5.28%) and 20-29 yr (3.96%). The positive titers ranged from 40 to > 20,480. Female:male ratio in positive patients was approximately the same (1.19:1). High titers (> or = 320) were found in 146 out of 303 patients (48.18%). The infection was mostly found in children aged 5-9 yr. Detection of antibody to M. pneumoniae infection showed that 37.36% of patients who were suspected of having atypical bacterial pneumonia were positive.

  14. Thermal sensitivity of immune function: evidence against a generalist-specialist trade-off among endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael W; Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Ardia, Daniel R; Davies, Scott; Davis, Jon; Guillette, Louis J; Johnson, Nicholas; McCormick, Stephen D; McGraw, Kevin J; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-06-01

    Animal body temperature (Tbody) varies over daily and annual cycles, affecting multiple aspects of biological performance in both endothermic and ectothermic animals. Yet a comprehensive comparison of thermal performance among animals varying in Tbody (mean and variance) and heat production is lacking. Thus, we examined the thermal sensitivity of immune function (a crucial fitness determinant) in Vertebrata, a group encompassing species of varying thermal biology. Specifically, we investigated temperature-related variation in two innate immune performance metrics, hemagglutination and hemolysis, for 13 species across all seven major vertebrate clades. Agglutination and lysis were temperature dependent and were more strongly related to the thermal biology of species (e.g., mean Tbody) than to the phylogenetic relatedness of species, although these relationships were complex and frequently surprising (e.g., heterotherms did not exhibit broader thermal performance curves than homeotherms). Agglutination and lysis performance were positively correlated within species, except in taxa that produce squalamine, a steroidal antibiotic that does not lyse red blood cells. Interestingly, we found the antithesis of a generalist-specialist trade-off: species with broader temperature ranges of immune performance also had higher peak performance levels. In sum, we have uncovered thermal sensitivity of immune performance in both endotherms and ectotherms, highlighting the role that temperature and life history play in immune function across Vertebrata. PMID:23669539

  15. Neurobrucellosis: Clinical and laboratory findings in 22 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoolinejad M

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a multisystem disease with diverse clinical presentations and involvement of the nervous system is considered to 5 to be 10% in adult patients and 1% in children. The presentations of neurobrucellosis includes meningoencephalitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage, myelitis, radiculoneuritis, intracerebral and epidural abscess, psychosis and vascular syndrome. Twenty-two patients with neurobrucellosis are described. Ten patients had meningoencephalitis, seven patients had meningitis, three patients had polyradiculopathy and one patient presented with spinal epidural abscess and one patient had brain abscess. Results of an agglutination test for Brucella in serum were positive for all patients (>1:160; eight of 15 patients had positive agglutination test in CSF. Five patients had positive blood cultures, 3 patients had positive bone marrow cultures and 2 of 15 patients had positive CSF cultures. All of cultures were Brucella Mellitensis. Antimicrobial treatment included concurrent administration of Doxycycline, Rifampin and Trimethoprim-Sulfametoxazole. Four patients received Dexamethason concurrently. In conclusion, nervous system involvement is a serious manifestation of brucellosis. As brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran we suggest that brucellosis be investigated with neurological symptoms and signs.

  16. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  17. The diagnosis of unilateral testicular obstruction in subfertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, W F; Parslow, J M; Stedronska, J; Wallace, D M

    1982-12-01

    Thirty-two subfertile males with sperms in the ejaculate and unilateral testicular obstruction are reported: the diagnosis was established by exploration of scrotum in 26, clinically in 2, 3 had had previous partially successful epididymovasostomies, and 1 had had an epispadias repair. The past medical history gave relevant information in 27 (84%), and useful findings were made on clinical examination in a further 3 cases. Fifteen patients had sperm counts over 20 million per ml, and 15 were less than 10 million per ml. Twenty-six (81%) had serum antisperm antibodies detected by tray agglutination test (TAT), 21 (81%) of whom had evidence of head-to-head (HH) agglutinins in pure or mixed form. Comparison with 162 vasectomised males and 160 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies showed that 55% of the former and 24% of the latter had HH agglutinins on TAT, differences that were highly significant on statistical analysis. Evidence of obstruction was found in 14 (37%) of 38 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies and HH or mixed agglutination, but only in 12 (10%) of 122 with TT agglutinins: this difference was also highly significant. Clinical history, physical examination and serum antisperm antibodies, especially if HH agglutinins are present, can suggest the possibility of unilateral testicular obstruction, but confirmation of the diagnosis requires exploration of scrotum. PMID:7150940

  18. [Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 isolated from a patient of pneumonia developed after drowning in bathtub of a hot spring spa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, R; Takeshita, K; Yamamoto, K; Imada, K; Yabuuchi, E; Wang, L

    1995-12-01

    A 71-year-old Japanese female, was found unconscious by drawing, in a hot spring spa, at around noon of 20 October 1994. She recovered by emergency cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and admitted to the Takinomiya General Hospital, with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although she recovered from ARDS within 4 days after her admission, she developed severe pneumonia accompanied with the second attack of ARDS. Ordinary bacteriological culture of her respiratory specimens failed to yield any significant pathogen for her pneumonia, and neither cefazolin nor imipenem/cilastatin was effective. Thus minocyclin was given on the 7th hospital-day and this was effective for blood gas and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Intratracheal exsudate inoculated on BCYE alpha agar plate yielded grayish white colonies. Cells of the colonies were clearly agglutinated by anti-Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 3 serum. Antibody titers of patient's paired sera against the strain L. pneumophila SG3 Bloomington-2 and the patient's strain (Y-1) were determined by microplate agglutination test, and a significant rise from 1:20 to 1:320 was demonstrated. Patient recovered by erythromycin treatment and was discharged on the 59th hospital day. L. pneumophila SG3 organisms were again isolated from the spa water where the patient drawn. From these findings described above, we diagnosed the patient as pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG3, and the spa water was the most probable source of infection.

  19. Highly Absorbent Antibacterial Hemostatic Dressing for Healing Severe Hemorrhagic Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate healing of severe hemorrhagic wounds, a novel highly absorbent hemostatic dressing composed of a Tencel®/absorbent-cotton/polylactic acid nonwoven base and chitosan/nanosilver antibacterial agent was fabricated by using a nonwoven processing technique and a freeze-drying technique. This study is the first to investigate the wicking and water-absorbing properties of a nonwoven base by measuring the vertical wicking height and water absorption ratio. Moreover, blood agglutination and hemostatic second tests were conducted to evaluate the hemostatic performance of the resultant wound dressing. The blending ratio of fibers, areal weight, punching density, and fiber orientation, all significantly influenced the vertical moisture wicking property. However, only the first two parameters markedly affected the water absorption ratio. After the nonwoven base absorbed blood, scanning electron microscope (SEM observation showed that erythrocytes were trapped between the fibrin/clot network and nonwoven fibers when coagulation pathways were activated. Prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT blood agglutination of the resultant dressing decreased to 14.34 and 50.94 s, respectively. In the femoral artery of the rate bleeding model, hemostatic time was saved by 87.2% compared with that of cotton cloth. Therefore, the resultant antibacterial wound dressing demonstrated greater water and blood absorption, as well as hemostatic performance, than the commercially available cotton cloth, especially for healing severe hemorrhagic wounds.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  1. [Effect of erythrocyte preserved for different lengths of time on anti-D antibody identification with three blood matching tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui-Qing; Lin, Wu-Cun; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Jie; Wu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Shu-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The specificity of the antigens and length of preservation time of erythrocytes are the interfering factors in blood group serological tests. In order to clarify the influence of preservation time of erythrocytes on the blood matching test, the titers of anti-D antibody were detected with papain method, BioVue cross matching card and DianaGel cross matching card in 7 series of panel red blood cells preserved for various length of time (0 to 9 months). The results showed that the titer of micro-column gel test (DianaGel card) was one tube higher than that of column agglutinating test (BioVue card). The titer of erythrocytes preserved for 9 months was as high as 256 tested by DianaGel card, but it was only 2 by papain method in the same anti-serum. It is suggested that there was no obvious difference between the results of micro-column gel test and column agglutinating test, and titer of papain method was the lowest. PMID:14575550

  2. Characterization of a new lectin involved in the protoplast regeneration of Bryopsis hypnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jianfeng; WANG Guangce; L(U) Fang; ZHOU Baicheng; PENG Guang

    2009-01-01

    A group of coenocytic marine algae differs from higher plants, whose totipotency depends on an intact cell (or protoplast). Instead, this alga is able to aggregate its extruded protoplasm in sea water and generate new mature individuals. It is thought that lectins play a key role in the aggregation process. We purified a lectin associated with the aggregation of cell organelles in Bryopsis hypnoides. The lectin was ca. 27 kDa with a pI between pH 5 and pH 6. The absence of carbohydrate suggested that the lectin was not a glycoprotein. The hemagglutinating activity (HA) of the lectin was not dependent on the presence of divalent cations and was inhibited by N-Acetylgalactosamine, N-Acetylglucosamine, and the glycoprotein bovine submaxillary mucin. The lectin preferentially agglutinated Gram-negative bacterium. The HA of this lectin was stable between pH 4 to pH 10. Cell organelles outside the cytoplasm were agglutinated by the addition of lectin solution (0.5 mg ml-1). Our results suggest that the regeneration of B. hypnoides is mediated by this lectin. We also demonstrated that the formation of cell organelle aggregates was inhibited by nigericin in natural seawater (pH 8.0). Given that nigericin dissipates proton gradients across the membrane, we hypothesize that the aggregation of cell organelles was proton-gradient dependent.

  3. Assessment of Rose Bengal test in diagnosing Egyptian human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fekhfakh, Effat Abdel-Monaem; Hassanain, Nawal Abdel-Hafiz; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; El-Hariri, Hazem

    2011-08-01

    A total of 30 patients suffering from brucellosis were suspected based on history taking, clinical manifestations and positive serum tube agglutination test (at titer > or = 1/160). The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count) and liver function tests, serodiagnosis of Brucella (serum tube agglutination test (STAT) as well as Rose Bengal test (RBT) and PCR. The study aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR for human brucellosis, and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the cost and the time consuming of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR. There was a significant difference between diagnosis by RBT and both STAT > or = 1/640, & STAT > or = 1/1280. Also, there was a significant difference between PCR and both STAT > or = 1/640, and STAT > or = 1/1280. No significant difference was detected between RBT in diagnosing acute and chronic infection. STAT > or = 1/320 proved to be better than STAT at other titers and RBT in diagnosis of brucellosis. RBT proved to be suitable as screening test regarding time (faster) and cost. But, STAT > or = 1/320 from a practical and economic point of views proved to be the best one in diagnosing human brucellosis.

  4. Prevalence of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC in a survey of dairy cattle in Najaf, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Al-Muhana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dairy cattle have been implicated as principal reservoir of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC, with undercooked ground beef and raw milk being the major vehicles of food borne outbreaks. VTEC has been implicated as an etiological agent of individual cases and outbreaks in developed countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VETEC in diarrheic dairy calves up to 20 days of age in Najaf, Iraq."nMaterials and Methods: 326 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were collected for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC isolates. Non-sorbitol fermentation, enterohemolysin phenotype, and slide agglutination with antisera were used for screening and detection of these serotypes."nResults: Nineteen (5.8% non-sorbitol fermenting and 3 (0.9% enterohemolysin-producing E. coli were obtained. Only 9 were agglutinated with available antisera and none of them belonged to the O157:H7 serotype. Three were found to be verotoxin positive on Vero cell monolayers. These included serotype O111 (2 isolates and serotype O128 (1 isolate. All three VTEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin. Two exhibited adherence phenotype on HEp-2 cells."nConclusion: E. coli O157:H7 serotype is not prevalent in diarrheic dairy calves, and VTEC is not a frequent cause of diarrhea in calves in Najaf/ Iraq.

  5. Biophysical studies on calcium and carbohydrate binding to carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal/GalNAc lectin from Entamoeba histolytica: insights into host cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rupali; Verma, Kuldeep; Chandra, Mintu; Mukherjee, Madhumita; Datta, Sunando

    2016-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric parasite expresses a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin that contributes to its virulence by establishing adhesion to host cell. In this study, carbohydrate recognition domain of Hgl (EhCRD) was purified and biophysical studies were conducted to understand the thermodynamic basis of its binding to carbohydrate and Ca(++) Here, we show that carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the lectin binds to calcium through DPN motif. To decipher the role of calcium in carbohydrate binding and host cell adhesion, biophysical and cell-based studies were carried out. We demonstrated that the presence of the cation neither change the affinity of the lectin for carbohydrates nor alters its conformation. Mutation of the calcium-binding motif in EhCRD resulted in complete loss of ability to bind calcium but retained its affinity for carbohydrates. Purified EhCRD significantly diminished adhesion of the amebic trophozoites to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells as well as triggered red blood cell agglutination. The calcium-binding defective mutant abrogated amebic adhesion to CHO cells similar to the wild-type protein, but it failed to agglutinate RBCs suggesting a differential role of the cation in these two processes. This study provides the first molecular description of the role of calcium in Gal/GalNAc mediated host cell adhesion.

  6. The distribution in lunar soil of carbon released by pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon contents of various lunar soil particle types and sieve fractions of Apollo 15 and 16 samples have been determined by the pyrolysis method. The mineral, glass, and high-grade breccia fragments in the soils examined contain relatively low amounts of carbon (approximately 8, 25, and 25 microg C/g sample respectively in 149-250 micron grains). Most low-grade breccias and all agglutinates examined have high carbon contents (approximately 52 and 80 microg C/g sample respectively), and agglutinate abundance is indicative of the carbon content and maturity of a soil. The distribution of carbon with respect to particle size in mature soils generally reveals a minimum in carbon content at about 100 micron particle diameter. At smaller particle diameters, carbon content is directly proportional to particle surface area and therefore increases with the ratio (surface area)/(particle mass). A model relating the cycle of comminution and aggregation of soil particles to the redistribution of surface implanted carbon is developed.

  7. Aneurysm of the cranial mesenteric artery as a site of carriage of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abortusequi in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hidekazu; Hobo, Seiji; Kinoshita, Yuta; Muranaka, Masanori; Ochi, Akihiro; Ueno, Takanori; Oku, Kazuomi; Hariu, Kazuhisa; Katayama, Yoshinari

    2016-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abortusequi is a pathogen restricted to horses. Our investigation targeted 4 draft horses (9-10 months old) kept on a Japanese farm that had suffered an outbreak of S. Abortusequi abortion. The 4 horses were suspected to be carriers of the bacterium owing to their high agglutination titers (≥1:2,560) in tube agglutination testing. The owners' on-farm observations confirmed that the horses had no apparent abnormalities, and S. Abortusequi was not isolated from their blood, rectal swabs, or sternal bone marrow fluid at antemortem investigation. However, at autopsy, all horses displayed the following: suppurative aneurysm of the cranial mesenteric artery with heavy infection with Strongylus vulgaris larvae; heavy intestinal parasitic infection with Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and S. vulgaris; and enlargement of the systemic lymph nodes. In each case, large numbers of S. Abortusequi were isolated from the anterior mesenteric artery thrombus. The thrombus isolates harbored a single virulence plasmid, and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the isolates were identical not only to each other but also to those of Japanese enzootic strains of S. Abortusequi. These results reveal that parasitic aneurysms of the cranial mesenteric artery should be considered an important possible site of carriage of S. Abortusequi in horses. The results also suggest high clonality of the isolated serovar in the horse population in Japan. PMID:27271985

  8. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  9. Impedimetric detection and lumped element modelling of a hemagglutination assay in microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcali, Merve; Elbuken, Caglar

    2016-07-01

    Droplet-based microfluidic systems offer tremendous benefits for high throughput biochemical assays. Despite the wide use of electrical detection for microfluidic systems, application of impedimetric sensing for droplet systems is very limited. This is mainly due to the insulating oil-based continuous phase used for most aqueous samples of interest. We present modelling and experimental verification of impedimetric detection of hemagglutination in microdroplets. We have detected agglutinated red blood cells in microdroplets and screened whole blood samples for multiple antibody sera using conventional microelectrodes. We were able to form antibody and whole blood microdroplets in PDMS microchannels without any tedious chemical surface treatment. Following the injection of a blood sample into antibody droplets, we have detected the agglutination-positive and negative droplets in an automated manner. In order to understand the characteristics of impedimetric detection inside microdroplets, we have developed the lumped electrical circuit equivalent of an impedimetric droplet content detection system. The empirical lumped element values are in accordance with similar models developed for single phase electrical impedance spectroscopy systems. The presented approach is of interest for label-free, quantitative analysis of droplets. In addition, the standard electronic equipment used for detection allows miniaturized detection circuitries that can be integrated with a fluidic system for a quantitative microdroplet-based hemagglutination assay that is conventionally performed in well plates. PMID:27270895

  10. Fossil evidence for life in post-Sturtian cap carbonates of the Rasthof Formation, northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, S. B.; Bosak, T.; Dalton, L.; Lahr, D.; MacDonald, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Rasthof Formation of northern Namibia is a cap carbonate succession (~715 Ma) that overlies Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Chuos Formation. The Sturtian low-latitude glaciation is thought to have been one of the most dramatic episodes of climate change in Earth history, but the impact on biota remains virtually unknown. The lower Rasthof Formation is characterized by dark gray organic-rich thinly (hollow. These globular forms are consistent with shells constructed by Arcellinid testate amoebae. Both facies also contain ~10 μm-wide and >100 μm-long organic filaments and round unornamented vesicles (~5μm in diameter). These organic structures are probable remnants of fossil algae or cyanobacteria. Rare organic-rich agglutinated tubes with variable lengths (250-890 μm) and widths (26-123 μm) are also present in both facies. The common types of microfossils, fossil testate amoebae, agglutinated tubes, organic filaments and small unornamented vesicles, are found in both facies and at different localities. The occurrence of testate amoebae with high preservation potential in these assemblages points to the presence of a potentially larger and more diverse community than is preserved. Furthermore, testate amoebae and other shell-building organisms flourished in subtidal microbialites in the immediate aftermath of Sturtian glaciation and did not differ significantly from pre-Sturtian benthic microbial ecosystems.

  11. Purification of a PHA-like chitin-binding protein from Acacia farnesiana seeds: a time-dependent oligomerization protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi-Gadelha, T; Rocha, B A M; Oliveira, C C; Aragão, K S; Marinho, E S; Gadelha, C A A; Toyama, M H; Pinto, V P T; Nagano, C S; Delatorre, P; Martins, J L; Galvani, F R; Sampaio, A H; Debray, H; Cavada, B S

    2008-07-01

    A lectin-like protein from the seeds of Acacia farnesiana was isolated from the albumin fraction, characterized, and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. The albumin fraction was extracted with 0.5 M NaCl, and the lectin-like protein of A. farnesiana (AFAL) was purified by ion-exchange chromatography (Mono-Q) followed by chromatofocusing. AFAL agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and did not agglutinate human ABO erythrocytes either native or treated with proteolytic enzymes. In sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions, AFAL separated into two bands with a subunit molecular mass of 35 and 50 kDa. The homogeneity of purified protein was confirmed by chromatofocusing with a pI = 4.0 +/- 0.5. Molecular exclusion chromatography confirmed time-dependent oligomerization in AFAL, in accordance with mass spectrometry analysis, which confers an alteration in AFAL affinity for chitin. The protein sequence was obtained by a liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight experiment and showed that AFAL has 68% and 63% sequence similarity with lectins of Phaseolus vulgaris and Dolichos biflorus, respectively. PMID:18568300

  12. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-08-30

    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  13. Graves opthalmopathy and psychoendocrinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem Asaad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the psychiatric and endocrinological changes in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy (GO. Design: A prospective, controlled, University Hospital based study Subjects and Methods: The current study comprised 60 patients diagnosed with GO at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center. Thirty five patients of them with moderate to severe GO formed the study group and twenty five patients with negligible to very mild GO formed the control group in the euthyroid state. The study group was further subdivided based on their predominant clinical signs into a proptosis subgroup and a muscle restriction subgroup . Psychiatric changes were assessed with the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ. Biochemical analyses included serum-free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations, TSH receptor antibody (TRAb activity and anti-thyroglobulin particle agglutination (TGPA and antithyroid microsomal particle agglutination (MCPA. Results: The proptosis group reported significantly higher scores on anxiety, depression, and phobia than the muscle restriction group (P< 0.0001. The proptosis and muscle restriction subgroups reported significantly higher scores on all subscales compared to the control group (P < 0.05. The scale scores of depression and phobia showed a positive correlation with scores of anxiety (P< 0.0001. The serum TRAb activity showed a significant correlation with anxiety, phobia and hysteria (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The psychiatric aspect of GO should be evaluated during routine follow-up and should be considered when making management decisions. Thyroid specific antibodies may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of GO.

  14. Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Walaa Shawky; Elabd, Safia Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Meningitis is a serious communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is an endemic disease in Egypt caused mainly by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. In some settings, bacterial meningitis is documented depending mainly on positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results or CSF positive latex agglutination test, missing the important role of prior antimicrobial intake which can yield negative culture and latex agglutination test results. This study aimed to utilize molecular technology in order to diagnose bacterial meningitis in culture-negative CSF samples. Materials and Methods. Forty culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for the presence of lytA, bexA, and ctrA genes specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, respectively. Results. Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (90%) of culture-negative CSF samples while no positive results for Haemophilus influenzae or Neisseria meningitidis were detected. Four (10%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques as real-time PCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis especially in settings with high rates of culture-negative results. PMID:27563310

  15. Construction of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase DNA vaccine and experimental study of its immuno-contraceptive effect on mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDHC4) is a key enzyme for sperm metabolism. It is distributed specifically in testis and is highly immunogenic. In this study, two DNA vaccines pVAX1-hLDHC and pVAX1-mLDHC were constructed by inserting coding sequences of human and mice LDHC4 into the eukaryotic ex-pression vector pVAX1. The production of LDHC4 specific antibodies was induced in the sera of vac-cinated mice and the reproductive tract secretions of vaccinated female mice through immunization by mucosal surface instillation. Furthermore, the antibody titer increased with the times of immunization. In the mating experiment, the number of newborns of the vaccinated mice reduced significantly and some immunized female mice even lost the ability to bear any offsprings, suggesting that the difference between the immunized and control mice was statistically significant. Sperm agglutination analysis indicated that both the antisera from immunized mice and the reproductive tract secretions of vacci-nated female mice could agglutinate normal sperms. Results of immunohistochemistry showed that the antibodies present in the sera of immunized mice and the reproductive tract secretions of vaccinated female mice could specifically react with LDHC4 antigen, which mainly locates in the cytoplasm, acrosome membrane externa and acrosome capsule of the sperm. Taken together, our results indicated that the constructed contraceptive DNA vaccines did yield immunocontraceptive effects on mice and this would enable clinical trials in near future.

  16. Characterization of a new lectin involved in the protoplast regeneration of Bryopsis hypnoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce; Lü, Fang; Zhou, Baicheng; Peng, Guang

    2009-09-01

    A group of coenocytic marine algae differs from higher plants, whose totipotency depends on an intact cell (or protoplast). Instead, this alga is able to aggregate its extruded protoplasm in sea water and generate new mature individuals. It is thought that lectins play a key role in the aggregation process. We purified a lectin associated with the aggregation of cell organelles in Bryopsis hypnoides. The lectin was ca. 27 kDa with a pI between pH 5 and pH 6. The absence of carbohydrate suggested that the lectin was not a glycoprotein. The hemagglutinating activity (HA) of the lectin was not dependent on the presence of divalent cations and was inhibited by N-Acetylgalactosamine, N-Acetylglucosamine, and the glycoprotein bovine submaxillary mucin. The lectin preferentially agglutinated Gram-negative bacterium. The HA of this lectin was stable between pH 4 to pH 10. Cell organelles outside the cytoplasm were agglutinated by the addition of lectin solution (0.5 mg ml-1). Our results suggest that the regeneration of B. hypnoides is mediated by this lectin. We also demonstrated that the formation of cell organelle aggregates was inhibited by nigericin in natural seawater (pH 8.0). Given that nigericin dissipates proton gradients across the membrane, we hypothesize that the aggregation of cell organelles was proton-gradient dependent.

  17. The influence of the swine major histocompatibility genes on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to immunization with an aromatic-dependent mutant of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, J S; Kennedy, B W; Mallard, B A; Wilkie, B N

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) defined miniature pigs from 16 litters were examined for serum agglutinating antibody titer and O-polysaccharide (O-ps) specific peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenesis following two parenteral vaccinations with 1 x 10(8) aromatic-dependent (aroA) Salmonella typhimurium and following oral challenge with 1 x 10(12) virulent parent S. typhimurium. Least mean squares analysis allowed separate determinations of the effects of MHC genotype, dam, sire and litter. In most cases only litter significantly influenced both lymphocyte blastogenesis and antibody titer before and after vaccination and following challenge. However, pig SLA haplotype significantly influenced the degree of O-ps specific lymphocyte proliferation six days after the second vaccination (p < 0.004). Lymphocyte proliferation and serum agglutinating antibody response six days after primary vaccination were negatively correlated (r2 = -0.68, p < 0.001). In most cases, "dd" and "gg" homozygous and "dg" heterozygous pigs, having the same MHC class II region, behaved immunologically as a group distinct from the other genotypes. PMID:8431799

  18. Antibody reactivity to conserved linear epitopes of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsø, T; Khalil, E A; Elhassan, I M;

    1998-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family of protein antigens are involved in adhesion of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes to the capillary endothelium of the host. Antibodies to variable regions of these proteins, measured by agglutination, correlates with clini......The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family of protein antigens are involved in adhesion of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes to the capillary endothelium of the host. Antibodies to variable regions of these proteins, measured by agglutination, correlates...... synthetic peptides derived from conserved regions of PfEMP1. The antibody responses to these peptides increased with age and were higher in individuals with asymptomatic P. falciparum infection compared to individuals presenting with fever attributable to falciparum malaria. This indicates that antibodies...... recognising the conserved regions of PfEMP1 arise upon exposure to the parasite, and that these may be involved in the development of protection against malaria. Antibodies to the Pfalhesin peptide of the human aniontransporter, band3, were measured by the same method. The magnitude of this antibody response...

  19. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Domestic Animals from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Gennari, Solange Maria; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T. gondii. Cattle populations from all sites (9.88%) were exposed to smooth Brucella, but only one jaguar from Cerrado was exposed to this agent. Jaguars captured in the Cerrado (60.0%) and in the Pantanal (45.5%) were seropositive for different serovars of Leptospira spp., cattle (72.18%) and domestic dogs (13.1%) from the three sites and one domestic cat from Pantanal were also seropositive for the agent. The most prevalent serotype of Leptospira spp. identified in jaguars from the Cerrado (Grippotyphosa) and the Pantanal (Pomona) biomes were distinct from those found in the domestic animals sampled. Jaguars (100%), domestic dogs (38.28%) and domestic cats (82.76%) from the three areas were exposed to T. gondii. Our results show that brucellosis and leptospirosis could have been transmitted to jaguars by domestic animals; and jaguars probably play an important role in the maintenance of T. gondii in nature. PMID:26605787

  20. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca and Domestic Animals from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Malzoni Furtado

    Full Text Available This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca, 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus, 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T. gondii. Cattle populations from all sites (9.88% were exposed to smooth Brucella, but only one jaguar from Cerrado was exposed to this agent. Jaguars captured in the Cerrado (60.0% and in the Pantanal (45.5% were seropositive for different serovars of Leptospira spp., cattle (72.18% and domestic dogs (13.1% from the three sites and one domestic cat from Pantanal were also seropositive for the agent. The most prevalent serotype of Leptospira spp. identified in jaguars from the Cerrado (Grippotyphosa and the Pantanal (Pomona biomes were distinct from those found in the domestic animals sampled. Jaguars (100%, domestic dogs (38.28% and domestic cats (82.76% from the three areas were exposed to T. gondii. Our results show that brucellosis and leptospirosis could have been transmitted to jaguars by domestic animals; and jaguars probably play an important role in the maintenance of T. gondii in nature.