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Sample records for ages 9-15 years

  1. Vital signs: births to teens aged 15-17 years--United States, 1991-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-04-11

    Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight opportunities to increase younger teens exposure to interventions that delay

  2. Survey of Neurological Disorders in Children Aged 9-15 Years in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, G G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of neurological disorders in resource-poor settings, although likely to be high, is largely unexplored. The prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders, including epilepsy and intellectual, motor, vision, and hearing deficits, in children aged 9 to 15 years in the community were investigated. A new instrument was developed, validated, and used in a 2-stage community survey for neurological disorders in Lucknow, India. Screen-positives and random proportion of screen-negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence of different neurological disorders was calculated by weighted proportions. Of 6431 children screened, 221 were positive. A total of 214 screen-positives and 251 screen-negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 31.3 per 1000 children of this age group (weighted 95% confidence interval = 16.5, 46.4). The final model for risk factors included age, mud house, delayed cry at birth, and previous head injury. The prevalence of neurological disorders is high in this region. Predictors of neurological disorders are largely modifiable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The correlation between leptin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels in obese children aged 9-15 years

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    Sarah M. Warouw

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a low level and chronic inflammatory condition predominantly affecting white adipose tissue, where macrophage infiltration is found. Leptin is one of many molecules relating obesity to cardiovascular disease. Leptin can increase cytokine production in macrophages and monocytes, and increase oxidative stress on endothelial cells. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, in turn, may trigger the release of C-reactive protein. Objective To examine the correlation between leptin and hsCRP in obese children aged 9-15 years. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in Manado from May to December 2009, on elementary and junior high school children. Subjects were obese children aged 9-15 years, with nutritional status detennined by Body Mass Index and converted into z-score. Physical examination, blood pressure, and blood examinations for  fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profile, leptin, and hsCRP were perfonned. Data were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Results The mean leptin level in obese children was 34,009.2 pgiL (SD 18,224.79, higher than that of the control, 7,760.9 pgiL (SD 8,859.55 (P<0.0001. The mean hsCRP level in obese children was 3.6 mgiL (SD 3.60, higher than that of the control, 0.7 mgiL (SD 1.32 (<0.0001. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and hsCRP levels in obese children (r 0.355; P<0.0001. Conclusions There is significant positive correlation between leptin and hsCRP levels in obese children aged 9-15 years. Increased leptin and hsCRP levels indicate a low degree of chronic inflammation. Thus, intervention is needed to decrease the body weight of obese children.

  4. Vital Signs: Births to Teens Aged 15–17 Years — United States, 1991–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background Teens who give birth at age 15–17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. Methods To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15–19 years that were to teens aged 15–17 years, CDC analyzed 1991–2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006–2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15–17 years. Results During 1991–2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15–17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15–19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15–17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15–17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Conclusions Births to teens aged 15–17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15–19 years. Implications for public health

  5. Tracking drinking behaviour from age 15-19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    beverages at age 15 increased the risk of drinking alcohol weekly at the age of 19 [odds ratio (OR)-values from 1.11 to 3.53]. Drunkenness among the 15-year-old boys and the use of spirits of the 15-year-old girls showed the strongest predictive relationship with excessive consumption at age 19 [OR = 2...... phenomenon. It was a behaviour that tracked into young adulthood, leaving the adolescents at increased risk of being long-term, large-scale consumers....

  6. Effectiveness of time-related interventions in children with ADHD aged 9-15 years: a randomized controlled study.

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    Wennberg, Birgitta; Janeslätt, Gunnel; Kjellberg, Anette; Gustafsson, Per A

    2018-03-01

    Specific problems with time and timing that affect daily routines, homework, school work, and social relations have been recognized in children with ADHD. The primary treatments for children with ADHD do not specifically focus on time-related difficulties. The aim of this randomized controlled study (RCT) was to investigate how multimodal interventions, consisting of training in time-processing ability (TPA) and compensation with time-assistive devices (TAD), affect TPA and daily time management (DTM) in children with ADHD and time difficulties, compared with only educational intervention. Thirty-eight children on stable medication for ADHD in the 9-15-year age range were randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The children's TPA was measured with a structured assessment (KaTid), and the children's DTM was rated by a parent questionnaire (Time-Parent scale) and by children's self-reporting (Time-Self-rating). The intervention consisted of time-skill training and compensation with TAD. Data were analysed for differences in TPA and in DTM between the control and intervention groups in the 24-week follow-up. Children in the intervention group increased their TPA significantly (p = 0.019) more compared to the control group. The largest increase was in orientation to time. In addition, the parents in the intervention group rated their children's DTM as significantly (p = 0.01) improved compared with the parents in the control group. According to the children, their DTM was not significantly changed. In conclusion, a multimodal intervention consisting of time-skill training and TAD improved TPA and DTM in children with ADHD aged 9-15 years.

  7. Orthodontic treatment need of 9, 12 and 15 year-old children according to the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and the Dental Aesthetic Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Montiel-Company, José María; Catalá-Pizarro, Montserrat; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    To assess the differences in occlusal features in three cohorts at 9, 12 and 15 years of age, and compare orthodontic treatment need measured by the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Cross-sectional study. School of Dentistry, University of Valencia. A total of 1086 children: 321 aged 9, 397 aged 12 and 368 aged 15. Children were examined to measure their orthodontic treatment need according to IOTN and DAI. The main outcome measure was orthodontic treatment need according to the DAI and IOTN indices. Overbite and inter-incisal diastema were the occlusal features that presented significant differences between the three groups, diminishing with age. Treatment need according to the IOTN was 15.4% at 9 years, 20.9% at 12 years and 12.8% at 15 years. Treatment need according to DAI was 44.8% at 9 years, 21.7% at 12 years and 14.1% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the two indices on the treatment need by age group was very low at 9 years (Kappa 0.18) and moderate at 12 and 15 years (Kappa 0.451 and 0.405, respectively). Orthodontic treatment need is greater in the mixed dentition and falls slightly as the child grows. The greatest variation in results between 9 and 15 years were found in relation to the DAI, which is consequently not recommended for use in the mixed dentition.

  8. Asthma Mortality Among Persons Aged 15-64 Years, by Industry and Occupation - United States, 1999-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Opal; Syamlal, Girija; Wood, John; Dodd, Katelynn E; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2018-01-19

    In 2015, an estimated 18.4 million U.S. adults had current asthma, and 3,396 adult asthma deaths were reported (1). An estimated 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be attributable to occupational exposures (2). To describe asthma mortality among persons aged 15-64 years,* CDC analyzed multiple cause-of-death data † for 1999-2016 and industry and occupation information collected from 26 states § for the years 1999, 2003, 2004, and 2007-2012. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) ¶ for asthma among persons aged 15-64 years were calculated. During 1999-2016, a total of 14,296 (42.9%) asthma deaths occurred among males and 19,011 (57.1%) occurred among females. Based on an estimate that 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be related to occupational exposures, during this 18-year period, 1,573-3,002 asthma deaths in males and 2,091-3,992 deaths in females might have resulted from occupational exposures. Some of these deaths might have been averted by instituting measures to prevent potential workplace exposures. The annual age-adjusted asthma death rate** per 1 million persons aged 15-64 years declined from 13.59 in 1999 to 9.34 in 2016 (pindustries and occupations underscores the importance of optimal asthma management and identification and prevention of potential workplace exposures.

  9. Age-specific cerebral perfusion in 4- to 15-year-old children: a high-resolution brain SPET study using 99mTc-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.; Dannenberg, C.; Bettin, S.; Sattler, B.; Knapp, W.H.; Wiener, M.

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether the normal range for distribution of local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) in adults can be transferred to the 4- to 15-year-old age group. Twenty-three children (age: 4-15 years; mean 11±3 years, group I) and 10 adults (age: 27-56 years; mean 45±10 years, group II) without evidence of cerebrovascular disease or other brain diseases underwent technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography. Counts in cortical and subcortical regions of interest (ROIs) were related to those in cerebellar ROIs (= 100%). Relative cortical activity in group I exceeded that in group II, particularly in left parietal (107.6%±9.8% vs 84.1%±12.4%), left frontal (97.7%±6.7% vs 79.4%±8.9%) and left temporal areas (99.7%±7.4% vs 84.9%±10.1%) and in the cingulate cortex (112.1%±9.1% vs 95.9%±10.1%, P<0.05). Cerebral activity uptake per injected dose was inversely correlated with age in 19 children of group I (r -0.77, P<0.001). In group I, there was also an inverse correlation between age and the relative local count density in the parietal (r = -0.42 to -0.57), frontal (r = -0.48), temporal (r=-0.42 to -0.58) and occipital cortex (r=-0.44). In these cortical regions relative counts differed when subgroups of children aged 4-10 and 11-15 years were analysed. It is concluded that there are systematic differences between 4- to 15-year-old children and adults with regard to normal lCBF. Diagnostic use of perfusion agents has to consider age-adjusted normal flow maps; normal ranges should be determined separately for the age groups 4-10 and 11-15 years. (orig.)

  10. Temperament and body weight from ages 4 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A

    2017-07-01

    In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.

  11. Age-dependence of local cerebral blood flow - investigations of 4 to 15 years old children and adults with Tc-99m-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.; Wiener, M.; Dannenberg, C.; Sattler, B.; Martin, W.G.; Knapp, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: This present study deals with the question whether normal distribution of local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) agents in adults can be transferred to the age group of 4 to 15 years old children. Methods: 23 children (age: 4-15 years, mean 11±3 y) (group I) and 10 adults (age: 27-56 years, mean 45±10 y) (group II) without evidence of cerebrovascular disease or other brain diseases underwent Tc-99m-ECD-SPECT imaging. Counts in the cortical ROIs were related to those of cerebellar ROIs (=100%). Results: In group I, relative cortical activity exceeded that of group II, particularly in parietal (107.6±9.8 vs. 84.1±12.4%), frontal (97.7±6.7 vs. 79.4±8.9%), left temporal areas (99.7±7.4 vs. 84.9±10.1%) and in the cingular cortex (112.1±9.1 vs. 95.9±10.1%, p [de

  12. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9-15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China.

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    Li, Ping; Yang, Fan; Xiong, Fei; Huo, Tingzhu; Tong, Yu; Yang, Sufei; Mao, Meng

    2012-08-10

    Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9-15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). And then a frequency matched case-control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls) were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8%) had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity). The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P 0.05). Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746), maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713), paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583), preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564), full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454) and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418) were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  13. Suicide mortality trends in young people aged 15 to 19 years in Lithuania.

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    Strukcinskiene, B; Andersson, R; Janson, S

    2011-11-01

    This paper considers the suicide mortality trends from 1990-2009 in young people aged 15 to 19 years in Lithuania. Suicide and injury mortality data, plus mortality data from all causes, were used to compare the trend lines. Suicide mortality rate in young people aged 15-19 years and in all population showed a rising trend from 1990, and then a decreasing trend from 2002 year. This trend was significant exclusively in boys. When comparing suicide deaths as a percentage of injury deaths and of all deaths in the age group 15-19 years, rising trends for boys were evident, whilst in girls, there was no evidence of change. In Lithuania, from early 1990s, the frequency of suicide increased amongst adults and young people aged 15-19 years. After 2002, a decrease in deaths by suicide was observed both for the whole population and for young people aged 15-19 years. The rise and fall was obvious for boys. The reasons for different trends may have been influenced by the political and socioeconomic instability in the 1990-2002 period, and the socioeconomic stability, together with active preventive measures, from 2002. Although the consumption of modern Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increased during the same time, suicide mortality was again high during the economic crisis in 2008-2009. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype in Adolescents Aged 15 to 18 Years

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    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of cardiometabolic deterioration, increased type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Objective: to determine the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Area III of Cienfuegos. Method: a case series study was conducted in a universe of 198 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years who attended a consultation created for this study at the Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja University Polyclinic in Cienfuegos municipality from March to December 2013. Each patient completed a questionnaire including the following variables: age, sex, personal medical history, family medical history, weight, height, body mass index, presence of acanthosis nigricans, triglycerides and perimeter. Results: frequency of the phenotype was determined in 15.1 % of the participants with a slight predominance of the 18 age group (16.3 % and female sex (8.6 %. Twenty-one point six percent of the adolescents with a family history of obesity and 21.7 % of those with first-degree diabetic relatives presented the phenotype, being hypertriglyceridemia the most significant condition. Conclusions: a relationship between a family history of diabetes mellitus, obesity, body mass index above the 90th percentile value and presence of the phenotype was established.

  15. Fat intake and weight development from 9 to 16 years of age: the European youth heart study - a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fat...... fat intake and 6-year weight change among 9-year-old children. No interaction was seen between number of overweight parents on the relation between fat intake and subsequent weight change....... intake and weight development among a cohort of children aged 9-10 years at baseline and 15-16 years at follow-up, and, further, at investigating whether parents' obesity is modifying the association. METHOD: Among 384 subjects aged 9 years, data on dietary intake, BMI z-score, physical activity...

  16. Hepatitis B seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years after completion of basic hepatitis B immunizations

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    Novie Homenta Rampengan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of hepatitis B viral (HBV infection in Indonesia is high. The most effective way to control HBV infection is by hepatitis B (HB immunization. Many studies reported that hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs seroprotection declines in children > 10 years of age. In addition many factors can influence anti-HBs titer. Objective To measure anti-HBs titer and evaluate possible factors associated with anti-HBs titer. Methods This cross sectional  study was conducted in children 10-15 years of age from ten schools at Tuminting District, Manado, North Sulawesi, from October to November 2014. All subjects had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme. By stratified random sampling, 105 children were selected as subjects. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 22. Results. From 48 schools, we selected 10 schools from which to draw a total of 105 children, but only 23 (21.9% children had detectable anti-HBs . Of all subjects, 76 (72.4%  were female, 78 (74.3%  had good nutritional status, and 98 (93.3%  had birth weight ≥2,500 grams. Data from immunization record books showed that 26 (24.8% subjects received the HB-1 vaccination at ≤7 days of age and 45 (42.9% subjects had a ≥2 month interval between the HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations. Multivariate analysis showed that administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age  and a ≥2 month interval between HB-2 and HB-3  had significant associations with anti-HB seroprotection in children. Conclusion A low proportion of subjects who had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme had detectable anti-HBs titer (21.9%. Administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age and a ≥2-month interval between HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations are important factors in anti-HB seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years.

  17. The prevalence of obesity in chilhood 6-15 years of age in denizli

    OpenAIRE

    Semiz, Serap; Özdemir, Özmert M.a.; Özdemir, Ayşegül Sözeri

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years the increasing frequency of obesity is observed worldwide. It is understood thatobesity among children and adolescents can persist into adulthood. Therefore, these subjects shouldbe diagnosed earlier and should be treated as indicated. For this purpose we planned to investigate theprevalence of obesity in children 6-15 years old in Denizli.Eight hundred and fifty children between 6-15 years of age (389 girls, 461 boys, mean age 10.7±2.3years) in Denizli were enrolled in t...

  18. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment.

  19. Prevalence of and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors. We used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10) from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements. Our findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  20. Self-reported Chlamydia testing rates of sexually active women aged 15-25 years in the United States, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guoyu; Hoover, Karen W; Leichliter, Jami S; Peterman, Thomas A; Kent, Charlotte K

    2012-08-01

    Using the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated a 37.9% annual chlamydia testing rate for sexually active US women aged 15 to 25 years, defined as having ≥ 1 sex partner in the past year. Our results highlight the need for increased testing among sexually active young women.

  1. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  2. Vertical Jump and Leg Power Normative Data for Colombian Schoolchildren Aged 9-17.9 Years: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Cadore, Eduardo L; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Cadore, EL, Alonso-Martinez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Vertical jump and leg power normative data for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 990-998, 2017-The aims of the present study were to generate normative vertical jump height and predicted peak power (Ppeak) data for 9- to 17.9-year-olds and to investigate between-sex and age group differences in these measures. This was a cross-sectional study of 7,614 healthy schoolchildren (boys n = 3,258 and girls n = 4,356, mean [SD] age 12.8 [2.3] years). Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps; jump height was calculated using a Takei 5414 Jump-DF Digital Vertical (Takei Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd.). The highest jump was used for analysis and in the calculation of predicted Ppeak. Centile smoothed curves, percentiles, and tables for the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles were calculated using Cole's LMS (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) method. The 2-way analysis of variance tests showed that maximum jump height (in centimeters) and predicted Ppeak (in watts) were higher in boys than in girls (p jump height and Ppeak in all ages. In boys, the maximum jump height and predicted Ppeak 50th percentile ranged from 24.0 to 38.0 cm and from 845.5 to 3061.6 W, respectively. In girls, the 50th percentile for jump height ranged from 22.3 to 27.0 cm, and the predicted Ppeak was 710.1-2036.4 W. For girls, jump height increased yearly from 9 to 17.9 years old. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific vertical jump height and predicted Ppeak reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  3. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-01-01

    boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished...... difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents—especially in children aged 5–9 years...

  4. Regional differences in incidence and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancić, Gordana; La Grasta Sabolić, Lavinia; Pozgaj Sepec, Marija; Radica, Ana; Skrabić, Veselin; Severinski, Srećko; Kujundzić Tiljak, Mirjana

    2012-04-01

    To determine regional differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 15 years in Croatia in a 9-year period (1995-2003). We included the patients who had been diagnosed with the disease and had started the insulin treatment before they were 15 years old. Regional differences between eastern, central, and southern Croatia were observed. The gross incidence was expressed by the number of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients in 100000 children of the same age and sex per year, ie, for the 0-14 age group, and for the 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 subgroups. The highest incidence was observed in southern Croatia (10.91 per 100000/y) and the lowest in central Croatia (8.64 per 100000/y), and in eastern Croatia the incidence was 8.93 per 100000/y. All three regions showed a growing incidence trend, which was significant only in eastern and southern Croatia. There was 35.9% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in eastern Croatia, 41.7% in central Croatia, and 31.28% in southern Croatia. Croatian regions show differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and disease presentation of type 1 diabetes. A further follow-up is needed to establish whether the regional differences are a consequence of the population dynamics in the observed period or they will continue to exist, pointing to differences in environmental risk factors.

  5. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 915years in Chengdu, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 915years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. Methods A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO (2007. And then a frequency matched case–control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. Results 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8% had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity. The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P P >0.05. Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746, maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713, paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583, preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564, full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454 and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418 were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P Conclusions While overweight and obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  6. [Physical activity of 9 and 15 year old Icelandic children - Public health objectives and relations of physical activity to gender, age, anthropometry and area of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erling

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess to what degree nine and fifteen year old Icelandic children followed the national physical activity (PA) guidelines for children set forth by the Icelandic Public Health Institute, which recommend no less than 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day (MVPA). The study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004 at eighteen randomly selected schools in the capital area of Reykjavik and towns and rural areas in the northeast. All nine years old (N=662) and fifteen years old (N=661) students were offered to participate. Half of the children were randomly chosen to partake in the PA part of the study where 176 nine-year-old and 162 fifteen-year-old children yielded usable data. We measured participants' height, weight and skinfold thickness and their PA by ActiGraph™ with respect to moderate-to-vigorous intensity (defined as counts >3400 cpm) and average volume. Only 5% of 9-year-old and 9% of 15 year-old students followed the recommended PA guidelines of at least 60 minutes a day of MVPA. MVPA was positively associated with sex (being a boy) and age, but negatively associated with skinfold thickness. Those living in the capital area of Reykjavik rather than in smaller towns and rural areas were likelier to accrue more minutes of MVPA per day. The results highlight the importance of developing PA interventions targeting children of school age. It is important to research and evaluate different ways as to how these interventions should best be conducted. Key words: physical activity, children, body composition, accelerometers.

  7. Adiponectin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels in obese children aged 9 to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frecilia Regina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a widespread and growing problem associated with health problems such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. A lowgrade chronic inflammatory state, reflected by decreased adiponectin and increased highly sensitive Creactive  protein (hsCRP levels, may play a role in metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Objective To assess and compare adiponectin and hsCRP levels in obese and nonnal weight children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, casecontrolled study in Manado from May to July 2010. Subjects were selected from obese, but otherwise healthy children aged 9-15 years. Control subjects were schoolmates 'With normal body mass index (BMI. We perfonned physical examinations, measured blood pressure, weight and height, and calculated BMI for all subjects. After an overnight fast, all subjects were tested for fasting blood glucose, adiponectin and hsCRP levels. Results The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was 3.6 μg/mL (SD 1.43, lower than that of the normoweight group, 4.8 μg/mL (SD 1.67 (P<0.0001. The mean hsCRP level in the obese group was 3.3 mg/L (SD 3.62 while that of the normoweight group was 0.8 mg/L (SD 1.39 (P<0.0001. There was no inverse correlation between adiponectin and hsCRP levels in obese group (r= 0.048; P= 0.362. Conclusions Lower adiponectin and higher hsCRP levels in the obese group is consistent 'With a low-grade chronic inflammatory state. Other factors that influence adiponecrin and hsCRP production or inflammatory pathways of other adipokines need further evaluation. Early intervention is needed to reduce body weight in obese children.

  8. Recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K J; Griffin, R; Rue, L W; McGwin, G

    2009-08-01

    To describe recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years, and to compare injury rates with sales of newer digital televisions. Digital television sales data were obtained from marketing data provided by the Television Bureau of Advertising. Data regarding television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years were obtained from the 1998-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A Wald chi(2) test, estimated from logistic analysis, was used to determine whether the distribution of injury types differed by age group. Pearson's correlation was used to estimate the association between digital television sales and television tip over-related injuries. An estimated 42 122 (95% CI 35 199 to 49 122) injuries from television tip-overs were treated in US emergency departments from 1998 to 2007. The injury rate was highest for children aged 1-4 years (18.6/100 000). A majority of injuries (63.9%) involved the head and neck for children under 1 year of age, while a higher proportion of injuries among children aged 1-4 involved the hip and lower extremity (42.9% and 31.0%, respectively), and shoulder and upper extremity (16.8%) for children aged 5-9. A strong, positive correlation was observed between television sales and annual injury rates (r = 0.89, pdigital television sales were strongly correlated with increased injury rates, the lack of information regarding the type of television involved prevents inference regarding causation.

  9. Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years, 2012 ... percentage of youth engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes each day? About ...

  10. Objectively assessed physical activity and aerobic fitness in a population-based sample of Norwegian 9- and 15-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, E; Steene-Johannessen, J; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    The present study described current physical activity, determined compliance with physical activity guidelines and assessed aerobic fitness in a nationally representative sample of 9- and 15-year-olds in Norway. In 2005-2006, 2299 children and adolescents were randomly recruited. The participation...... rate was 89% and 74% among the 9- and 15-year-olds, respectively. Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry, and aerobic fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Boys were more physically active than girls, and 9-year-olds were substantially......, 48.2 (7.1) mL/min/kg; 9-year-old girls, 42.9 (6.7) mL/min/kg; and 15-year-old girls 41.1 (6.0) mL/min/kg and 15-year-old boys 51.9 (8.0) mL/min/kg. Because of the high participation rate, this study provides a good description of the physical activity and aerobic fitness in the young population...

  11. Craniofacial morphology of Dutch patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate and noncleft controls at the age of 15 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, G.M.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of craniofacial morphology in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients to that of a noncleft control group at the age of 15 years. Design: A cross-sectional study of cephalometric data. Subjects and Methods: Cephalometric records of 41 consecutive patients (32 boys and 9 girls)

  12. Effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Yao; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chen, Ying-Ru; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Li, Wang-Long

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure of these solder alloys are composed of Sn-rich phase and Ag 3 Sn. • The grain size of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys increases with rose aging time. • The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloys. • TEM observed that Bi appears as oblong shape fine particles. -- Abstract: The effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of the Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys are investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and a universal testing machine. The experimental results show that the microstructure of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys is composed of Sn-rich phase and AgZn 3 . No other intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with Bi content was observed in the solder matrix for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag solder alloys with various Bi contents before and after aging at 150 °C for different durations. The lattice parameter increases significantly with increasing aging time or Bi addition. The size of Sn-rich grain increased gradually with aging time increased, but decreases with Bi content increases. The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloy before aging

  13. Effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Yao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hon, Min-Hsiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Ru; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Li, Wang-Long [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The microstructure of these solder alloys are composed of Sn-rich phase and Ag{sub 3}Sn. • The grain size of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys increases with rose aging time. • The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloys. • TEM observed that Bi appears as oblong shape fine particles. -- Abstract: The effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of the Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys are investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and a universal testing machine. The experimental results show that the microstructure of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys is composed of Sn-rich phase and AgZn{sub 3}. No other intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with Bi content was observed in the solder matrix for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag solder alloys with various Bi contents before and after aging at 150 °C for different durations. The lattice parameter increases significantly with increasing aging time or Bi addition. The size of Sn-rich grain increased gradually with aging time increased, but decreases with Bi content increases. The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloy before aging.

  14. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Truong, Pauline T.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Olson, Robert; Coulombe, Genevieve; Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen; Bernstein, Vanessa; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT

  15. The Structure of Working Memory from 4 to 15 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Susan E.; Pickering, Susan J.; Ambridge, Benjamin; Wearing, Hannah

    2004-01-01

    The structure of working memory and its development across the childhood years were investigated in children 4-15 years of age. The children were given multiple assessments of each component of the A. D. Baddeley and G. Hitch (1974) working memory model. Broadly similar linear functions characterized performance on all measures as a function of…

  16. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  17. Conservative care with or without manipulative therapy in the management of back and neck pain in Danish children aged 9-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Kristina Boe; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    is nested in the CHAMPS Study, which includes around 1200 children aged 9-15, who were all invited to participate in this randomized controlled trial in case they experienced back and/or neck pain during the two year inclusion period. Parents received text messages (SMS) on a weekly basis inquiring about......Background Complaints in the musculoskeletal system often start early in life and back and neck pain in children are well-established predictors for similar problems in adulthood. Despite lack of evidence of effectiveness, manipulative therapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities...... for back and neck pain in children. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of manipulative therapy when added to an approach consisting of manual soft tissue treatment, exercises and advice as needed, in children aged 9-15 complaining of back and neck pain. Method The project...

  18. Conservative care with or without manipulative therapy in the management of back and neck pain in Danish children aged 9-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Kristina Boe; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2016-01-01

    is nested in the Childhood Health, Activity and Motor Performance School Study, which includes around 1200 children aged 9-15, who were all invited to participate in this randomized controlled trial in case they experienced back and/or neck pain during the two year inclusion period. Parents received text......BACKGROUND: Complaints in the musculoskeletal system often start early in life and back and neck pain in children are well-established predictors for similar problems in adulthood. Despite lack of evidence of effectiveness, manipulative therapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities...... for back and neck pain in children. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of manipulative therapy when added to an approach consisting of manual soft tissue treatment, exercises and advice as needed, in children aged 9-15 complaining of back and neck pain. METHOD: The project...

  19. A study of the main determinants of sexual dysfunction in women aged 15-45 years on chronic hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hekmat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction (SD is a common problem in patients with the end-stage renal disease. In contrast to SD in males, relatively little work has been performed in the field of SD in females. In this study, we tried to identify the main determinants of SD in women aged 15-45year-old on chronic hemodialysis (HD. One hundred-forty female patients aged 15-45-year-old on chronic HD were studied in the winter of the year 2013. Healthy relatives of the patients were chosen as controls and matched for age, level of education, marital status, and income. Both cases and controls were interviewed by the same female interviewer. The Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX was used as a questionnaire. A significant correlation was found between the total ASEX score and age and duration on HD (r = 0.599, P = 0.003 and r = 0.434, P = 0.043, respectively. No correlation was found between serum hemoglobin, parathormone, creatinine, iron, calcium, phosphorus, and urea reduction ratio and the ASEX score. Moreover, the correlation between the ASEX score and socioeconomic parameters like level of education and monthly income was not significant (all P >0.1. There was a significant difference in the total ASEX score between cases and controls (16.31 ± 2.50 vs. 9.80 ± 4.21, P <0.001. Our study suggests that sexual function in chronic hemodialyzed female patients is mainly impacted by age and duration on HD.

  20. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and physical activity. A population-based study of 332 subjects aged 15-42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppe, H; Gärdsell, P; Johnell, O; Nilsson, B E; Ringsberg, K

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to find out whether differences in levels of physical activity have an influence on bone mass quantity and whether quadriceps muscle strength is a reliable determinant of bone mass. Included were 175 men and 157 women, aged 15-42 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at various sites by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Muscle strength was assessed using an isokinetic muscle force meter. A questionnaire was used to estimate the level of physical activity. We found a positive correlation between physical activity and BMD for boys at the distal forearm and for girls at the trochanter (age group 15-16 years). Active men (age group 21-42 years) had up to 9% higher BMD levels at the hip than those who were less active. Quadriceps muscle torque was not an independent predictor of BMD. Our data suggest that a higher level of physical activity-within the limits of a "normal life style"-may have a positive effect on BMD in the proximal femur of young adults, which in turn may lessen the subsequent risk of fracture.

  1. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian inhabitants during 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrauskas, Rytas

    2015-04-01

    To summarize the data on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-aged Lithuania inhabitants (1991-2010). New prevalent cases consist of growing-up patients with diabetes onset in childhood, i.e., up to 14 years, new onset 15-34-year-aged type 1 diabetic patients Lithuanian inhabitants, and immigrants. The data on type 1 diabetes was collected with the help of general practitioners and regional endocrinologists in Lithuania. On 31 December 1991, there were 1202 adolescent and adult 15-34-year-aged patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or 103.59 per 100,000 inhabitants of the same age group (95% Poisson CI 97.90-109.62), and at the end of 2010 - 1533 or 187.80 (178.63-197.44), respectively in Lithuania. During 19-year period the mean increase of type 1 diabetic patients was 1.25±1.94% per year or 1.47±2.74 per 100,000 inhabitants per mean year of the study period (for males 1.42±2.14% or 1.69±3.05/100,000 and for females 1.05±1.99%, or 1.24±2.92/100,000). Regression-based linear trends showed that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-age group had a tendency to increase among males (r=0.953; p1) and females (r=0.970; p1). The age adjusted prevalence frequencies for males and females in 1991 were correspondingly 102.81/100,000 and 104.55/100,000, and in 2010 - 193.75 and 182.01. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-age males and females had a tendency to increase during 1991-2010. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DEVELOPMENT VARIABILITY OF LONGITUDINAL SPINE FEATURES IN CHILDREN AGING 7-15 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kochan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased body growth is connected with higher sensitivity to environmental influence and may be a cause of instability of body posture. This happens when trunk and lower limbs growth is more intense. Because body posture disorders are most often diagnosed in children and school adolescents, the sample chosen were subjects between 7 and 15 years old. Material and methods. The data was gathered in 2002 in the town of Polkowice. Examination concerned 2706 boys and girls aged 7 to 15 years old. The measurement included basic somatic features and for the body posture photogrammetric method was used. Results. It was indicated that the relative trunk length in both sexes was decreasing in early school period but in the three oldest groups of age there was a significant increase. The height of kyphosis was increasing significantly in both sexes with age. Most intensive growth of this parameter was observed between 12 and 13 years old subjects. In both sexes there could be seen significant increase of kyphosis depth between 12 and 14 years old and also the decrease of lumbar lordosis between 12 and 13 years old subjects. Conclusion. Significant increase of thoracical spine relative height and lumbar lordosis depth in adolescents in both sexes can be one of the causes of weakening spine stability and affect correct body posture development.

  3. Liaison amid problem behavior and traumatic dental injury among children aged 12-15 years in Bhopal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liaison amid problem behavior and traumatic dental injury among children aged 13-15 years are consequential due to multifactorial dental, orofacial skeletal, psycosocial behavior pattern. The probable etiology is been equated overjet; inadequate lip coverage is the major etiological factors accountable for traumatic dental injuries. Aims: The aim was to assess the relationship of problem behavior, type of lip coverage, and the size of overjet with the traumatic dental injury among children aged 12-15 years. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 children aged 12-15 years in Bhopal, India. Data were collected through clinical examinations in children and interviews with parents. Traumatic injuries were recorded according to Garcia-Goday′s classification. The informant - rated version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire was used to identify problems behavior. Results: About 16.4% subjects had more than 5 mm overjet, and 20.4% subjects had inadequate lip coverage. The largest number of injuries were presented by 15-year-old children (43.90% followed by 14 and 13 years old children. The traumatic dental injury showed 6.8% association with problem behavior, age, sex, type of lip coverage, and the size of overjet. Conclusion: Problem behavior along with the type of lip coverage and the size of overjet plays a role in the occurrence of traumatic dental injury.

  4. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  5. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Intimate Partner Violence Among Young Women Aged 15 to 24 Years in India: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ler, Peggy; Sivakami, Muthusamy; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health issue that has reached epidemic proportions. Research investigating IPV among young women in India using large-scale population data is lacking. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among women aged 15 to 24 years in India through a social-ecological approach. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the National Family Health Survey, a population-based survey conducted in India from 2005 to 2006. The past-year prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual forms of IPV, among ever-married women aged 15 to 24 years were computed. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the association of factors at various levels of the social-ecological framework with the past-year experience of emotional, physical, sexual, and any form of IPV. The past-year prevalence of IPV among women aged 15 to 24 years ( n = 16,285) was 29%. Physical IPV was the most common, affecting 23% in the past year. The past-year prevalence of sexual IPV among women aged 15 to 24 years at 9.5% was higher than older women. Individual factors significantly associated with the past-year experience of all forms of IPV were the young age at first marriage, parental IPV, and ever had a terminated pregnancy. At the relationship level, husband's controlling behaviors, his consumption of alcohol, and experience of violence from other family members were positively associated with all forms of IPV in the past year. Poverty and acceptance of IPV increased the women's odds of experiencing IPV. IPV was associated with multiple factors occurring at all levels of the social-ecological framework. Actions to prevent and eliminate IPV in India demand multidisciplinary and collaborative efforts that are tailored specifically for adolescents and young women. It is imperative to protect the girls and young women from IPV; it protects the future of India.

  6. Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Anmol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India. Materials and Methods : A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO rules and standards were followed. Result : Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00 with respect to affected teeth.

  7. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  8. Measles in vaccinated children 1.5 to 3 years of age in rural community of district peshawar, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Ullah, O.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    In many developing countries measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite of vaccination thousands of children have been infected by measles virus during last couple of years in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the measles vaccination coverage rate and frequency of measles among vaccinated children of age 1.5-3 years in rural community of district Peshawar. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 children aged 1.5-3 year of rural community of Peshawar. After taking informed consent from parents/guardians a predesigned questionnaire was filled. Evidence of vaccination and measles history was taken by vaccination card, doctor prescription and parent/guardian recall. Data was gathered and analysed by using SPSS-16. Results: Of the 385 children, 361 (93.7%) were vaccinated against measles at 9 month. It was found that 27 (7.48%) vaccinated children had measles history of which 23 (6.74%) were infected after 9 month vaccination. One hundred and ninety-two (49.8%) children were vaccinated both at 9 and 15 months, and 14 (7.29%) dual vaccinated children had a measles history, 9 among them (4.68%) were infected after taking both measles doses. Conclusion: The occurrence of measles among vaccinated children and low coverage rate of second dose of measles vaccine raises many questions about vaccination program and its efficacy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of other predisposing factors like vaccine quality, manufacturer, supply, cold chain, handling, nutritional status of children and technical approach, on measles vaccine efficacy. (author)

  9. Fisics-Incor bovine pericardial bioprostheses: 15 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantzeff, P M; Brandao, C M; Cauduro, P; Puig, L B; Grinberg, M; Tarasoutchi, F; Cardoso, L F; Lerner, A; Stolf, N A; Verginelli, G; Jatene, A D

    1998-01-01

    From March 1982 to December 1995, 2,607 Fisics-Incor bovine pericardial bioprostheses were implanted in 2,259 patients. Mean age was 47.2 +/- 17.5 years, and 55% were male. Rheumatic fever was present in 1,301 (45.7%) patients. One thousand and seventy-three aortic valve replacements, 1,085 mitral replacements, 27 tricuspid replacements, 195 mitral-aortic replacements, and 16 other combined valve replacements were carried out. Combined procedures were performed in 788 (32.9%) patients, the most frequent being tricuspid valve repair (9.2%) and coronary artery bypass grafting (7.7%). Hospital mortality was 8.6% (194 patients), 8.6% for the mitral group, 4.7% for the aortic group, and 12.8% for double-valve replacements. The linear rates for calcification, thromboembolism, rupture, leak and endocarditis were, respectively, 1.1%, 0.2%, 0.9%, 0.1% and 0.5% patient-year. The actuarial survival curve was 56.7 +/- 5.4% in 15 years. Survival free from endocarditis was 91.92%, survival free from thromboembolism was 95 +/- 1.7%, survival free from rupture was 43.7 +/- 9.8%, survival free from leak was 98.9 +/- 4.5%, and survival free from calcification was 48.8 +/- 7.9% in 15 years. In the late postoperative period, 1,614 (80.6%) patients were in New York Heart Association functional Class I. We conclude that the results with the Fisics-Incor bovine pericardial prostheses were satisfactory in our group of patients.

  10. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A; Poterico, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (pAnemia decreased in children and women (pPeru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  11. Suicidal ideation and associated factors among students aged 13-15 years in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the cross-sectional global school-based student health survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past 12 months across seven ASEAN countries was 12.3%, significantly higher in girls (15.1%) than boys (9.3%). Among seven ASEAN countries with the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was in the Philippines (17.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) and the lowest in Myanmar (1.1%) and Indonesia (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, female gender, older age (14 or 15 years), living in a lower middle income country, having no friends, loneliness, bullying victimisation, having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, lack of parental or guardian support, tobacco use and having a history of ever got drunk were associated with suicidal ideation. Different rates of suicidal ideation were observed in ASEAN member states. Several risk factors for suicidal ideation were identified which can help guide preventive efforts.

  12. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  13. Quantitative Interpretation of X-ray Absorption Near Structure Continuation Progress Report for 1st year 9/15/98-9/14/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, John J.; Bare, Simon; Stocht, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    OAK-B135 Quantitative Interpretation of X-ray Absorption Near Structure Continuation Progress Report for 1st year 9/15/98-9/14/99. This paper proposes to develop two industrial research collaborations to further develop the FEFF8 x-ray spectroscopy code to achieve a quantitative interpretation of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in materials of interest in energy research: (a) Quantitative interpretation of XANES for heterogeneous catalysts and disordered materials; and (b) quantitative interpretation of white-lines in XANES. The paper also outlines significant results achieved during the first Grant year

  14. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in relation to changes in body fatness over 6 and 12 years among 9-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M; Rangan, A; Olsen, Lasse P.N.

    2014-01-01

    .Subjects/Methods:A longitudinal study of 9-year-old children (n=283) enrolled in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study with a 6-year and 12-year follow-up. Data were collected at ages 9, 15 and 21 years. Multivariate regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders were used to evaluate the effect of SSB...

  15. Description of dental caries status of children aged 12 – 15 years in Berambai village, North Samarinda, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Rahmadhani Nur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on data RISKESDAS 2007 and 2013, national prevalence of oral and dental problems increased by 2.4% and national prevalence of active caries increased by 9.8%. National DMF-T index value is 4.6 in 2013. East Kalimantan has an active caries prevalence and DMF-T index value higher than the national average. Berambai village is one of the villages in the North Samarinda, East Kalimantan whose residents have problems with public water supply. The residents use ground water as their main source of clean water. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the caries status and fluoride content of drinking water consumed by Berambai children aged 12 – 15 years. This study is an observational study with cross sectional descriptive design, which is conducted in Berambai village, North Samarinda, East Kalimantan and Health Laboratory of East Kalimantan. The study was carried out in November 2015 involving children aged 12 – 15 years, born in that village until the study was performed. In addition, the fluoride content of drinking water was also evaluated. Each participant filled out the questionnaire and was then examinated his dental caries using DMF-T index. Data was analyzed by univariate analysis. The results showed that the average value of DMF-T was 3.92 (medium category, while the boys had DMF-T 4.63 (high category and the girls had DMF-T 3.14 (medium category. The fluor levels of drinking water is 0.00 ppm (low category. In conclusion, the caries status of children aged 12 – 15 years was in medium category and the fluor levels of drinking water was very low.

  16. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9-12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Golle

    Full Text Available Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development. Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9-12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values.Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed, the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power, the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility, the star run test (i.e., agility, and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance. Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90 were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d.Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40-1.34, whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55, flexibility (d = 0.81, agility (d = 0.44, and endurance (d = 0.32 only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36, flexibility (d = 0.61, and agility (d = 0.27 in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10-11 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs, agility (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs, and endurance (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-10 yrs. Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1

  17. Growth and development of children aged 1-5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeharsae, Rohani; Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-04-04

    A low-intensity armed conflict has been occurring for nearly a decade in southernmost region of Thailand. However, its impact on child health has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of delayed child growth and development in the affected areas and to determine the association between the violence and health among children aged 1-5years. A total of 498 children aged 1-5years were recruited. Intensity of conflict for each sub-district was calculated as the 6-year average number of incidents per 100,000 population per year and classified into quartiles. Growth indices were weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height, while development was measured by the Denver Development Screening Test II (Thai version). Food insecurity, child-rearing practice, health service accessibility, household sanitation, and depression among the caregivers were assessed using screening scales and questionnaires. Contextual information such as average income and numbers of violent events in each sub-district was obtained from external sources. Growth retardation was highly prevalent in the area as reported by rates of underweight, stunting, and wasting at 19.3%, 27.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of developmental delay was also substantially high (37.1%). Multi-level analysis found no evidence of association between insurgency and health outcomes. However, children in areas with higher intensity of violence had a lower risk of delay in personal-social development (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 - 0.9; p-value = 0.05). Unlike war refugees and internally-displaced persons in camp-like settings, the relationship between level of armed conflict and growth and developmental delay among children aged 1-5years could not be demonstrated in the community setting of this study where food supply had been minimally perturbed.

  18. Quality of Maternal Parenting of 9-Month-Old Infants Predicts Executive Function Performance at 2 and 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanhua Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the effects of maternal parenting quality during infants’ 2nd year on later executive function (EF have been studied extensively, less is known about the impact of maternal parenting quality during the 1st year. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting during infants’ 1st year predicted EF performance at 2 and 3 years of age in a Chinese sample. Data were collected from 96 mother-infant dyads (42 males when the infants were 6, 9, 25, and 38 months old. Cognitive development as a control variable was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 6 months. At 9 months, three aspects of maternal parenting quality (sensitivity, mind-mindedness, and encouragement of autonomy were assessed with MBQS, mind-mindedness coding system, and encouragement of autonomy coding schema within a 15-min mother–infant interaction. Three aspects of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and delay EF were measured at 25 and 38 months with age-appropriate tasks. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that maternal mind-mindedness had a more important effect than did the encouragement of autonomy and maternal sensitivity during infants’ preverbal period. More precisely, maternal mind-mindedness at 9 months predicted inhibitory control at 2 and 3 years, and maternal encouragement of autonomy predicted performance on delay EF tasks at 3 years, maternal sensitivity had no observed effect on children’s EF. This study suggests that maternal parenting quality during the 1st year (maternal mind-mindedness and encouragement of autonomy, but not maternal sensitivity impacts later EF development.

  19. Predictors of influenza vaccination in the U.S. among children 9-13years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imburgia, Teresa M; Hendrix, Kristin S; Donahue, Kelly L; Sturm, Lynne A; Zimet, Gregory D

    2017-04-25

    U.S. estimates of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccine uptake in 2014-2015 were 62% for 5-12year olds, dropping to 47% for 13-17year olds. The Healthy People 2020 goal for these age groups is 80%. It is important to understand factors associated with influenza vaccination, especially for those ages where rates begin to decline. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with influenza vaccination acceptance in 9-13year old children. An online U.S. survey of mothers of children aged 9-13 assessed children's influenza vaccine uptake in the previous season, healthcare utilization, sociodemographics, and vaccine attitudes. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent predictors of influenza vaccine status. There were 2363 respondents (Mean age=38years old). Referent children were 57% female and 66% non-minority race/ethnicity with a mean age of 10.6years. By maternal report, 59% of children had received an influenza vaccine in the previous season. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake included a recommendation or strong recommendation from a health care provider, seeing a health care provider in the past year, positive attitudes regarding the influenza vaccine, and being a minority race. Child gender, age, insurance coverage, and whether the child had a regular healthcare provider were not associated with influenza vaccine uptake (p=n.s.). This sample reported overall rates of influenza vaccine uptake similar to national surveillance data, but still lower than national goals. Provider recommendations along with health attitudes and seeing a health care provider were associated with vaccine uptake. Promising interventions may include more directive physician messaging for influenza vaccine uptake in youth, encouraging more regular well-child visits during the adolescent years, and promoting influenza vaccination at alternative sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal trajectories of mental health in Australian children aged 4-5 to 14-15 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Mental health can affect young people's sense of wellbeing and life satisfaction, their ability to participate in employment and education, and their onward opportunities in life. This paper offers a rare opportunity to longitudinally examine mental health in a population-representative study of children aged 4-5 years to 14-15 years. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC, this study examined maternally-reported child mental health over a 10 year period, in order to understand their initial mental health status early in life and its change over time, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Longitudinal models were fitted from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years. Results showed that child sex, maternal mental health, socio-economic status (family income, maternal education, neighbourhood disadvantage, maternal hostility, and child temperament (persistence, sociability, reactivity are all independent contributors to child mental health at age 4. These effects largely persist over time, with the effects of maternal mental health increasing slightly over time. Persistence of these effects suggests the need for early intervention and supports. The independent contribution of these factors to child mental health suggests that multi-faceted approaches to child and maternal mental health are needed.

  1. Age of M92 and M15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandage, A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of VandenBerg's isochrones for globular clusters with the photometry of many main-sequence stars in M92 and M15 gives an age of T = 18 +- 2 x 10 9 years for both clusters, using a vertical fit to the turn-off luminosity, together with distance modulii found from the period-color-luminosity relation of their RR Lyrae stars. Comparison of the systematics of the composite CM diagram for clusters of different metallicity with that predicted from VandenBerg's isochrones, all for T = 18 x 10 9 years, shows good agreement. Justification of the adopted zero-point value of M/sub v/ (RR,M92) = +0.63 is made by comparing the main sequences of M92, M3, and M5 with that defined by 11 field subdwarfs whose metallicities lie between [Fe/H] of -2.2 and -1.2 for which adequate astrometric distances exist

  2. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  3. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  4. Latent Factors in Attention Emerge from 9 Years of Age among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ting; Wang, Ligang; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...

  5. Effects of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on Brain Volumes in Healthy 9 Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; Peper, J.S.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; de Vries, L.S.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of gestational age and birth weight on brain volumes in a population-based sample of normal developing children at the age of 9 years. Study design: A total of 192 children from twin births were included in the analyses. Data on gestational age and birth weight were

  6. Psychopathic personality development from ages 9 to 18: Genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences was examined in initial level and change in psychopathic personality from ages 9 to 18 years. A piecewise growth curve model, in which the first change score (G1) influenced all ages (9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years) and the second change score (G2) only influenced ages 14-15 and 16-18 years, fit the data better did than the standard single slope model, suggesting a turning point from childhood to adolescence. The results indicated that variations in levels and both change scores were mainly due to genetic (A) and nonshared environmental (E) influences (i.e., AE structure for G0, G1, and G2). No sex differences were found except on the mean values of level and change scores. Based on caregiver ratings, about 81% of variance in G0, 89% of variance in G1, and 94% of variance in G2 were explained by genetic factors, whereas for youth self-reports, these three proportions were 94%, 71%, and 66%, respectively. The larger contribution of genetic variance and covariance in caregiver ratings than in youth self-reports may suggest that caregivers considered the changes in their children to be more similar as compared to how the children viewed themselves.

  7. Bidirectional Associations between Peer Relations and Attention Problems from 9 to 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Linqin; Pan, Bin; Zhang, Wenxin; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2018-05-12

    We examined the bidirectional relations between peer relations and attention problems from middle childhood through adolescence. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Chinese Children and Adolescents (LSCCA, N = 2157, 51.9% male), three key aspects of peer relations (acceptance, rejection, and victimization) were assessed annually from 9 to 16 years of age. Attention problems were assessed at 9 and 15 years. Latent growth modeling indicated that greater attention problems at age 9 were linked with a lower intercept for peer acceptance, and higher intercepts for rejection and victimization. Also, prior lower acceptance and greater rejection and victimization, along with a higher increase over time in rejection and lower decrease over time in victimization, predicted attention problems at age 15. Cross-lagged analysis showed that attention problems were associated with less subsequent peer acceptance and greater subsequent rejection and victimization. Only peer rejection (but neither victimization nor acceptance) predicted more subsequent attention problems. Findings point to bidirectional associations between attention problems and peer relations in the developmental transition across adolescence. Evidence for differential bidirectionality of attention problems with the multiple peer experience (group versus dyadic; good versus bad) emerged, and future replications are needed.

  8. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Confidentiality Issues and Use of Sexually Transmitted Disease Services Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 15-25 Years - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Copen, Casey; Dittus, Patricia J

    2017-03-10

    National-level data are limited regarding confidentiality-related issues and the use of sexually transmitted disease (STD) services for adolescents and young adults. Changes in the U.S. health care system have permitted dependent children to remain on a parent's health insurance plan until the child's 26th birthday and required coverage of certain preventive services, including some STD services, without cost sharing for most plans (1,2). Although these provisions likely facilitate access to the health care system, adolescents and young adults might not seek care or might delay seeking care for certain services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out (3,4). Therefore, it is important to examine STD services and confidentiality-related issues among persons aged 15-25 years in the United States. CDC analyzed data from the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth and found that 12.7% of sexually experienced youths (adolescents aged 15-17 years and those young adults aged 18-25 years who were on a parent's insurance plan) would not seek sexual and reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out. Particularly concerned were persons aged 15-17 years (22.6%). Females with confidentiality concerns regarding seeking sexual and reproductive health care reported a lower prevalence of receipt of chlamydia screening (17.1%) than did females who did not cite such concerns (38.7%). More adolescents aged 15-17 years who spent time alone with a health care provider (without a parent in the room) reported receipt of a sexual risk assessment (71.1%) and, among females, chlamydia testing (34.0%), than did those who did not spend time alone (36.6% and 14.9%, respectively). The results indicated that confidentiality-related issues were associated with less reported use of some STD services, especially for younger persons and females. Spending time alone with a provider (i.e., without a parent present

  10. Upper School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 9-11 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collection of lesson plans and activities for students aged 9-11 years is based on a science curriculum developed by a group of Caribbean nations. The activities pertain to topics such as place value, prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes, square numbers, factors and multiples, sequences, averages, geometry, symmetry,…

  11. 15 CFR 9.9 - Consumer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer education. 9.9 Section 9.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.9 Consumer education. The...

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Siegel, Karen R; Richards, Nigel; Whincup, Peter H

    2012-07-23

    To document the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9-10 year old children in Mauritius. 412 boys and 429 girls aged 9-10 years from 23 primary schools were selected using stratified cluster random sampling. All data was cross-sectional and collected via anthropometry and self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures were BMI (kg/m2), prevalence of overweight, obesity (International Obesity Task Force definitions) and thinness (low BMI for age). Linear and logistic regression analyses, accounting for clustering at the school level, were used to assess associations between gender, ethnicity, school location, and school's academic performance (average) to each outcome measure. The distribution of BMI was marginally skewed with a more pronounced positive tail in the girls. Median BMI was 15.6 kg/m2 in boys and 15.4 kg/m2 in girls, respectively. In boys, prevalence of overweight was 15.8% (95% CI: 12.6, 19.6), prevalence of obesity 4.9% (95% CI: 3.2, 7.4) and prevalence of thinness 12.4% (95% CI: 9.5, 15.9). Among girls, 18.9% (95% CI: 15.5, 22.9) were overweight, 5.1% (95% CI: 3.4, 7.7) were obese and 13.1% (95% CI: 10.2, 16.6) were thin. Urban children had a slightly higher mean BMI than rural children (0.5 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.00) and were nearly twice as likely to be obese (6.7% vs. 4.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.5). Creole children were less likely to be classified as thin compared to Indian children (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Mauritius is currently in the midst of nutritional transition with both a high prevalence of overweight and thinness in children aged 9-10 years. The coexistence of children representing opposite sides of the energy balance equation presents a unique challenge for policy and interventions. Further exploration is needed to understand the specific causes of the double burden of malnutrition and to make appropriate policy recommendations.

  13. The Impact of Therapeutic Recreational Gymnastic Exercise on Basic Motor Skills of Hearing-Impaired Children Aged between 6 and 9 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Nurcan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of therapeutic recreational gymnastic exercises on basic motor skills of hearing-impaired children aged between 6-9 years. Material and Method: 18 students (12 boys; 6 girls) between the ages of 6-9 years participated in the study. 9 of these students were determined as…

  14. Maximal isometric muscle strength values obtained By hand-held dynamometry in children between 6 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Raul G; Munoz, Karin T; Dominguez, Angelica; Banados, Pamela; Bravo, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the maximal isometric muscle strength of a healthy, normal-weight, pediatric population between 6 and 15 years of age using hand-held dynamometry to establish strength reference values. The secondary objective was determining the relationship between strength and anthropometric parameters. Four hundred normal-weight Chilean children, split into 10 age groups, separated by 1-year intervals, were evaluated. Each age group included between 35 and 55 children. The strength values increased with increasing age and weight, with a correlation of 0.83 for age and 0.82 for weight. The results were similar to those reported in previous studies regarding the relationships among strength, age, and anthropometric parameters, but the reported strength differed. These results provide normal strength parameters for healthy and normal-weight Chilean children between 6 and 15 years of age and highlight the relevance of ethnicity in defining reference values for muscle strength in a pediatric population. Muscle Nerve 55: 16-22, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Urinary iodine levels and its influencing factors among residents over age of 15 years in Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Jian; He, Shan; Wang, Jun; Fang, Xiaoheng

    2014-11-01

    To understand the status of iodine nutrition and the affective factors of urinary iodine concentration among residents over age of 15 years in Shenzhen City. Totally 8152 residents from 73 communities were selected with stratified cluster random sampling. The morning urinary iodine was determined and the dietary assessment of iodine using a food frequency questionnaire were carried out. The range of urinary iodine was 9. 65 - 4039.09 μg/L and the median of urinary iodine was 194.59 μg/L among the residents. The percentages of the residents with urinary iodine iodine between different gender (P = 0.0001), the medians of urinary iodine of men (201.32 μg/L) was slightly higher. There was no significant difference in urinary iodine levels (186.59 - 197.44 μg/L) among all age groups, the medians of urinary iodine of all age groups were within the recommended adequate intake. Along with the increase in age, the medians of urinary iodine of all age groups was gradually decreased. Sex, alcohol consumption and daily dietary iodine intake was significant in the final regression model. The iodine nutrition of residents in Shenzhen City was in good condition, populations with low or high iodine still exist. The monitoring is needed and the influencing factors of the urine iodine levels need much exploration.

  16. Modelling survival and mortality risk to 15 years of age for a national cohort of children with serious congenital heart defects diagnosed in infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Knowles

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects (CHDs are a significant cause of death in infancy. Although contemporary management ensures that 80% of affected children reach adulthood, post-infant mortality and factors associated with death during childhood are not well-characterised. Using data from a UK-wide multicentre birth cohort of children with serious CHDs, we observed survival and investigated independent predictors of mortality up to age 15 years.Data were extracted retrospectively from hospital records and death certificates of 3,897 children (57% boys in a prospectively identified cohort, born 1992-1995 with CHDs requiring intervention or resulting in death before age one year. A discrete-time survival model accounted for time-varying predictors; hazards ratios were estimated for mortality. Incomplete data were addressed through multilevel multiple imputation.By age 15 years, 932 children had died; 144 died without any procedure. Survival to one year was 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 78.5, 81.1% and to 15 years was 71.7% (63.9, 73.4%, with variation by cardiac diagnosis. Importantly, 20% of cohort deaths occurred after age one year. Models using imputed data (including all children from birth demonstrated higher mortality risk as independently associated with cardiac diagnosis, female sex, preterm birth, having additional cardiac defects or non-cardiac malformations. In models excluding children who had no procedure, additional predictors of higher mortality were younger age at first procedure, lower weight or height, longer cardiopulmonary bypass or circulatory arrest duration, and peri-procedural complications; non-cardiac malformations were no longer significant.We confirm the high mortality risk associated with CHDs in the first year of life and demonstrate an important persisting risk of death throughout childhood. Late mortality may be underestimated by procedure-based audit focusing on shorter-term surgical outcomes. National monitoring

  17. Modelling survival and mortality risk to 15 years of age for a national cohort of children with serious congenital heart defects diagnosed in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel L; Bull, Catherine; Wren, Christopher; Wade, Angela; Goldstein, Harvey; Dezateux, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a significant cause of death in infancy. Although contemporary management ensures that 80% of affected children reach adulthood, post-infant mortality and factors associated with death during childhood are not well-characterised. Using data from a UK-wide multicentre birth cohort of children with serious CHDs, we observed survival and investigated independent predictors of mortality up to age 15 years. Data were extracted retrospectively from hospital records and death certificates of 3,897 children (57% boys) in a prospectively identified cohort, born 1992-1995 with CHDs requiring intervention or resulting in death before age one year. A discrete-time survival model accounted for time-varying predictors; hazards ratios were estimated for mortality. Incomplete data were addressed through multilevel multiple imputation. By age 15 years, 932 children had died; 144 died without any procedure. Survival to one year was 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 78.5, 81.1%) and to 15 years was 71.7% (63.9, 73.4%), with variation by cardiac diagnosis. Importantly, 20% of cohort deaths occurred after age one year. Models using imputed data (including all children from birth) demonstrated higher mortality risk as independently associated with cardiac diagnosis, female sex, preterm birth, having additional cardiac defects or non-cardiac malformations. In models excluding children who had no procedure, additional predictors of higher mortality were younger age at first procedure, lower weight or height, longer cardiopulmonary bypass or circulatory arrest duration, and peri-procedural complications; non-cardiac malformations were no longer significant. We confirm the high mortality risk associated with CHDs in the first year of life and demonstrate an important persisting risk of death throughout childhood. Late mortality may be underestimated by procedure-based audit focusing on shorter-term surgical outcomes. National monitoring systems should

  18. Victimization, Suicidal Ideation, and Alcohol Use From Age 13 to 15 Years: Support for the Self-Medication Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Renaud, Johanne; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen increased coverage of adolescent victimization and suicide. Both adolescent peer victimization and substance use have been associated with suicidal ideation, with evidence suggesting that all three factors are interrelated. There are at least four models which can explain the associations between these factors (i.e., self-medication, secondary mental disorder, bidirectional, and common factor). However, none of them is being empirically supported as the dominant model because few longitudinal studies have explored the association between these factors. The present study compared longitudinal paths of all four models simultaneously using a cross-lagged model. This was done using self-reported measures of peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and alcohol use at age 13, 14, and 15 years in a longitudinal sample of 238 adolescents. All three variables were moderately stable across time. Significant cross-lagged associations were found, showing that frequent peer victimization at age 13 years was associated with higher odds of having suicidal ideation at age 14 years (odds ratio, 1.82; p suicidal ideation at age 14 years was significantly associated with higher alcohol use frequency at age 15 years (β = .13; p suicidal ideation and alcohol use over 1 year, supporting the self-medication model. Clarifying the empirical basis of these underlying models could allow for earlier prevention strategies, by targeting the risk factor that appears the earliest in the model. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  20. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS sexual risk among young women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinekwu A. Obidoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.

  1. Above average increases in body fat from 9-15 years of age had a negative impact on academic performance, independent of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevarsson, Elvar Smari; Gudmundsdottir, Sigridur Lara; Kantomaa, Marko; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn A; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Skulason, Sigurgrimur; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2018-06-13

    The associations between body fat levels and physical activity with academic performance are inconclusive and were explored using longitudinal data. We enrolled 134/242 adolescents aged 15, who were studied at the age of nine and agreed to be followed up from April to May 2015 for the Health behaviours of Icelandic youth study. Accelerometers measured physical activity, body mass indexes were calculated and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans assessed the participants' body composition at nine and 15. Their language and maths skills were compared to a growth model that estimated the academic performances of children born in 1999. Higher than normal body fat levels between the ages of nine and 15 were negatively associated with maths performance, but the same association was not found for Icelandic language studies. These were Pearson's r = - 0.24 (p = 0.01) for body mass index and Pearson's r = -0.34 (p = 0.01) for the percentage of body fat. No associations were found with changes in physical activity. Children who put on more body fat than normal between the ages of nine and 15 had an increased risk of adverse academic performance that was independent of changes in physical activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-Chernobyl incidence of papillary thyroid cancer among Belgian children less than 15 years of age in April 1986: a 30-year surgical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Luc A; Donckier, Julian; Rosière, Alain; Fervaille, Caroline; Lemaire, Julien; Bertrand, Claude

    2016-04-01

    We raised the question of a possible relationship in Belgium between the occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and age of children (Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in April 1986. Referral university centre for endocrine surgery. Thirty-year prospective study of the experience of a surgical team with PTC since the Chernobyl accident, taken out of 2349 patients operated on for any thyroid lesions from April 1986 to April 2015, comparing the incidence of PTC by age groups. Comparison of PTC incidence in patients >15 years (group A) and children Chernobyl and born before April 1986, 2164 were >15 years of age at the time of the nuclear accident (group A) and 175 developed PTC (8.1%) compared to 36 PTC (19.5%) that occurred in 185 children Chernobyl accident. This relationship with age has even been strengthened by the implementation of more sophisticated immunohistochemical biomarkers diagnostic technology since April 2011.

  3. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  4. Children's sleep patterns from 0 to 9 years: Australian population longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna M H; Brown, Judith E; Bittman, Michael; Wake, Melissa; Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    To provide accurate population normative data documenting cross-sectional, age-specific sleep patterns in Australian children aged 0-9 years. The first three waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two cohorts recruited in 2004 at ages 0-1 years (n=5107) and 4-5 years (n=4983), and assessed biennially. Children with analysable sleep data for at least one wave. At every wave, parents prospectively completed 24-h time-use diaries for a randomly selected week or weekend day. 'Sleeping, napping' was one of the 26 precoded activities recorded in 15-min time intervals. From 0 to 9 years of age, 24-h sleep duration fell from a mean peak of 14 (SD 2.2) h at 4-6 months to 10 (SD 1.9) h at 9 years, mainly due to progressively later mean sleep onset time from 20:00 (SD 75 min) to 21:00 (SD 60 min) and declining length of day sleep from 3.0 (SD 1.7) h to 0.03 (SD 0.2) h. Number and duration of night wakings also fell. By primary school, wake and sleep onset times were markedly later on weekend days. The most striking feature of the centile charts is the huge variation at all ages in sleep duration, sleep onset time and, especially, wake time in this normal population. Parents and professionals can use these new centile charts to judge normalcy of children's sleep. In future research, these population parameters will now be used to empirically determine optimal child sleep patterns for child and parent outcomes like mental and physical health.

  5. Comparison of the accuracy of the London atlas and Smith method in dental age estimation in 5-15.99-year-old Iranians using the panoramic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Roshanak; Ghodousi, Arash; Poordavar, Esmaeil

    2018-03-07

    Tooth development is widely used for age estimation and staging physical maturity. It is of great importance in dental age estimation in forensic dentistry, orthodontic treatment planning, and pediatric endocrinology. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of two age estimation methods, i.e., the London Atlas and Smith's method, using the panoramic view of developing teeth. In this descriptive-analytic study, panoramic radiographs of 339 healthy individuals, including 145 boys and 194 girls, were assessed. The participants aged between 5.00 and 15.99 years. Dental age of the subjects was determined by the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption and Smith's method. The collected information was entered in the SPSS software (Ver.18). Differences and correlations between chronological and dental age were assessed by paired t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis. In all analyzes, the significance level was considered less than 0.05. The mean chronological age of the subjects was 10.13 ± 2.92 years. The mean ages estimated by the London Atlas and Smith's method were 10.29 ± 2.91 and 9.89 ± 2.84 years, respectively. Paired t test showed that the differences between the mean chronological age and mean estimated ages using the London Atlas and Smith's method were not significant (P = 0.15 and 0.16, respectively). Our findings showed that both methods had high accuracy for age estimation, but the London Atlas is easier to use.

  6. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAL BONE MATURATION OF Hb E BETA THALASSEMIA PATIENTS OF DEUTEROMALAY AGED 9 – 14 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes D. Sjahruddin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the growth indicators that can be used to assess a child’s developmental growth is through skeletal maturation. Skeletal maturity can be evaluated by using anatomical changes of the cervical vertebral bones observed on the lateral cephalometric radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation of Hb E β thalassemia patients by comparing the shape changes of the second to fourth cervical vertebrae bodies with a control group. The design of this study was cross sectional. The subjects were children with Hb E β thalassemia aged 9 – 14 years. The results showed that the retarded maturation of the cervical vertebrae in Hb E β thalassemia was not found in the subjects of pre-puberty age (9 – 11 years old, but in those of puberty age (12 – 14 years old.

  7. Psycho-social and environmental correlates of location-specific physical activity among 9- and 15- year-old Norwegian boys and girls: the European Youth Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderssen Sigmund A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Little is known about the existence of independent location- or context specific forms of physical activity. This study sought to identify location-specific forms of physical activity in a sample of 9 and 15 years-olds Norwegian boys and girls, and examined their associations to psycho-social and environmental factors. Methods A cross-sectional study of 9 and 15-year-olds (N = 760; 379 boys and 381 girls was conducted in which participants responded to a computer-based questionnaire (PEACH tapping potentially location specific forms of physical activity as well as psycho-social and environmental correlates. Results Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the nine and fifteen year-olds self-reported their physical activity as located in three separate and specific contexts: a school commuting, b informal games play at school and c organized sport, structured exercise and games play in leisure time. Dependent of location, psycho-social and environmental correlates explained between 15 and 55 percent of the variance in physical activity. The impact of peer support, enjoyment and perceived competence in physical activity generalized across the three locations. Enjoyment of physical education classes, parental support and teacher support, in contrast, confined to particular location-specific forms of physical activity. Generally, behavioural beliefs and environmental factors represented marginal correlates of all location-specific forms of activity. Conclusion Young peoples' physical activity was identified as taking place in multiply genuine locations, and the psychosocial correlates of their physical activity seem to some extent to be location specific. Results may inform intervention efforts suggesting that targeting specific sets of psycho-social factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations, gender and age groups. Others, in contrast may prove effective in facilitating location specific physical activity

  8. Differences on Six Horn Abilities for 14 Age Groups between 15-16 and 75-94 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Six abilities derived from the fluid and crystallized intelligence theory of J. L. Horn were studied with 1,193 individuals in age groups between 15 and 94 years. Results supported Horn's classification of crystallized and quantitative as maintained abilities and of fluid and broad visualization as vulnerable abilities. (SLD)

  9. Overweight and obesity prevalence among 5 year old children and 15 to 16 year old adolescents in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Avbelj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last twenty years a marked rise in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in developed countries was observed. Obesity in this age group is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. So far no comparative data on overweight and obesity in Slovene children and adolescents existed. In our study the data collected during preventive examinations of five-year-old and adolescents was analysed and guidelines for management of children with high body mass index (BMI were proposed.Methods: Using the methods of descriptional statistics the data on BMI of 4685 randomly collected five-year-old children and 2474 randomly collected adolescents aged 15–16 years were analysed. Data was collected in the years 2003–2005, evaluated according to the international reference values, and compared to other populations.Results: The prevalence of overweight among five-year-old children is 18.4% and 20.9% in boys and girls respectively. The obesity criteria are fulfilled in 9.0% boys and 7.9% girls. Among adolescents 17.1% boys and 15.4% girls are overweight and 6.2% boys and 3.8% girls are obese. These results indicate that the prevalence of obesity in Slovenia is similar as in other developed European countries.Conclusions: The study showed that obesity in childhood and adolescence in Slovenia is a problem that deserves more concern in medical institutions and on national level. Further research on reasons for this condition and new programs for stimulation of physical activity and healthy nutrition of children and adolescents are warranted.

  10. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  11. Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and child behaviour at 5 to 9years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Bonde, Jens Peter; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    We examined associations between prenatal exposure to perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanic acid (PFDA) - and child behaviour (SDQ-total) and hyperactivity (sub-scale) at 5-9years of age in birth cohorts from Gr...

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9–10 year old children in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9–10 year old children in Mauritius. Methods 412 boys and 429 girls aged 9–10 years from 23 primary schools were selected using stratified cluster random sampling. All data was cross-sectional and collected via anthropometry and self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures were BMI (kg/m2), prevalence of overweight, obesity (International Obesity Task Force definitions) and thinness (low BMI for age). Linear and logistic regression analyses, accounting for clustering at the school level, were used to assess associations between gender, ethnicity, school location, and school's academic performance (average) to each outcome measure. Results The distribution of BMI was marginally skewed with a more pronounced positive tail in the girls. Median BMI was 15.6 kg/m2 in boys and 15.4 kg/m2 in girls, respectively. In boys, prevalence of overweight was 15.8% (95% CI: 12.6, 19.6), prevalence of obesity 4.9% (95% CI: 3.2, 7.4) and prevalence of thinness 12.4% (95% CI: 9.5, 15.9). Among girls, 18.9% (95% CI: 15.5, 22.9) were overweight, 5.1% (95% CI: 3.4, 7.7) were obese and 13.1% (95% CI: 10.2, 16.6) were thin. Urban children had a slightly higher mean BMI than rural children (0.5 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.00) and were nearly twice as likely to be obese (6.7% vs. 4.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.5). Creole children were less likely to be classified as thin compared to Indian children (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Conclusion Mauritius is currently in the midst of nutritional transition with both a high prevalence of overweight and thinness in children aged 9–10 years. The coexistence of children representing opposite sides of the energy balance equation presents a unique challenge for policy and interventions. Further exploration is needed to understand the specific causes of the double burden of malnutrition and to make appropriate policy recommendations

  13. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9–10 year old children in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleyachetty Rishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To document the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in 9–10 year old children in Mauritius. Methods 412 boys and 429 girls aged 9–10 years from 23 primary schools were selected using stratified cluster random sampling. All data was cross-sectional and collected via anthropometry and self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures were BMI (kg/m2, prevalence of overweight, obesity (International Obesity Task Force definitions and thinness (low BMI for age. Linear and logistic regression analyses, accounting for clustering at the school level, were used to assess associations between gender, ethnicity, school location, and school's academic performance (average to each outcome measure. Results The distribution of BMI was marginally skewed with a more pronounced positive tail in the girls. Median BMI was 15.6 kg/m2 in boys and 15.4 kg/m2 in girls, respectively. In boys, prevalence of overweight was 15.8% (95% CI: 12.6, 19.6, prevalence of obesity 4.9% (95% CI: 3.2, 7.4 and prevalence of thinness 12.4% (95% CI: 9.5, 15.9. Among girls, 18.9% (95% CI: 15.5, 22.9 were overweight, 5.1% (95% CI: 3.4, 7.7 were obese and 13.1% (95% CI: 10.2, 16.6 were thin. Urban children had a slightly higher mean BMI than rural children (0.5 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.00 and were nearly twice as likely to be obese (6.7% vs. 4.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.5. Creole children were less likely to be classified as thin compared to Indian children (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6. Conclusion Mauritius is currently in the midst of nutritional transition with both a high prevalence of overweight and thinness in children aged 9–10 years. The coexistence of children representing opposite sides of the energy balance equation presents a unique challenge for policy and interventions. Further exploration is needed to understand the specific causes of the double burden of malnutrition and to make appropriate policy

  14. Haemorrhage of gross domestic product from disability-adjusted-life-years among 15-59 year olds in Kenya

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    Joses Muthuri Kirigia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article estimates non-health gross domestic product (GDP losses associated with Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY lost among 15-59 year olds (most productive age bracket in Kenya in 2015. Methods: This study employs the lost output or human capital approach (HCA to convert the DALYs lost from all causes into their monetary equivalents. The magnitude economic haemorrhage from each disease was obtained by multiplying the per capita non-health GDP in International Dollars by the total number of DALYs lost in a specific age group (15-29 years, 30-49 years, 50-59 years. Per capita non-health GDP equals per capita GDP minus total health expenditure in 2015. Data on DALYs and per capita total health expenditure were obtained from the World Health Organization and per capita GDP data was from IMF databases. Results: Kenya lost 9,405,184 DALYs among 15-59 years olds in 2015. That DALY loss caused a haemorrhage in GDP of Int$ 29,788,392,419. Approximately 48.6% of the GDP haemorrhage resulted from communicable diseases and nutritional conditions, 37.4% from non-communicable diseases, and 14.0% from injuries. Conclusion: There is need to augment domestic and external investments into national health systems and other systems that meet basic needs (education, food, water, sanitation, shelter to reduce disease burden. Key words: Non-health GDP, economic haemorrhage, disability-adjusted life year (DALY

  15. Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Anderssen, S A; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    To examine differences in levels of physical activity (PA), time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary between and within days in children from four European countries, 1954 9 - and 15-year-olds were included. PA was measured during 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days...

  16. Outcomes of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew; Tran, Haily; Roberts, Mary; Clarke, Nadeene; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Vidmar, Suzanna; Wilson, John; Robertson, Colin F

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, The Melbourne Asthma Study was established to describe the spectrum and natural history of childhood asthma. To describe the clinical and lung function outcome of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years. Subjects were invited to complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire, skin prick testing, and measurement of lung function from the age of 7 years to the age of 50 years at 7-year intervals. Of 458 survivors (from the original 484 subjects at recruitment), 346 subjects (76%) participated, of whom, 197 completed lung function measurement. Asthma remission at the age of 50 years was 64% in those with wheezy bronchitis, 47% for those with persistent asthma, and 15% for those with severe asthma in childhood. Multivariable analysis identified severe asthma in childhood (odds ratio [OR] 11.9 [95% CI, 3.4-41.8]), female sex (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]), and childhood hay fever (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.0-4.0]) as risk factors for "current asthma" at age 50 years. There was no evidence of a difference in the rate of decline in FEV1 (mL/y, 95% CI) between the severe asthma group (15 mL/y [95% CI, 9-22 mL/y]) and all the other recruitment groups: control (16 mL/y [95% CI, 12-20 mL/y]), mild wheezy bronchitis (14 mL/y [95% CI, 8-19 mL/y]), wheezy bronchitis (16 mL/y [95% CI, 11-20 mL/y]), and persistent asthma (19 mL/y [95% CI, 13-24 mL/y]). The clinical and lung function outcome in adult life is strongly determined by asthma severity in childhood. The reduced lung function seen in adults is established in childhood and does not appear to decline more rapidly in adult years despite continuing symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  18. Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years: data from 68 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yunxia; Yan, Yinkun; Zhao, Min; Ma, Chuanwei; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire. We calculated the prevalence of current tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke in young adolescents from 68 low-income and middle-income countries that collected these data in the surveys. We used a multilevel model to estimate the association between parental tobacco use, second-hand smoke, and adolescent tobacco use, adjusting for sex, age, school, school class, country's purchasing power parity, smoking initiation age, national prevalence of tobacco use among adults, year the WHO FCTC was ratified for each country, proxy of socioeconomic status, and survey year. The mean prevalence of current tobacco use was 13·6%, ranging from 2·8% in Tajikistan to 44·7% in Samoa. In most countries, the prevalence of tobacco use was higher for boys than girls, and higher for adolescents aged 14-15 years than for those aged 12-13 years. The overall prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure was 55·9%, ranging from 16·4% in Tajikistan to 85·4% in Indonesia. Parental tobacco use (as reported by the young adolescents), especially maternal use, was associated with tobacco use in young adolescents (odds ratio 2·06, 95% CI 1·93-2·19, for maternal and 1·29, 1·23-1·35 for paternal use). Second-hand smoke exposure was also a risk factor for young adolescents' tobacco use (2·56, 2·43-2·69). However, the prevalence of tobacco use was not

  19. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  20. Range of variation of genu valgum and association with anthropometric characteristics and physical activity: comparison between children aged 3-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Zaphiropoulou, Chrisi; Vasiliadis, Elias

    2013-07-01

    The lower limbs of children aged 3-9 years present varying knock-knee deformities that have a direct impact on the diversification of the load-bearing axis of the valgus limb and on the modification of gait kinematics. The purpose of our study was to establish the reference values of knee alignment in a Greek population and whether this is linked to a change in the physical activity of children depending on the severity of the genu valgum. Using a clinical method, we measured both the tibiofemoral (TF) angle and the intermalleolar (IM) distance of the lower extremities of normal children. Subsequently, forms of the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) for young children and the Baecke questionnaire on habitual physical activity, modified especially for children, were completed by the parents. We examined both the development of the TF angle and the IM distance in relation to age and the degree of restriction of physical activity in relation to the severity of the genu valgum. We analysed 316 unaffected lower extremities in children aged 3-9 years. The average value of the TF angle starts around 7° at the age of 3 years and gradually decreases to 4° at the age of 7-8 years. The average value of the IM distance ranges over 3.5 cm at the age of 3 years and progressively decreases to 2 cm at the age of 7-8 years. Physical activity appears to be influenced by sex and the severity of the genu valgum. We provide age-specific values for limb alignment and joint orientation of the lower extremity in children aged 3-9 years. A statistical correlation between all indexes (sport, leisure time and total) of the Baecke and the NPAQs and measurements of genu valgum was noted depending on the severity of the valgus deformity.

  1. Students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years in six countries knowledge of animals

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    Patricia Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the knowledge students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years have of animals from a cross-cultural perspective. Students from six countries (Brazil, England, Finland, Iceland, Portugal, and the United States of America were asked to free-list as many animals as possible and state where they had seen or learned about the animals. The results were analyzed and they indicate that 1 Students are aware of animals. 2 Students are more aware of mammals as examples of animals. 3 There is a globally shared folk biological knowledge of animals. 4 Students learn about animals during sociocultural interactions. The educational implications are discussed.

  2. Fertility of men and women aged 15-44 years in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gladys; Daniels, Kimberly; Chandra, Anjani

    2012-04-12

    This report presents national estimates of the fertility of men and women aged 15-44 years in the United States in 2006-2010 based on the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Data are compared with similar measures for 2002. Descriptive tables of numbers, percentages, and means are presented and discussed. Data were collected through in-person interviews of a nationally representative sample of the household population aged 15-44 years in the United States between July 2006 and June 2010. The 2006-2010 NSFG sample is comprised of 22,682 respondents including 10,403 men and 12,279 women. The overall response rate for the 2006-2010 NSFG was 77%, 75% for men and 78% for women. Many of the fertility measures among men and women aged 15-44 based on the 2006-2010 NSFG were generally similar to those reported based on the 2002 NSFG. The mean age at first child's birth for women was 23 and the mean age at first child's birth for men was 25. One-half of first births to women were in their 20s and two-thirds of first births were fathered by men who were in their 20s. On average, women aged 15-44 have 1.3 children as of the time of the interview. By age 40, 85% of women had had a birth, and 76% of men had fathered a child. In 2006-2010, 22% of first births to women occurred within cohabiting unions, up from 12% in 2002. These measures differed by Hispanic origin and race and other demographic characteristics.

  3. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on body mass index trajectories from ages 4-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Lauren E; Francis, Lori A

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderates the effects of delay of gratification on body mass index (BMI) trajectories from ages 4-15 years. Longitudinal data were analyzed for 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) was created from measures of mothers' sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4-15 years. There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4-15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting by delay group. Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles.

  4. Association between the prevalence of depression and age in a large representative German sample of people aged 53 to 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Lechner, Sabine; Niehoff, Doro; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Stegmaier, Christa; Raum, Elke

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between the prevalence of clinically significant depression and age in a large representative sample of elderly German people. In the second follow-up (2005-2007) of the ESTHER cohort study, the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) as well as a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were administered to a representative sample of 8270 people of ages 53 to 80 years. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was estimated using a GDS cut-off score of 5/6. Prevalence rates were estimated for the different age categories. Association between depression and age was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, co-morbid medical disorders, education, marital status, physical activity, smoking, self-perceived cognitive impairment, and anti-depressive medication. Of the participants, 7878 (95.3%) completed more than twelve GDS items and were included in the study. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was 16.0% (95%CI = [15.2; 16.6]). The function of depression prevalence dependent on age group showed a U-shaped pattern (53-59: 21.0%, CI = [18.9; 23.3]; 60-64: 17.7%, CI = [15.7; 19.7]; 65-69: 12.6%, CI = [11.2; 14.0]; 70-74: 14.4%, CI = [12.6; 16.0]; 75-80: 17.1%, CI = [14.9; 19.4]). Adjusted odds ratios showed that the chances of being depressive decrease with the age category but remain relatively stable for people aged 65 and over. The prevalence of depression in the elderly seems to be associated with the age category. Adjusted odds ratios showed that people aged 60 and older had lower chances of being depressive than people aged 53 to 59 years. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Quantitative analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 gene expression in calf and adult bovine ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Ken-go

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that calf oocytes are less developmentally competent than oocytes obtained from adult cows. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 play critical roles in folliculogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in mammalian ovaries. In the present study, we attempted to compare the expression patterns of BMP15 and GDF9 in the cells of calf and cow ovaries to determine a relationship between the level of these genes and the low developmental competence of calf oocytes. Methods Bovine tissues were collected from 9-11 months-old calves and from 4-6 years-old cows. We characterized the gene expression of BMP15 and GDF9 in calf and adult bovine oocytes and cumulus cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QPCR and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed. Results The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 in cumulus cells of adult ovaries was significantly higher than that in calf ovaries, as revealed by QPCR. GDF9 expression in the oocytes of calf ovaries was significantly higher than in those of the adult ovaries. In contrast, BMP15 expression in the oocytes of calf and adult ovaries was not significantly different. The localization of gene expression and protein were ascertained by histochemistry. Conclusions Our result showed for the first time BMP15 and GDF9 expression in bovine cumulus cells. BMP15 and GDF9 mRNA expression in oocytes and cumulus cells was different in calves and cows.

  6. Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence in children aged 9-11 years, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca, Miladys; Morejón, Griselda; Cabrera, Niurka; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Orraca, Odalys

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common heritable genetic disorders in humans. It is characterized by formation of neurofibromas, with marked variability in expression. Half the cases are due to autosomal dominant inheritance; the rest arise from de novo mutations. Prevalence varies by population, and prevalence in Cuba is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the prevalence of neurofibromatosis 1 in a population of Cuban children aged 9-11 years old in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Pinar del Río Province in 2004, in which 19,392 children were assessed for neurofibromatosis 1. The study was conducted in two phases: the first, a survey of the entire population aged 9-11 years by genetic counselors in the province's schools; the second, assessment by clinical geneticists of children who met criteria for referral to the Provincial Medical Genetics Center. Neurofibromatosis 1 cases and first-degree relatives were examined to identify the origin of the mutation (de novo or inherited). Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence was calculated, as well as history of a first-degree relative with the disease and frequency of several principal clinical signs-café au lait spots, freckles in places unexposed to sunlight, presence of neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and characteristic bone lesions. RESULTS Of the eligible population, 99.3% was screened (10,034 boys and 9358 girls). Active case finding resulted in referral of 200 children to medical geneticists and the disease was confirmed in 17, for a prevalence of one case per 1141 children aged 9-11 years old. Café au lait spots were the most frequent sign (100%), followed by freckles in areas unexposed to sunlight (82.4%) and characteristic bone lesions (41.2%). Only 4 of the 17 cases were previously being treated for the disease. CONCLUSIONS Neurofibromatosis 1 has high prevalence in the group studied in Pinar del Rio Province and most cases are not detected in

  7. Violência e atividade sexual desprotegida em adolescentes menores de 15 anos Violence and unsafe sexual activity of adolescents under 15 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Araujo Martins Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à atividade sexual desprotegida em adolescentes femininas menores de 15 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional de corte transversal com adolescentes femininas menores de 15 anos e sexualmente ativas, atendidas em um ambulatório público de ginecologia. Os instrumentos de coleta de dados foram: entrevista semiestruturada para dados pessoais e de sexualidade, e exame clínico-laboratorial para diagnóstico de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Os dados foram analisados por meio de testes de frequência, de associação de variáveis com p OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with unprotected sexual activity in female adolescents younger than 15 years. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional trial with female teenagers less than 15 years-old and sexually active, attended at a public gynecology clinic. Instruments for data collection were: semi-structured interviews for personal data and about sexuality as well as clinical examination and laboratory tests for diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were analyzed by testing of frequency, association of variables with p <0.05 and multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS: One hundred adolescents between 11 and 14 years of age sexually active were interviewed and examined, 71% declared themselves black, one-third were behind in school, 80% began sexual activity before 13 years of age , 58% reported having been victims of violence in the intrafamily environment and 13% had suffered sexual abuse, 77% did not use condoms regularly and 22% had STDs. Unprotected sexual activity occurred more frequently with the first sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, commercial sexual exploitaion, multiple sexual partners, intrafamily violence and school delay, in addition to be black, to unexpected pregnancy and have STDs. CONCLUSION: The multiple violence suffered by teenagers, including structural, intrafamily and sexual, contribute to increase their

  8. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN MIDDLE-AGED MALES (15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP: CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM

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    A. M. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate incidence rate of first myocardial infarction (MI with different outcomes and factors, it is influenced by, depending on the intensity of preventive measures in a population of middle-aged men during 15-year follow-up; to evaluate economic efficiency of primary medical prevention.Material and methods. Two populations of middle-aged men with a total of 6656 males (3488 men the group of active prevention and 3168 the group of comparison were followed up over 15 years.Results. The group of active prevention revealed 22.1% reduced MI incidence rate during 5-year follow-up as compared to the second group, fatal MI incidence rate was 42.4% lower, p<0.05. Mortality rate in new cases of MI was 35.8% in the group of active prevention and 48.5% at routine treatment (p<0.05. The group of active prevention continued to have 17.9% reduced MI incidence rate during the 10-year follow-up as compared to the group of routine management (p>0.05, while patients with clinical signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD and no history of previous MI kept significant distinctions in first MI incidence rate (41% less in the first group, p<0.05. First MI incidence for the 10-year period was the least at risk factors (RF absence and twice higher even at single RF presence. Combination of RF caused 4-5 fold increase in risk for MI. Life status of 81.3% of the enrolled men (5410 of 6656 followed over 15 years was received along with the monitoring of prognosis.Such indices as “life years saved” (LYS and “quality-adjusted life years saved” (QALYS for 1000 persons in the active prevention group were 53 and 51 years, respectively during the 5-year follow-up, 147 and 143 years – during the 10-year follow-up. In the long-term actual expenses for 1 LYS were 3.4-fold less than annual gross domestic product (GDP value, at that charges for primary prevention – 4-fold less, which has been for the first time demonstrated using factual data and not mathematic

  9. Pertussis circulation has increased T-cell immunity during childhood more than a second acellular booster vaccination in Dutch children 9 years of age.

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    Rose-Minke Schure

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Here we report the first evaluation of T-cell responses upon a second acellular pertussis booster vaccination in Dutch children at 9 years of age, 5 years after a preschool booster vaccination. Blood samples of children 9 years of age were studied longitudinally until 1 year after the second aP booster and compared with those after the first aP booster in children 4 and 6 years of age from a cross-sectional study. After stimulation with pertussis-vaccine antigens, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine responses were measured and effector memory cells (CCR7-CD45RA- were characterized by 8-colour FACS analysis. The second aP booster vaccination at pre-adolescent age in wP primed individuals did increase pertussis-specific Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. Noticeably, almost all T-cell responses had increased with age and were already high before the booster vaccination at 9 years of age. The enhancement of T-cell immunity during the 5 year following the booster at 4 years of age is probably caused by natural boosting due to the a high circulation of pertussis. However, the incidence of pertussis is high in adolescents and adults who have only received the Dutch wP vaccine during infancy and no booster at 4 years of age. Therefore, an aP booster vaccination at adolescence or later in these populations might improve long-term immunity against pertussis and reduce the transmission to the vulnerable newborns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN64117538.

  10. Influencing the parents of children aged 9-13 years: findings from the VERB campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simani M; Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D

    2008-06-01

    The CDC's VERB campaign was designed to increase physical activity among children aged 9-13 years (tweens). As part of the strategy to surround tweens with support to be physically active, VERB developed messages for parents, the secondary target audience, to encourage them to support their tween's physical activity. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether parent awareness of VERB was a significant predictor of seven factors that related to parental attitudes, beliefs, and supportive behaviors for tweens' physical activity using the Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey (YMCLS). Parents (N=1946) of U.S. children aged 9-13 years. Advertising directed at tweens through paid television, radio, print, Internet, and schools was the primary VERB intervention; tween advertising could have been also seen by parents. Messages directed at parents encouraging their support of tweens' physical activity were delivered in English through mainly print and radio. In-language messages for Latino and Asian audiences were delivered through print, radio, television, and at events. Parents' awareness of VERB; parents' attitudes, beliefs, and support for their tweens' physical activities. Awareness increased each year of the campaign; more than 50% of parents were aware of VERB by the third year of the campaign. Parents reported that their main source of awareness was television, the main channel used to reach tweens. Awareness of VERB was predictive of positive attitudes about physical activity for all children, belief in the importance of physical activity for their own child, and the number of days parents were physically active with their child. Parents' awareness of VERB was associated with positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Parents' awareness probably resulted from a combination of messages directed to parents and tweens. To maximize audience reach, social marketers who are developing health messages should consider the potential value of

  11. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  12. Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlberg Michael

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6% and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate

  13. [Somatic and psychomotor development of preterm infants at the age of 2 years, with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwinta, Przemko; Klimek, Małgorzata; Pietrzyk, Jacek J

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of psychomotor and somatic development at the age of 2 years of preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Case -- control study. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital. 62 preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestation, with mean birth weight equaled to 1112 g were included into 2 groups: group A -- with BPD (n=31), group B (control) -- matched by sex, birth weight, gestational age (n=31). Evaluation of reaching milestones, neurological examination at 3, 9, 12, 18-24 months, Psyche-Cattel tests at 12 and 24 months, hearing and visions examinations, head, chest circumference, length and weight at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months. Age of unsupported sitting and walking, intelligence quotient (IQ), cerebral palsy, hearing and sight impairment. Reaching motor milestones were similar in the both groups (unsupported sitting (mean) 10.4 vs. 8.7 months, unsupported walking: 15.1 vs. 13.9 months). Cerebral palsy occurred more (non-significantly) frequently in group A than in group B (7/31 vs. 2/31, p=0.15). Significantly lower IQ was found in group A at the age of 1 year in comparison with group B (x +/- SEM: 79.9 +/- 2.1 vs. 86.1 +/- 1.5, p=0.03) and at the age of 2 years (x +/- SEM: 89.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 96.0 +/- 2.1, p=0.06). Weight, length, head and chest circumferences at the term of delivery were similar in the both groups, but at the age of 9 and 24 months the group A children weighted less than group B (respectively: 7432 vs. 8128 g, 10010 vs. 11116; pdevelopment of preterm newborns.

  14. [Indicators of general, cerebral, and regional hemodynamics in myopic schoolchildren aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iastrebtseva, T A; Chuprov, A D; Plotnikova, Iu A

    2002-01-01

    110 schoolchildren aged 13-15 years were examined. 24 of them had pseudomyopia and 6 patients myopia of various forms. A control group consisted of 38 children. Central hemodynamics was estimated by average dynamic pressure, cerebral hemodynamics--by rheoencephalography, regional hemodynamics--by dopplerography of the internal carotid and suprapubic arteries. It was found that with myopia progression, the average dynamic pressure positively comes down with reduction of reographic waves amplitude in rheogram. The blood flow rate in internal carotid and suprapubic arteries has no substantial impact on myopia course. Predisposition to arterial hypotension is a risk factor for myopia development and progression.

  15. Growth and Mortality Outcomes for Different Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Criteria in Children Ages 1-5 Years: A Causal Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ann; Malateste, Karen; Renner, Lorna; Sawry, Shobna; N'Gbeche, Sylvie; Technau, Karl-Günter; Eboua, François; Tanser, Frank; Sygnaté-Sy, Haby; Phiri, Sam; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Cox, Vivian; Koueta, Fla; Chimbete, Cleophas; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Giddy, Janet; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Wood, Robin; Egger, Matthias; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-03-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modeling analysis in children ages 1-5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups, and regions. ART-naïve children of ages 12-59 months at enrollment with at least one visit before ART initiation and one follow-up visit were included. We estimated 3-year growth and cumulative mortality from the start of follow-up for different CD4 criteria using g-computation. About one quarter of the 5,826 included children was from West Africa (24.6%).The median (first; third quartile) CD4% at the first visit was 16% (11%; 23%), the median weight-for-age z-scores and height-for-age z-scores were -1.5 (-2.7; -0.6) and -2.5 (-3.5; -1.5), respectively. Estimated cumulative mortality was higher overall, and growth was slower, when initiating ART at lower CD4 thresholds. After 3 years of follow-up, the estimated mortality difference between starting ART routinely irrespective of CD4 count and starting ART if either CD4 count <750 cells/mm³ or CD4% <25% was 0.2% (95% CI = -0.2%; 0.3%), and the difference in the mean height-for-age z-scores of those who survived was -0.02 (95% CI = -0.04; 0.01). Younger children ages 1-2 and children in West Africa had worse outcomes. Our results demonstrate that earlier treatment initiation yields overall better growth and mortality outcomes, although we could not show any differences in outcomes between immediate ART and delaying until CD4 count/% falls below 750/25%.

  16. Selected atherosclerosis risk factors in youth aged 13–15 years 

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    Agnieszka Michalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.

  17. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Saka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 141-146

  18. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfiye Deger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 141-146

  19. Poverty and behavior problems trajectories from 1.5 to 8 years of age: Is the gap widening between poor and non-poor children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Julia Rachel S E; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Michel, Gregory; Salla, Julie; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-08-01

    Poverty has been associated with high levels of behavior problems across childhood, yet patterns of associations over time remain understudied. This study aims: (a) to examine whether poverty predicts changes in behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age; (b) to estimate potential selection bias for the observed associations. We used the 1998-2006 waves of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 2120). Main outcomes were maternal ratings of hyperactivity, opposition and physical aggression from 1.5 to 8 years of age. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the longitudinal association between poverty and behavior problems. Models were re-estimated adjusting for wave nonresponse and using multiple imputation to account for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. Poverty predicted hyperactivity and opposition in a time dependent manner. Hyperactivity [Bpoverty*age = 0.052; CI 95 % (0.002; 0.101)] and opposition [Bpoverty*age = 0.049; CI 95 % (0.018; 0.079)] increased at a faster rate up to ageyears, and then decreased at a slower rate for poor than non-poor children. Physical aggression decreased at a steady rate over time for all children [Bpoverty*age = -0.030; p = 0.064). Estimates remained similar when accounting for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. The difference between poor and non-poor children was stable over time for physical aggression, but increased with age for hyperactivity and opposition. Attrition among poor children did not compromise the validity of results.

  20. Analysis of agility, reaction time and balance variables at badminton players aged 9-14 years

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    Seydi Ahmet Ağaoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was investigated agility, static and dynamic balance and reaction time variables of badminton players aged between 9-14 and relate with among variables. Material and Methods: In Samsun, 19 males (sport age, 3.42±1.64 years and 12 females (3.00±1.28 years active badminton players were voluntarily participated in who are in 9-14 ages range. Agility was measured by “T” test, CSMI-Tecnobody Pk-252 isokinetic balance system measuring instrument was used to test static balance and dynamic balance and Mozart Lafayette reaction measuring instrument was used to test visual and auditory reaction times of players. Spearman correlation analysis was applied so as to correlation analysis. The level of significance was taken as p<0.05. Results: For female athletes, a positive relation was determined between the agility and the perimeter (mm used (r=0.727; p<0.01 through the static balance measure double foot and eyes are open. For male athletes, a positive relation was determined between the visual reaction time and the perimeter (mm used (r=0.725; p<0.01 through the static balance measure dominant foot and eyes are open. For male and female athletes were not found any correlation between reaction time and dynamic balance. Conclusion: It was determined that audio (ears and visual (eyes reaction time was effective on balance. While badminton players are closed eyes, audio sensors are more influence on balance test through measure dominant foot.

  1. A Cross Sectional Study of Behavior Disorders In 6-15 Years Age Group in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti C Rasote, Alka D Gore, Usha Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    "Background: Child & adolescent psychiatric disorders and behavioral disorders are not given adequate attention. Such studies are either school based or hospital based. Methods: To study the prevalence and pattern of behavior disorders among children from the community a cross sectional study was conducted in rural area with 600 children of 6-15 years age group by the ‘Purposive Sampling’ method. Percentages & chi square test was used. Results: Response rate was 94%. Out o...

  2. Liaison amid problem behavior and traumatic dental injury among children aged 12-15 years in Bhopal

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen S Yadav; Vrinda Saxena; Manish Jain; Kapil Paiwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Liaison amid problem behavior and traumatic dental injury among children aged 13-15 years are consequential due to multifactorial dental, orofacial skeletal, psycosocial behavior pattern. The probable etiology is been equated overjet; inadequate lip coverage is the major etiological factors accountable for traumatic dental injuries. Aims: The aim was to assess the relationship of problem behavior, type of lip coverage, and the size of overjet with the traumatic dental injury amo...

  3. Mortality and Incidence of Hospital Admissions for Stroke among Brazilians Aged 15 to 49 Years between 2008 and 2012.

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    Fernando Adami

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze rates of stroke-related mortality and incidence of hospital admissions in Brazilians aged 15 to 49 years according to region and age group between 2008 and 2012.Secondary analysis was performed in 2014 using data from the Hospital and Mortality Information Systems and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Stroke was defined by ICD, 10th revision (I60-I64. Crude and standardized mortality (WHO reference and incidence of hospital admissions per 100,000 inhabitants, stratified by region and age group, were estimated. Absolute and relative frequencies; and linear regression were also used. The software used was Stata 11.0.There were 35,005 deaths and 131,344 hospital admissions for stroke in Brazilians aged 15-49 years old between 2008 and 2012. Mortality decreased from 7.54 (95% CI 7.53; 7.54 in 2008 to 6.32 (95% CI 6.31; 6.32 in 2012 (β = -0.27, p = 0.013, r2 = 0.90. During the same time, incidence of hospital admissions stabilized: 24.67 (95% CI 24.66; 24.67 in 2008 and 25.11 (95% CI 25.10; 25.11 in 2012 (β = 0.09, p = 0.692, r2 = 0.05. There was a reduction in mortality in all Brazilian regions and in the age group between 30 and 49 years. Incidence of hospitalizations decreased in the South, but no significant decrease was observed in any age group.We observed a decrease in stroke-related mortality, particularly in individuals over 30 years old, and stability of the incidence of hospitalizations; and also regional variation in stroke-related hospital admission incidence and mortality among Brazilian young adults.

  4. Motor Impulsivity during Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Biometric Analysis of the Go/No-Go Task in 9- to 18-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity from childhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motor impulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 time points: ages 9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years.…

  5. [Clinical epidemiological characteristics and change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding over the past 15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinping; Cui, Yi; Wang, Jinhui; Chen, Baili; He, Yao; Chen, Minhu

    2017-04-25

    To investigate the clinical epidemiology change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) over the past 15 years. Consecutive patients who was diagnosed as continuous UGIB in the endoscopy center of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun-Yat University during the period from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 1998 and the period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013 were enrolled in this study. Their gender, age, etiology, ulcer classification, endoscopic treatment and hospitalization mortality were compared between two periods. In periods from 1997 to 1998 and 2012 to 2013, the detection rate of UGIB was 9.99%(928/9 287) and 4.49%(1 092/24 318)(χ 2 =360.089, P=0.000); the percentage of male patients was 73.28%(680/928) and 72.44% (791/1 092) (χ 2 =0.179, P=0.672), and the onset age was (47.3±16.4) years and (51.4±18.2) years (t=9.214, P=0.002) respectively. From 1997 to 1998, the first etiology of UGIB was peptic ulcer bleeding, accounting for 65.2%(605/928)[duodenal ulcer 47.8%(444/928), gastric ulcer 8.3%(77/928), stomal ulcer 2.3%(21/928), compound ulcer 6.8%(63/928)],the second was cancer bleeding(7.0%,65/928), and the third was esophageal and gastric varices bleeding (6.4%,59/928). From 2012 to 2013, peptic ulcer still was the first cause of UGIB, but the ratio obviously decreased to 52.7%(575/1092)(χ 2 =32.467, P=0.000)[duodenal ulcer 31.9%(348/1092), gastric ulcer 9.4%(103/1092), stomal ulcer 2.8%(30/1092), compound ulcer 8.6%(94/1092)]. The decreased ratio of duodenal ulcer bleeding was the main reason (χ 2 =53.724, P=0.000). Esophageal and gastric varices bleeding became the second cause (15.1%,165/1 092, χ 2 =38.976, P=0.000), and cancer was the third cause (9.2%,101/1 092, χ 2 =3.352, P=0.067). The largest increasing amplitude of the onset age was peptic ulcer bleeding [(46.2±16.7) years vs. (51.9±18.9) years, t=-5.548, P=0.000), and the greatest contribution to the amplitude was duodenal ulcer bleeding [(43.4±15.9) years vs. (48.4±19

  6. Perinatal characteristics among early (10–14 years old and late (15–19 years old pregnant adolescents

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    Alves João

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescents is a worldwide health problem and has been mostly common in poor populations. It is not clear if socioeconomic or biological factors are the main determinants of perinatal adverse outcomes in pregnant adolescents. Adolescents under 15 years old may present a high growth rate which may contribute to impair fetal growth. Our aim is to compare perinatal characteristics among early (aged 10 to 14 years and late (aged 15 to 19 years pregnant adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Pernambuco State 2009, obtained from DATASUS/SISNAC, a Brazilian Government, open-access public health database. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between early (aged 10–14 years and late (aged 15–19 years pregnant adolescents. Family income was compared between early and late pregnant adolescents using a sample of 412 subjects evaluated at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP during 2011. Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test was used with a significant level of 0.05; bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. This project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board. Results Data from 31,209 pregnant adolescents were analyzed. 29,733 (95.2% were aged 15 to 19 years and 1,476 (4.7% were aged 10 to 14 years. There were significant differences with respect to marital status, education level and number of prenatal visits of mothers aged 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years. Of importance, early adolescents had a greater rate of neonates born premature and with low birth weight. Prematurity and low birth weight remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusions Early aged adolescents may have an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight. These findings highlight the potential role of biological factors in newborn outcomes in pregnant adolescents.

  7. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Bolann, Bjørn J.; Ndugwa, Christopher M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementatio...

  8. Parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for boys and girls aged 9-13 years in China - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Wang, Jingjing; Fang, Yuan; Gross, Danielle L; Wong, Martin C S; Wong, Eliza L Y; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-05-03

    This study was to investigate parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters aged 9-13 years under different cost scenarios, and factors associated with parental acceptability at market price. Participants were: (1) Chinese speaking parents aged 18-60 years with a Hong Kong ID card; (2) had a son or a daughter aged 9-13 years at the date of the survey; (3) the child had the right to abode in Hong Kong. Random telephone numbers were selected from up-to-date telephone directories of Hong Kong. A total of 300 eligible parents (boys' parents: 162; girls' parents: 138, response rate: 68.9% & 69%) provided verbal informed consent and completed the anonymous telephone interview during March to October 2016. Using parental acceptability of HPV vaccination at market price as the dependent variable, univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of HPV vaccination was very low among boys and girls (0.6% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.242). Among those whose children had not taken up HPV vaccination, the prevalence of parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for the index son and daughter were: 14.9% and 27.4% (market price), and 51.6% and 63.0% (free vaccination). Adjusted for sociodemographic variables, attitudinal variables based on the Health Belief Model were associated with parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons (perception that it was not worthy, perceived cue to action from mass media and perceived self-efficacy) and for their daughters (perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of HPV infection among females, perceived benefit of HPV vaccination and perceived self-efficacy). Coverage of HPV vaccination among children aged 9-13 years was very low. Instead of waiting for the free universal vaccination to become available, promotion of self-paid HPV vaccination targeting parents is urgently needed. Different strategies should be applied to boys' and girls' parents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  9. Actual competence, rather than perceived competence, is a better predictor of physical activity in children aged 6-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Fleur; Parker, Helen; Chivers, Paola; Hands, Beth

    2018-07-01

    There is a limited understanding about the relative importance of perceived and actual competence on emergent physical activity levels in children and whether there is a difference in their development and strength between boys and girls. This study used a single-cohort, multiple age group design to monitor physical activity, actual motor competence (AMC) and perceived competence (PC) on four occasions over 18 months in 6-to 9-year-old boys and girls (N = 201). Physical activity was measured by 7-day daily step counts (pedometer) and activity diary. AMC was assessed by mastery of skill criteria for 4 motor skills; run, overhand throw, standing broad jump, and line walk. PC was measured with the Self Description Questionnaire-I. Linear Mixed Model analysis revealed that AMC, Gender and School significantly impacted physical activity levels longitudinally in these children. AMC made a greater contribution (9-30%) to physical activity levels than PC (0-5%), and at an earlier age in boys (7 years) than girls (9 years). The need to acknowledge these developing distinctions in considering emergent physical activity levels has important implications for childhood learning environments and physical activity interventions.

  10. Effect of ageing on the microstructural stability of cold-worked titanium-modified 15Cr-15Ni-2.5Mo austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkadesan, S.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Rodriguez, P.; Padmanabhan, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    A titanium-modified 15Cr-15Ni-2.5Mo austenitic stainless steel conforming to ASTM A 771 (UNS S 38660), commercially called Alloy D9, is being indigenously developed for application as material for the fuel clad and the hexagonal wrapper for fuel subassemblies of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. As this material would be used in the cold-worked condition and would be subjected to prolonged exposure to elevated service temperatures, the effect of ageing on the microstructural stability was studied as a function of the amount of cold work. The material was given 2.5-30% prior cold work and then aged at temperatures in the range 923 to 1173 K for times ranging from 0.25 to 1000 h. Hardness measurements made before and after ageing were correlated with the Larson-Miller parameter to determine the highest stable prior cold-work level. Optical microscopy was used to study the microstructural changes. The influence of prolonged exposure for two and three years at the operating temperatures of clad and wrapper, on the elevated temperature tensile properties of a 20% prior cold-worked Alloy D9 was also studied through accelerated ageing treatments based on the present parametric approach. (orig.)

  11. The Relationship between Psychological Health and Attitude toward Christianity among Pupils Aged 11 to 15 Years in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Advocates of the secularization thesis describe radical decline in the significance of the Christian tradition among young people in England. In this context, a sample of 5,808 pupils age 11 to 15 years provided data about their religious identity and practice and completed the short-form Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (as a…

  12. Asthma-associated oral and dental health repercussions in children aged 6 to 12 years

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    Juana Angélica Ramos-Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma, which is characterized by mouth breathing and by the use of drugs for its treatment, affects between 1 and 30% of children and adolescents. There are only few studies reporting its impact on the oral cavity. Objectives: To find out the most common asthma-associated repercussions in 6 to 12-year-old children. Methods: Cross-sectional, comparative, analytical study carried out in 2 primary schools from Coclique, Veracruz, Mexico, in 6 to 12-year-old children. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire for parents was used. Results: In a population of 409 children, a prevalence of asthma of 6.84% (n = 28 was found, which was higher in males (15, 54%; boys aged 6, 7 and 11 years and girls aged 8, 9 and 10 years were most affected. Risk factors for oral manifestations were acidic pH (OR = 170, caries (OR = 4.29, anterior open bite (OR = 66.78, gingivitis (OR = 9.75, atypical swallowing (OR = 15.70 and high-arched palate (OR = 45.60. Conclusion: Children with chronic conditions such as asthma require an oral and dental preventive program as part of their interdisciplinary care.

  13. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy in 15 years follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Fahimeh Kazemi; Ahmadi, Nader Rash; Zolfaghari, Ali; Farshi, Alireza; Amjadi, Mohsen; Gholipour, Mahboobeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) increases the risk of new onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or significant changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS). Materials and Methods: A total number of 307 patients enrolled in this study. All of them had undergone ESWL for kidney stone from 1991 to 1994. In 2009, after 15-19 years, we invited patients to check their blood sugar. Results: There were 307 patients, 19.8% females, and 80.1% males. The mean age of the patients was 44 for females and 42 years for males. 47.5% had kidney stone in the left side, 42.9% in the right side and 9.4% bilateral. The mean FBS increasing was 11.86 g/dl. It was 14.54 g/dl for the right side, 8.57 g/dl for left and 16.24 g/dl for bilateral ESWL. Discussions: The increasing of FBS is more significant in shock wave intensities higher than 15.5 KV. And there wasn't any significant relationship between age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total number of shock waves with increasing of FBS. ESWL treatment might associate with increasing FBS without any relation to age, sex and BMI. PMID:28794595

  14. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy in 15 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kazemi Rashed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL increases the risk of new onset diabetes mellitus (DM or significant changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS. Materials and Methods: A total number of 307 patients enrolled in this study. All of them had undergone ESWL for kidney stone from 1991 to 1994. In 2009, after 15-19 years, we invited patients to check their blood sugar. Results: There were 307 patients, 19.8% females, and 80.1% males. The mean age of the patients was 44 for females and 42 years for males. 47.5% had kidney stone in the left side, 42.9% in the right side and 9.4% bilateral. The mean FBS increasing was 11.86 g/dl. It was 14.54 g/dl for the right side, 8.57 g/dl for left and 16.24 g/dl for bilateral ESWL. Discussions: The increasing of FBS is more significant in shock wave intensities higher than 15.5 KV. And there wasn't any significant relationship between age, sex, body mass index (BMI and total number of shock waves with increasing of FBS. ESWL treatment might associate with increasing FBS without any relation to age, sex and BMI.

  15. Adolescent Suicide Rates Between 1990 and 2009: Analysis of Age Group 15-19 Years Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current analysis is to analyze suicide rates in adolescents aged 15-19 years in decades between 1990 and 2009 worldwide. Suicide data were obtained from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank Data set. In total, 81 countries or territories, having data at least for 5 years in 1990-1999 and in 2000-2009, were included in the analysis. Additional analysis for regional trends with 57 countries was performed. Over the decades considered, analysis showed a declining trend in the overall suicide rate for males from 10.30 to 9.51 per 100,000 (p = .076), and for females from 4.39 to 4.18 (p = .472). The average suicide rate showed a significant decline for both genders in Europe, dropping from 13.13 to 10.93 (p = .001) in males and from 3.88 to 3.34 in females (p = .038). There was a significant increase in South American countries for males, from 7.36 to 11.47 (p = .016), and a close to significant rise for females, from 5.59 to 7.98 (p = .053). Although other world regions did not show significant trends, there were several significant changes at country level. Reasons behind the decrease in Western countries could potentially be related to the overall improvements in global health; the possible contribution of suicide prevention activities remains unclear. Increases in several South American countries might be related to economic recession and its impact on adolescents from diverse cultural backgrounds, and partly also to improvements in mortality registration. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal bone paragangliomas: 15 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Düzlü

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Temporal bone paragangliomas (TBPs are benign tumors arising from neural crest cells located along the jugular bulbus and the tympanic plexus. In general surgical excision, radiotherapy and wait-and-scan protocols are the main management modalities for TBPs. Objective In this paper we aim to present our clinical experience with TBPs and to review literature data. Methods The patients who were operated for tympanomastoid paraganglioma (TMP or tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP in our clinic in the last 15 years were enrolled in the study. A detailed patient's charts review was performed retrospectively. Results There were 18 (52.9% cases with TMPs and 16 (47.1% cases with TJPs, a total of 34 patients operated for TBPs in this time period. The mean age was 50.3 ± 11.7 (range 25-71 years. The most common presenting symptoms were tinnitus and hearing loss for both TMPs and TJPs. Gross total tumor resection was achieved in 17 (94.4% and 10 (62.5% cases for TMPs and TJPs, respectively. Five patients (31.2% with TJP experienced facial palsy following the operation. For all the patients the mean follow-up period was 25.8 months (range 4-108 months. Conclusion In conclusion, based on our findings and literature review, total surgical excision alone or with preoperative embolization is the main treatment modality for TBPs. However radiotherapy, observation protocol and subtotal resection must be considered in cases of preoperative functioning cranial nerves, large tumors and advanced age.

  17. Temporal bone paragangliomas: 15 years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzlü, Mehmet; Tutar, Hakan; Karamert, Recep; Karaloğlu, Furkan; Şahin, Muammer Melih; Göcek, Mehmet; Uğur, Mehmet Birol; Göksu, Nebil

    2016-12-08

    Temporal bone paragangliomas (TBPs) are benign tumors arising from neural crest cells located along the jugular bulbus and the tympanic plexus. In general surgical excision, radiotherapy and wait-and-scan protocols are the main management modalities for TBPs. In this paper we aim to present our clinical experience with TBPs and to review literature data. The patients who were operated for tympanomastoid paraganglioma (TMP) or tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP) in our clinic in the last 15 years were enrolled in the study. A detailed patient's charts review was performed retrospectively. There were 18 (52.9%) cases with TMPs and 16 (47.1%) cases with TJPs, a total of 34 patients operated for TBPs in this time period. The mean age was 50.3± 11.7 (range 25-71 years). The most common presenting symptoms were tinnitus and hearing loss for both TMPs and TJPs. Gross total tumor resection was achieved in 17 (94.4%) and 10 (62.5%) cases for TMPs and TJPs, respectively. Five patients (31.2%) with TJP experienced facial palsy following the operation. For all the patients the mean follow-up period was 25.8 months (range 4-108 months). In conclusion, based on our findings and literature review, total surgical excision alone or with preoperative embolization is the main treatment modality for TBPs. However radiotherapy, observation protocol and subtotal resection must be considered in cases of preoperative functioning cranial nerves, large tumors and advanced age. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts are...

  19. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 ½ years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Nassif, Elaine Pacheco; Levy, Angela Maria; Leite, Wellington Borges; Fuentes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public), and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL) test. Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  20. [Trends in stroke mortality rates in Russia and the USA over a 15-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorodskaya, I V; Zayratyants, O V; Perkhov, V I; Andreev, E M; Vaisman, D Sh

    2018-01-01

    to comparatively analyze standardized mortality ratios (SMR) from stroke in the populations aged over 30 years in the Russian Federation and in the USA over a 15-year period. The analysis included nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (NTSH) (a group of ICD-10 codes I60), nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (NTIH) (I61), cerebral infarction (CI) (I63), and stroke, not specified as hemorrhage or infarction (SNSHI) (I64). The new European standard (European Standard Population.2013) was used for standardization. The data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, those of the World Health Organization Mortality Database (WHO MD) and Human Mortality Database (HMD) for the USA were applied. During the considered period, 30-49-year-old Russian men showed a reduction in SMRs from NTSH (I61) by 9.0% (from 18.9 to 17.2 per 100,000 population), from SNSHI (I64) by 10 times (from 12.5 to 1.3); SMRs from CI (I63) increased by 4.3% (from 6.9 to 7.2). In men aged 50 years and older, SMRs from NTIH and SNSHI decreased by 32.3% (from 143.2 to 97.0) and by 10 times (from 580.8 to 60.6), respectively; those from CI increased by 13.8% (from 229.8 to 261.4). In the USA, 30-49-year-old men displayed 26.1% and 2-fold decreases in SMRs from NTIH (from 2.5 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 1.7 in 2013) and CI (from 1.8 to 0.9), respectively; those from SNSHI remained unchanged (1.3). In men aged 50 years and older, SMRs from NTIH, CI, and SNSHI reduced by 39.7% (from 29.0 to 17.5), by 2 times (from 1.8 to 0.9), and by 2 times (143.0 to 72.5), respectively. 30-49-year-old Russian women exhibited a 22.2% reduction in SMRs from NTIH (from 9.0 to 7.0), a 4.3% increase in those from CI (from 2.7 to 2.8), and an 11-fold decrease in those from SNSHI (from 5.5 to 0.5). Women aged 50 years and older showed changes in SMRs from the codes in the same sequence from 105.6 to 60.5, from 172.8 to 189.6, and from 466.5 to 43.7, respectively. In the USA, 30-49-year-old women

  1. 15 CFR 766.9 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 766.9 Section 766.9... PROCEEDINGS § 766.9 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with...

  2. [Sexual intercourse debut and associated factors in Mexican students aged 14-19 years in public schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Leyva-López, Ahidée; García-Guerra, Armando; de Castro, Filipa; González-Hernández, Dolores; de Los Santos, Lilia Margarita

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the mean age of sexual intercourse debut (SID) and associated family and individual factors in 14-19-year-olds of both sexes in the 32 states of Mexico in 2007. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a representative sample of 9,893 students aged between 14 and 19 years old. The data were collected through a self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by category: no SID, SID at 10-15 years and SID at 16-19 years. The national mean age of SID was 16 years, being 15 years for boys (95%CI: 15.88-16.11) and 16 years for girls (95%CI: 15.26-15.42). Factors associated with SID in boys were disadvantaged socioeconomic level (OR=0.66; 95%CI: 0.46-0.94), living with parents (OR=0.65; 95%CI: 0.56-0.75), less offensive communication between parents and boys/girls (OR=0.66; 95%CI: 0.57-0.77), and high social self-esteem (OR=1.68; 95%CI: 1.35-1.77). Factors associated with SID in girls were traditional gender beliefs (OR=0.49; 95%CI: 0.32-0.74), high depressive symptoms (OR=1.88; 95%CI: 1.19-2.99), and high family self-esteem (OR= 0.50; 95%CI: 0.38-0.65). In Mexico, SID occurred early in boys. In addition, the findings of this study show that in Mexico, the age of SID and associated factors differ in boys and girls. The age of SID is strongly influenced by gender and cultural beliefs. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Waist circumference percentile curves for Malaysian children and adolescents aged 6.0-16.9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Jannah, Ahmad Nurul; Chong, Lai Khuen; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ismail, Mohd Noor; McCarthy, David

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly and abdominal obesity especially is known to be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and other non-communicable diseases. Waist circumference percentile curves are useful tools which can help to identify abdominal obesity among the childhood and adolescent populations. To develop age- and sex-specific waist circumference (WC) percentile curves for multi-ethnic Malaysian children and adolescents aged 6.0-16.9 years. Subjects and methods. A total of 16,203 participants comprising 8,093 boys and 8,110 girls recruited from all regions of Malaysia were involved in this study. Height, weight, WC were measured and BMI calculated. Smoothed WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed using the LMS Method. WC was found to increase with age in both sexes, but boys had higher WC values at every age and percentile. Z-scores generated using the UK reference data shows that Chinese children had the highest WC compared to Malays, Indians and other ethnicities. Comparisons with other studies indicate that at the 50th percentile, Malaysian curves did not differ from the UK, Hong Kong and Turkish curves, but at the 90th percentile, Malaysian curves were higher compared with other countries, starting at 10 years of age. The 90th percentile was adopted as the cut-off point to indicate abdominal obesity in Malaysian children and adolescents. These curves represent the first WC percentiles reported for Malaysian children, and they can serve as a reference for future studies.

  4. Conservative surgery and radiotherapy for stage I/II breast cancer using lung density correction: 10-year and 15-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Lori J.; Griffith, Kent A.; Hayman, James A.; Douglas, Kathye R.; Lichter, Allen S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) planning for breast cancer using lung density correction improves dose homogeneity. Its use obviates the need for a medial wedge, thus reducing scatter to the opposite breast. Although lung density correction is used at many centers in planning for early-stage breast cancer, long-term results of local control and survival have not been reported. Since 1984, we have used lung density correction for dose calculations at the University of Michigan. We now present our 10-year and 15-year results. Methods and Materials: The records of 867 patients with Stage I/II breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT with or without systemic therapy were reviewed. Tangential fields delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast calculated using lung density correction were used. A boost was added in 96.8% of patients for a total median dose of 61.8 Gy. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-18.9 years), 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial rates of in-breast tumor recurrence as only first failure were 2.2%, 3.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. With surgical salvage, the 15-year cumulative rate of local control was 99.7%. Factors that significantly predicted for increased rate of local recurrence in multivariate analysis were age ≤ 35 years, hazard ratio 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.9) p = 0.004; negative progesterone receptor status, hazard ratio 6.8 (95% CI, 2.3-20.3) p = < 0.001; negative estrogen receptor status, hazard ratio 4.0 (95% CI, 1.5-11.1) p = 0.007; and lack of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, hazard ratio 7.7 (95% CI, 1.7-33.3) p = 0.008. Relapse-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 84.6%, 70.8%, and 55.9%, respectively; breast cancer-specific survival rates were 94.4%, 90.5%, and 86.9%, respectively; and corresponding estimates for overall survival were 89.7%, 75.7%, and 61.3%. Conclusions: Use of lung density correction was associated with high rates of local control, relapse-free survival, breast

  5. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this age group might: Have more interest in romantic relationships and sexuality. Go through less conflict with ... in activities such as sports, music, theater, and art. Encourage your teen to volunteer and become involved ...

  6. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTION AMONG SLUM DWELLING ADOLESCENT GIRLS AGED 15-19 YEARS OF DIBRUGARH TOWN, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpita Barman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Menstruation is a natural physiological process linked with several misconceptions and practices having crucial role for health and dignity of girls and women. Hygiene-related practices increases vulnerability to reproductive tract infections. Adolescent girls dwelling in slums are vulnerable to poor reproductive health due to lack of awareness about reproductive health. Keeping in view the above, study has been undertaken with the following aim and objective. The aim of the study is to assess the menstrual hygiene practices and reproductive tract infection among slum dwelling adolescent girls aged 15-19 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted for 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015 covering 210 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years living in the slums of Dibrugarh Town, Assam. An interview using a predesigned and pretested format conducted by house to house survey. For analysis, mean, standard deviation and proportions were calculated, Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test was done to see the association. RESULTS Mean age of girls was (16.57 ± 1.48 years and mean age of menarche was (12.73 ± 1.44 years. Awareness about menstruation was 27.1% prior to attainment of menarche. Rate of sanitary napkins use was 68.6% and 53.2% girls cleaned external genitalia >2 times per day. Regarding cultural practices of restriction, 100% girls did not attend any religious occasions during menstruation. Prevalence of reproductive tract infection was 43.3%, which was significantly more among girls using homemade reusable pad and washing external genitalia ≤2 times per day during menstruation. CONCLUSION There is a need to improve menstrual hygiene practices amongst adolescent girls. Awareness building on menstrual hygiene and other factors like traditional beliefs and practices needs to be addressed.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome and intervening factors in adolescents from 15 to 18 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Gusmão, Laís Silveira; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues de; Gonçalves, Vivian Siqueira Santos; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    To assess the factors related to the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study, with female adolescents from 15 to 18 years old, divided into: group 1 (with a medical diagnosis of PCOS) and group 2 (not diagnosed with PCOS). The height-for-age index and the body mass index were used for classifying the nutritional status, and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied. The Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, Spearman correlation coefficients, and logistic regression were used. This study evaluated 485 adolescents with an average age of 16.3 ± 0.9 years old. The prevalence of PCOS was 6.2%. No difference was found between the groups regarding anthropometric parameters and period of contraceptive use; however, there were differences regarding the age at menarche (p factor against the syndrome. An association was found between younger age at menarche and the development of the PCOS in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of periodontitis among the adolescents aged 15-18 years in Mangalore City: An epidemiological and microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pallavi Nanaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. Both aggressive periodontitis (AP and chronic periodontitis (CP have a multifactorial etiology, with dental plaque as the initiating factor. However, the initiation and progression of periodontitis are influenced by other factors including microbiologic, social and behavioral and systemic and genetic factors. The prevalence of periodontal diseases varies in different regions of the world according to the definition of periodontitis and the study population, and there are indications that they may be more prevalent in developing than in developed countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescents of 15-18 years of age in Mangalore City. One thousand one hundred students aged 15-18 years were selected for the study from the schools and colleges in Mangalore City using a convenient sampling method. The prevalence of AP and CP were assessed in the study using a community periodontal index. Students who were diagnosed clinically and radiographically were subjected to microbiological examination to confirm AP. Results: A high prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was found in students belonging to the lower socioeconomic status group compared with the higher socioeconomic groups, which were associated with poor oral hygiene habits. The prevalence of AP was found to be 0.36% and that of CP was found to be 1.5%. Conclusion: Oral diseases have a significant impact on the social and psychological aspects of an individual′s life. Exposure to risk factors, such as age, low socio-economic status, poor education, low dental care utilization, poor oral hygiene levels, smoking, psychosocial stress and genetic factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis among adolescents. Although genetic factors play a major role in periodontitis, the treatment outcome will still be

  9. [The relationship between domestic violence and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in married women between 15 and 49 years of age in a rural area of Manisa, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Deveci, Artuner

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of depression in women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and to determine if there was a relationship between depression score, and socioeconomic variables and the presence of domestic violence. The study group included women aged 15-49 years that lived in the Manisa/Muradiye Health Center catchment area. The minimum sample size was calculated as 224 and multistage sampling was used (random sampling plus cluster sampling). In all, 225 women enrolled in the study and were administered the BDI and a sociodemographic questionnaire that collected depressive symptomatology, domestic violence, and sociodemographic data. In addition to the descriptive data, univariate and multivariate odds ratios were obtained. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (BDI score≥17) was 14.7%. In all, 32.9% of the women had experienced domestic violence. Multivariate analysis revealed that the prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among the women that had experienced domestic violence and reported having a chronic illness (pviolence were quite high among the married women in this study. Preventive mental health programs should be developed and implemented in the study area.

  10. Reliability and Sensitivity of the Power Push-up Test for Upper-Body Strength and Power in 6-15-Year-Old Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia A; McKay, Brianna D; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Leutzinger, Todd J; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-01-01

    Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AA, McKay, BD, Jenkins, NDM, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Reliability and sensitivity of the power push-up test for upper-body strength and power in 6-15-year-old male athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 83-96, 2018-The power push-up (PPU) test is an explosive upper-body test performed on a force plate and is currently being used in high school football combines throughout the United States. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of the PPU test based on age and starting position (knees vs. toes) in young athletes. Sixty-eight boys (mean ± SD; age = 10.8 ± 2.0 years) were tested twice over 5 days. Boys were separated by age as 6-9 years (n = 16), 10-11 years (n = 26), and 12-15 years (n = 26). The PPU test was performed on a force plate while rotating from the knees vs. the toes. Measurements were peak force (PF, N), peak rate of force development (pRFD, N·s), average power (AP, W), and peak power (PP, W). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1), SEMs, coefficients of variation (CVs), and minimum detectable changes (MDCs) were calculated to quantify reliability and sensitivity. Peak force from the knees in 10-15-year-olds, PF from the toes in 12-15-year-olds, and pRFD from the knees and toes in 12-15-year-olds were comparably reliable (ICC ≥ 0.84). Neither power measurements (AP or PP) for any age group, nor any measurements (PF, pRFD, AP, or PP) for the 6-9-year-olds were comparably reliable (ICC ≤ 0.74). When considering the reliable variables, PF was greater in the 12-15-year-olds than in 10-11-year-olds (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, in 12-15-year-olds, PF and pRFD were greater from the knees than from the toes (p ≤ 0.05). For reasons largely attributable to growth and development, the PPU test may be a reliable (ICC ≥ 0.80) and sensitive (CV ≤ 19%) measure of upper-body strength (PF), whereas pRFD was also reliable (ICC ≥ 0.80), but less sensitive (CV = 30-38%) in 10-15-year-old male athletes.

  11. 15 CFR 746.9 - Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Syria. 746.9 Section 746.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS EMBARGOES AND OTHER SPECIAL...

  12. 9 CFR 121.15 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... select agents or toxins are handled or stored (e.g., laboratories, growth chambers, animal rooms... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training. 121.15 Section 121.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...

  13. Radiological features of osteoarticular changes in long-term (15 years) hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Ghedini, M.; Cardona, P.; Bedani, P.L.; Storari, A.; Scutellari, P.N.; Cavallari, L.

    1991-01-01

    Osteoarticular complications, which are characterized by osseous pain, pathologic fractures, and decreased articular mobility, represent one of the mayor problems affecting long-term (over 15 years) hemodialysis patients. These changes seem to have a multifactorial etiology; they include osteomalacia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Ten patients (5 males and 5 females, mean age 55± 7 years) on long-term (over 15 years) hemodialysis were submitted to X-ray examinations of the skull, spine, shoulders, wrists, pelvis, and knees. Serum calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and basal aluminium levels were also calculated. Osteopenia was demonstrated in all patients. Seven of them had alterations due to hyperparathyroidism. Six patients exhibited signs related to dialysis spondyloarthropathy; in 9 cases amyloid lesions, geodes, and erosions were present in wrists, humeral heads, or hips. One patients exhibited osteomalacic changes. Most long-terms dialysis patients presented multifactorial osteoarticular changes due to hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Clinical sympoms and decreased articular mobility appeared to be due mainly to amyloid osteoarthropathy

  14. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...... NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  15. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 1/2 years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public, and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL test. Methods: Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results: Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. Conclusion: In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  16. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  17. Status of HIV Epidemic Control Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Aged 15-24 Years - Seven African Countries, 2015-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristin; Williams, Daniel B; Kinchen, Steve; Saito, Suzue; Radin, Elizabeth; Patel, Hetal; Low, Andrea; Delgado, Stephen; Mugurungi, Owen; Musuka, Godfrey; Tippett Barr, Beth A; Nwankwo-Igomu, E Amaka; Ruangtragool, Leala; Hakim, Avi J; Kalua, Thokozani; Nyirenda, Rose; Chipungu, Gertrude; Auld, Andrew; Kim, Evelyn; Payne, Danielle; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; West, Christine; Brennan, Elizabeth; Deutsch, Beth; Worku, Anteneh; Jonnalagadda, Sasi; Mulenga, Lloyd B; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Barradas, Danielle T; Cai, Haotian; Gupta, Sundeep; Kamocha, Stanley; Riggs, Margaret A; Sachathep, Karampreet; Kirungi, Wilford; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Biraro, Sam; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Galbraith, Jennifer; Kiyingi, Herbert; Farahani, Mansoor; Hladik, Wolfgang; Nyangoma, Edith; Ginindza, Choice; Masangane, Zandile; Mhlanga, Fortune; Mnisi, Zandile; Munyaradzi, Pasipamire; Zwane, Amos; Burke, Sean; Kayigamba, Felix B; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Sahabo, Ruben; Ao, Trong T; Draghi, Chiara; Ryan, Caroline; Philip, Neena M; Mosha, Fausta; Mulokozi, Aroldia; Ntigiti, Phausta; Ramadhani, Angela A; Somi, Geoffrey R; Makafu, Cecilia; Mugisha, Veronicah; Zelothe, Julius; Lavilla, Kayla; Lowrance, David W; Mdodo, Rennatus; Gummerson, Elizabeth; Stupp, Paul; Thin, Kyaw; Frederix, Koen; Davia, Stefania; Schwitters, Amee M; McCracken, Stephen D; Duong, Yen T; Hoos, David; Parekh, Bharat; Justman, Jessica E; Voetsch, Andrew C

    2018-01-12

    In 2016, an estimated 1.5 million females aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (3.4%) is more than double that for males in the same age range (1.6%) (1). Progress was assessed toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2020 targets for adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa (90% of those with HIV infection aware of their status, 90% of HIV-infected persons aware of their status on antiretroviral treatment [ART], and 90% of those on treatment virally suppressed [HIV viral load girls and young women aged 15-24 years, the percentage who were aware of their status, and among those persons who were aware, the percentage who had achieved viral suppression were calculated. The target for viral suppression among all persons with HIV infection is 73% (the product of 90% x 90% x 90%). Among all seven countries, the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women was 3.6%; among those in this group, 46.3% reported being aware of their HIV-positive status, and 45.0% were virally suppressed. Sustained efforts by national HIV and public health programs to diagnose HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women as early as possible to ensure rapid initiation of ART should help achieve epidemic control among adolescent girls and young women.

  18. Partial trisomy 9p derivatived from a maternal reciprocal translocation 9;15. Case reports.

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    Elodia Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to highlight the importance of performing karyotype in children with congenital malformations in order to have a confirmatory diagnosis, in parents to exclude the possibility of being carriers of chromosomal abnormalities and perform the genetic counseling. Clinical cases description: Female patient with 3 years and 2 months old to whom karyotype was performed by global neurodevelopmental delay and microcephaly, and her mother with 34 years old without any clinical manifestations, to both patients, lymphocyte culture and chromosomal analysis with a High Resolution Banding techniques GTG and C were performed. The mother’s karyotype was 46,XX,t(9;15(q10;q10(p10;p10,add14p. The father’s karyotype was normal, 46,XY, and the girl’s karyotype resulted in a pure Trisomy 9p:  47,XX,+del(9(q11. Discussion: This chromosomal rearrangement in mother included a nonhomologous reciprocal translocation between the long arms of pair chromosomes 9 and 15 and between the short arms of the same chromosomes, additional to it, an unknown origin material was also observed in short arm from one chromosome of the 14 pair. In meiosis of this type of rearrangement, the father’s normal homologous chromosomes are paired with the mother’s translocated chromosomes and as a result of 3:1 segregation a gamete with one chromosome else was originated that after fertilization resulted in an unbalanced translocation confirming the pure trisomy in the patient.

  19. [Homicides between men aged 15 to 29 years and related factors in the State of Paraná, Brazil, 2002/2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Darli Antonio; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Hiury Dutra

    2011-01-01

    Homicides are the main cause of non-natural death in Brazil and studies about them may contribute to their control. The objective of this study was to verify mortality rates due to homicides and legal interventions among young men in the State of Paraná, Brazil, and to identify correlated municipal characteristics. An ecological study was conducted, having the municipalities of the State as units of analysis. Mortality rates of homicides and legal interventions among men from 15 to 29 years of age were calculated for the years 2002-2004 and demographic and social municipal indicators were obtained. Mortality rate in the State was 94.8 per one hundred thousand. The size of the population, the proportion of young people aged 15 to 24 years, the proportion of enrollments in universities and the Gini index were the main indicators correlated to homicide mortality (pBrazil. Mortality rates and the proportion of deaths due to firearms increased with the size of the municipality. The greater number of youth and easier access to firearms and illicit drugs in such places may be influencing on these rates.

  20. Effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on cognition and behaviour at 9 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special

  1. Sixteen-year comparisons of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in Norwegian children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Studies about changes in the prevalence of emotional and behaviour problems across time are lacking, especially among younger children. To determine if the level of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in young Norwegian school children had changed across a 16-year time interval. We compared parent reports obtained by the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples of children aged 7-9 years from the general population assessed in 1991 and 2007. The results demonstrated overall stability or slight decreases of emotional and behaviour problems and a significant increase in competencies, mainly due to increased activity and social competence scores in the 2007 sample. Boys obtained higher scores than girls in Total Problems, Externalizing and Attention problems at both time points and there was a high stability of the rank order of items. The findings suggest stability in child emotional and behaviour problems, and an increase of competencies across the period.

  2. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Risk Factors of Obesity in Children 5-15 Years Old

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    Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the result of positive energy balance for long periods of time. The problem of obesity can occur at the age of children, teens to adults. The purpose of this study is to identify the most dominant factor of obesity in children (5-15 years using Basic Health Research in 2007. The proportion of obesity (percentile >95 in children (5-15 years old was 8.3%. The risk factor which mostly associated with obesity was the level of education after being controlled by sex, father's obesity, exercise and smoking habits and intake of protein. To overcome obesity problem in children (5-15 years old, it is needed to provide health education for children from an early age through enhanced IEC (Information, Education and Communication such as anti smoking program, love of fiber (vegetables and fruits and develop a culture of sport activities.

  4. Assessment of gross motor skills and phenotype profile in children 9-11 years of age in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Mario; Viret, Pierre; Bui, Hung Tien; Laverdière, Caroline; Kalinova, Émilia; Comtois, Alain-Steve

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new gross motor skill test battery in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children who have been off therapy for at least 1 year and to assess its discriminatory power (discriminant analysis) from healthy children. Twenty children (10 males and 10 females) 9-11 years of age (median age = 10.6 years) were assessed by the UQAC-UQAM test battery and then compared to recent provincial norms. This pilot study was also an opportunity to validate this test battery as a reliable tool for clinical or research purposes in the area of chronic or disabling diseases in children. Eleven motor skill variables grouped into five factors have been measured (speed, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time). Scores from 10 of the 11 motor skill tests showed significant differences when compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Nearly 50% of patients obtained an average score below the 15th percentile. Furthermore, stepwise discriminant analysis allowed classifying successfully 88.4% of children in the correct group (ALL or Control). The normal development of GMS among children affected by ALL appears to have been compromised. The UQAC-UQAM test battery seems to be sensitive enough to quantify with precision the extent of the motor impairment in these children. The UQAC-UQAM test battery appears to be a useful tool to evaluate the extent to which ALL survivors are affected. Early motor intervention should be considered for those patients even during the treatment periods. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prevalence of eating disorders in female and male adolescents (14-15 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsås, Einar; Bjørnstrøm, Christian; Götestam, K Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in adolescents of both genders. To our knowledge, such data have not previously been published using both DSM-IV and DSM-III-R criteria. The study sample consisted of 1960 adolescents (1026 girls and 934 boys), 14-15 years of age. The participants completed the Survey for Eating Disorders (SEDs), including DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses for all subcategories of ED. Lifetime prevalence of any ED among girls was 17.9% anorexia nervosa (AN) 0.7%, bulimia nervosa (BN) 1.2%, binge eating disorder (BED) 1.5%, and EDs not otherwise specified (EDNOS) 14.6%. Corresponding numbers for boys for any ED is 6.5%, AN 0.2%, BN 0.4%, BED 0.9%, and EDNOS 5.0%. Our prevalence rates on AN, BN, and BED largely support previous school/community-based studies, while our figures on EDNOS were rather high. Generally, we found high numbers for boys with ED.

  6. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  7. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  8. Social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers in children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years: who is perceived as most supportive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, C.L.; Sumter, S.R.; Westenberg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social

  9. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eKristen-Antonow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness towards social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self recognition (MSR and delayed self recognition (DSR. Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze towards social partners during the still-face task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness towards a social partner in the still-face task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness towards being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness towards the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self.

  10. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar; Indredavik, Marit; Vik, Torstein

    2005-01-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  12. Comportamiento de la tuberculosis en adolescentes de 15 a 18 años Situation of tuberculosis in 15 to 18 years-old adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynier Coro González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la adolescencia constituye una edad de riesgo para la tuberculosis. Objetivo: caracterizar la tuberculosis en adolescentes de entre 15 y 18 años en La Habana, en el período 2001-2010. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, en el universo de adolescentes de 15 a 18 años afectados de tuberculosis, de la provincia La Habana, desde el 1º de enero de 2001 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2010. De las encuestas epidemiológicas se revisaron: variables demográficas, categoría epidemiológica, topografía de la lesión, estudios realizados y resultados del tratamiento. Resultados: se reportó una incidencia de 32 casos, con 8 casos en 2001 y 6 en 2010, y tasas de 8,6 y 4,9 × 100 mil habitantes de 15-18 años respectivamente. Predominó el sexo masculino y la edad de 18 años, sin relación con el color de la piel. Los municipios más afectados fueron 10 de Octubre, Habana Vieja y Centro Habana. Predominaron los estudiantes (17-53,1 %, de ellos 5 en escuelas internas; 9 eran desocupados (28,1 %, incluyendo 1 recluso. En la mayoría (20 casos, 62 % no se encontró el contacto infectante. Predominó la forma pulmonar (27-84,4 %, con 44,4 % de baciloscopias positivas. No se reportó coinfección con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Todos recibieron el tratamiento estrictamente supervisado y curaron, con excepción de un fallecido en la segunda semana de tratamiento. Conclusiones: es necesario profundizar en los factores que inciden en la tuberculosis en este grupo de edad, así como garantizar un mayor aislamiento microbiológico y búsqueda exhaustiva de la fuente de infección.Introduction: adolescence is a risky age for tuberculosis. Objective: to characterize tuberculosis in 15-16 years old adolescents in Havana from 2001-2010. Methods: a cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was conducted in a universe of 15-18 years-old adolescents with tuberculosis from Havana in the period

  13. Anthropometric and body composition indicators of males and females between ages 20 and 39,9 years

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    Cândido Simões Pires Neto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze anthropometric and body composition variables of males and females aged 20-40 years. The sample was made up of 4 groups: G1, n=70; G3, n=70, males and females aged 20-29,9yo respectively; G2, males=20 and G4, females = 19 aged 30-39,9yo. Subjects were evaluated for height (H, cm, weight (W, kg, skinfolds (SKF, mm, percent fat (%fat and Lean Body Mass (LBM, kg. Body density was estimated according to equations by Petroski (1995 and %fat according to Siri (1961. Descriptive statistics, independent t test and single-sample t test were used for data analysis. Signifi cant differences were found for males on SS and TR SKF, density, %fat and FM between age groups, and for females at calf SKF, and %fat. Signifi cant differences were observed between indicators/mean values from other published reports when compared to this study’s results. In conclusion, males were shown to have much larger variability in all analyzed variables that their female counterparts. RESUMO O objetivo deste foi investigar indicadores antropométricos e da composição corporal de homens e mulheres entre 20 e 39,9 anos de idade. A amostra foi dividida em 4 grupos, sendo G1 (n=70 e G3 (n=70, homens e mulheres de 20 a 29,9 anos, respectivamente; e, G2 (homens, n=20 e G4 (mulheres, n=19, entre 30 e 39,9 anos de idade, sendo analisados nas variáveis estatura (EST, cm, massa corporal (MC, kg e dobras cutâneas (DC, mm. Para estimativa da densidade corporal (D, foi utilizada a equação proposta por Petroski (1995. O cálculo da gordura relativa (%G, foi estimado através da equação de Siri (1961. Usou-se a estatística descritiva, teste “t” para grupos independentes e teste “t” para uma amostra. Foram observadas diferenças signifi cativas entre DC subescapular, tricipital, %G e massa de gordura entre G1 e G2; e entre G3 e G4 em DC de panturrilha medial e %G. Observou-se diferenças signifi cativas entre indicadores/valores m

  14. DEPENDENCE OF THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION OF SCHOOLGIRLS AGED 12–15 YEARS FROM THEIR LIFESTYLE PECULIARITIES

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    A. G. Sukharev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Judging upon the results of recent studies we can state that over the past years there is a negative tendency in reproductive health of schoolgirls aged 12–15. Study objective was to evaluate dependency of reproductive function of schoolgirls from their lifestyle. A hypothesis has been stated upon presence of causal relations in the biosocial system «Health–Lifestyle» and upon necessity of healthy lifestyle motivation to preserve girl’s reproductive health. 128 girls took part in the study from 5–7 forms from 2 Moscow schools. Results of the study stand for well-timed correction of the girl’s lifestyles in order to prevent disorders of reproductive system.m.

  15. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6-9 years

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    Wendell Costa Bila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O dilution as a reference. METHODS: Percentage of total body water (%TBW, fat free mass (%FFM, and body fat (%BF were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST, body mass index (BMI, conicity index (CI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and waist-to-hip (WHR ratio were also used. RESULTS: Mean values for body composition were 38.4% ± 8.4% BF, 44.9% ± 6.1% TBW and 61.6% ± 8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM, TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p < 0.05. BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p < 0.05. The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (s= 0.679, CI (r = 0.634, and WHtR (r = 0.666. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders.

  16. Assessing the Efficacy of Tadalafil in Reducing Pulmonary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents Aged 5 Months-15 Years

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    MR Alipour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children has consequences such as right ventricular failure and even death. Recently, the use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors has been taken into account in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, among which tadalafil is more acceptable by parents and patients due to its single dose per day compared to sildenafil which should be taken 4 times a day. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of tadalafil on reducing pulmonary artery pressure in children and adolescents aged 5 months to 15 years old. Methods: This before and after type study entailed 20 patients of 5-month to 15-year with pulmonary arterial hypertension who had outpatient visits in Yazd Khatam-L-Anbiya clinic during 2013-2014. The participants were diagnosed by echocardiography, considering that they had not ever received any pulmonary arterial pressure lowering medicine up to now, whose congenital heart disease were inoperable. They were then treated using a single dose of oral tadalafil for 6 months. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software via t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: Mean of pulmonary arterial pressure before and six months after taking tadalafil were 52.30 ± 7.948 mmHg and 33/55 ± 10/34 mmHg, respectively, which on average it was decreased by 18.75 mmHg(pv<0.0001. The mean of arterial oxygen saturation was reported %82.45 ± 7.14 and %86.25 ± 6.496 before and after taking tadalafil, respectively which was increased by 3.9% (pv<0.0001. The severity of tricuspid failure was reduced from moderate to mild level. No serious complication was observed leading to drug discontinuation in the patients’ follow-ups. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that tadalafil drug is effective on the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension within children and adolescents. Moreover, it can be used instead of sildenafil, due to its single dose per day.

  17. Changes in self-esteem in black and white girls between the ages of 9 and 14 years - The NHLBI growth and health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, KM; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Crawford, P; Schreiber, GB; Similo, SL; Waclawiw, M; Striegel-Moore, R

    Purpose: We examined changes in self-esteem and feelings of competence with physical appearance and social acceptance over approximately 5 years in 1166 white and 1213 black girls, aged 9 and 10 years at baseline. Methods: Maturation stage and body mass index (BMI) were assessed annually. Biennially

  18. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  19. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the

  2. Salomon: '97 E and P looking strongest in 9 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Based on companies' disclosed spending plans, 1997 is shaping up to be the strongest year-ahead outlook in 9 years, according to Salomon Bros. Inc. Salomon Bros.' conclusion stems from its 15th annual survey of worldwide oil and gas exploration and production spending. The survey, released last month, included 125 US independents, 97 Canadian companies, 103 companies outside the US and Canada, and 15 majors. Significantly, when the 15% growth experienced in 1996 is combined with the 1997 outlook, it represents the strongest indicator of 2-year activity in the past 15 years, said Salomon Bros. Double-digit spending growth is projected in all regions for 1997, the analyst said. Salomon Bros. said a higher percentage of companies' E and P budgets are being allocated to offshore projects, driven in part by attractive prospects, 3D seismic technology, and increased operational efficiencies

  3. 9 CFR 416.15 - Corrective Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrective Actions. 416.15 Section 416... SANITATION § 416.15 Corrective Actions. (a) Each official establishment shall take appropriate corrective... the procedures specified therein, or the implementation or maintenance of the Sanitation SOP's, may...

  4. Social Support from Parents, Friends, Classmates, and Teachers in Children and Adolescents Aged 9 to 18 Years: Who Is Perceived as Most Supportive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Sumter, Sindy R.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social support from parents and friends was similar across…

  5. The effects of house moves during early childhood on child mental health at age 9years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumbold Alice R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential mobility is common in families with young children; however, its impact on the social development of children is unclear. We examined associations between the number, timing and type of house moves in childhood and child behaviour problems using data from an ongoing longitudinal study. Methods Complete data on residential mobility and child behaviour was available for 403 families. Three aspects of mobility were considered: (a number of house moves from birth to Results Moving house ≥2 times before 2 years of age was associated with an increased internalizing behaviour score at age 9years. This association remained after adjustment for sociodemographic and household factors. There was no association between increased residential mobility in other time periods and internalizing behaviour, or mobility in any period and externalizing behaviour. There was no effect of lifetime number of moves, or of an upwardly or downwardly mobile housing trajectory. However, a housing trajectory characterized by continuous rental occupancy was associated with an increased externalizing behaviour score. Conclusions These findings may suggest that there is a sensitive period, in the first few years of life, in which exposure to increased residential mobility has a detrimental effect on mental health in later childhood.

  6. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garvin

    Full Text Available The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma.To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up.428 men and 438 women, aged 45-69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein.53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033. Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low.Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events.

  7. THE BASIC DATA FOR RESIDENTS AGED 15 YEARS OR YOUNGER WHO RECEIVED A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CHECK IN 2011-2012 AS A PART OF THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY AFTER THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Satoh, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    To assist in the long-term health management of residents and evaluate the health impacts after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima Prefecture, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to implement the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This report describes the results for residents aged 15 years or younger who received health checks and evaluates the data obtained from 2011 and 2012. The target group consisted of residents aged 15 years or younger who had lived in the evacuation zone. The health checks were performed on receipt of an application from any of the residents. The checks, which included the measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, biochemical laboratory findings, and peripheral blood findings, were performed as required. 1) A total of 17,934 (64.5%) and 11,780 (43.5%) residents aged 15 years or younger received health checks in 2011 and 2012, respectively. 2) In both years, a number of male and female residents in the 7-15 year age group were found to suffer from obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, or liver dysfunction. Furthermore, pediatric aged 15 years or younger were commonly observed to suffer from hypertension or glucose metabolic abnormalities. 3) A comparison of data from 2012 and 2011 demonstrated that both males and females frequently showed increased body height and decreased body weight in 2012. The prevalence of hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities, or high γ-GTP values in males and females in the 7-15 year age group in 2012 was lower than that in 2011. However, the prevalence of hyperuricemia among residents in the 7-15 year age group was higher in 2012 than in 2011. These results suggested that some residents aged 15 years or under who had lived in the evacuation zone had developed obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, liver dysfunction, hypertension, or glucose metabolic abnormalities. Therefore, we think that it is necessary to continue the health

  8. Effect of Parent-Daughter Communication about Sex on the Use of Less Effective Contraception among Women from Ages 15-24 Years in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoureux, Solène; Bajos, Nathalie; Ringa, Virginie

    2018-02-01

    Most women begin sexual activity as teenagers but nearly 20% of women in France younger than 25 years rely on less effective contraceptive methods (condoms or methods such as withdrawal or periodic abstinence). We sought to analyze the association with less effective contraception among women aged 15-24 years in France and communication about sex and contraception with their parents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The analyses focused on 713 sexually active women who did not currently want a child, were using contraception, and were interviewed in 2010 in a national cross-sectional probability survey (FEcondité CONtraception Dysfonctions sexuelles [FECOND]) when they were 15-24 years old. Associations between the use of less effective contraception, social and demographic characteristics, sexual activity, health characteristics, and communication with parents and friends about sexuality and contraception were tested with logistic regression models according to age group. Less effective contraception (condoms, and barrier or natural methods) is used more often by younger women: 27.5% of 15- to 19-year-old women and 14.7% of 20- to 24-year-old women (P communication to use less effective contraception (for those 15-19 years, odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-4.10, and for those 20-24 years, odds ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-4.26). Difficulty in communicating with their parents, especially their mothers, about sex, is associated with young women's choice of less effective contraception. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15 to 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne

    2017-01-18

    Among Canadians aged 15 to 24, the rate of depression is higher than at any other age, and suicide is the second leading cause of death. The current study provides detailed information about depression and suicidal ideation among young Canadians, including their use of mental health support. Data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH) were used to describe rates and experiences of depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15 to 24, including psychosocial characteristics of those who had depression or reported suicidal thoughts. Characteristics associated with seeking professional support were also examined. About 11% of Canadians aged 15 to 24 had experienced depression in their lifetime; 7%, in the past year. Approximately 14% reported having had suicidal thoughts in their lifetime; 6%, in the past year. Lifetime depression and suicidal thoughts were moderately correlated (r = .34, p ⟨ .001). Individuals with lifetime depression had more than four times the odds of seeking professional support in the previous year, compared with those who did not have lifetime depression; those with lifetime suicidal thoughts had more than three times the odds of seeking professional support, compared with those who did not have lifetime suicidal thoughts. Psychosocial factors such as negative social interactions and lower perceived ability to deal with stress were associated with depression and suicidal thoughts, although these associations differed for males and females. The findings suggest that many young Canadians have depression and/or suicidal thoughts. Their odds of seeking professional support are significantly high.

  10. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celakovská, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerová, K; Vaněčková, J

    2014-05-01

    Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  11. 15 CFR 2008.9 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 2008.9 Section 2008.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  12. Quality of life in stroke survivors under the sixty years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Mirjana; Sinanović, Osman; Smajlović, Dzevdet

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life six months after stroke in survivors under sixty years of age, to determine which life activities was the most affected, as well as to correlate the neurological insufficiency and the quality of life. It monitored 200 stroke survivors under sixty years of age treated at the Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla. Average age was 51,83 years (+/-7,02). The ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 77,5% stroke survivors, cerebral hemorrhage in 15%, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 7,5%. Five stroke survivors suffered hemiplegia (2,5%), 24 (12%) experienced moderate consequences and 143 (71,5%) had mild consequences. No neurological deficit had 28 (14%) stroke survivors. Six months after the onset of disease all stroke survivors have been followed-up and evaluated about quality of life by filling in a modified questionnaire: Questionnaire on Quality of Life after Stroke (2). The questionnaire contained 20 questions covering four fields of life: Working Ability, Home Activity, Family Relations and Leisure Activities. Six months after the onset of stroke a worse quality of life in comparison to the period before the disease was noted in 172 (86%) stroke survivors, the unchanged in 19 (9,5%) and better in 9 (4,5%). The most affected is the field "Leisure Activities", followed by "Family Relations", "Home Activity", and the least affected is "Work Ability". The neurological deficit significantly correlates to the "Home Activities" and "Leisure Activities".

  13. Causes of death among children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe H; Stein, Claudia E; Boschi Pinto, Cynthia; Rakovac, Ivo; Weber, Martin W; Dannemann Purnat, Tina; Amuah, Joseph E; Glenn, Scott D; Cercy, Kelly; Biryukov, Stan; Gold, Audra L; Chew, Adrienne; Mooney, Meghan D; O'Rourke, Kevin F; Sligar, Amber; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    The mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region has not been comprehensively studied. We assessed the distribution and trends of the main causes of death among children aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years from 1990 to 2016, for 51 countries in the WHO European Region. We used data from vital registration systems, cancer registries, and police records from 1980 to 2016 to estimate cause-specific mortality using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. For children aged 5-9 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were estimated to be 46·3 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 45·1-47·5) in 1990 and 19·5 (18·1-20·9) in 2016, reflecting a 58·0% (54·7-61·1) decline. For children aged 10-14 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were 37·9 (37·3-38·6) in 1990 and 20·1 (18·8-21·3) in 2016, reflecting a 47·1% (43·8-50·4) decline. In 2016, we estimated 10 740 deaths (95% UI 9970-11 542) in children aged 5-9 years and 10 279 deaths (9652-10 897) in those aged 10-14 years in the WHO European Region. Injuries (road injuries, drowning, and other injuries) caused 4163 deaths (3820-4540; 38·7% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 4468 deaths (4162-4812; 43·5% of total) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Neoplasms caused 2161 deaths (1872-2406; 20·1% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 1943 deaths (1749-2101; 18·9% of total deaths) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Notable differences existed in cause-specific mortality rates between the European subregions, from a two-times difference for leukaemia to a 20-times difference for lower respiratory infections between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and EU15 (the 15 member states that had joined the European Union before May, 2004). Marked progress has been made in reducing the mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years over the past 26 years in the WHO European Region. More deaths could be prevented, especially in

  14. Treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Sweden: outcomes at seven years in the Swedish Macula Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westborg, Inger; Granstam, Elisabet; Rosso, Aldana; Albrecht, Susanne; Karlsson, Niklas; Lövestam-Adrian, Monica

    2017-12-01

    To present Swedish Macula Register (SMR) data regarding treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in clinical practice since 2008. A retrospective register-based study was conducted. Evaluation of baseline demographics, visual outcome and number of injections during this period is presented. Mean age at diagnosis was 79 ± (SD) 8 years; 65% were female. The proportion of patients with <2 months' duration of symptoms increased from 26% in 2008 to 41% in 2014 (p = 0.001). Mean visual acuity (VA) at baseline increased from 54.3 ± 15.0 early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) letters in 2008 to 57.8 ± 15.6 letters in 2014 (CI 95 2.6; 4.3; p < 0.001). Mean VA after 1 year of treatment increased from 57.8 ± 17.7 ETDRS letters for patients who started the treatment in 2008 to 62.8 ± 16.4 ETDRS letters in patients starting treatment in 2014 (CI 95 2.67; 4.64; p < 0.001). During all study years, the proportion of patients with an improvement in VA of between 5 and 15 letters was around 30%, while 14% had VA improvement of more than 15 letters. The mean number of injections during the first treatment year increased from 4.3 ± 1.9 in 2008 to 5.9 ± 2.9 in 2014 (CI 95 1.40; 1.67; p < 0.001). Seven-year follow-up of 322 eyes showed a mean change of -1 letters from baseline, with a mean of 21 injections for the entire period. The duration of symptoms before treatment decreased, while VA at baseline and after 1 year of treatment increased over the years and so did the number of injections. Long-term follow-up demonstrated stable VA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: Assessing the relationship between internalising symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9-11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eKennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalising symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven Year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS - a universal school-based program targeting internalising symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-month follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalising symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as nine years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalising symptomology.

  16. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.

  17. Risk of injury in basketball, football, and soccer players, ages 15 years and older, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth A; Westerman, Beverly J; Hunting, Katherine L

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in the field of sports injury epidemiology is identifying the appropriate denominators for injury rates. To characterize risk of injury from participation in basketball, football, and soccer in the United States, using hours of participation as the measure of exposure, and to compare these rates with those derived using population estimates in the denominator. Descriptive epidemiology study. United States, 2003-2007. People ages 15 years and older who experienced an emergency department-treated injury while playing basketball, football, or soccer. Rates of emergency department-treated injuries resulting from participation in basketball, football, or soccer. Injury rates were calculated for people ages 15 and older for the years 2003-2007 using the U.S. population and hours of participation as the denominators. The risk of injury associated with each of these sports was compared for all participants and by sex. From 2003 through 2007, annual injury rates per 1000 U.S. population were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30, 1.67) in basketball, 0.93 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.04) in football, and 0.43 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.53) in soccer. When the denominator was hours of participation, the injury rate in football (5.08 [95% CI = 4.46, 5.69]/10 000 hours) was almost twice as high as that for basketball (2.69 [95% CI = 2.35, 3.02]/10 000 hours) and soccer (2.69 [95% CI = 2.07, 3.30]/10 000 hours). Depending on the choice of denominator, interpretation of the risk of an emergency department-treated injury in basketball, football, or soccer varies greatly. Using the U.S. population as the denominator produced rates that were highest in basketball and lowest in soccer. However, using hours of participation as a more accurate measure of exposure demonstrated that football had a higher rate of injury than basketball or soccer for both males and females.

  18. Executive function in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (12-15years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnes, Sonia; Min, Meeyoung O; Short, Elizabeth J; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T

    Prenatal exposure to cocaine (PCE) may alter areas of the brain dense with monoamine receptors such as the prefrontal cortex and negatively affect cognitive processes implicated in executive function (EF). This study investigated the effects of PCE on EF at 12 and 15years. EF was examined in 189 PCE and 183 non-cocaine exposed (NCE) children who were primarily African American and of low socioeconomic status. Caregivers rated their child on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) at ages 12 and 15. The BRIEF includes two summary scales and eight subscales: Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) (Inhibit, Shift, and Emotion) and Metacognition Index (MI) (Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials and Task Completion). Two additional measures were included at age 15 (BRIEF Self-Report and the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge (SOC)). Girls with PCE were perceived by caregivers to have more behavioral regulation problems at age 12 (p<0.005) and more metacognitive problems at age 12 (p<0.003) than NCE females, but there was no association for males. PCE girls improved in behavioral regulation (p<0.05) and metacognition (p<0.04) from 12 to 15years compared to NCE girls based on caregiver report. By self-report PCE was associated with problems of inhibition (p<0.006). Girls with PCE performed more poorly on number of moves to complete the SOC, requiring planning and problem solving, than NCE girls. Prenatally cocaine exposed girls were perceived by caregivers as having problems of behavioral regulation, and by self-report, inhibitory control problems. Girls with PCE also performed more poorly on a task of planning and problem solving at age 15 which corresponded to caregiver report at age 12. Early assessment and remediation of these weaknesses in girls may improve school performance and behavior associated with poor EF. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Increasing incidence and age at diagnosis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus over a 20-year period in Auckland (New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G B Derraik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children <15 years of age (yr in the Auckland region (New Zealand over 20 years (1990-2009. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients <15 yr diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, from an unselected complete regional cohort. RESULTS: There were 884 new cases of type 1 diabetes, and age at diagnosis rose from 7.6 yr in 1990/1 to 8.9 yr in 2008/9 (r(2 = 0.31, p = 0.009. There was a progressive increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr (p<0.0001, reaching 22.5 per 100,000 in 2009. However, the rise in incidence did not occur evenly among age groups, being 2.5-fold higher in older children (10-14 yr than in the youngest group (0-4 yr. The incidence of new cases of type 1 diabetes was highest in New Zealand Europeans throughout the study period in all age groups (p<0.0001, but the rate of increase was similar in New Zealand Europeans and Non-Europeans. Type 1 diabetes incidence and average annual increase were similar in both sexes. There was no change in BMI SDS shortly after diagnosis, and no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a steady increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr in Auckland over 20 years. Contrary to other studies, age at diagnosis has increased and the greatest rise in incidence occurred in children 10-14 yr. There was little change in BMI SDS in this population, providing no support for the 'accelerator hypothesis'.

  20. Comparative study of personality disorder associated with deliberate self harm in two different age groups (15-24 years and 45-74 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Saswati; Patra, Dipak Kumar; Biswas, Srilekha; Mallick, Asim Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam Kumar; Ghosh, Srijit

    2008-07-01

    To study the presence of personality disorder in cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) in young (15-24 years) and elderly (45-74 years) and compare. Deliberate self harm cases admitted in Medical and surgical departments and cases attending psychiatry department of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata were studied. For diagnosis of personality disorder ICD 10 International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) questionnaire was used. Percentage of elderly patients having personality disorder (64%) was higher compared to young DSH patients (58.5%). In young group, most common disorder was emotionally unstable personality disorder (28.6%) and in elderly group most common was anankastic type of personality disorder (36%). Schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, and anxious-avoidant personality disorders were found in small percentages of cases. Among DSH patients, the most common personality disorder found in young age was Emotionally unstable (Impulsive and Borderline) personality disorder, but most common personality disorder found in elderly patients was Anankastic personality disorder.

  1. 6 CFR 9.15 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 9.15... LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 9.15 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the... Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement if payment is for professional or technical...

  2. Aspectos epidemiológicos da meningite tuberculosa em menores de 15 anos de idade, na Grande São Paulo, Brasil, 1982 -1983 Epidemiological aspects of tuberculous meningits in children under 15 years of age, Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, 1982 -1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M.C. Nardy

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas algumas características epidemiológicas dos casos de meningite tuberculosa ocorridos em menores de 15 anos na Grande São Paulo (Brasil, nos anos de 1982 e 1983. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado em fontes oficiais de informação, complementado pela visitação domiciliária. Foram identificados 126 casos, analisados segundo distribuição etária, sexo, fonte de contágio, vacinação BCG, diagnóstico firmado, letalidade hospitalar, seqüelas e eventos ocorridos na seqüência do tratamento. Os resultados mostraram: demora no diagnóstico devido a prováveis falhas assistênciais, alta letalidade, identificação dos focos para a maioria dos casos. Houve dificuldade em avaliar a proteção conferida pela vacinação BCG e na ocorrência de seqüelas, o grupo de menores de 5 anos foi o mais comprometido (83,9% enquanto que a maior letalidade ocorreu no grupo de 0 a 1 ano de idade (43,1%. Houve 38,9% de cura; 33,3% de óbito; 15,1% de abandono e em 12,7% dos casos alguns permaneceram sob controle; e o restante era desconhecido pelo sistema de controle de notificações.Some epidemiological characteristics of cases of tuberculous meningitis which occurred in subjects under 15 years of age in Greater S. Paulo, S. Paulo State, Brazil, in 1982 and 1983, are studied. The cases were surveyed on the basis of official sources of information, complement by domiciliary visits. A hundred and twenty six (126 cases were identified and analysed by age, sex, source of contagion, BCG vaccination, confirmed diagnosis, hospital lethality, sequels and intercurrent events as part of the follow up. The results showed a delay in diagnosing the cases, possibly due to assistential failures; a high rate of lethality; identification of infectious focuses for the majority of the cases. There were difficulties in evaluating the protection provided by BCG vaccination and as regards sequels the most affected (83.9% were the under-fives while the

  3. Rectal carcinoma under 40 years of age: seven-year post-treatment follow-up at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, N.; Khan, S.; Alvi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and long-term follow-up of patients below 40 years of age with carcinoma rectum. Methods: The retrospective case series comprised all patients presenting with histopathological diagnosis of carcinoma rectum with age 15-40 years at the Aga Khan University Hospital between January 1994 and December 2004. Details regarding patient demographics, pre-operative assessment, management and tumour grade and stage were obtained from a prospectively maintained database. Continuous and categorical variables in the data were analysed. Results: Of the 23 patients in the study, 14 (60.89%) were male and 9 (39.13%) were female. Mean age of the subjects was 31+-5 years. Overall, 22 (95.6%) patients presented with rectal bleeding and 12 (52%) had altered bowel habit. The most common site for the tumour was lower rectum (n=20; 87%) and 13 (56.5%) required abdominoperineal resection. Local recurrence rate was 13% (n=3) and distant metastasis occurred in 2 (8.6%) patients during the seven year follow-up. Two (8.6%) patients died, and both had distant metastasis. Conclusion: Carcinoma rectum is uncommon but an important malignancy in patients aged below 40 years. The clinician should have a high index of suspicion in young patients presenting with bleeding per rectum, altered bowel habit and weight-loss. (author)

  4. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD 101 in a Box Home Script for Sex in the City Video STD Clinical Slides STD Clinical Slides STD Picture ... include: line graphs by year; pie charts for sex; bar charts by state and country; bar charts for age, race/ethnicity, and transmission ... Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  5. A comparison of the validity of the Demirjian, Willems, Nolla and Häävikko methods in determination of chronological age of 5-15 year-old Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sapna; Patodia, Akash; Dixit, Uma

    2017-08-01

    Demirjian's method has been the most popular and extensively tested radiographic method of age estimation. More recently, Willems' method has been reported to be a better predictor of age. Nolla's and Häävikko's methods have been used to a lesser extent. Very few studies have compared all four methods in non-Indian and Indian populations. Most Indian research is limited by inadequate sample sizes, age structures and grouping and different approaches to statistical analysis. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the validity of the Demirjian, Willems, Nolla and Häävikko methods in determination of chronological age of 5 to 15 year-old Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, four methods were compared for validity in estimating the age of 1200 Indian children aged 5-15 years. Demirjian's method overestimated age by +0.24 ± 0.80, +0.11 ± 0.81 and +0.19 ± 0.80 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. With Willems' method, overestimations of +0.09 ± 0.80, +0.08 ± 0.80 and +0.09 ± 0.80 years were obtained in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Nolla's method underestimated age by -0.13 ± 0.80, -0.30 ± 0.82 and -0.20 ± 0.81 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Häävikko's method underestimated age by -0.17 ± 0.80, -0.29 ± 0.83 and -0.22 ± 0.82 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between dental and chronological ages with all methods (p age, followed by Demirjian's, Nolla's and Häävikko's methods. All four methods could be applicable for estimating age in the present population, mean prediction errors being lower than 0.30 years (3.6 months). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age.

  7. Marital history from age 15 to 40 years and subsequent 10-year mortality: a longitudinal study of Danish males born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study are to analyse the association between marital status at age 24, 29, 34, and 39 years and subsequent mortality in a cohort of men born in 1953 (sensitive period); to study the impact of number of years married, number of years divorced/widowed, and number...... of Copenhagen, Denmark. Marital status in 1992 as well as start and termination of all previous marital status events from 1968 to 1992 were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Were hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from age 40 to 49 years. RESULTS: We found...... a strong protective effect of being married compared with never being married or divorced/widowed at every age. The association increased in strength with increasing age. Number of years divorced was associated with increased mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner at age 34 and 39 years. One or more...

  8. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences.

  9. Parent-Reported Bullying and Child Weight Gain between Ages 6 and 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Childhood bullying has long-term negative mental and physical health correlates, including weight gain and symptoms of depression. The purpose of this research is to examine whether bullying in the first year of school is associated with greater weight gain by early adolescence and whether adolescent depressive symptoms mediate this association. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children (N = 3929) were measured every 2 years; BMI and waist circumference were available from ages 4 to 15. Parents reported on bullying at age 6. Children reported on their depressive symptoms at ages 12-13. Participants who weighed in the obese category at age 4 had an over 50% increased risk of being bullied in school at age 6. Being bullied at age 6 was associated with excess weight gain between ages 6 and 15, defined as either BMI or waist circumference. Depressive symptoms at age 12 partially explained the association between bullying and increases in adiposity. None of the associations varied by gender. Similar to other forms of peer victimization, bullying early in school is associated with greater weight gain through early adolescence; depressive symptom is one mechanism that contributes to this association.

  10. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryns, J.P. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    -79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations......BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60...

  12. Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Dietrich, Kim N; Xu, Yingying; Xie, Changchun; Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment. To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years. We used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16±3weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility. Median serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5years, but not at age 8years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated

  13. Quality of Life in Stroke Survivors Under the Sixty Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Vidović

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life six months after the stroke in survivors under the sixty years of age, to determine which life activities was the most affected, as well as to correlate the neurological insufficiency and the quality of life.It was monitored 200 stroke survivors under the sixty years of age treated at the Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla. Average age was 51,83 years (±7,02. The ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 77,5% stroke survivors, cerebral hemorrhage in 15%, and subarahnoid hemorrhage in 7,5%. Five stroke survivors suffered hemi-plegia (2,5%, 24 (12% experienced moderate consequences and 143 (71,5% had mild consequences. No neurological deficit had 28 (14% stroke survivors. Six months after the onset of disease all stroke survivors have been at follow-up and evaluated about quality of life by filling in a modified questionnaire: Questionnaire on Quality of Life after Stroke (2. The questionnaire contained 20 questions covering four fields of life: Working Ability, Home Activity, Family Relations and Leisure Activities.Six months after the onset of stroke a worse quality of life in comparison to the period before the disease was noted in 172 (86% stroke survivors, the unchanged in 19 (9,5% and better in 9 (4,5%. The most affected is the field “Leisure Activities’, followed by “Family Relations’, “Home Activity’, and the least affected is “Work Ability’, The neurological deficit significantly correlates to the “Home Activities” and “Leisure Activities’.

  14. Patient-reported lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence, and quality of life after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer - 15 years' follow-up. A comparison with age-matched controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, Per

    2008-01-01

    Background. To prospectively examine the urinary toxicity and quality of life (QOL) in patients 15 years after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer (LPC) and compare the outcomes with results for age-matched controls. Material and methods. Urinary symptoms were assessed using the symptom-specific Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS) questionnaire, and QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)'s Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Both questionnaires were sent to the surviving 41 patients (25%) and the PCSS questionnaire was sent to 69 age-matched controls for comparison. Results. The response rate was 71% in the patient group and 59% in the control group. Two patients and four controls were excluded due to other cancer diagnoses, resulting in a total of 27 patients and 37 controls for inclusion in the analyses. The mean age in both groups was 78 years. In the patient group, incontinence had increased between the 8-year (mean=0.6) and the 15-year follow-up (mean=2.1; p=0.038). No other differences in urinary problems were seen between these two follow-ups. Increased incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were reported by the patients in comparison with the controls at 15 years. Role function was worse in the patient group (mean=67.3) compared with the controls (mean=82.4; p=0.046). The patients also reported more appetite loss, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, and pain than the controls. Conclusion. EBRT for LPC has divergent effects on urinary symptoms and QOL in comparison with age-matched controls. In our patient population, urinary incontinence increased between 8 and 15 years of follow-up. Otherwise, no differences in urinary symptoms were seen between 4 and 15 years. Incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were increased after EBRT in comparison with the controls. Conventional EBRT did not result in a major deterioration in QOL 15 years after

  15. [Body mass, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between objective body mass index and subjective body image, life satisfaction and self-esteem of adolescents. the study was carried in 5 regions in Poland, on the sample of over 8,000 pupils aged 13-15 yrs, from randomly chosen 112 lower secondary schools. School nurses measured the height and weight of pupils, calculated the BMI and qualified overweight pupils (BMI> or =85 percentile) to the obese group (n = 953). Matching gender and age, from the rest of pupils, they found the non-obese group with BMI between 15 and 75 percentile (n = 953). Pupils from both groups participated in a questionnaire study containing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cantril ladder and Stunkard Body Figure Perception Questionnaire. Hierarchic regression analyses and structural equation models were calculated. in the obese group the percentage of pupils satisfied with their life was lower (76% vs 82%, pself-esteem higher than in the non-obese (37% vs 23%, plife satisfaction and self-esteem was subjective body image, and not the objective body mass index. Objective body mass (BMI) determined the body image and relationship between BMI and life satisfaction or self-esteem of adolescents was only indirect. change of subjective body image in obese adolescents is a chance for improving their quality of life and in consequence undertaking effective struggle with obesity.

  16. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5 years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%, no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%. Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients, tomatoes (in 20%, and kiwi (in 17, 5%, apples and spices (in 16%, tangerines and oranges (in 15%, capsicum (in 13%, fishes (in 12%, celery (in 9%, and chocolate (in 7%. Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  17. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits.

  18. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Njie-Jobe, Jainaba; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography in Chinese teenagers aged from 13 years old to 18 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To establish a reference range of retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFLthickness by optical coherence tomography(OCTin Chinese teenagers aged from 13 to 18 years old, and investigate its relationship with age, eye side, gender, and ethnic group.METHODS: A total of 402 eyes from 201 normal Chinese aged from 13 to 18 years old were recruited for this study. Optic disk with 3.4mm diameter circle in different global average, quadrant and part-time bit retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLTwas measured by RNFL thickness average analysis program. Their RNFLT at different part-time bit, quadrant and global average RNFLT around the disc were measured by OCT with 3.4mm diameter circle, using the RNFL thickness average analysis program. The data was analyzed with SPSS statistical 19.0. The influences of several factors(such as age, eye side, gender, and ethnic groupon RNFLT were also analyzed.RESULTS: The global average RNFLT at 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 years old was 108.32±9.42μm, 109.23±9.67μm, 110.36±11.14μm, 111.27±10.21μm, 109.23±9.67μm, 112.11±8.83μm respectively. RNFLT of right eyes was 109.82±8.93μm and of left eyes was 110.33±9.89μm. All of the male's average RNFLT was 110.14±10.02μm, and all of the female's average RNFLT was 109.96±11.22μm. The average RNFLT of Han nationality was 110.22±9.31μm and of non-Han nationality was 109.87±8.65μm. The average RNFLT of all was 110.02±9.87μm, the RNFLT at the superior, nasal, inferior and temporal quadrant was 146.56 ±18.88μm, 76.49±13.28μm, 136.64±16.29μm, 82.01±12.55μm respectively. There was no significant difference in gender, eye side, and ethnic group(all PCONCLUSION: This study has established a normal standard reference of RNFLT and its related indexes by OCT in Chinese teenagers aged 13-18 years old. Gender, age, eye side, and ethnic group have no effect on their RNFLT, which has significant difference with adult's data. And for the diagnosis and follow-up of

  20. Early-life risk factors identified for owner-reported feline overweight and obesity at around two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, E C; Browne, W J; Casey, R A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age two years, assessed using images from the 9-point BCS system (Laflamme, 1997), were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 6-9) and not overweight (BCS 1-5) and used as the dependent variable. Of the 375 cats with owner-reported BCS, 25.3% were overweight or obese at two years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering due to multi-cat households two-level random intercept models were considered but clustering had no impact on the analysis. Models were compared using Wald tests. Six factors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity at two years of age: being overweight or obese at one year of age (OR=10.6, 95%CI 4.4-25.3); owner belief that BCS 7 was the ideal weight (OR=33.2, 95%CI 8.5-129.4), or that BCS represented overweight cats but they would not be concerned if their cat were classified in this category (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2), at questionnaire five completion; vets advising owners that the cat should lose weight, or making no comment on their weight, between one and two years of age (OR=12.1, 95%CI 3.2-44.9 and OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5-10.3 respectively); owners giving their cat treats when they "felt happy" with them at 18 months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.0 - 7.3); feeding ≥250g wet food daily between two and six months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-5.9), and feeding

  1. Serum uric acid levels are associated with high blood pressure in Chinese children and adolescents aged 10-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Yu, Zi-Xiang; Chen, You; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined the association between uric acid levels and high blood pressure in a multiethnic study of Chinese children and adolescents. The participants were divided into four different groups according to the uric acid quartiles. Three logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the relationship between the high blood pressure and uric acid levels. Model 1 adjusted age, sex and ethnicity. Model 2 adjusted age, sex, ethnicity, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting glucose and waist circumference. Model 3 adjusted all the confounding factors in model 2 except the waist circumference and BMI. The concentrations of uric acid in high blood pressure participants and normotensive participants were compared with or without adjustment for confounding factors. A total of 3778 participants aged 10-15 years from the Xinjiang Congenital Heart Disease Survey were included in the present study. The percentages of the high blood pressure in the four different uric acid quartiles were 7.4, 8.6, 9.6 and 11.8%, respectively. In model 1, 2 and 3 of the logistic regression, the participants in the third and fourth uric acid quartiles had significantly higher chance of suffering the high blood pressure when compared with the participants in the first uric acid quartile [odds ratio 1.608, 1.587, 1.597, P = 0.005, 0.015, 0.015, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the third quartile; odds ratio 1.981, 1.945, 1.810, P = 0.001, 0.002, 0.007, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the fourth quartile). The concentrations of serum uric acid were 220.7 μmol/l in high blood pressure participants and 204.1 μmol/l in normotensive participants (P = 0.024). After adjustment for confounding factors, the concentrations of serum uric acid were 219.7 vs. 204.5 μmol/l in one model (P high blood pressure.

  2. Socio-cultural determinants of contraceptive use among rural women aged 15-29 years from marriage to first live birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Sayem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is lower while the fertility is higher among rural married women aged 15-29 in Bangladesh. Thus, this comparative study attempted to identify the socio-economic and cultural determinants of contraceptive use in different rural settings. In this primary data based cross sectional study, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to women aged 15-29 years in two rural areas who had at least one live birth on/before 20 December, 2006. The study areas were identified by multi-stage random sampling technique. Results showed that CPR was slightly higher in Dariadaulat (43.4% than that of Chardigoldi union (41.6% while the mean duration of use was slightly higher in Chardigoldi compared to Dariadaulat (5.04 v. 4.59 mo. Regression model for Dariadaulat (38.7% with P<0.001 better explained the use of contraception than that of Chardigoldi (30.0% with P<0.001. Among the determinants in Dariadaulat the most explanatory variable was mass media exposure (15.8% while it was desired number of children in Chardigoldi (12.6%. Among others, joint decision of using contraception, familiarity with contraceptives before marriage, desired number of children, electricity, family interference and family size were found to have significant impact in Dariadaulat. On the other hand, the other explanatory variables in Chardigoldi were joint decision of using contraception, family interference and familiarity with contraceptives before marriage and age at present. It may be concluded that the CPR is markedly low in rural communities. The lack of accessibility to mass media, lack of joint decision with husband, premarital unawareness regarding contraceptive use, lack of post-marital planning and family interference are major contributory factors for the low CPR in the study population. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(2: 49-54

  3. Colorectal Polyposis in a 15 Year Old Boy in Uganda - Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal polyps usually present as rectal bleeding and are associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. This is a 15 year old boy who presented with painless rectal bleeding for 9 years and mass protruding from the anus for 2 years after passing stool. He had history of 3 nephews with similar symptoms.

  4. Root fracture in immature anterior teeth followed for 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T; Kojima, Y; Nishioka, T; Maki, K; Kimura, M

    2005-08-01

    We report a case of injury to an immature tooth, observed over a period of 15 years. In 1987, a 9-year-old boy fell down in a schoolyard. The right central incisor demonstrated palato-version and radiographic observations revealed that the roots of both central incisors were incomplete. Further, a root fracture in the apical region of the central incisors was observed. During the first treatment visit, the right central incisor was repositioned and both teeth splinted. After confirming that the line of fracture was aligned, the fixation was continued for 2 months. The teeth were examined periodically for the next 15 years. Both teeth had favorable outcomes with continued root development of both the apical and coronal segments with good apposition of the fracture lines.

  5. Outcomes of hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older compared with a matched-pair control of patients aged 30 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Linder, Dror; Finley, Zachary; Botser, Itamar B; Chen, Austin; Williamson, Joseph; Gupta, Asheesh

    2015-02-01

    Age has been suggested as a negative prognostic factor for hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics and outcomes after hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older with a matched control group of patients aged 30 years or younger at a minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years. Between September 2008 and March 2010, data were prospectively collected on all patients aged 50 years or older undergoing primary hip arthroscopy. Fifty-two patients met our inclusion and matching criteria, of whom all 52 (100%) were available for follow-up at a minimum of 2 years. This cohort was compared with a matched-pair control group of patients aged 30 years or younger who underwent similar procedures. The mean age of the study group was 54.8 years (range, 50 to 69 years), and that of the control group was 20.3 years (range, 13 to 30 years). The groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio, including 18 male patients (34.6%) and 34 female patients (65.4%) in each group, with a mean follow-up period of 32 months (range, 24 to 54 months). In the younger control group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 62.9 to 84.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 60.5 to 84.2 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.1 to 86.5 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 42.2 to 72.7 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. In the older study group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 61.2 to 82.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 59.9 to 80.4 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.9 to 83 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 41.2 to 64.6 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. All improvements in both groups were statistically significant at the 2-year postoperative follow-up (P arthroscopy should be considered a valid treatment option when treating hip pain in patients aged 50 years or older with a Tönnis arthritic grade of 0 or 1. Older patients

  6. Dyslipidemia Screening of 9- to 11-Year-Olds at Well-Child Visits by Utah Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipelman, Carole; Young, Paul C; Hemond, Joni; Brown, Laura L; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L

    2017-12-01

    In 2011, an expert National Institutes of Health panel published the "Integrated Guidelines for CV Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," which recommended screening all children aged 9 to 11 years for dyslipidemia. It is unknown if this guideline is being followed. We surveyed members of the Utah chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics to determine whether they performed universal lipid screening at well-child visits (WCV) on their patients at 9,10, or 11 years and how comfortable they were with evaluating and/or managing children with dyslipidemia. Of the 118 respondents who practiced primary care, only 18 (15%) screened all children at WCV; 86 (73%) tested "some," most commonly children who were obese or had a positive family history. 18% were unfamiliar with the guidelines; 28% were familiar with the guidelines but felt they were "inappropriate;" 98 (84%) of the respondents said they were "very or somewhat comfortable" evaluating children with dyslipidemia.

  7. Risk of Injury in Basketball, Football, and Soccer Players, Ages 15 Years and Older, 2003–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth A.; Westerman, Beverly J.; Hunting, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: A major challenge in the field of sports injury epidemiology is identifying the appropriate denominators for injury rates. Objective: To characterize risk of injury from participation in basketball, football, and soccer in the United States, using hours of participation as the measure of exposure, and to compare these rates with those derived using population estimates in the denominator. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: United States, 2003–2007. Participants: People ages 15 years and older who experienced an emergency department–treated injury while playing basketball, football, or soccer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rates of emergency department–treated injuries resulting from participation in basketball, football, or soccer. Injury rates were calculated for people ages 15 and older for the years 2003–2007 using the U.S. population and hours of participation as the denominators. The risk of injury associated with each of these sports was compared for all participants and by sex. Results: From 2003 through 2007, annual injury rates per 1000 U.S. population were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30, 1.67) in basketball, 0.93 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.04) in football, and 0.43 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.53) in soccer. When the denominator was hours of participation, the injury rate in football (5.08 [95% CI = 4.46, 5.69]/10 000 hours) was almost twice as high as that for basketball (2.69 [95% CI = 2.35, 3.02]/10 000 hours) and soccer (2.69 [95% CI = 2.07, 3.30]/10 000 hours). Conclusions: Depending on the choice of denominator, interpretation of the risk of an emergency department–treated injury in basketball, football, or soccer varies greatly. Using the U.S. population as the denominator produced rates that were highest in basketball and lowest in soccer. However, using hours of participation as a more accurate measure of exposure demonstrated that football had a higher rate of injury than basketball or soccer for both males and

  8. Patient-reported lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence, and quality of life after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer - 15 years' follow-up. A comparison with age-matched controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Per (Dept. of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Background. To prospectively examine the urinary toxicity and quality of life (QOL) in patients 15 years after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer (LPC) and compare the outcomes with results for age-matched controls. Material and methods. Urinary symptoms were assessed using the symptom-specific Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS) questionnaire, and QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)'s Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Both questionnaires were sent to the surviving 41 patients (25%) and the PCSS questionnaire was sent to 69 age-matched controls for comparison. Results. The response rate was 71% in the patient group and 59% in the control group. Two patients and four controls were excluded due to other cancer diagnoses, resulting in a total of 27 patients and 37 controls for inclusion in the analyses. The mean age in both groups was 78 years. In the patient group, incontinence had increased between the 8-year (mean=0.6) and the 15-year follow-up (mean=2.1; p=0.038). No other differences in urinary problems were seen between these two follow-ups. Increased incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were reported by the patients in comparison with the controls at 15 years. Role function was worse in the patient group (mean=67.3) compared with the controls (mean=82.4; p=0.046). The patients also reported more appetite loss, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, and pain than the controls. Conclusion. EBRT for LPC has divergent effects on urinary symptoms and QOL in comparison with age-matched controls. In our patient population, urinary incontinence increased between 8 and 15 years of follow-up. Otherwise, no differences in urinary symptoms were seen between 4 and 15 years. Incontinence, stress incontinence, and pain while urinating were increased after EBRT in comparison with the controls. Conventional EBRT did not result in a major deterioration in QOL 15 years

  9. Reduction of Direct Health Costs Associated with Pertussis Vaccination with Acellular Vaccines in Children Aged 0-9 Years with Pertussis in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro; Navas, Encarna; Godoy, Pere; Carmona, Gloria; Domínguez, Angela; Jané, Mireia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Brotons, Pedro

    2018-05-14

    The aim of this study was to assess direct health costs in children with pertussis aged 0-9 years who were vaccinated, partially vaccinated, and unvaccinated during childhood, and to assess the association between pertussis costs and pertussis vaccination in Catalonia (Spain) in 2012-2013. Direct healthcare costs included pertussis treatment, pertussis detection, and preventive chemotherapy of contacts. Pertussis patients were considered vaccinated when they had received 4-5 doses, and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated when they had received 0-3 doses of vaccine. The Chi square test and the odds ratios were used to compare percentages and the t test was used to compare mean pertussis costs in different groups, considering a p case after taking into account the effect of other study variables, and €200 per case after taking into account pertussis severity. Direct healthcare costs were lower in children with pertussis aged 0-9 years vaccinated with 4-5 doses of acellular vaccines than in unvaccinated or partially vaccinated children with pertussis of the same age.

  10. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking

  11. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Oral Health of People Aged 15-40 Years in Kurdistan, Iran in 2015: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of dental caries among an urban population. Methods This study was conducted among 2000 people 15-40 years of age living in Kurdistan, Iran in 2015. Using a questionnaire, data were collected by 4 trained dental students. The dependent variable was the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF index. Using principal component analysis, the socioeconomic status (SES of families was determined based on their household assets. Inequality was measured using the concentration index; in addition, the Oaxaca analytical method was used to determine the contribution of various determinants to the observed inequality. Results The concentration index for poor scores on the DMF index was -0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.40 to -0.36; thus, poor DMF indices had a greater concentration in groups with a low SES (p<0.001. Decomposition analysis showed that the mean prevalence of a poor DMF index was 43.7% (95% CI, 40.4 to 46.9% in the least privileged group and 14.4% (95% CI, 9.5 to 9.2% in the most privileged group. It was found that 85.8% of the gap observed between these groups was due to differences in sex, parents’ education, and the district of residence. A poor DMF index was less prevalent among people with higher SES than among those with lower SES (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.52. Conclusions An alarming degree of SES inequality in oral health status was found in the studied community. Hence, it is suggested that inequalities in oral health status be reduced via adopting appropriate policies such as the delivery of oral health services to poorer groups and covering such services in insurance programs.

  13. Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Oral Health of People Aged 15-40 Years in Kurdistan, Iran in 2015: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Moinafshar, Ardavan; Adabi, Hemen; Sharafi, Mona; Mostafavi, Farideh; Bolbanabad, Amjad Mohamadi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of dental caries among an urban population. This study was conducted among 2000 people 15-40 years of age living in Kurdistan, Iran in 2015. Using a questionnaire, data were collected by 4 trained dental students. The dependent variable was the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF) index. Using principal component analysis, the socioeconomic status (SES) of families was determined based on their household assets. Inequality was measured using the concentration index; in addition, the Oaxaca analytical method was used to determine the contribution of various determinants to the observed inequality. The concentration index for poor scores on the DMF index was -0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.40 to -0.36); thus, poor DMF indices had a greater concentration in groups with a low SES (p<0.001). Decomposition analysis showed that the mean prevalence of a poor DMF index was 43.7% (95% CI, 40.4 to 46.9%) in the least privileged group and 14.4% (95% CI, 9.5 to 9.2%) in the most privileged group. It was found that 85.8% of the gap observed between these groups was due to differences in sex, parents' education, and the district of residence. A poor DMF index was less prevalent among people with higher SES than among those with lower SES (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.52). An alarming degree of SES inequality in oral health status was found in the studied community. Hence, it is suggested that inequalities in oral health status be reduced via adopting appropriate policies such as the delivery of oral health services to poorer groups and covering such services in insurance programs.

  14. Effects of combat training on visuomotor performance in children aged 9 to 12 years - an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan-Ying; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Lee, Yu-Lung; Chang, Shih-Tsung; Sun, Chi-Chin; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2018-02-07

    Data on visuomotor performance in combat training and the effects of combat training on visuomotor performance are limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a specially designed combat sports (CS) training program on the visuomotor performance levels of children. A pre-post comparative design was implemented. A total of 26 students aged 9-12 years underwent 40-min CS training sessions twice a week for 8 weeks during their physical education classes. The CS training program was designed by a karate coach and a motor control specialist. The other 30 students continued their regular activities and were considered as a control group. Each student's eye movement was monitored using an eye tracker, whereas the motor performance was measured using a target hitting system with a program-controlled microprocessor. The measurements were taken 8 weeks before (baseline), 1 day before (pretest), and 1 week after (posttest) the designated training program. The task used for evaluating these students was hitting or tracking random illuminated targets as rapidly as possible. A two-way analysis of variance [group(2) × time(3)] with repeated measures of time was performed for statistical analysis. For the children who received combat training, although the eye response improvement was not significant, both the primary and secondary saccade onset latencies were significantly earlier compared to the children without combat training. Both groups of students exhibited improvement in their hit response times during the target hitting tasks. The current finding supported the notion that sports training efforts essentially enhance visuomotor function in children aged 9-12 years, and combat training facilitates an earlier secondary saccade onset.

  15. OPEC/OJEC for stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweddle, D A; Pinkerton, C R; Lewis, I J; Ellershaw, C; Cole, M; Pearson, A D

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity of OPEC/OJEC chemotherapy in stage 4 neuroblastoma patients over 1 year of age. Ninety-five patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma received alternating courses of OPEC/OJEC--vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 (O), cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (P), etoposide 200 mg/m2 (E), cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 (C), and carboplatin 500 mg/m2 (J), every 21 days if there was haematological recovery. Seventy out of ninety-five (74%) patients completed seven or more courses and were evaluable for toxicity. Of these 70 patients, 33% had more than three episodes of fever and sepsis, 35% required more than five blood or platelet transfusions, 36% had grade 2 or more gastrointestinal toxicity and 9% had neurotoxicity. There was a median reduction in GFR of 32 ml/min/1.73 m2 (-46 to 134) and there was one toxic death. OPEC/OJEC is a well-tolerated therapy for stage 4 neuroblastoma over 1 year of age.

  16. [Overweight, obesity and chronic mal nutrition in 6 to 9 year-old children in Peru, 2009-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo-Ramírez, Jaime; Sánchez-Abanto, José; Alvarez-Dongo, Doris; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Agüero-Zamora, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and chronic malnutrition in 6- to 9-year-old children in Peru. A cross-cutting study based on the 2009-2010 National Household Survey. The size/age ratio was analyzed with references of the National Center for Health Statistic (NCSH) and the World Health Organization (WHO), considering less than two standard deviations for chronic malnutrition (CM); and the Must and WHO reference tables to measure the body mass index with 85 to 95 percentile values for overweight and above 95 for obesity. With Must as reference, overweight was 12.1% and obesity 9.4%, and according to WHO overweight and obesity were 10.2 and 11.3% respectively. The prevalence of CM according to NCSH and WHO is 15.4 and 17.8% respectively. The highest prevalence of CM is in the north (25.2%), center (22.9%) and south of (19%) the Highland, while obesity is more present in the south coast (28%), Metropolitan Lima (22.8%) and the central Coast (22.5%). Of all the children with CM, 6.5% has overweight and 1.2% obesity. CM is decreasing because size averages have improved, however obesity has doubled. The presence of CM and obesity in children aged 6 to 9 years old in different regions of Peru poses a challenge in the planning of food and nutrition policies.

  17. Variability in lateralised blood flow response to language is associated with language development in children aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M; Keage, H A D; Spooner, R; Flitton, A; Hofmann, J; Churches, O F; Elliott, S; Badcock, N A

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of language lateralisation over the preschool years is unclear. We explored the relationship between lateralisation of cerebral blood flow velocity response to object naming and cognitive performance in children aged 1-5 years. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record blood flow velocity bilaterally from middle cerebral arteries during a naming task in 58 children (59% male). At group level, the Lateralisation Index (LI) revealed a greater relative increase in cerebral blood flow velocity within the left as compared to right middle cerebral artery. After controlling for maternal IQ, left-lateralised children displayed lower expressive language scores compared to right- and bi-lateralised children, and reduced variability in LI. Supporting this, greater variability in lateralised response, rather than mean response, was indicative of greater expressive language ability. Findings suggest that a delayed establishment of language specialisation is associated with better language ability in the preschool years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all Poverweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  19. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-04

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Ppre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females.

  20. Schistosoma haematobium treatment in 1-5 year old children: safety and efficacy of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Mutapi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ. Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PZQ treatment in such children.Zimbabwean children aged 1-5 years (n = 104 were treated with PZQ tablets and side effects were assessed by questionnaire administered to their caregivers within 24 hours of taking PZQ. Treatment efficacy was determined 6 weeks after PZQ administration through schistosome egg counts in urine. The change in infection levels in the children 1-5 years old (n = 100 was compared to that in 6-10 year old children (n = 435.Pre-treatment S. haematobium infection intensity in 1-5 year olds was 14.6 eggs/10 ml urine and prevalence was 21%. Of the 104 children, 3.8% reported side effects within 24 hours of taking PZQ treatment. These were stomach ache, loss of appetite, lethargy and inflammation of the face and body. PZQ treatment significantly reduced schistosome infection levels in 1-5 year olds with an egg reduction rate (ERR of 99% and cure rate (CR of 92%. This was comparable to the efficacy of praziquantel in 6-10 year olds where ERR was 96% and CR was 67%. INTERPRETATION/SIGNIFICANCE: PZQ treatment is as safe and efficacious in children aged 1-5 years as it is in older children aged 6-10 years in whom PZQ is the drug of choice for control of schistosome infections.

  1. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  2. Longitudinal determinants of depression among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees, 14-15 years after the 9/11 attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Norman, Christina; Nguyen, Angela; Brackbill, Robert M

    2018-03-15

    Exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks has been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid PTSD and depression up to 10-11 years post-disaster. However, little is known about the longitudinal predictors of mental health conditions over time. We examined longitudinal determinants of depression within strata of PTSD among 21,258 enrollees of the World Trade Center Health Registry who completed four questionnaires over 14 years of follow-up (Wave 1 in 2003-04; Wave 2 in 2005-06; Wave 3 in 2011-12; and Wave 4 in 2015-16). PTSD status was measured using the PTSD checklist on all four waves and defined as a score of ≥ 44; depression was assessed using the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire at Waves 3 and 4 and defined as a score of ≥ 10. Across Waves 3 and 4, 18.6% experienced depression, and it was more common among those who ever had PTSD (56.1%) compared with those who had not (5.6%). Across PTSD strata, predictors of depression included low income, unemployment, low social integration and support, post-9/11 traumatic life events, and chronic physical illness. These factors also decreased the likelihood of recovering from depression. Depression symptoms were not measured at Waves 1 and 2; data was self-reported. These findings highlight the substantial burden of depression in a trauma-exposed population 14-15 years post-disaster, especially among those with PTSD. Similar life stressors predicted the course of depression among those with and without PTSD which may inform public health and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndugwa Christopher M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementation at paediatric HIV clinics in Uganda (http://ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122941. Zinc status was determined using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared among zinc deficient (zinc Results Of the 247 children, 134 (54.3% had low serum zinc ( Conclusion Almost two thirds of HAART naïve and a third of HAART treated HIV infected children were zinc deficient. Increased access to HAART among HIV infected children living in Uganda might reduce the prevalence of zinc deficiency.

  4. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9 Section 806.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship...

  5. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  6. Gouty arthritis in a 15-year-old girl with Bartter′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshan Nima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl, a known case of Bartter′s syndrome (BS for 7 years, developed severe pain in her right knee and right and left ankle. Her older sister had BS and developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD at the age of 14 years. Her serum uric acid was 12.6 mg/dL, 6 months ago, and 15.4 mg/dL in her recent lab data. Hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis are commonly seen in adults with BS, but to our knowledge there is no report of gouty arthritis in pediatric literature.

  7. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Siebes, R.C.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Schuengel, C.; Smits, D.W.; Gorter, J.W.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP ( n=108; 72 males; mean age 6. y 3. mo, SD 12. mo;

  8. Psychological Distress Is More Prevalent in Fertile Age and Premenopausal Women With PCOS Symptoms: 15-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjula, Salla; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Auvinen, Juha; Ruokonen, Aimo; Puukka, Katri; Franks, Stephen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tapanainen, Juha S; Jokelainen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Piltonen, Terhi T

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased psychological distress, obesity and hyperandrogenism being suggested as key promoters. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety/depression and their coexistence in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. The roles of obesity, hyperandrogenism, and awareness of PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based follow-up. Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with 15-year follow-up. At age 31, a questionnaire-based screening for oligoamenorrhea (OA) and hirsutism (H): 2188 asymptomatic (controls), 331 OA, 323 H, and 125 OA plus H (PCOS). Follow-up at age 46: 1576 controls, 239 OA, 231 H, and 85 PCOS. Questionnaire-based screening for anxiety and depression symptoms (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25) and previously diagnosed/treated depression at ages 31 and 46. Body mass index (BMI), serum testosterone/free androgen index, and awareness of polycystic ovaries/PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based prevalence of anxiety and/or depression in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. Anxiety and/or depression symptoms, their coexistence, and rate of depression were increased at ages 31 and 46 in women with PCOS or isolated H compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not associate with increased anxiety or depression symptoms. The awareness of PCOS was associated with increased anxiety. Women with PCOS or isolated H present more often with anxiety and/or depression symptoms and their coexistence compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not provoke psychological distress in PCOS. The awareness of PCOS increased anxiety but did not associate with severe anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  9. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9-17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cruz-Salazar, Sandra Milena; Martínez, Myriam; Cadore, Eduardo L; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Izquierdo, Mikel; Ortega, Francisco B; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of instruments and studies written in Spanish evaluating physical fitness, impeding the determination of the current status of this important health indicator in the Latin population, especially in Colombia. The aim of the study was two-fold: to examine the validity of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) with a population-based sample of schoolchildren from Bogota, Colombia and to examine the reliability of the IFIS with children and adolescents from Engativa, Colombia. The sample comprised 1,873 Colombian youths (54.5% girls) aged 9-17.9 years. We measured their adiposity markers (waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, percentage of body fat and body mass index), blood pressure, lipids profile, fasting glucose, and physical fitness level (self-reported and measured). A validated cardiometabolic risk index score was also used. An age- and sex-matched subsample of 229 schoolchildren who were not originally included in the sample completed the IFIS twice for reliability purposes. Our data suggest that both measured and self-reported overall physical fitness levels were inversely associated with percentage of body fat indicators and the cardiometabolic risk index score. Overall, schoolchildren who self-reported "good" or "very good" fitness had better measured fitness levels than those who reported "very poor/poor" fitness (all p  studies with Latin schoolchildren from Colombia.

  10. A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Temple, Judy A

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services. To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level. This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015. The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years). Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher. A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1

  11. Strain ageing of the 15Kh2MFA steel at 500 and 550 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovich, G.G.; Azbukin, V.G.; Krylova, R.P.; Tretyak, I.Yu.; Bardachevskaya, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ageing at high temperatures and under high stresses on strength and plasticity of the 15Kh2MFA steel has been studied. The steel was kept at 500 and at 550 deg C for 100, 1000 and 2500 hours without stress and under stress of 0.5 and 0.9 of the long-term strength limit (sigmasub(ls)). Ageing at 500 deg C without stress and under 0.5 sigmasub(ls) changed neither strength nor plasticity of the steel; under 0.9 sigmasub(ls) the strength somewhat decreased. Ageing at 550 deg C for 1000 hours resulted in an appreciable stress drop

  12. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, David T.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ryan, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 ± 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 ± 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 ± 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-∞) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  13. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  14. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C H Huijgen

    Full Text Available Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9 and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2 performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span, inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task, cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test, and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test. "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05. In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  15. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  16. Childhood maltreatment preceding depressive disorder at age 18 years: A prospective Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; De Mola, Christian Loret; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Gonçalves, Helen; Kieling, Christian; Murray, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment is linked with increased risk for mental illness in adolescence and adulthood. However, little evidence is available on whether different forms of maltreatment have specific effects, and no prospective studies in low- or middle-income countries have addressed this issue. Participants in a population-based, birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (N=3715) self-reported exposure to maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence) in confidential questionnaires at age 15 years, and were assessed for major depression in interviews at age 18 years, using the MINI. Confounding variables concerning family characteristics were measured in interviews with mothers in the perinatal period and at age 11 years. Females exposed to emotional abuse (OR=2.7; 95%CI=1.9, 3.8) and domestic violence (OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2, 2.9) were at increased risk for depression after adjustment for confounders and other types of maltreatment. Females exposed to two or more forms of maltreatment were at particularly high risk for depression (OR=4.1; 95%Cl=2.8, 6.1) compared with females not exposed to maltreatment. In adjusted analyses, maltreatment was not associated with depression for males. Detailed information about maltreatment such as timing and frequency was not available, and 1534 individuals were not included in the analyses, who had poorer and less educated mothers. Emotional abuse and domestic violence are strong risk factors for major depression for females. Early intervention to prevent maltreatment and its consequences is critical, especially for girls exposed to poly-maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootveld, Laura R; Van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Peters, Ron J G; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K; Brewster, Lizzy M; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361 participants without hypertension at baseline (147 ethnic Dutch, 82 South Asian Surinamese, 132 African Surinamese), aged 35-60 years, in whom anthropometric measurements and blood pressures were measured at baseline and after mean 9 years of follow-up. Data were analysed using logistic regression analyses, with hypertension at follow up as a dependent variable. Body weight, fat distribution and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of developing hypertension; these associations did not statistically significantly differ between ethnic groups [odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per SD: BMI 1.5 (1.2-2.0); waist circumference 1.5 (1.2-1.9); waist to hip ratio (WHR) 1.4 (1.1-1.9), weight gain of 1-2.9 kg/m 1.8 (0.9-3.8)]. As compared with Dutch, a higher incidence of hypertension was found among South Asian Surinamese [OR 2.6 (1.4-4.8)] and in particular among African Surinamese [OR 3.1 (1.76-5.30)]. Among South Asian Surinamese, adjustment for WHR attenuated the OR the most [OR 1.9 (1.0-3.7)]; among African Surinamese, the strongest effect was observed for adjustment by BMI and WHR simultaneously [OR 2.5 (1.4-4.4)]. The ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension among a middle-aged group with a Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background were partly explained by body composition. This suggests that other factors may be involved, including genetic factors or unidentified other determinants.

  18. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; pbody mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, pbody dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  19. Deriving a cardiac ageing signature to reveal MMP-9-dependent inflammatory signalling in senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonggang; Chiao, Ying Ann; Clark, Ryan; Flynn, Elizabeth R; Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Ghasemi, Omid; Zouein, Fouad; Lindsey, Merry L; Jin, Yu-Fang

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac ageing involves the progressive development of cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction coordinated by MMP-9. Here, we report a cardiac ageing signature that encompasses macrophage pro-inflammatory signalling in the left ventricle (LV) and distinguishes biological from chronological ageing. Young (6-9 months), middle-aged (12-15 months), old (18-24 months), and senescent (26-34 months) mice of both C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and MMP-9 null were evaluated. Using an identified inflammatory pattern, we were able to define individual mice based on their biological, rather than chronological, age. Bcl6, Ccl24, and Il4 were the strongest inflammatory markers of the cardiac ageing signature. The decline in early-to-late LV filling ratio was most strongly predicted by Bcl6, Il1r1, Ccl24, Crp, and Cxcl13 patterns, whereas LV wall thickness was most predicted by Abcf1, Tollip, Scye1, and Mif patterns. With age, there was a linear increase in cardiac M1 macrophages and a decrease in cardiac M2 macrophages in WT mice; of which, both were prevented by MMP-9 deletion. In vitro, MMP-9 directly activated young macrophage polarization to an M1/M2 mid-transition state. Our results define the cardiac ageing inflammatory signature and assign MMP-9 roles in mediating the inflammaging profile by indirectly and directly modifying macrophage polarization. Our results explain early mechanisms that stimulate ageing-induced cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district , Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kassahun Mengistu1 Mulugeta Shegaze2 Kifle Woldemichael3 Hailay Gesesew3,4 Yohannes Markos5 1Department of Zonal Health Office, Gamo Goffa Zone, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 3Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 4Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 5Department of Medical Physiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007 of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia.Objective: To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors.Results: The overall prevalence of

  1. Maternal Enterovirus Infection during Pregnancy as a Risk Factor in Offspring Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes between 15 and 30 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elfving

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA, and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4% were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.. Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22–17.6, as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P<.025. These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood.

  2. Understanding choice of milk and bread for breakfast among Swedish children aged 11-15 years: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C; Jonsson, I; Conner, M

    2000-02-01

    The present study examined the influences of attitudes, social norms, perceived control and underlying beliefs on 11 to 15-year-olds' breakfast choices of milk with different fat content and high-fibre bread. All pupils in the 5th, 7th and 9th grades in Mölndal community (N=1730), Sweden, were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two weeks later, they were asked to fill in a 7-day record of food consumed for breakfast. Consumption of milk and high-fibre bread was predicted from intentions, and for milk also by perceived behavioural control. Intentions were influenced by attitudes, perceptions of significant others' preferences, and perceived control. In addition, perception of the parents' consumption (descriptive norm) of the specific food played an important role. Attitudes, norms and perceived control predicted intentions to a similar extent in each age group. Attitudes to the consumption of milk and high fibre bread were influenced by beliefs about their sensory and health aspects. Females and the oldest children had greater knowledge about the healthier alternatives and the oldest children had a tendency to choose healthier options. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds...

  4. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francineide Guimarães Carneiro de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48- 3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and selfperception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chisquare and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  5. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- Year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Sogi, G M; Sharma, K R; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the commonest oral diseases in children. Despite this fact, not many studies have been done on this issue among school children in Shimla. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 12 years and 15 years in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. With this study we also aimed to establish reliable baseline data. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted among 12 - and 15 - year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh-India. A sample of 1011 schoolchildren was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recording of dental caries, was done according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997). The statistical tests used were the t- test, and the Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 years and 15 years respectively. At 12 years of age, the mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. Dental caries was higher in children from government schools as compared to those from private schools. The 'decayed' component was the biggest contributor to the DMFT index. The highest treatment need at both ages was one surface restoration. The caries experience of 12- and 15- year-old children was low compared to WHO - 'recommended' values. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to further improve the dental health of school children in Shimla city.

  6. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  7. School-based study found that physical activity and aerobic fitness predicted increases in total body fat and abdominal fat at a mean age of 9.8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Anton; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Dencker, Magnus

    2018-02-22

    We assessed whether baseline measurements of physical activity, aerobic fitness, body fat and abdominal fat were predictors of changes in body fat measurements over a two-year period. The study comprised of 204 children aged 9.8 ± 0.6 years with a normal body mass distribution, who recruited from four schools in middle-class areas of Malmö, Sweden, from 2001 to 2004. Peak oxygen uptake and physical activity were measured at baseline. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and two years later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and total body fat or abdominal fat were predictors of change in total body fat or abdominal fat over a period of two years. Changes in the percentage of body fat were not related to any of the baseline measurements. Our two-year follow-up of children with a mean age of 9.8 years at baseline showed that physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat or abdominal fat predicted changes in total body fat or abdominal fat, but not the percentage of body fat. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84%

  9. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Lilian A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32. The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively. The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104 and self-esteem (p=0.09 were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01 and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016 and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01 only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02, but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02. It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the nonpractitioners group.

  10. Mothers literacy status and its association with feeding practices and PEM among 1-5 year aged children in southern part of India, Mysore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of PEM in children aged 1 to 5 years and to study the association of mothers educational status with feeding practices and nutritional status of children aged 1 to 5 years. Methods: A cross sectional study of 600 children of 1-5 year age group in urban slums of Mysore city was carried out with cluster random sampling method. The data was collected by using a predesigned and pretested proforma. Assessment of the nutritional status was done by clinical examination and anthropometry. WHO child growth standards, 2006 reference data were used to classify malnutrition. Results: Among 600 children examined, 285 (47.5% were males and 315 (52.5% were females. Exclusive breast feeding was given in 295 (49.2% of children. Pre lacteal feeds and top milk feeds were given in 123 (20.5% and 108 (18% of children respectively. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 31.3%, 42.2% and 14.2% respectively. About 12.8% of mothers were illiterate and this was significantly associated with feeding practices and nutritional status of children. Conclusions: Mothers literacy status plays important role in feeding practices of their children which inturn is an important factor in determining the nutritional status of child

  11. Growth, psychomotor development and morbidity up to 3 years of age in children born after IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Sovio, U; Gissler, M; Hemminki, E; Järvelin, M-R

    2003-11-01

    To examine the long-term child outcome after IVF until the age of 3 years in Northern Finland, we conducted a population-based cohort study. First, a cohort of 299 IVF children born in 1990-1995 was compared with a cohort of 558 controls representing the general population in terms of a multiple birth rate of 1.2%, randomly chosen from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) and matched for sex, year of birth, area of residence, parity, maternal age and social class (full sample analyses). Second, IVF singletons (n = 150) were compared with singleton controls (n = 280). Third, a plurality matched control cohort (n = 100) for IVF twins (n = 100) was randomly chosen, matched as above, from the FMBR and analysed separately. Infant mortality rate was compared with the national rate from the FMBR. Infant mortality in the IVF group was >2-fold higher compared to the national rate in the general population. The risk (OR, 95% CI) of low weight and height, below the lowest quartile, at 1 year of age (1.6, 1.1-2.2; 1.6, 1.1-2.4) and 2 years of age (1.5, 1.1-2.4; 1.7, 1.2-2.5) was significantly higher in the IVF group when compared with the general population control group. No statistically significant differences were found in the psychomotor development between the cohorts. Cumulative incidence of different diseases up to 3 years of age was significantly higher among IVF children in the full sample and singleton analyses (OR, 95% CI: 2.3, 1.7-3.2; 2.1, 1.3-3.3 respectively) especially regarding respiratory diseases (3.5, 1.9-6.5; 3.1, 1.0-9.4) and diarrhoea (3.7, 2.2-6.2; 5.7, 2.6-12.7), but not in twin comparisons. The growth of IVF children was behind that of control children during the first 3 years of life, but their psychomotor development was similar. Their postnatal health was worse, probably reflecting the problems in the neonatal period.

  12. Blood fatty acid composition in relation to allergy in children aged 2-9 years: results from the European IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, A; Galli, C; Eiben, G; Ahrens, W; Iacoviello, L; Molnár, D; Pala, V; Risé, P; Rodriguez, G; Russo, P; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Vyncke, K; Wolters, M; Mehlig, K

    2017-01-01

    Blood polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are involved in allergy development, but the etiological role of n-6 and n-3 PUFA is still controversial. A European multicenter study of children (IDEFICS) provided the opportunity to explore the cross-sectional association between fatty acids (FA) and allergy. Blood FA levels were measured in 2600 children aged 2-9 years and were recorded as the percentage of weight of all FA detected. Logistic regression of allergy status on FA components was adjusted for age, sex, country, body mass index, family history of allergic disease, breast-feeding, and number of siblings. The results were given as odds ratios (OR) for current vs no allergy ever and an increase in FA by 1 s.d. Overall, higher proportions of n-6 PUFA were associated with higher odds of allergy (OR=1.21 (1.05, 1.40)). Monounsaturated FA (MUFA) were associated with reduced risk for allergy (OR=0.75 (0.65, 0.87)), whereas saturated FA did not differ by allergy status. The strongest associations were observed in children children younger than 4 years might help to understand the nature of early onset of atopic disease.

  13. Knowledge about osteoporosis in women of child bearing age (15-49 years) attending fauji foundation hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazir, A.; Ali, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on symptoms, risk factors, preventive measures and treatment options for regarding osteoporosis in healthy women of child bearing age (15-49 years) accompanying patients, in Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH) Rawalpindi. Study Design: Cross sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in FFH Rawalpindi from February 2015 to October 2015. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted using a validated questionnaire i.e. OKAT (Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool) from 385 women attending OPDs of Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi, for a period of Feb-August 2015. The data was analyzed using SPSS (version 21). Mean knowledge scores were calculated and compared with socio demographic variables. Results: Total knowledge score mean was 8 (total max score achieved 14). Mean scores were found for knowledge regarding symptoms 0.85 (total score 2), and treatment options were 0.82 (total score 2) for the disease. Comparison of knowledge scores between respondents of different age, residential status (p<=0.009), and educational status (p<=0.056) was found statistically significant. Conclusion: Women lacked knowledge regarding osteoporosis, especially older uneducated ones, belonging to lower socioeconomic class residing in villages. Community based educational interventional programs targeting this population can help reduce the knowledge gap and contribute towards disease prevention. (author)

  14. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among 13-15 year old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Romshi; Krishna, Madhusudan; Murali, R; Shamala, A; Yalamalli, Maanasi; Kumar, A Vinod

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health today. Tobacco attributable deaths in India currently range from 800,000 to 900,000 per year. Adolescents are among the most vulnerable group to start tobacco use. Information on tobacco use among the youth is necessary to establish control measures against it. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among high school students (age13-15 years) in Bangalore. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 weeks in the month of September 2012. A structured, pretested questionnaire was administered randomly to 500 high school students in Bangalore to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use. Majority of the study population [94.4% (472/500)] believed that smoking is definitely harmful to our health. Also, 39.0% of the participants of age 13 years believed that smoking does not help in socializing and 92.2% of study subjects had negative attitude toward starting the habit. Most of them (83.9%) had a negative perception about smokers that they lack confidence. However, less than 1% of the study population had a habit of smoking at this young age. Awareness of the harmful effects of smoking was high among the study population. The study provides insight into the factors to consider while planning adolescent anti-smoking programs in this and similar settings.

  15. [Acceptance of the vaccine against human papilloma virus from mothers to daughters aged 9 to 13 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Verdugo, Melissa Karina; Zonana Nacach, Abraham; Anzaldo Campos, Maria Cecilia

    2013-11-01

    If you consider that at some point in life 50% of sexually active women have had an infection with the human papilloma virus is indisputable that any attempt to reduce the prevalence worth undertaking it. The vaccine to prevent HIV infection has not enjoyed the same degree of acceptance than others, hence the interest in knowing some of the reasons that has not achieved universal vaccination. To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability among mothers with adolescents girls between 9 and 13 years old. The mothers were interrogated about HVP vaccine acceptability, reasons provided for acceptance or non-acceptance and if mothers know that vaccine is offered free for public health institutions We interview a 250 mothers with 281 daughters, 38 daughters have already received the vaccine. Eighty nine percent of the mothers reacted positively to the possibility of vaccinating theirs daughters. The reasons of vaccine non-acceptance were because not knowing enough about infection, mother felt that their daughters were not at risk for acquiring HVP infection, the vaccine is new and mothers unknown side effects. Thirty nine percent of the mothers want to know more about the vaccine safety, 21% about length protection duration and 16% concerning about if the vaccine is effective. Fifty seven per cent of the mothers know that Health Secretary offers vaccine free. Mothers whom have been vaccinated their daughters, had daughters with lower age (9.8 +/- 0.9 vs 10.8 +/- 1.3 years, p = 0.0001), were more frequently married (79 vs 51%, p = 0.002) and more likely to report that they had heard about VPH vaccine from some source (100 vs 66%, p = 0.0001) that mothers have not yet vaccinated their daughters. The acceptability of VPH vaccine was 89%. Continued health education and propaganda is needed to promote a better knowledge of VPH vaccine.

  16. Multilevel model to estimate county-level untreated dental caries among US children aged 6-9years using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Zhang, Xingyou; Holt, James B; Robison, Valerie; Li, Chien-Hsun; Griffin, Susan O

    2018-06-01

    Because conducting population-based oral health screening is resource intensive, oral health data at small-area levels (e.g., county-level) are not commonly available. We applied the multilevel logistic regression and poststratification method to estimate county-level prevalence of untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010 linked with various area-level data at census tract, county and state levels. We validated model-based national estimates against direct estimates from NHANES. We also compared model-based estimates with direct estimates from select State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state and county levels. The model with individual-level covariates only and the model with individual-, census tract- and county-level covariates explained 7.2% and 96.3% respectively of overall county-level variation in untreated caries. Model-based county-level prevalence estimates ranged from 4.9% to 65.2% with median of 22.1%. The model-based national estimate (19.9%) matched the NHANES direct estimate (19.8%). We found significantly positive correlations between model-based estimates for 8-year-olds and direct estimates from the third-grade State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state level for 34 states (Pearson coefficient: 0.54, P=0.001) and SOHS estimates at county level for 53 New York counties (Pearson coefficient: 0.38, P=0.006). This methodology could be a useful tool to characterize county-level disparities in untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years and complement oral health surveillance to inform public health programs especially when local-level data are not available although the lack of external validation due to data unavailability should be acknowledged. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  18. Nutritional status is associated with health-related quality of life in children with cystic fibrosis aged 9-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Suzanne M; Tluczek, Audrey; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M; Lai, HuiChuan J

    2013-12-01

    The impact of improved nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Associations between nutritional status and HRQOL were examined over 2 years in 95 children, aged 9-19 years, who were followed in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. HRQOL was assessed using the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Associations between height z-score (HtZ), BMI z-score (BMIZ) and seven CFQ dimensions were evaluated. Mean values of at least 80 were observed for all CFQ dimensions except respiratory symptoms and treatment burden. Treatment burden was significantly worse in patients with meconium ileus (57) compared to pancreatic insufficient (65) and sufficient (78) subjects, pnutritional status was associated with increased HRQOL scores. Early diagnosis through newborn screening and improved nutrition provides an opportunity to enhance quality of life and body image perception. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  20. Recovery rates of infants with cryptorchidism before 15 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cryptorchidism or undescended testicle, with a prevalence of 33 percent in preterm and 3-5 percent in term infants, is the most common congenital abnormality in newborn boys. The present study aimed to assess the recovery rate and urinary tract infection among infants with cryptorchidism during the first 15 months of their life.         Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 47 infants with cryptorchidism in Zahedan city (Iran in 2012. The infants’ birth weight, preterm/term birth, delivery method, and affected testicle along with maternal age, history of urinary tract infection during pregnancy, and number of pregnancies were collected. Information about the infants’ urinary tract infection and recovery from cryptorchidism was collected through observations and trimonthly phone calls until the 15th month after birth. Percentage and mean were used for data analysis. Results: Of the 47 studied infants, 63.82 percent were premature, 59.57 percent had right-side cryptorchidism, and 80.60 percent developed urinary tract infection at least once. The highest incidence of urinary tract infection (29.8 percent was seen at the age of three months old. The majority of infants (91.5 percent recovered during the course of the study and the recovery rate at the fifth, 10th, and 15th months were 31.9 percent, 38.3 percent and 21.3 percent,respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed the high prevalence of urinary tract infection among infants with cryptorchidism. It also showed that most infants with cryptorchidism recover within 15 months of age.

  1. Determinant factors of toothache in 8- and 9-year-old schoolchildren, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Paula Reis Barrêtto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, severity and impact of toothache among schoolchildren associated with socio-demographic variables (gender, degree of maternal schooling, economic group, and oral health status. Six hundred and one 8- and 9-year-old children were randomly selected from schools in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. After formal authorization was obtained from their parents, the children were interviewed and clinically examined by a single examiner. The Chi squared test was applied and the odds ratio obtained. The prevalence of toothache was 45.9% (276/601, of which 15.6% (94/601 had occurred during the previous month. Among the children who had experienced pain, 39.4% (109/276 classified its severity as intense or very intense. Nearly 35% (96/276 were awoken by the pain, and 63.8% (176/276 were unable to carry out daily tasks as a result. The prevalence of pain was greater among children from less privileged economic groups, in which the mothers' level of schooling was lower (0-7 years of formal study and who showed poorer conditions of oral health, determined by the presence of dental and periodontal pathology (p<0.05. Gender did not influence either the experience of toothache or its severity and impact. The prevalence of toothache found in the age group between 8 and 9 years is very high and associated to social determinants and poorer conditions of oral health.

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Glaucoma in Citizens of Qatar Aged 40 Years or Older: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansouri, Fatma A.; Kanaan, Aida; Gamra, Hamad; Khandekar, Rajiv; Hashim, Shakeel P.; Al Qahtani, Omar; Ahmed, Mohd. Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among subjects 40 years of age and older in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This community-based survey was held in 2009 at 49 randomly selected clusters. Demographic details and history of glaucoma was collected by the nurses. Ophthalmologists evaluated the optic disc and retina using a digital camera housed in a mobile van. Visual field was tested with an automated perimeter, the intraocular pressure with an applanation tonometer and the angle of the anterior chamber by gonioscopy. A panel of glaucoma experts diagnosed subjects with glaucoma. Results: This survey enrolled 3,149 (97.3%) participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged 40 years and older was 1.73% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.69-1.77). Accordingly, 5,641 individuals in this age group in Qatar would have glaucoma. Chronological age of 60 years and older (Odds ratio [OR] 11.1) and the presence of myopia (OR 1.78) were predictors of glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in 44 (65.7%) individuals with glaucoma. In nine (13.4%) and 15 (20.9%) subjects, angle closure glaucoma and other (post-traumatic, pseudoexfoliation) glaucoma were present. Bilateral blindness (vision glaucoma, respectively. Glaucoma was treated in 36 (54%) subjects. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma among citizens of Qatar aged 40 years and older was 1.71%. Glaucoma was associated with the age of 60 years and older and the presence of myopia. PMID:21731325

  3. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  4. Effect of different transplanting leaf age on rice yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency and fate of 15N-fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongzhu; Lu Shihua; Zeng Xiangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study rice yield, N uptake and fate by using 15 N-urea at transplanting leaf age of 2-, 4-and 6-leaf, respectively. The results showed that rice yield significantly decreased with delay of transplanting leaf age, and 15 N-fertilizer uptake by grain and straw of rice, nitrogen utilization and residue also decreased, but loss of 15 N-fertilizer increased. Under different transplanting leaf age, N absorption by rice mainly came from the soil. Almost 1/3 of total N was supplied by fertilizer, and 2/3 came from soil. The efficiency of fertilizer was 20.8% ∼ 25.7%, 15 N-fertilizer residue ratio was 17.9% ∼ 32.2%, and 15 N-fertilizer loss was 42.1% ∼ 61.3%. 15 N-fertilizer residue mainly distributed in 0 ∼ 20 cm top soil under different treatments. The results indicated that transplanting young leaf age could increase rice yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency, and decrease loss of nitrogen fertilizer and pollution level on environment. (authors)

  5. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat

  6. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Nelen, Vera [Department of Health, Provincial Institute for Hygiene, Kronenburgstraat 45, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeyens, Willy [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene (Belgium); Van Larebeke, Nicolas [Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sioen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.sioen@ugent.be [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); FWO Research Foundation, Egmontstraat 5, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.

  7. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  8. A study on some motoric and anthropometric attributes of competitive and non - competitive taekwondo athletes between the age group 9 - 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu SEVİNÇ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to examine some motoric and antrophometric attributes of competitive and non - competitive taekwondo athletes within the age group 9 - 12 years and to det ermine the difference between those two groups. Material and method: 31 competitive and 29 non - competitive licensed taekwondo athletes voluntarily participated in the study. The average ages, heights and weight of competitive and non - competitive athletes w ere 11,16±,93 year, 150,58±17,14 cm and 43,80± 13,97 kg, 9,62±,82 year, 137,31±8,80 cm and 35,24±8,28 kg respectively. Both groups have been practising regularly taekwondo for 2,5 years, 2 days a week and two hours a day. Flamingo balance test, test of dis k touching, sit and reach flexibility test, long jump while standing still, 30 sec sit - up test, bent arm pull - up test and 10x5m push up run, right and left hand grip strength test and 20 m shuttle run of the Eurofit test battery were used. Body fat percen t, body fat mass, fat free mass, body mass index values were measured. Such antrophometric attributes as hand length, calf and femur circumference, arm length, biceps circumference in flexion, arm span length were measured. Results: Results of statistical analyses showed a significant difference between two groups in terms of motoric scores (p<0,01, p<0,001, antrophometric characteristics ( p<0,01, p<0,001, and fat free mass ( p<0,001 in favor of the competitive group. Conclusion: Compared with the no n - competitive group, significant differences in competitive group can be explained by their active participation in competitions.

  9. Development of Growth Charts of Pakistani Children Aged 4-15 Years Using Quantile Regression: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Sundus; Khan, Nazeer; Siddiqui, Junaid S; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2018-02-02

    Background Growth charts are essential tools used by pediatricians as well as public health researchers in assessing and monitoring the well-being of pediatric populations. Development of these growth charts, especially for children above five years of age, is challenging and requires current anthropometric data and advanced statistical analysis. These growth charts are generally presented as a series of smooth centile curves. A number of modeling approaches are available for generating growth charts and applying these on national datasets is important for generating country-specific reference growth charts. Objective To demonstrate that quantile regression (QR) as a viable statistical approach to construct growth reference charts and to assess the applicability of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards to a large Pakistani population of school-going children. Methodology This is a secondary data analysis using anthropometric data of 9,515 students from a Pakistani survey conducted between 2007 and 2014 in four cities of Pakistan. Growth reference charts were created using QR as well as the LMS (Box-Cox transformation (L), the median (M), and the generalized coefficient of variation (S)) method and then compared with WHO 2007 growth standards. Results Centile values estimated by the LMS method and QR procedure had few differences. The centile values attained from QR procedure of BMI-for-age, weight-for-age, and height-for-age of Pakistani children were lower than the standard WHO 2007 centile. Conclusion QR should be considered as an alternative method to develop growth charts for its simplicity and lack of necessity to transform data. WHO 2007 standards are not suitable for Pakistani children.

  10. Incidence of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in subjects 0-14 years of age in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ríos, M; Moy, C S; Martín Serrano, R; Minuesa Asensio, A; de Tomás Labat, M E; Zarandieta Romero, G; Herrera, J

    1990-07-01

    A retrospective, population-based registry was established in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain (total population: 4,780,572; under age 15: 1,105,243) to investigate the epidemiology of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Included were all cases diagnosed with diabetes between 1985 and 1988, with age onset less than 15 years, and using insulin at discharge from hospital. Using the capture-recapture method employing hospital records as the primary source and membership files of the Spanish Diabetic Association as the secondary source, the ascertainment was 90%. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 11.3/100,000 (Poison 95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4). There was no temporal increase in incidence, nor was there a significant sex difference in incidence rates, either overall or by year. The seasonal onset pattern showed the highest incidence in winter (December-February) and lowest in summer (June-August) (r = 7.36, p less than 0.05). The age-adjusted (world standard) incidence of 10.9/100,000 was inconsistent with the hypothesis of a north-south gradient in diabetes risk.

  11. [Epidemiology of diabetes type 1 in children aged 0-14 in Podlasie Province in years 2005-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczyńska, Joanna; Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Jamiołkowska, Milena; Polkowska, Agnieszka; Zasim, Aneta; Łuczyński, Włodzimierz; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies performed during last decades in many European countries and in the world proved increasing incidence rate of diabetes, especially diabetes type 1 in children (DMT1). In Europe there is one of the highest diabetes incidence rate. The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence rate of diabetes type 1 in children aged 0-14 years in North-East Poland during 2005-2012 years and to analyse this rates in relation to age, gender and season of the diabetes onset. The study was performed among patients staying under care of outpatient diabetes clinic of the Department of Pediatric, Endocrinologym Diabetology with Cardilogy Division, medical University of Białystok, Poland. The DMT1 incidence rate was calculated as the number of all newly diagnosed cases per 100 000 persons 0-14 aged matched. During the studied 8-years- period DMT1 was diagnosed in 306 children aged 0-14 years, 159 boys and 147 girls, in Podlasie Province. The highest number of new cases was found in 2011: 49, and 2012: 47, with the lowest number in 2005 and 2009: 32 each year. The average incidence rate in the studied period was 20,84/100 000 population, aged matched. The lowest incidence rate was found in 0-4 yrs old group: 14,59 /100 000, in 5-9 years old group was: 22,04/100 000, and was highest in 10-14 years old group: 24,94/100 000. The highest increase in incidence rate was noted in the youngest group: from 9,14/100 000 in 2005, to 23,45/100 000 in 2012. The greatest number of new recognisions was found in from November to March, and the lowest number from June to August. 1. The DMT1 incidence rate among children aged 0-14 years, in Podlasie Province, during 2005-2012 years was 20,84/100 000. 2. Increase in incidence rate was observed in the studied period from 15,23/100 000 in 2005 to 26,71/100 000 in 2012. The highest increase in incidence rate, 2,5 times, was fund in the youngest group, aged 0-4 years. 3. The seasonal incidence of New onset was observed with the

  12. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  13. Clinical epidemiological profile of leprosy in children under 15 years in the city of Juazeiro-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara Cavalcanti Feitosa Luna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of new cases of leprosy in people aged under 15 years, reported to the Municipal Department of Health (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde - SMS of Juazeiro-BA, in the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods: This is a quantitative study, of exploratory and descriptive nature, performed through the analysis of data contained in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN, in municipal level. Results: The results showed that 145 (7.94% new cases of leprosy affected people under 15 years. High detection rates were verified for this age group, with predominance in females (n=81; 55.86% and greater occurrence in the age group from 10 to 14 years (n=85; 58.62%. The paucibacillary forms (n=107; 74.48% have predominated over the multibacillary forms of the disease (n=37; 25.52%, being the tuberculoid clinical form (n=80; 55.17% the most prevalent one. The disabilities reached 18 (12.41% of the surveyed patients at the diagnosis time and 15 (10.34% at the hospital discharge time. Many of the cases (n=58; 40.07% were not assessed or were ignored. Conclusion: The clinical and epidemiological profile of the occurrence of new cases of leprosy in Juazeiro-BA showed that both the overall detection coefficients of leprosy as those for people aged under 15 years remained at hyperendemic levels during the surveyed period. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p208

  14. Reliability and construct validity of Yo-Yo tests in untrained and soccer-trained school-girls aged 9-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Soares, José Manuel da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted-intensity Yo-Yo tests were evaluated in untrained (n=67) vs. soccer-trained (n=65) 9-16-year-old school-girls. Methods: Tests were performed 7 days apart for reliability (9-11-year-old: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children...... during test and retest. Conclusion: The Yo-Yo tests are reliable for determining intermittent-exercise capacity and %HRpeak for soccer players and untrained 9-16-year-old girls. They also possess construct validity with better performances for soccer players compared to untrained age-matched girls...

  15. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children agedyear old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children agedyear old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children agedyear old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  16. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  17. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  18. Changes in the presentation of Burkitt's lymphoma in Ghana over a 15-year period (1969-1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, F K

    1984-01-01

    Over a 15-year period, 485 cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) mainly from the southern half of Ghana, were referred to the Burkitt's Tumour Project in Accra, Ghana. From an analysis of the numbers of cases referred each year, the sites of tumour involvement, and the age and sex frequencies, it was concluded that: (i) the number of cases of BL diagnosed in Ghana has decreased progressively over the last 15 years; the number of newly diagnosed cases is now only about one half of what it was 10 years ago; (ii) the male/female ratio has remained practically unchanged over this period; (iii) there has been an overall increase in patients presenting with abdominal disease and a decrease in those presenting with facial disease. This change was particularly apparent in males, in whom the proportion of cases with abdominal disease has more than doubled; (iv) there has been a progressive increase in age at presentation for both males and females over the 15-year period. The possible implications of, and reasons for the above findings are discussed.

  19. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AGED 9–19 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Suzanne M.; Tluczek, Audrey; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M.; Lai, HuiChuan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of improved nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Associations between nutritional status and HRQOL were examined over 2 years in 95 children, aged 9–19 years, who were followed in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. HRQOL was assessed using the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Associations between height z-score (HtZ), BMI z-score (BMIZ) and seven CFQ dimensions were evaluated. Results Mean values of at least 80 were observed for all CFQ dimensions except respiratory symptoms and treatment burden. Treatment burden was significantly worse in patients with meconium ileus (57) compared to pancreatic insufficient (65) and sufficient (78) subjects, pnutritional status was associated with increased HRQOL scores. Early diagnosis through newborn screening and improved nutrition provides an opportunity to enhance quality of life and body image perception. PMID:23410621

  20. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frédéric; Gonthier, Régis

    2011-03-01

    preservation of cognitive abilities is required to have a good quality of life. The predictive value of cognitive functioning at 65 years old on successful ageing 6 years later is not established. nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT), the Benton visual retention test and the similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised) and a subjective one (Goldberg's anxiety scale, Mac Nair's scale and a Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate memory abilities change in the last 5 years). six hundred and eighty-six questionnaires could be analysed. The mean age was 72.9 ± 1.2 years old with 59% of women and 99% lived at home. Well-being was negatively correlated with the FCSRT (r = -0.08, P = 0.0318) but positively related with the Benton (r = 0.09, P = 0.0125) and the similarities tests (r = 0.09, P = 0.0118). There is a negative correlation between anxious and cognitive complaints measured at baseline, and successful ageing indicators 6 years later. preservation of cognitive abilities at the age of retirement can predict a successful ageing 6 years later. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00759304.

  1. Fibroadenoma: Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in females aged 25 years or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwuonwu, O A; Anyanwu, Snc; Chianakwana, G U; Ihekwoaba, E C

    2016-01-01

    Accurate clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in young females is desirable because of the possibility of nonoperative treatment for those desiring it. To determine the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in patients aged ≤ 25 years. A prospective study of all patients with breast disease presenting to the breast clinic was conducted from January 2004 to December 2008. During the study period, 145 patients aged ≤25 years presented with breast lumps. In this group, a clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made in 100 (69.0%), fibrocystic disease in 32 (22.1%), breast cancer in 4 (0.03%) patients, the remaining were benign lesions. Excision biopsy was done for 81 (55.9%) patients. Of these 81 patients, only 62 (76.5%) returned with histology report. The histological diagnosis was fibroadenoma in 45 (72.5%) patients with a mean age of 21.4 years. Their ages range from 18 to 25 years. The histological diagnosis was fibrocystic disease in 9 (14.5%) and malignant phyllodes in 1 (1.6%) patient. The remaining 7 (11.3%) patients had other types of benign lesions. For fibroadenoma, true positive cases were 42, false positive 7 and false negative 3, and true negative 10. Therefore, the sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was 93.3%, while specificity was 58.8%. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in patients aged ≤25 years was good, though specificity is low.

  2. 9+ The Year-Round School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The 9-month school year with a 3-month summer vacation had its origin in our earlier agrarian life. Today's teacher shortages, overcrowded schools, and pressures to learn demand extensions of the school year. This publication analyzes five programs: (1) a staggered-vacation school year for all, (2) a full 48-week school year for all, (3) a…

  3. Large-scale alcohol use and socioeconomic position of origin: longitudinal study from ages 15 to 19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine socioeconomic position (SEP) of origin as predictor of large-scale alcohol use in adolescence. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 15-year-olds at baseline (n=843) with a first follow-up 4 years later (n=729). Excess alcohol intake was assessed by consumption last...

  4. Association of parents' and children's physical activity and sedentary time in Year 4 (8-9) and change between Year 1 (5-6) and Year 4: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Thompson, Janice L; Lawlor, Deborah A; Sebire, Simon J

    2017-08-17

    Parents could be important influences on child physical activity and parents are often encouraged to be more active with their child. This paper examined the association between parent and child physical activity and sedentary time in a UK cohort of children assessed when the children were in Year 1 (5-6 years old) and in Year 4 (8-9 years old). One thousand two hundred twenty three children and parents provided data in Year 4 and of these 685 participated in Year 1. Children and parents wore an accelerometer for five days including a weekend. Mean minutes of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) were derived. Multiple imputation was used to impute all missing data and create complete datasets. Linear regression models examined whether parent MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4 and at Year 1 predicted child MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4. Change in parent MVPA and sedentary time was used to predict change in child MVPA and sedentary time between Year 1 and Year 4. Imputed data showed that at Year 4, female parent sedentary time was associated with child sedentary time (0.13, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.27 mins/day), with a similar association for male parents (0.15, 95% CI = -0.02 to 0.32 mins/day). Female parent and child MVPA at Year 4 were associated (0.16, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.23 mins/day) with a smaller association for male parents (0.08, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.17 mins/day). There was little evidence that either male or female parent MVPA at Year 1 predicted child MVPA at Year 4 with similar associations for sedentary time. There was little evidence that change in parent MVPA or sedentary time predicted change in child MVPA or sedentary time respectively. Parents who were more physically active when their child was 8-9 years old had a child who was more active, but the magnitude of association was generally small. There was little evidence that parental activity from three years earlier predicted child activity at age 8-9, or

  5. The incidence and burden of hospital-treated sports-related injury in people aged 15+ years in Victoria, Australia, 2004-2010: a future epidemic of osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; Kemp, J L; Clapperton, A J

    2015-07-01

    Previous sports injury is a known risk factor for subsequent osteoarthritis (OA), but population-based rates of sports injury are unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the trends in the population incidence and burden of all hospital-treated sports injury in Victoria, Australia in adults aged 15+ years; (2) determine the incidence of lower limb and knee injuries; and (3) quantify their population health burden as average direct hospital costs per injury and lengths of stay. Health sector data relating to adults aged 15+ years, for 2004-2010 inclusive, was extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) and Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). Data relating to sports injuries were identified using activity codes in each dataset Trends in injury frequency and rates were determined, and economic burden was calculated. The overall annual rate of hospital treated sports injuries increased by 24% (P = 0.001), and lower limb injuries by 26% (P = 0.001) over the 7 years. The associated accumulated economic burden was $265 million for all sports injuries and $110 million for lower limb injuries over the 7-years. The findings of this study show a significant increase in sports injuries in the state of Victoria, Australia over a 7-year period. As previous sports injury is a risk factor for the development of OA, the future incidence of OA will escalate, placing an even greater burden on health care systems. Population-wide preventative strategies that reduce the risk of sports injury are urgently required in order to reduce the future burden of OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on characteristics of water resources in Beijing in recent 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, L. M.; Zheng, H. G.; Zhao, J. J.; Wang, A. L.; Zhang, X. J.

    2018-02-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of water supply and water usage in Beijing in recent 15 years, a variety of statistical datasets were collected and field investigations were carried out, to analyze the total water resource, the characteristics and trends of water resource supply, utilization and distribution during 2000-2014. The results showed that the total amount of water resources in Beijing is maintained at 1.61~3.95 billion m3, and the surface water accounts for about 1/3, and the groundwater accounts for 2/3. Agricultural water and living water were the dominated consumption in the past 15 years in Beijing, accounted for 35.3% and 38.9% of the total amount, followed by industrial water, which accounting for 17.9% of total water consumption, and water used in environment is relatively small, only accounting for 7.8% of the total amount. This study can provide theoretical support for the establishment and management of water conservation policies and the rational utilization of water resources in Beijing.

  7. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  8. Age and Gender Variations in Cancer Diagnostic Intervals in 15 Cancers: Analysis of Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees U Din

    Full Text Available Time from symptomatic presentation to cancer diagnosis (diagnostic interval is an important, and modifiable, part of the patient's cancer pathway, and can be affected by various factors such as age, gender and type of presenting symptoms. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationships of diagnostic interval with these variables in 15 cancers diagnosed between 2007 and 2010 using routinely collected data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD in the UK.Symptom lists for each cancer were prepared from the literature and by consensus amongst the clinician researchers, which were then categorised into either NICE qualifying (NICE or not (non-NICE based on NICE Urgent Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer criteria. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to examine the relationship between diagnostic interval (outcome and the predictors: age, gender and symptom type.18,618 newly diagnosed cancer patients aged ≥40 who had a recorded symptom in the preceding year were included in the analysis. Mean diagnostic interval was greater for older patients in four disease sites (difference in days per 10 year increase in age; 95% CI: bladder (10.3; 5.5 to 15.1; P<0.001, kidney (11.0; 3.4 to 18.6; P=0.004, leukaemia (18.5; 8.8 to 28.1; P<0.001 and lung (10.1; 6.7 to 13.4; P<0.001. There was also evidence of longer diagnostic interval in older patients with colorectal cancer (P<0.001. However, we found that mean diagnostic interval was shorter with increasing age in two cancers: gastric (-5.9; -11.7 to -0.2; P=0.04 and pancreatic (-6.0; -11.2 to -0.7; P=0.03. Diagnostic interval was longer for females in six of the gender non-specific cancers (mean difference in days; 95% CI: bladder (12.2; 0.8 to 23.6; P=0.04, colorectal (10.4; 4.3 to 16.5; P=0.001, gastric (14.3; 1.1 to 27.6; P=0.03, head and neck (31.3; 6.2 to 56.5; P=0.02, lung (8.0; 1.2 to 14.9; P=0.02, and lymphoma (19.2; 3.8 to 34.7; P=0.01. Evidence of longer

  9. Half of 12-15-year-olds with knee pain still have pain after one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    knee pain after one year. Funding: Danish Rheumatism Association, The Association of Danish Physiotherapists Research Fund and The Obel Family Foundation. None of the funders have any role in the study other than to provide funding. Trial registration: Ethical approval was obtained from the local...... adolescents with and without self-reported knee pain, 2) investigate how many adolescents still have knee pain after one year and 3) identify risk factors for one-year persistence of knee pain. Material and methods: The design was a prospective cohort study and a nested case-control study. In September 2011......, a total of 768 adolescents between 12-15 years of age from schools in the municipality of Aalborg answered a questionnaire on demographics, sports participation, current pain and HRQoL. After one year, adolescents who reported knee pain at first contact were again contacted by telephone and asked...

  10. Associations of physical fitness and motor competence with reading skills in 9- and 12-year-old children: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Englund, Kjellrun Thora; Haga, Monika

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores the association of motor competence and physical fitness with reading skills in children aged 9 and 12 years. Sixty-seven children aged 9 years completed an assessment of motor competence (measured using the Movement Assessment battery for Children), physical fitness (assessed using the Test of Physical Fitness), and reading (measured using the Wordchain test). The testing procedures were repeated after 32 months. For the 9-year-old group, there was a low, neg...

  11. Proposition of decision limits for serum lipids in Brazilian children aged one to 13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slhessarenko, Natasha; Fontes, Cor J F; Slhessarenko, Maria Eduarda; Azevedo, Raymundo S; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2018-03-09

    To determine decision limits for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in healthy children and adolescents from Cuiabá, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 1866 healthy children and adolescents randomly selected from daycare centers and public schools in Cuiabá. The desirable levels of serum lipids were defined using the classic criteria, i.e., total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels below the P75 percentile, and HDL-c above the P10 percentile. For CT, P75 was: 160mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <3 years, 170mg/dL for ≥3 to <9 years, and 176mg/dL for ≥9 to <13 years. For non-HDL cholesterol, it was 122mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <13 years. For LDL-c, it was 104mg/dL at the age range of 1 to <9 years and 106mg/dL from ≥9 to <13 years. For TG, it was 127mg/dL from 1 to <2 years; 98mg/dL from ≥2 to <6 years; and 92mg/dL from ≥6 to <13 years. As for HDL-cholesterol, P10 was 24mg/dL, 28mg/dL, 32mg/dL, and 36mg/dL, for the age ranges of 1 to <2 years, ≥2 to <3 years, ≥3 to <4 years, and ≥4 to <13 years, respectively. The decision limits for the serum lipid levels defined in this study differed from those observed in the current Brazilian and North-American guidelines, especially because it differentiates between the age ranges. Using these decision limits in clinical practice will certainly contribute to improve the diagnostic accuracy for dyslipidemia in this population group. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Dental Caries Scenario Among 5, 12 and 15-Year-old Children in India- A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Hansa; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Jankiram, Chandrashekar; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease and children are one of the most affected groups. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the average dental caries prevalence across different WHO index age groups (5, 12 & 15 years) for the past fifteen years. Literature search was performed electronically in various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, etc. using Dental caries and India as MeSH terms. Articles from the past 15 years reporting on dental caries prevalence and experience in India were searched and this online searching strategy collected and listed 781 articles. After evaluating their titles and abstracts, only 30 articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria & were finally selected for complete review and data collection. Five articles which were hand searched were also included. Pooled estimates were calculated for different index age groups and different regions (Northern and Southern) separately with a confidence interval of 95% both for prevalence and experience of dental caries. The pooled prevalence of dental caries was found to be highest in 15 year olds followed by 5 and 12 years (62.02%, 48.11% & 43.34% respectively). Weighted mean was also found to be highest for 15 years, followed by 5 and 12 years (2.56±6.508, 2.49±7.78, 1.48±3.292 respectively). Pooled prevalence and weighted mean for the Northernern India region was found to be more in all the index age groups as compared to the Southernern India region. More than 40% of the children in India have shown dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth in the past 15 years. Also, Northernern region was found to be more affected by dental caries than Southern region. Since children are seen as the future of the nation, this data could be helpful in the planning of oral health care services by the concerned authorities in the community.

  13. Confidentiality Concerns and Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Among Adolescents and Young Adults Aged 15-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E; Dittus, Patricia J; Leichliter, Jami S

    2016-12-01

    Data from the National Survey of Family Growth •About 7% of persons aged 15-25 would not seek sexual or reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out about it. •For females aged 15-17 and 18-25, those who had confidentiality concerns were less likely to receive sexual and reproductive health services in the past year compared with those without these concerns. •Less than one-half of teenagers aged 15-17 (38.1%) spent some time alone in the past year during a visit with a doctor or other health care provider without a parent, relative, or guardian in the room. •Teenagers aged 15-17 who spent some time alone during a visit with a health care provider were more likely to have received sexual or reproductive health services in the past year compared with those who had not. Confidentiality concerns can impact adolescent and young adults' access to sexual and reproductive health services (1-4). Young people who are covered by their parents' private health insurance may be deterred from obtaining these services due to concerns that their parents might find out about it (2). Similarly, confidentiality concerns may arise because youth seeking such services may not have time alone during a visit with a health care provider (4). This report describes two measures related to confidentiality concerns and sexual and reproductive health care. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  14. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus, pre-diabetes, undiagnosed and uncontrolled diabetes and its predictors in general population aged 15 to 75 years: A community-based study (KERCADRS) in southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Sanjari, Mojgan; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Afshari, Mehdi; Shadkam, Mitra; Etemad, Koorosh; Mirzazade, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this research was to measure the age-sex standardized prevalence of pre-diabetes (pre-DM) and diabetes (DM), and the effectiveness of diabetes management (using HbA1C as the indicator) in an urban area in Iran. Using a randomized cluster household survey, we recruited 5900 individuals whose age ranged from 15 to 75 from Kerman for assessing coronary artery disease risk factors (KERCADRS) including diabetes. In 2010 and 2011, all of the participants were interviewed by trained staff for medical history and physical activities, and were then examined for blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Venus blood sample was also collected for fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. The age-sex standardized prevalence of pre-diabetes, diagnosed and undiagnosed was 18.7%, 6.3% and 2.7%, respectively. Diabetes increased by age (from 14.7% in the 15-24 years old group to 28.4% in the 65-75 years old group), particularly after 40 years. Occasional opium users had the highest prevalence of Pre-DM (34.6%). Seventy-nine percent of the depressed and 75.5% of the anxious participants with diagnosed-DM were identified as uncontrolled-DM. More than 60% of diagnosed diabetic cases had impaired HbA1c. Overweight and obesity (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.6) and low physical activity (AOR 1.5) were the most preventable risk factors associated with diabetes. Considerable prevalence of diabetes, susceptibility in progressing to diabetes and uncontrolled diabetes among individuals living in Kerman, suggested ineffective prevention and treatment of diabetes in urban areas in Iran. Successful experience regarding primary health-care in rural areas should be expanded to urban settings. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in Northern Italy: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Manenti, Lucio; Tumiati, Bruno; Cavazza, Alberto; Luberto, Ferdinando; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) over a 15-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident GPA diagnosed from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2009 living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified by looking at computerized hospital discharge diagnoses, by contacting Reggio Emilia Hospital physicians and community-based specialists, and by checking the databases of the pathology and the laboratory departments and the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were classified according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) algorithm. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or December 31, 2011. For each case, we identified 20 control subjects from the same geographic area matched for age and gender. A total of 18 patients (7 men and 11 women) with GPA were identified. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate (IR) was 2.4 per million (95% CI: 1.2-3.5). The mean annual IR increased from 1.7/million/year during 1995-1999 to 3.4 during 2005-2009. The highest IR occurred in females aged 70-79 years (13.5 per million; 95% CI: 5.0-30.0) and in males aged ≥ 80 years (14.9 per million; 95% CI: 2.5-49.4). The prevalence of GPA on December 31, 2009 was 34.3 per million (95% CI: 20.3-54.2). The point prevalence per million increased from 17.8 (95% CI: 7.7-35.1) in 1999 to 34.3 (95% CI: 20.3-54.2) in 2009. Survival among individuals with GPA was significantly reduced compared to that observed in the matched control population (p < 0.001). In the Italian population, GPA is very uncommon and GPA patients have reduced survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Currently Use E-Cigarettes,† by Sex and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey,§ 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    In 2016, 3.8% of men and 2.6% of women aged ≥18 years currently used e-cigarettes. Among men, current e-cigarette use decreased with advancing age, from 7.1% among men aged 18-24 years to 4.8% among men aged 25-49 years, 2.6% among men 50-64 years, and 1.1% among men aged ≥65 years. Among women, current e-cigarette use increased between ages 18-24 years (2.3%) and 25-49 years (3.3%) and decreased between ages 50-64 years (3.0%) and ≥65 years (0.9%). A greater percentage of men aged 18-24 years and 25-49 years currently used e-cigarettes compared with women in the same age groups.

  17. Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

  18. Postural reactions of girls and boys aged 12–15 years evaluated using the Romberg test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The complex system controlling human posture includes a gaze stabilisation system, which comprises the control of direction and visual acuity during head and body movements, and a posture stabilisation system, keeping the body in balance at rest and in movement. Aim of the research: To analyse the postural reaction of SOX and SOY using the Romberg test with eyes open (EO and closed (CE in girls and boys aged 12–15 years. Material and methods : The study included 503 students of Primary School No. 13 and School No. 4 in Starachowice. Postural reactions were tested on a Cosmogamma platform by Emildue R50300. Postural reactions were analysed, and mean sway X (MSX and mean sway Y (MSY were calculated. Results: Analysis of variance showed significant differences of MSX only between girls and boys (p < 0.036. MSX was significantly lower in girls in both tests with EO and CE. Although there was no apparent significant difference of MSX between the Romberg test with EO and CE, a slight progression was observed in the test with CE. Analysis of variance of MSY with a single classification showed a significant effect of study options (p < 0.048, a significant interaction of gender and options of the study (p < 0.048, and a significant interaction of age and options of the study (p < 0.026. Analysis of variance of MSY showed a significant progression of MSY in the test with CE. Conclusions : Our research showed that balance with CE does not worsen, so it can be assumed that children have limited skills of using vision to maintain balance because there is a lack of appropriate coordination between vision and motor abilities, which in children are in development.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with body mass index in children aged 9-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with body mass index (BMI in children aged 9-11 years. Methods: The study is part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE. Body composition was determined using the bipolar bioimpedance technique. The mean BMI value was categorized as recommended by the World Health Organization. For seven consecutive days, participants used an accelerometer to objectively monitor sedentary behavior (SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Individual factors (anthropometric and behavioral, family aspects, and family and school environment were provided by participants and parents and were analyzed by multilevel linear regression adjusted for gender, ethnicity, school, number of siblings, and total annual family income. Results: The mean BMI was 20.1 kg/m2, and 51.8% of the children were overweight/obese (50.3% boys, 53.4% girls, p = 0.014. Considering all participants, the associated factors of BMI were body fat percentage (BF%, β = 0.0216, p < 0.001 and screen time (ST, β = 0.0050, p = 0.006. In boys, the associated factors were BF% (β = 0.0209, p < 0.001, ST (β = 0.006, p = 0.036, and healthy eating policies or practices (β = 0.0276, p = 0.025. In girls, only BF% was associated (β = 0.0221, p < 0.001 with BMI. Conclusions: High prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in children from São Caetano do Sul. Different associated factors were identified between the genders, with only BF% being common in both genders.

  20. National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ≥10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children. PMID:25196167

  1. Can HIV/AIDS be fought by targeting youths in Zambia? Analysis of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Sexual Behaviour among youths aged 15 – 24 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bupe Bwalya Bwalya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although people of any age are susceptible to HIV, youths aged 15 – 24 face disproportionate risk of contracting it because of challenges that they face with regard to correct HIV and AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and practices. This study was aimed at determining whether HIV and AIDS can be fought by targeting interventions at youths aged 15 – 24 years by assessing their current knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviours in Zambia.  Methods: The study utilised secondary data from a self-weighting nationally representative sample of the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. Results: Generally correct comprehensive knowledge is very low among youths (43 percent. This is in spite having good command of general and full general knowledge and the ABCs of HIV and AIDS prevention. Attitudes towards PLHIV, Condom use and HIV counselling and testing were negative. About one third (58 percent of youths in Zambia have a history of early sexual debut (sex before age 15 with more females (64 percent than males (51 percent having hard sex. Male youths were more likely to have used a condom with most recent sexual partner as compared to females (AOR=0.265, 95%CI: 0.160, 0.438; p<0.001. Youths in rural areas had reduced odds of using a condom during their first sexual intercourse compared with those in urban areas (AOR=0.530, 95%CI: 0.387, 0.726; p<0.001. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be seen lack of comprehensive correct knowledge, gender disparities, poor educational levels, youth’s age and place of residence are some of the contributing factors that may hinder the fight against HIV/AIDS among youths in Zambia.Key words: Youths; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Attitudes; Behaviour, Zambia

  2. The Prevalence of Oral Habits Among 4 to 15 year Old School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... Study Design: This is cross-sectional study of 928 children, 431 males and 497 females aged 4 to 15 years from both rural and urban areas of Lagos State in Nigeria ... Of these, digit sucking was the most frequently occurring, seen in 50% of the children with oral habits.

  3. Language and cognitive outcome for high-risk neonates at the age of 2-3 years - experience from an Arab Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Baz, Hemmat; ElShabrawi, Doaa

    2017-02-08

    To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations. The studied children were subjected to a protocol of language assessment that included history taking, clinical and neurological examination, audiological evaluation, assessment of language using modified preschool language scale-4, IQ and mental age assessment and assessment of social age. The studied children had a median gestational age of 37 wk, median birth weight of 2.5 kg. The distribution of the high-risk factors in the affected children were prematurity in 25 children, respiratory distress syndrome in 25 children, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 15 children, hyperbilirubinemia in 10 children, hypoglycemia in 13 children, mixed risk factors in 15 children. The results revealed that high-risk neonatal complications were associated with impairment of different language parameters and cognitive abilities ( P language and cognitive delay significantly by 3.9 fold. Arabic-speaking children aged 2-3 years who were exposed to high-risk conditions in the perinatal period are likely to exhibit delays in the development of language and impairments in cognitive abilities. The most significant risk factor associated with language and cognitive impairments was prematurity.

  4. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M Sogi; Kapil, R Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.

  5. GDF9 and BMP15 Expressions and Fine Structure Changes During Folliculogenesis in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagül, Meryem İlkay; Aktaş, Savaş; Coşkun Yılmaz, Banu; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Orekici Temel, Gülhan

    2018-01-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequently seen endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with a prevalence of about 10%. To investigate the efficiency of growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 during folliculogenesis in a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse Polycystic ovary syndrome model. Animal experimentation. Mice were divided into 3 groups: control, vehicle and Polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome model mice were developed by the injection of dehydroepiandrosterone dissolved in 0.1 mL of sesame oil. Ovarian tissues were examined for growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 using immunofluorescent labelling and electron microscopic examinations. The immunoreactivity of growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 proteins decreased (pPolycystic ovary syndrome group (27.73±8.43 and 24.85±7.03, respectively) compared with the control group (33.72±11.22 and 31.12±11.05, respectively) and vehicle group (33.95±10.75 and 29.99±10.72, respectively). Apoptotic changes were observed in granulosa cells, lipid vacuoles increased in Theca cells and thickening and irregularities were noted in the basal lamina of granulosa cells. An increased electron density in the zona pellucida in some of the multilaminar primary and secondary follicles in the Polycystic ovary syndrome model was also observed at the ultrastructural level. These results suggest that the decrease in the growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 expression initiated at the primary follicle stage effect the follicle development and zona pellucida structure and may cause subfertility or infertility in Polycystic ovary syndrome.

  6. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  7. [Atherosclerotic renovascular hypertension: clinical findings and results of treatment over 15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, J P; Rosario, M N; Ugarte, C; Banasco, J; Fraxedas, R; Lahera, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present our clinical experience and results of different treatments in 83 atherosclerotic renovascular hypertensive patients treated in the last 15 years in the Instituto de nefrologia in Havana. Regardless of the type of treatment the patients were divided in two groups. Group I: 52 (62.3%) cases with standard oral hypotensive drugs alone and control of other cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 53 years old, sex m/f 50/50%, race white/no-white 75/25%, mean known hypertension follow-up 10.2 +/- 10 years, mean SBP 208 +/- 30 mmHg, mean DBP 123 +/- 17 mmHg, mean serum creatinina 1.62 mg/dl and increase peripheral plasma renin value in 61.6% of patients) and group II: 31 (37.7%) cases treated with revascularización procedures (PTA or surgery) or nephrectomy in selected patients (mean age 50 years old, sex m/f 68/32%, race white/no-white 16/84%, mean known hypertension follow-up 8.5 +/- 8.6 years, mean SBP 214 +/- 32 mmHg, mean DBP 1.31 +/- 16 mmHg, mean serum creatinina 1.85 mg/dl and increase peripheral plasma renin value 78.3% of patients). As end point for treatment results we selected: 1) hypertension cure or control, 2) evolution of the serum creatinine value and 3) kidney and patients survival. In those cases with a follow up for more than one year, in 82.9% the blood pressure was cure (21.4%) or controlled (61.4%). The proportion of failed was superior in group I (20.9%) than in group II (11.1%). All 18 cases treated by PTA with a follow up period longer than a year, blood pressure cure in 10 (55.6%), ameliorate in 5 (27.8%) and in 3 (16.6%) was unchanged (one patient lost of follow up). Nine patients were treated by surgery (3 revascularization and 6 nephrectomy), 5 (55.5%) cases cured and 4 (44.5%) ameliorate his blood pressure. Patients in group II maintain normal renal function in more cases than in group I (48.4% vs 30.8%). Both group had similar percentage of normal-normal + pathology-normal renal function (G I: 65.4% vs G

  8. Social inequalities in changes in health-related behaviour among Slovak adolescents aged between 15 and 19: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleskova Maria

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower socioeconomic position is generally associated with higher rates of smoking and alcohol consumption and lower levels of physical activity. Health-related behaviour is usually established during late childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study is to explore changes in health-related behaviour in a cohort of adolescents aged between 15 and 19, overall and by socioeconomic position. Methods The sample consisted of 844 first-year students (42.8% males, baseline in 1998 – mean age 14.9, follow-up in 2002 – mean age 18.8 from 31 secondary schools located in Kosice, Slovakia. This study focuses on changes in adolescents' smoking, alcohol use, experience with marijuana and lack of physical exercise with regard to their socioeconomic position. Four indicators of socioeconomic position were used – adolescents' current education level and employment status, and the highest education level and highest occupational status of their parents. We first made cross tabulations of HRB with these four indicators, using McNemar's test to assess differences. Next, we used logistic regression to assess adjusted associations, using likelihood ratio tests to assess statistical significance. Results Statistically significant increases were found in all health-related behaviours. Among males, the most obvious socioeconomic gradient was found in smoking, both at age 15 and at 19. Variations in socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviour were more apparent among females. Although at age 15, almost no socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviour were found, at age 19 differences were found for almost all socioeconomic indicators. Among males, only traditional socioeconomic gradients were found (the lower the socioeconomic position, the higher the prevalence of potentially harmful health-related behaviour, while among females reverse socioeconomic gradients were also found. Conclusion We confirmed an increase in unhealthy

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Auditory Attention in 7 to 9 Year Old Learning Disabled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Amiriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning disability is a term referes to a group of disorders manifesting listening, reading, writing, or mathematical problems. These children mostly have attention difficulties in classroom that leads to many learning problems. In this study we aimed to compare the auditory attention of 7 to 9 year old children with learning disability to non- learning disability age matched normal group.Methods: Twenty seven male 7 to 9 year old students with learning disability and 27 age and sex matched normal conrols were selected with unprobable simple sampling. 27 In order to evaluate auditory selective and divided attention, Farsi versions of speech in noise and dichotic digit test were used respectively.Results: Comparison of mean scores of Farsi versions of speech in noise in both ears of 7 and 8 year-old students in two groups indicated no significant difference (p>0.05 Mean scores of 9 year old controls was significant more than those of the cases only in the right ear (p=0.033. However, no significant difference was observed between mean scores of dichotic digit test assessing the right ear of 9 year-old learning disability and non learning disability students (p>0.05. Moreover, mean scores of 7 and 8 year- old students with learning disability was less than those of their normal peers in the left ear (p>0.05.Conclusion: Selective auditory attention is not affected in the optimal signal to noise ratio, while divided attention seems to be affected by maturity delay of auditory system or central auditory system disorders.

  10. Handwriting in healthy people aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drempt, Nadege; McCluskey, Annie; Lannin, Natasha A

    2011-08-01

    Handwriting is an important activity that is commonly affected by neurological and orthopaedic conditions. Handwriting research has predominantly involved children. Little is known about handwriting behaviour in healthy older adults. This study aims to describe the handwriting practices of 30 unimpaired adults aged 65 years and over. In this cross-sectional observational study, data were collected from 30 older adults using a self-report questionnaire, digital pen recordings over three days and a handwriting log. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The mean age of participants was 75.1 years (standard deviation=6.9). Variations in handwriting were evident in letter size, slant and spacing. Participants wrote very little--a median of 18 words per occasion (interquartile range=10.5-26.9 words). Most handwriting involved self-generated text (85%), not copied or transcribed text. Participants stood while writing for 17% of handwriting occasions. The most common reasons for handwriting were note taking (23%) and puzzles (22%). Legibility may not depend exclusively on the handwriting script that a beginning writer is taught, but may be a result of other factors as the person ages. A comprehensive adult handwriting assessment and retraining programme should be relevant to older adults, including common handwriting activities, involving self-generated text and few words. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Influence of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 on embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, Funda; Gulekli, Bulent; Dogan, Erbil; Korhan, Peyda; Dogan, Seda; Bige, Ozgur; Cimrin, Dilek; Atabey, Nese

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the association between follicular fluid levels of propeptide and mature forms of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 with subsequent oocyte and embryo quality. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Eighty-one infertile patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The expression levels of the propeptide and mature forms of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 were determined by western blot analysis. The levels of follicular fluid hormones (FSH, E2, and P) were measured with automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. The relationships between the levels of GDF9 and BMP15, hormones, oocyte maturation, and embryo quality. Mature GDF9 levels were significantly correlated with the nuclear maturation of oocytes. The mean mature GDF9 level was 4.87±0.60 in the high-embryo-quality group and 1.45±0.81 in the low-embryo-quality group. There were no statistically significant differences in embryo quality among the patients regarding propeptide GDF9 and BMP15 expression status. There was a negative correlation between follicular fluid levels of P and the mature form of GDF9. Higher mature GDF9 levels in the follicular fluid were significantly correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans age 15 to 49: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans aged 15 to 49 years old and living in households, and to describe the profile of serorreactive individuals. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study with a national probabilistic sample of individuals aged 15 to 49 years with behavioral data from direct interview (face-to-face at households and HIV screening using capillary blood collected from the same individuals. Results. A seroprevalence of 0.15% (95%CI 0.09-0.21 was estimated for Mexicans aged 15 to 49; seroprevalence among women was 0.07% (95%CI 0.03-0.11 and 0.24% (95%CI 0.11-0.36 for men. HIV serorreactive population is composed of younger men, with a higher socioeconomic level compared to the general population, and with a higher insurance coverage –social protection on health in general and social security in particular. Only 50% of the serorreactive individuals may be aware of their status as living with HIV. Conclusions. The estimated HIV seroprevalence in the NHNS 2012 suggests a stable pattern since 2000. The estimated prevalence among individuals 15 to 49 years was adjusted both for selection bias correction and to include MSM estimations (under the assumption that MSM is a population hard to reach in a household survey, resulting in a total seroprevalence of 0.23% and an estimated number of people with HIV of 140000

  13. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  14. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  15. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men ≥75 Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged ≥75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged ≥75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients

  16. Comparative study of personality disorder associated with deliberate self harm in two different age groups (15?24 years and 45?74 years)

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Saswati; Patra, Dipak Kumar; Biswas, Srilekha; Mallick, Asim Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam Kumar; Ghosh, Srijit

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To study the presence of personality disorder in cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) in young (15?24 years) and elderly (45?74 years) and compare. Materials and Methods: Deliberate self harm cases admitted in Medical and surgical departments and cases attending psychiatry department of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata were studied. For diagnosis of personality disorder ICD 10 International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) questionnaire was used. Results: Percentage of elderly pa...

  17. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a 4- to 9-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Alavi, Samin; Madadi, Firoozeh; Eajazi, Alireza; Aslani, Afshin

    2011-10-05

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is usually seen in children aged 1.5 to 10 years, reaching a peak incidence between the ages of 4 and 9. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a known complication of corticosteroid therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are few reports in the literature regarding the natural history of this condition, and there is no consensus on its management. This study examined the natural history of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with leukemia. From 1993 to 2006, a total of 865 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were admitted to the hematology-oncology ward of a children's hospital. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was established by bone marrow aspiration. Based on clinical and radiographic findings, avascular necrosis of the femoral head was found in 7 patients; these patients underwent follow-up for 4 to 9 years. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was clinically symptomatic in all of the children, and they had advanced radiographic collapse of the femoral head. However, the head of the femur was not at risk in any patient based on clinical and radiographic findings. Patients received supportive treatment such as abduction brace and physiotherapy. After 4 to 9 years of follow-up, clinical and radiographic results were satisfactory. Provided that the head of the femur is not at risk, avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be successfully managed with nonoperative care. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Self-reported recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among 15-year olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobina, I; Villberg, J; Villerusa, A

    2015-01-01

    -old adolescents internationally; (2) to investigate the association between recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among boys and girls; and (3) to evaluate the consistency of these associations across countries. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative international Health Behaviour......BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in adolescent pain prevalence across epidemiological studies, with limited information on pain-related behaviours among adolescents, including medicine use. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of recurrent pain among 15-year...... in School-aged Children 2009/2010 study collects data about self-reported aches and medicine use from 36,762 15-year-old adolescents from 22 countries/regions in Europe and the United States. Multi-level multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, was used to analyse the association between...

  19. Radiological analysis of peptic ulcer in pediatric age group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Pyo Nyun; Han, Soon Im; Chung, Moo Chan; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Suh, Won Hyuck [Soon Chun Hyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    The UGI studies had been performed to 238 patients below the age of 15 years during the period from Jan. 1979 to Jul. 1983 in SCH hospital. The results are as follows: 1. Among 238 cases, 48 cases revealed peptic ulcers of stomach or duodenum (20.2%). The ulcer was in 31/37 cases of male patients (22.6%), and in 17/101 cases of female (16.8). Below the age of 5 years, ulcer was noted in 9 cases among 61 cases (14.8%), whereas above 5 years, in 39 cases among 177 patients (22.0%). 2. In the age group below 5 years, mostly the objective symptoms were discovered (8/9), but above 5 years, complained of subjective symptoms (30/39). 3. The predominant site of peptic ulcer was gastric antrum in the age group below 5 years (7/9), whereas duodenal bulb above 5 years (33/43). 4. Gastric antrum or duodenal bulb deformity was revealed in 13 cases and most of them were in the age group above 5 years. 5. All lesions of peptic ulcers in this study were benign in nature. 6. In follow up study after 1 or 2 months, ulcer was decreased in size strikingly (9/11)

  20. Radiological analysis of peptic ulcer in pediatric age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Pyo Nyun; Han, Soon Im; Chung, Moo Chan; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1984-01-01

    The UGI studies had been performed to 238 patients below the age of 15 years during the period from Jan. 1979 to Jul. 1983 in SCH hospital. The results are as follows: 1. Among 238 cases, 48 cases revealed peptic ulcers of stomach or duodenum (20.2%). The ulcer was in 31/37 cases of male patients (22.6%), and in 17/101 cases of female (16.8). Below the age of 5 years, ulcer was noted in 9 cases among 61 cases (14.8%), whereas above 5 years, in 39 cases among 177 patients (22.0%). 2. In the age group below 5 years, mostly the objective symptoms were discovered (8/9), but above 5 years, complained of subjective symptoms (30/39). 3. The predominant site of peptic ulcer was gastric antrum in the age group below 5 years (7/9), whereas duodenal bulb above 5 years (33/43). 4. Gastric antrum or duodenal bulb deformity was revealed in 13 cases and most of them were in the age group above 5 years. 5. All lesions of peptic ulcers in this study were benign in nature. 6. In follow up study after 1 or 2 months, ulcer was decreased in size strikingly (9/11)

  1. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: High incidence in people over 80 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Josep Maria; Altimiras, Jacint; Alonso, Francisco; Roura, Pere; Alfonso, Sebastián; Bajo, Lorena

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is usually observed in adults over 60 years of age. The highest incidence of cases is between 70 and 80 years-old, and it could be under-diagnosed in over 80 year-olds. A description is presented on the overall incidence and age group incidence, the delay in the diagnosis, and main outcomes. A descriptive study was performed on patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, in the population of Osona County during the years 2010-2015. The annual incidence rate was 4.43 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence increased with age; from 8.09 per 100,000 in the 60 to 69 years age group, to 23.61 per 100,000 in the 70-79 years age group of, and to 37.02 per 100,000 in the 80-89 years age. The delay in the diagnosis was 15.01 ± 10.35 months. All the patients improved after surgery, but only 73.3% of the patients maintained the improvement after one year. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is an age related disease and probably underdiagnosed in the elderly. An early diagnosis and a clinical suspicion are essential in patients over 80 years old. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Association of physical activities, sedentary behaviors with overweight/obesity in 9-11 year-old Chinese primary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Li, Q; Song, Y; Ma, J; Wang, H J

    2016-06-18

    To explore the association of physical activities, sedentary behaviors with overweight/obesity in Chinese children aged 9-11 years, analyze the gender difference and heterogeneity of the association across different provinces, and provide evidence for prevention and control of overweight and obesity. Using the data of 40 692 children aged 9-11 years from Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010, the height and weight were measured and the time spent in physical activities, screen behaviors and homework were collected. We analyzed the associations among physical activities, sedentary behaviors and overweight/obesity in boys and girls separately, and assessed the heterogeneity of associations across different provinces with Meta-analysis. The prevalence of overweight/obesity of the boys (27.1%) was higher than that of the girls (12.9%), compared with the rural students (15.6%), the situation of overweight/obesity of the urban students (23.8%) was more serious, the prevalences of overweight/obesity were separately 22.6%, 19.2% and 17.5% among developed, middle-developed and undeveloped social economic status subgroups. The boys with physical activities no more than 1 hour per day were more likely to be overweight/obese, with the OR of 1.09 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.17). The girls with screen time more than 1 hour per day or homework time more than 2 hours per day were more likely to be overweight/obese, with the ORs of 1.13 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.26) and 1.18 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.35) respectively. The high level of sedentary behaviors (more than 135 min per day) was associated with overweight/obese in the girls, and the OR was 1.19 (95%CI: 1.08, 1.33). There was no significant heterogeneity of effect values between physical activities and overweight/obesity in the boys and between sedentary behaviors and overweight/obesity in the girls across the different provinces (P> 0.05). The associations among physical activities, sedentary behaviors and overweight

  3. [Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, André

    2010-01-01

    monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Guérin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.0 ± 13.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826 children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (±2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the

  4. Temporal patterns of genetic variation across a 9-year-old aerial seed bank of the shrub Banksia hookeriana (Proteaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Luke G; He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2005-11-01

    The pattern of accumulation of genetic variation over time in seed banks is poorly understood. We examined the genetic structure of the aerial seed bank of Banksia hookeriana within a single 15-year-old population in fire-prone southwestern Australia, and compared genetic variation between adults and each year of a 9-year-old seed bank using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. hookeriana is well suited to the study of seed bank dynamics due to the canopy storage of its seeds, and because each annual crop can be identified. A total of 304 seeds from nine crop years and five maternal plants were genotyped, along with 113 plants from the adult population. Genetic variation, as assessed by the proportion of polymorphic markers (P(p)) and Shannon's index (I), increased slightly within the seed bank over time, while gene diversity (H(j)), did not change. P(p), I, and H(j) all indicated that genetic variation within the seed bank quickly approached the maximal level detected. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that less than 4% of variation could be accounted for by variation among seeds produced in different years, whereas there was greater differentiation among maternal plants (12.7%), and among individual seeds produced by different maternal plants (83.4%). With increasing population age, offspring generated each year were slightly more outbred, as indicated by an increase in the mean number of nonmaternal markers per offspring. There were no significant differences for H(j) or I between adults and the seed bank. Viability of seeds decreased with age, such that the viability of 9-year-old seeds was half that of 2-year-old seeds. These results suggest that variable fire frequencies have only limited potential to influence the amount of genetic variation stored within the seed bank of B. hookeriana.

  5. The influence of age-policy changes on the relative age effect across the Australian Rules football talent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Jade A Z; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Pyne, David B; Larkin, Paul; Robertson, Sam

    2018-03-21

    To identify the influence of age-policy changes on the relative age effect (RAE) across the Australian Football League (AFL) talent pathway. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of junior AFL players attending the National Draft (National), State, and State Under 16s (U16) combines between 1999-2016. Birth-date data was obtained for players attending the AFL State U16 (n=663, age: 15.9±0.4years), State (n=803, age: 19.1±1.7years), National (n=1111, age: 18.3±0.8years) combines. Corresponding aged-matched Australian general population birth rate data was also collected. A chi-squared analysis comparing birth month distributions found all combine groups differed significantly from the general population (Under 16s: χ 2 =62.61, State: χ 2 =38.83, National: χ 2 =129.13, pborn in January (4.9%, ptalent pathways. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Socioeconomic patterning in the incidence and survival of teenage and young adult men aged between 15 and 24 years diagnosed with non-seminoma testicular cancer in northern england.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J Q; Basta, Nermine O; Errington, Steven; James, Peter W; Norman, Paul D; Hale, Juliet P; Pearce, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Previous research from developed countries has shown a marked increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in the past 50 years. This has also been demonstrated in northern England, along with improving 5-year survival. The present study aims to determine if socioeconomic factors may play a role in both etiology and survival from non-seminoma testicular cancer. We extracted all 214 cases of non-seminoma testicular cancer diagnosed in teenage and young adult men aged between 15 and 24 years during 1968 to 2006 from the Northern Region Young Persons' Malignant Disease Registry, which is a population-based specialist regional registry. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence and both the Townsend deprivation score (and component variables) and small-area population density. Cox regression was used to analyze the relationship between survival and both deprivation and population density. Decreased incidence was associated with living in areas of higher household overcrowding for young adults aged between 20 and 24 years (relative risk per 1% increase in household overcrowding = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.66-0.94) but no association was detected for young people aged between 15 and 19 years. Community-level household unemployment was associated with worse survival (hazard ratio per 1% increase in household unemployment = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08). This study has shown that increased risk of non-seminoma testicular cancer in teenage and young adult men may be associated with some aspect of more advantaged living. In contrast, greater deprivation is linked with worse survival prospects. The study was ecological by design and so these area-based results may not necessarily apply to individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. GDF9 and BMP15 Expressions and Fine Structure Changes During Folliculogenesis in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem İlkay Karagül1

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequently seen endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with a prevalence of about 10%. Aims: To investigate the efficiency of growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 during folliculogenesis in a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse Polycystic ovary syndrome model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Mice were divided into 3 groups: control, vehicle and Polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome model mice were developed by the injection of dehydroepiandrosterone dissolved in 0.1 mL of sesame oil. Ovarian tissues were examined for growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 using immunofluorescent labelling and electron microscopic examinations. Results: The immunoreactivity of growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 proteins decreased (p<0.05 in the Polycystic ovary syndrome group (27.73±8.43 and 24.85±7.03, respectively compared with the control group (33.72±11.22 and 31.12±11.05, respectively and vehicle group (33.95±10.75 and 29.99±10.72, respectively. Apoptotic changes were observed in granulosa cells, lipid vacuoles increased in Theca cells and thickening and irregularities were noted in the basal lamina of granulosa cells. An increased electron density in the zona pellucida in some of the multilaminar primary and secondary follicles in the Polycystic ovary syndrome model was also observed at the ultrastructural level. Conclusion: These results suggest that the decrease in the growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 expression initiated at the primary follicle stage effect the follicle development and zona pellucida structure and may cause subfertility or infertility in Polycystic ovary syndrome

  8. Rotator cuff injury in patients over the age of 65 years: evaluation of function, integrity and strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Castro Veado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff injuries, among those aged over 65 years, observing integrity, function and strength.METHODS: Thirty-five shoulders were operated between July 2005 and July 2010, and 28 shoulders were re-evaluated regarding elevation strength and external rotation, using a digital dynamometer. Integrity was evaluated by means of ultrasound examinations. The patients, whose mean age was 70.54 years (ranging from 65 to 82 years, were followed up for a minimum of 26 months and mean of 51.18 months (ranging from 26 to 82 months. To evaluate function, the UCLA score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain were used.RESULTS: In analyzing the ultrasound scans, it was observed that the integrity of the rotator cuff was maintained in 75% of the cases at the end of the follow-up, along with the improvement in the UCLA score, which evolved from 17.46 to 32.39, i.e. excellent and good results in 89.28%. The mean SST and VAS indices were 9.86 and 1.5 respectively.CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injuries in patients over the age of 65 years leads to improved function and pain relief, with maintenance of the integrity of the repair. The data on muscle strength were inconclusive.

  9. 15 CFR 30.9 - Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information. 30.9 Section 30.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements...

  10. Infliximab therapy in pediatric patients 7 years of age and younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Grossman, Andrew B; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert N; Mamula, Petar

    2014-12-01

    Infliximab (IFX) is efficacious for induction and maintenance of remission in pediatric patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It has, however, not been studied in patients 7 years old and younger. Our aim was to characterize efficacy and safety of IFX therapy in this cohort. This was a retrospective study of patients with IBD ages 7 years and younger, treated with IFX between 1999 and 2011. Medical records were reviewed for age of diagnosis, disease phenotype, therapy, surgery, IFX infusion dates, dose, and intervals. Outcome measures included physician global assessment, corticosteroid requirement, and adverse events. Thirty-three children (ages 2.4-7 years) were included. Twenty patients had Crohn disease, 4 had ulcerative colitis, and 9 had indeterminate colitis. Maintenance of IFX therapy at 1, 2, and 3 years was 36%, 18%, and 12%, respectively. Patients of age 5 years and younger had the lowest rates of maintenance of therapy at 25% at year 1, and 10% at years 2 and 3 combined. Nine percent of all of the patients demonstrated response measured by the physician global assessment and were steroid free at 1 year. There were 8 infusion reactions. There were no malignancies, serious infections, or deaths. IFX demonstrated a modest response rate and a low steroid-sparing effect in patients with IBD 7 years old and younger. Although this is a limited study, there appears to be a trend for decreased sustained efficacy with IFX in this age group, particularly in children 5 years old and younger, when compared with the previously published literature in older children.

  11. Social Tie Strength and Online Victimization: An Analysis of Young People Aged 15–30 Years in Four Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Keipi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online interaction through the use of social networking sites (SNS continues to be a significant component of the socialization of young people today, yet little research exists toward linking various relational forms to prevalent and much-studied online risks cross-nationally. This article provides a link between relational dynamics and online risks identified in previous research toward a new perspective on how social tie strength is related to experiences of hate victimization and harassment online. The analysis is based on survey data of Finnish ( n  = 555, American ( n  = 1033, German ( n  = 978, and British ( n  = 999 young people aged 15–30 years. Variables, including age, gender, main activity, SNS use, quantity, and extent of online and offline social networks including social tie strength and online community identification, were analyzed toward finding their associations with online hate victimization and harassment. Results showed that experiences of hate victimization and harassment were similar cross-nationally and that those who were personally harassed online also reported high SNS activity. Furthermore, no association was found between social network size and negative experiences. Notable cross-national differences were also detected in the results. Findings emphasize the importance of understanding variables fostering online risks for young people while providing a new perspective on what aspects of social life may help negate negative effects online.

  12. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  13. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  14. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  15. Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population

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    Mittal A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38% had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06% had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother′s age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child′s nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.

  16. Vitrectomy in patients over 90 years of age

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    Muto T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Muto, Tomoyuki Ide, Makoto Chikuda, Shigeki Machida Department of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Japan Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate vitrectomy procedures performed in patients over 90 years of age at the Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital (Koshigaya, Japan.Patients and methods: Vitrectomies were performed in nine eyes of nine patients who were over 90 years of age between May 2010 and March 2015. Factors such as the underlying vitreoretinal disease, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, surgical time, postoperative body position, need for a second surgery, systemic disease, and intraoperative changes in systemic conditions have been evaluated.Results: The most common cause of the underlying vitreoretinal disease was vitreous hemorrhage derived from age-related macular degeneration and posterior dislocation of the lens secondary to a posterior capsular rupture (two cases each. The mean values for the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA were 2.15 preoperatively and 1.46 postoperatively (P=0.020, Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean surgical time was 109 minutes. Prone position was needed in two cases, and no second surgeries were needed. The most common cause of systemic disease was hypertension, which was found in six cases. Transient hypertension was found in two cases during surgery, and these patients were treated using intravenous calcium blocker injections.Conclusion: Patients over 90 years of age who underwent vitrectomy procedures did not have serious problems, except transient hypertension during surgery. The BCVA significantly improved. These results indicated that vitrectomies could be performed successfully in patients over 90 years of age. Keywords: vitrectomy, underlying vitreoretinal disease, transient hypertension

  17. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Adib, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B 7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket.

  18. Soccer Injuries in Players Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study Over 2 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Chomiak, Jiri; Dvorak, Jiri; Faude, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    As part of a risk-management approach, sound epidemiological data are needed to develop prevention programs. A recent review on soccer injuries of players younger than 19 years concluded that prospective data concerning children are lacking. To analyze the incidence and characteristics of soccer injuries in children aged 7 to 12 years. Descriptive epidemiological study. The present survey was a prospective descriptive epidemiological study on soccer injuries over 2 seasons in the Czech Republic and Switzerland. Exposure of players during training and match play (in hours) and injury data were reported by coaches via an Internet-based registration system. Location, type, and severity of injuries were classified according to an established consensus. Injury characteristics are presented as absolute numbers and injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure). An injury was defined as any physical complaint sustained during a scheduled training session or match play resulting in at least 1 of the following: (1) inability to complete the current match or training session, (2) absence from subsequent training sessions or matches, and (3) injury requiring medical attention. In total, 6038 player-seasons with 395,295 hours of soccer exposure were recorded. The mean (±SD) age of the players was 9.5 ± 2.0 years, and 3.9% of the participants were girls. A total of 417 injuries were reported. Most (76.3%) injuries were located in the lower limbs, with 15.6% located in the upper limbs. Joint and ligament injuries comprised 30.5%, contusions 22.5%, muscle and tendon injuries 18.5%, and fractures and bone injuries 15.4% of all injuries; 23.7% of injuries led to more than 28 days of absence from sport participation. The overall injury incidence was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.53-0.69) injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure during training sessions and 4.57 (95% CI, 4.00-5.23) during match play. Injury incidence rates increased with increasing age. The observed injury

  19. Sexual behaviour among young Danes aged 15-29 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2015-01-01

    Langt de fleste klamydia-infektioner og provokerede aborter forekommer blandt unge i alderen 15-29 år. Mange af disse tilfælde kan formentlig relateres til seksuel risikoadfærd. Dette studie viser, at hovedparten af de unge anvender et kondom ved den seksuelle debut (kvinder: 70 %, mænd: 60 %), m...

  20. Construct validity and test–retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9–17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a lack of instruments and studies written in Spanish evaluating physical fitness, impeding the determination of the current status of this important health indicator in the Latin population, especially in Colombia. The aim of the study was two-fold: to examine the validity of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS with a population-based sample of schoolchildren from Bogota, Colombia and to examine the reliability of the IFIS with children and adolescents from Engativa, Colombia. Methods The sample comprised 1,873 Colombian youths (54.5% girls aged 9–17.9 years. We measured their adiposity markers (waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, percentage of body fat and body mass index, blood pressure, lipids profile, fasting glucose, and physical fitness level (self-reported and measured. A validated cardiometabolic risk index score was also used. An age- and sex-matched subsample of 229 schoolchildren who were not originally included in the sample completed the IFIS twice for reliability purposes. Results Our data suggest that both measured and self-reported overall physical fitness levels were inversely associated with percentage of body fat indicators and the cardiometabolic risk index score. Overall, schoolchildren who self-reported “good” or “very good” fitness had better measured fitness levels than those who reported “very poor/poor” fitness (all p < 0.001. The test-retest reliability of the IFIS items was also good, with an average weighted kappa of 0.811. Discussion Our findings suggest that self-reported fitness, as assessed by the IFIS, is a valid, reliable, and health-related measure. Furthermore, it can be a good alternative for future use in large studies with Latin schoolchildren from Colombia.

  1. [Selected nutritional habits children and teenagers aged 10-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańiska, Ewa; Falkowska, Agnieszka; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of chosen nutritional habits in group of children and teenagers attending elementary schools and junior high schools in Bialystok. All together there were examined 1829 children aged 10 to 15 (884 children from primary school and 945 students ofjunior high school). Body height and weight were measured to assess Body Mass Index. The results were interpreted with the use of the centile charts for the children recommended by The Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. Nutritional habits of children and teenagers were assessed based on the questionnaire form (designed in the Department of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok). The questionnaire contained questions regarding the number and type commonly consumed meals, the regularity of consumption, the frequency of additional eating between meals, and the frequency of consumption of selected groups of food products. In the study group of 1829 children the proper body weight was observed in more than 66% of the examined population. By analyzing the number of consumed meals it was stated that nearly half of all examined children consumed 4 meals a day. Among meals consumed most frequently were dinner, breakfast and supper. It was revealed that in comparison to boys girls of both younger and older group considerably more frequently included in their rations consumption of lunch. Eating between meals was rather common occurrence among all of the examined children. In all of compared groups low consumption of porridge, whole meal bread, milk, curd cheese, fishes, leguminous plants and raw fruits. At the same time it was shown that both older and younger boys considerably more often consumed meat and its preserves. Opposite tendency was noted in case of consumption of raw fruits. The majority of examined children and teenagers independently of gender groups declared excessive intake of sweets, which may have an unfavourable impact on their further

  2. [A survey of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in children aged 1-13 years in Yi ethnic area, Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhou, Y B; Cheng, W T; Pan, X; Song, X X; Jiang, Q W

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in children aged 1-13 years in Yi ethnic area in Sichuan province. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the form of field survey in four townships selected from Yi ethnic area of Sichuan during 2014-2015. Participants were children aged 1-13 years by sample size of 900 and were screened for HIV antibody, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody, and laboratory comfirmation was conducted. The area, age, gender and ethnic group specific infection rates were compared by using Fisher's exact test, and multiple comparisons were corrected by using Bonferroni correction. Results: A total of 677 children aged 1-13 years were surveyed. The infection rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were 1.03 % (7/677, 95 %CI : 0.42 % -1.12 % ), 6.65 % (45/677, 95 %CI : 4.89 % -8.79 % ) and 0.15 % (1/677, 95 %CI : 0 % -0.82 % ), respectively. The infection rates of HIV differed among townships ( P =0.000), the infection rate was higher in township D than in township B, the difference was significant ( P HBV and HCV infections were not significant among different townships, age, gender and ethnic groups. The difference in HBV viral load between age group 5-9 years and age groups 10-13 years was not significant ( U =115.000, P =0.967). Conclusions: The burden of HIV and HBV infections in children aged 1-13 years was heavy in rural area of Yi ethnic area in Sichuan. Therefore, it is necessary to take effective measures to block the vertical transmission of HIV and HBV as well as to increase the coverage of HBV vaccination.

  3. Ba9V3Se15: a novel compound with spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Min; Wang, Xiancheng; Zhao, Kan; Duan, Lei; Li, Wenmin; Zhao, Jianfa; Cao, Lipeng; Dai, Guangyang; Deng, Zheng; Feng, Shaomin; Zhang, Sijia; Liu, Qingqing; Yang, Yi-feng; Jin, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a novel compound Ba9V3Se15 with one-dimensional (1D) spin chains was synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. It was systematically characterized via structural, magnetic, thermodynamic and transport measurements. Ba9V3Se15 crystallizes into a hexagonal structure with a space group of P-6c2 (188) and the lattice constants of a  =  b  =  9.5745(7) Å and c  =  18.7814(4) Å. The crystal structure consists of face-sharing octahedral VSe6 chains along c axis, which are trimeric and arranged in a triangular lattice in ab-plane. Ba9V3Se15 is a semiconductor and undergoes complex magnetic transitions. In the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) process with magnetic field of 10 Oe, Ba9V3Se15 sequentially undergoes ferrimagnetic and spin cluster glass transition at 2.5 K and 3.3 K, respectively. When the magnetic field exceeds 50 Oe, only the ferrimagnetic transition can be observed. Above the transition temperature, the specific heat contains a significant magnetic contribution that is proportional to T 1/2. The calculation suggests that the nearest neighbor (NN) intra-chain antiferromagnetic exchange J 1 is much larger than the next nearest neighbor (NNN) intra-chain ferromagnetic exchange J 2. Therefore, Ba9V3Se15 can be regarded as an effective ferromagnetic chains with effective spin-1/2 by the formation of the V(2)(↓) V(1)(↑) V(2)(↓) cluster.

  4. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  5. Body size of young Australians aged five to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, N E; Maller, R A; Gilmour, A I

    1986-10-20

    In 1983-1984, 4578 Perth primary and secondary schoolchildren were studied. The selected sample was broadly representative of the ethnic groups that make up the Perth population and of the different social ranks within that population. The age, sex, weight, height, country of birth of the child and the parents, and occupation of the father were recorded for each subject. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) increased with age. Age and sex were the most important determinants of body size. However, children of lower social rank and those with a southern European background were over-represented among the overweight children (greater than the 90th centile for BMI), particularly in adolescence. Children with an Asian background who were 11 years of age and younger were over-represented among the underweight children (less than or equal to the 10th centile for BMI). Results from this study indicate a continuing, though small (1.5 cm to 1.6 cm), secular increase in height over the past 13 to 14 years.

  6. Mechanical eye injuries in children aged 0-15 years treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade: Frequency, causes and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Eye injuries represent a significant problem in children. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and causes of the eye injury and to propose measures of the eye injury prevention in children up to 15 years of age. Methods. This was a retrospective study of 552 children with the eye injuries treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade during the period March 1999 to February 2010. Gender and age of the children, time of injury, the type and site of injuries, visual acuity upon admission and at discharge, as well as the time of surgery in relation to time of injury were analyzed. Results. The ratio between the injured boys and girls was 3.6:1. The highest percentage of injured children was in the group 6-10 years old (39.7%; the injuries were almost evenly distributed according to months during the year and days during the week. The percentages of severe closed and open injuries of the eyeball were almost equal. Visual acuity upon discharge and subsequent follow-up examinations were significantly improved after the applied treatment in comparison with the visual acuity upon admission. Conclusion. Eye injuries in children still represent a severe health problem. Regarding the youngest age group of children, adults are mainly responsible for these injuries due to their lack of attention, while in older children these injuries are the result of the production and distribution of inappropriate toys and a failure to implement the legal traffic regulations applicable to children. The prevention of eye injuries is essential.

  7. Change in HbA1c Levels between the Age of 8 Years and the Age of 12 Years in Dutch Children without Diabetes: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years. Study Design and Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires. Results We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD) change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7) mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1) %/yr). Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years. Conclusion The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time. PMID:25875773

  8. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, J.S.; Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O.; Vik, T.; Brubakk, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  9. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  10. Corneal donations in South Africa: A 15-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Nicholas J; Tinley, Christopher

    2017-07-28

    Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors. This was a retrospective review of all corneal donations to SA eye banks over the 15-year period 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2016. There was a progressive year-on-year decline in corneal donors over the study period, from 565 per year in 2002 to 89 in 2016. As a direct result, there has been an 85.5% decrease in the number of corneal transplants performed per year using locally donated corneas, from 1 049 in 2002 to 152 in 2016. Of the donors, 48.8% originated from mortuaries, 39.0% from private hospitals and 12.2% from government hospitals; donors from mortuaries showed the most significant decline over the 15-year period, decreasing by 94.8%. Of donated corneas, 79.3% were allocated to the private sector and 21.7% to the public sector. Males comprised 69.1% of donors, while 77.2% were white, 14.0% coloured, 6.3% black and 2.5% Indian/Asian. Donor age demonstrated a bimodal peak at 25 and 55 years. The number of corneal donations in SA has declined markedly, causing the burden of corneal disease requiring transplantation to rise steadily. Population groups with a low donor rate may have cultural and other objections to corneal donation, which should be a major focus of future research and initiatives aimed at reversing the current trends.

  11. Traumatic brain injury in children in Denmark: A national 15-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, Aase; Teasdale, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Demographic trends are reported concerning three types of traumatic brain injury (concussions, cranial fractures, and intracranial contusions/ haemorrhages) among children in Denmark of ages up to and including 14 years, for a fifteen year period from 1979 through 1993. The data were derived from a national computer-based hospitalization register and include 49,594 children, of whom 60% were boys and 89% had suffered a concussion. Virtually all injuries were the result of accidents. A major finding was that there has been a general decline in the incidence of traumatic brain injuries, especially for boys from 5 to 14 years old, suggesting a degree of success in preventive measures, particularly regarding road safety. The incidence of fatal cases of intracranial contusions/haemorrhages approximately halved over the 15 year period. However, as a proportion of all diagnosed cases, mortality from intracranial contusions/haemorrhages remained fairly constant at about 22%, perhaps because there have been no markedly successful innovations in acute care. Among children surviving a intracranial contusions/haemorrhages, rather considerable numbers were found to have been awarded disability pension at ages under 30

  12. Outcome quality and long-term (≥15 years) stability after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance treatment in comparison to untreated Class I controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Saffar, Mitra; Hudel, Helge; Evälahti, Marjut; Heikinheimo, Kaisa; Rice, David P; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-12-09

    To investigate the outcome quality and the long-term (≥15 years) post-treatment (Tx) changes after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance (MBA) Tx. In this longitudinal observational study, a recall of Class II:2 patients who had been treated by a Herbst-MBA during adolescence was conducted. Study models from before and after active Tx, after retention and after recall were assessed using standard occlusal variables and the peer assessment rating index (PAR). These data were compared to historical untreated Class I controls. Twenty out of 33 patients (61%) could be located and participated at age 33.9 ± 2.7 years. When comparing their data to the 13 patients who did not participate, the pre- and post-Tx occlusal findings did not differ systematically; however, the PAR scores of the non-participants were by 3.3-8.2 points higher at all times and the non-participants were 2.1-2.5 years older. Pre-Tx at age 14.4 ± 2.7 years, the participants showed the following mean values: PAR = 15.0 ± 7.0, Class II molar relationship (MR) = 0.8 ± 0.3 cusp widths (cw), overbite = 5.3 ± 1.3 mm. After Tx, a PAR score of 2.9 ± 1.3 and a super Class I MR (-0.1 ± 0.1 cw) with normal overbite (1.2 ± 0.8 mm) existed. At recall, a PAR score increase to 5.9 ± 3.6 points had occurred, mainly caused by an increase of overbite to 2.5 ± 1.5 mm. The average MR remained Class I (0.0 ± 0.2 cw). For all variables, the untreated controls exhibited similar findings. The occlusal outcome of Class II:2 Herbst-MBA Tx exhibited very good long-term stability. While mild post-Tx changes occurred, the long-term findings are similar to untreated Class I controls. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Surgical management of breast cancer in China: A 15-year single-center retrospective study of 18,502 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nai-Si; Liu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Jia-Jian; Yang, Ben-Long; Xue, Jing-Yan; Quan, Chen-Lian; Mo, Miao; Liu, Guang-Yu; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Min; Wu, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to review the surgical trends in breast cancer treatment in China over the past 15 years and to explore the possible factors related to the choice of surgical modality.The medical records of 18,502 patients with unilateral early stage breast cancer who underwent surgery from January 1999 to December 2013 at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. The utilization of different surgical modalities and the associated clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Furthermore, the prognostic role of surgical modality was also evaluated.The median patient age was 50.0 years. According to the pTNM staging system, 12.5% of the patients were classified as stage 0; 30.2% as stage I; 40.0% as stage II; and 17.3% as stage III. In total, 9.3% of the patients could not be staged. Overall, 67.1% of the breast cancer cases were estrogen receptor (ER) positive. The pattern of breast cancer surgery has changed tremendously over the past 15 years (P Age, TNM staging, and pathological characteristics greatly affected the choice of surgical modality. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for the mastectomy, BCS, and reconstruction groups were 87.6%, 93.2%, and 91.7%, respectively (P time, stratified by surgical modality and tumor stage. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that time of treatment, tumor stage, tumor grade, LVI status, and ER status were independent prognostic factors for RFS in our cohort, whereas surgical modality was not.Mastectomy remains the most prevalent surgical modality used to manage early stage breast cancer in China, although the utilization of BCS has increased in the past decade. However, surgical management was not a prognostic factor for RFS. The selection of appropriate patients depended on the assessment of multiple clinicopathological factors, which is essential for making surgical decisions.

  14. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5-69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Bärnighausen, Till W; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E; Bailey, Robin L; Tukana, Isimeli N; Steer, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years. Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.

  15. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5-69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Parks

    Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease (RHD is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years.Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0 and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5 due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses.Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.

  16. Ageing implementation and refurbishment development at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor: a 15 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.; Ricci Filho, Walter; Carvalho, Marcos R. de; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Marra Neto, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    last 15 years. (author)

  17. Ageing implementation and refurbishment development at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor: a 15 years experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.; Ricci Filho, Walter; Carvalho, Marcos R. de; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Marra Neto, Adolfo, E-mail: ahiru@ipen.b, E-mail: wricci@ipen.b, E-mail: carvalho@ipen.b, E-mail: jrretta@ipen.b, E-mail: amneto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    last 15 years. (author)

  18. Pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl substances and offspring behaviour and motor development at age 5-9 years - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    ) and offspring behaviour and motor development at 5-9 years of age. METHODS: Maternal sera from the INUENDO cohort (2002-2004) comprising 1,106 mother-child pairs from Greenland, Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Warsaw (Poland) were analysed for PFOS and PFOA, using liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry. Exposures......BACKGROUND: In animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances affect growth and neuro-behavioural outcomes. Human epidemiological studies are sparse. The aim was to investigate the association between pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS...... were grouped into country specific as well as pooled tertiles as well as being used as continuous variables for statistical analyses. Child motor development and behaviour at follow-up (2010-2012) were measured by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ) and Strength...

  19. [Social determinants of subjective health in school children aged 11-15 years in Poland in the light of European data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a particularly significant period due to the risk of psycho-social disorders, life-style formation and making many important decisions about the future. THE AIM of the study is to provide an overall assessment of the impact of various elements of the environment on the risk of disorders of subjective health of schoolchildren aged 11-15 yrs, and to compare of the Polish data with European Union statistics. The data source is the last series of international studies on health related behaviour of schoolchildren (HBSC), conducted during the school year 2005/06. In general, the object of analysis comprises data related to 142 478 schoolchildren from a combined sample from 25 countries, on average aged 13.6 yrs (SD = 1.65), including 5489 Polish schoolchildren. The main outcome variable was the occurrence of at least one of three subjective health disorders: poor self-rated health, dissatisfaction with life and the intensity of recurrent subjective symptoms. The analysis included the impact of gender, age (in three age groups), country of residence (Poland vs. the other 24 countries) and the five components of the growing up environment: economic and social status of the family, communication with parents, functioning at school, peer support, problems in the area of domicile. Logistic regression models were estimated with a step-block procedure of variable selection, which provided relative risk indices (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The studies have shown that the strongest predictor of subjective health disorders consists of problems with functioning at school (OR = 3.14), disrupted communication with parents (OR = 2.15) and absence of peer support (OR = 1.87). However, after these factors were taken into account, the weak impact of the material status of the family (OR = 1.65) and area of residence (OR-= 1.94) continued to be noted. Young people in Poland report subjective health problems more often than their average European counterparts

  20. Evaluation of Modified Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Teen in South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Shilpa; Taljard, Lian; Wilson, Zane; Berk, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: This report describes the findings of the survey conducted by South African Depression and Anxiety Group (SADAG) in a cohort of disadvantaged South African adolescent scholars in which PHQ-9 teen version was modified and adapted (PHQ-9M) to improve the response rate. Method: PHQ-9M was administered to 2025 secondary students of 35 schools over 2 years in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Results: The mean age was 15.8 years. 23% of respondents scored 9 or above, 26.7% reported suici...

  1. Trends and patterns of sexual behaviors among adolescents and adults aged 14 to 59 years, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui; Hariri, Susan; Bradley, Heather; Gottlieb, Sami L; Leichliter, Jami S; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of sexual behaviors is essential to better understand the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and their sequelae. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) is an ongoing probability sample survey of the US population. Using NHANES sexual behavior data from 1999 to 2012, we performed the following: (1) trend analyses among adults aged 25 to 59 years by 10-year birth cohorts and (2) descriptive analyses among participants aged 14 to 24 years. Sex was defined as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Among adults aged 25 to 59 years, median age at sexual initiation decreased between the 1940-1949 and 1980-1989 cohorts from 17.9 to 16.2 among females (P trend < 0.001) and from 17.1 to 16.1 among males (P trend < 0.001). Median lifetime partners increased between the 1940-1949 and 1970-1979 cohorts, from 2.6 to 5.3 among females (P trend < 0.001) and from 6.7 to 8.8 among males (P trend < 0.001). The percentage of females reporting ever having a same-sex partner increased from 5.2% to 9.3% between the 1940-1949 and 1970-1979 cohorts (P trend < 0.001). Among participants aged 14 to 24 years, the percentage having had sex increased with age, from 12.5% among females and 13.1% among males at age 14 years to more than 75% at age 19 years for both sexes. Among sexually experienced 14- to 19-year-olds, 45.2% of females and 55.0% of males had at least 3 lifetime partners; 39.4% of females and 48.6% of males had at least 2 partners in the past year. The proportion of females aged 20 to 24 years who reported ever having a same-sex partner was 14.9%. The proportion of participants aged 14-19 or 20-24 years reporting ever having sex did not differ by survey year from 1999 to 2012 for either males or females. Sexual behaviors changed with successive birth cohorts, with more pronounced changes among females. A substantial proportion of adolescents are sexually active and have multiple partners. These data reinforce existing recommendations for sexual

  2. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus...... and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain were measured during 4-km/h treadmill walking. RESULTS: The normalized H-reflex amplitude was lower in the swing phase for the middle-aged group, and there was no difference in muscle activity. EMG/H-reflex gain did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: H......-reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing...

  3. Astigmatism and biometric optic components of diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity at 9 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-S; Wang, A-G; Shih, Y-F; Hsu, W-M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of astigmatism and its relationship with biometric optic components in preterm school children with diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study in which cycloplegic keratometry, refraction, and ultrasound biometric measurement of optic components were performed on 24 consecutive preterm children with diode laser-treated threshold ROP at the age of 9 years. The study results were compared with data on 1021 age-matched full-term control children from a national survey. Results The laser-treated eyes had a mean astigmatism of 3.47 D, with a mean spherical equivalent of −4.49 D. Of the 46 eyes studied, 98% of eyes showed astigmatism ≥0.5 D and 50% had high astigmatism (>3.0 D). Most astigmatic eyes (97.7%) showed with-the-rule astigmatism, with the mean plus cylinder axis at 89.30o. Further correlation analysis showed the astigmatism in refraction was highly correlated with the corneal astigmatism (r=0.921, P<0.001) and the vertical corneal curvature (r=0.405, P=0.005). There was significantly steeper vertical corneal curvature (P=0.003) and flatter horizontal corneal curvature (P=0.031) in eyes with laser-treated ROP when compared with age-matched full-term controls. The eyes with laser-treated ROP also show significantly thicker lens (3.93 mm) and shallower anterior chamber depth (ACD; 2.92 mm) than full-term controls (P<0.001). Conclusions There is significantly higher prevalence and greater magnitude of astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated threshold ROP compared with full-term controls. The steeper vertical corneal curvature component contributes to the increased astigmatism in eyes with laser-treated ROP. PMID:23222565

  4. Gaps-in-Noise test: gap detection thresholds in 9-year-old normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculino, Carolina Finetti; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-12-01

    To establish the standard criteria for the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test in 9-year-old normal-hearing children; to obtain the mean gap detection thresholds; and to verify the influence of the variables gender and ear on the gap detection thresholds. Forty normal-hearing individuals, 20 male and 20 female, with ages ranging from 9 years to 9 years and 11 months, were evaluated. The procedures performed were: anamnesis, audiological evaluation, acoustic immittance measures (tympanometry and acoustic reflex), Dichotic Digits Test, and GIN test. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. The results revealed similar performance of right and left ears in the population studied. There was also no difference regarding the variable gender. In the subjects evaluated, the mean gap detection thresholds were 4.4 ms for the right ear, and 4.2 ms for the left ear. The values obtained for right and left ear, as well as their standard deviations, can be used as standard criteria for 9-year-old children, regardless of ear or gender.

  5. 7 CFR 985.9 - Marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 985.9 Section 985.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE...

  6. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... a Wright peak flowmeter. The equation for prediction of PEFR in boys was calculated as (3.8 x height) + (10.6 x age) - 313.2 (p age) - 143.9 (p ... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  7. Nutritional knowledge and habits of adolescents aged 9 to 13 years in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: a crosssectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel; Rossiter, Rachel

    2017-10-30

    Good nutritional knowledge and behaviour among adolescents is important to avoid health problems that can continue into adulthood. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide baseline data on nutritional knowledge and eating habits of adolescents in Sharjah. Data were collected from 300 adolescents aged 9-13 years attending 4 private schools using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Most students (86%) had poor nutritional knowledge, especially in key areas: nutritional terms, what constitutes healthy snacks and foods, daily nutritional requirements and components of food (e.g. fibre, fat, sugar). Only 34% of the students had healthy eating behaviour: 33% had eaten none or 1 vegetable only in the previous week, 25% had eaten unhealthy snacks 3 or more times, 19% had eaten frequently or daily at fast food outlets, and 36% had skipped breakfast frequently or daily. Culturally-specific, school-based educational interventions are warranted to build sound nutritional knowledge among adolescents and motivate the diet and behaviour changes needed to promote health throughout the lifespan.

  8. Evaluation of a primary prevention program for anxiety disorders using story books with children aged 9-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Gervais, Jean; Gagnier, Nadia; Loranger, Claudie

    2013-10-01

    This article reports the results of a study evaluating a book-supported primary prevention program "Dominique's Handy Tricks" for anxiety disorders in children aged 9-12 years. This cognitive-behavioural program is delivered using a combination of storybooks and workshop sessions. The originality of the program comes from the use of storybooks that were not developed specifically for anxiety management. Every session is based on a story describing characters facing common stressors and how they manage to cope with their daily problems. In our randomized control trial with 46 children, participation in the program led to a significant improvement in coping skills, perceived self-efficacy, anxiety sensitivity, as well as in symptoms of anxiety and fear. The theoretical and practical elements underlying the delivery of this primary prevention program are described. It is suggested that such an approach, without any labelling specific to anxiety disorders, can be useful in primary prevention programs.

  9. The disease burden of suicide in Ecuador, a 15 years' geodemographic cross-sectional study (2001-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Simbaña, Katherine; Gómez, Lenin; Henriquez-Trujillo, Aquiles R; Cornejo-Leon, Fernando; Vasconez, Eduardo; Castillo, Diana; Viscor, Ginés

    2017-10-10

    Suicide affects people from different backgrounds, ethnical groups, socio-economic status and geographical locations. In Latin America, suicide reports arescarce, specially in Andean countries. In Ecuador, very few reports have partially described this phenomenon, nonetheless, estimation of the burden of disease (BoD) hasnever been reported in the country. A country-wide comparison was performed using the Ministry of Public Health's national databases of overall mortality, Hospital Discharges Database, and the Population Census of the National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC). The study variables analyzed were age, geographical distribution to provincial level, sex, means of suicide, educational attainment, marital status and mortality. Linear Regression and relative Risk analysis were used to predict outcome and the likelihood that suicide occur among study variables. In the last 15 years, 13,024 suicides were officially reported. Men were 3 times more likely than women to die by suicide. The overall age-adjusted suicide ratio in Ecuador corresponds to 7.1 per 100,000 per year. The sex-specific rates were 5.3 in women and 13.2 in men. The primary mean of suicide was hanging X70 (51.1%), followed by self-poisoning X68-X69 (35.2%) and firearms X72-X74 (7.6%). Provinces located at higher altitude reported higher rates than those located at sea level (9 per 100,000 vs 4.5 per 100.000). The total economic loss due to suicide was estimated to be $852.6 million during the 15 years' analysis. This is the first geodemographic study exploring the complete burden of suicide in Ecuador and one of the very few in Latin-America. In the last 15 years of available data, Ecuador ranks above the regional average with an adjusted suicide rate of 7.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. An important finding is that Suicide affects rather younger populations, adding more than 10,000 years of premature years of life lost (YYL) between 2001 and 2015, becoming the first and fourth

  10. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyan; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Lin, Senlin; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; You, Xiaofang; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Congdon, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction. The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465) of children with UCVA in the better eye of ≤20/40 wore glasses. Prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 diopters [D] in at least one eye) increased from 1.78% in 3-year-olds to 52.2% in 10-year-olds, while prevalence of hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥+2.0 D) decreased from 17.8% among 3-year-olds to 2.6% by 10 years of age. After adjusting for age, attending elite "high-level" school was statistically associated with greater myopia prevalence. The prevalence of myopia was lower or comparable to that reported in other populations from age 3 to 5 years, but increased dramatically after 6 years, consistent with a strong environmental role of schooling on myopia development.

  12. Smoothed Body Composition Percentiles Curves for Mexican Children Aged 6 to 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchor Alpizar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overweight children and childhood obesity are a public health problem in Mexico. Obesity is traditionally assessed using body mass index (BMI, but an excess of adiposity does not necessarily reflect a high BMI. Thus, body composition indexes are a better alternative. Our objective was to generate body composition percentile curves in children from Mexico City. A total of 2026 boys and 1488 girls aged 6 to 12 years old were studied in Mexico City. Body weight, height, and BMI calculation were measured. Total body fat percentage (TBFP was derived from the skinfold thicknesses, and fat mass (FMI and free fat mass indexes (FFMI were calculated. Finally, age- and gender-specifıc smoothed percentile curves were generated with Cole’s Lambda, Mu, and Sigma (LMS method. In general, height, weight, waist circumference (WC, and TBFP were higher in boys, but FFM was higher in girls. TBFP appeared to increase significantly between ages 8 and 9 in boys (+2.9% and between ages 10 and 11 in girls (+1.2%. In contrast, FFM% decreased noticeably between ages 8 and 9 until 12 years old in boys and girls. FMI values peaked in boys at age 12 (P97 = 14.1 kg/m2 and in girls at age 11 (P97 = 8.8 kg/m2. FFMI percentiles increase at a steady state reaching a peak at age 12 in boys and girls. Smoothed body composition percentiles showed a different pattern in boys and girls. The use of TBFP, FMI, and FFMI along with BMI provides valuable information in epidemiological, nutritional, and clinical research.

  13. [Changes in leisure activity among young people aged 15-18 years in Hungary: physical activity, media-consumption and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Bence

    2013-04-14

    Young people are more and more inactive, which has numerous well-known negative effects on their health. Several studies indicate that inactive lifestyle disposes people to sit in front of the television, which increases aggression and decreases the willingness of reading. There is also a strong link between inactivity and an increase of body mass, deterioration of anthropometric parameters, and deviant behaviour. The aim of the study was to find out, on the basis of two cross-sectional surveys, the changes occurred within eight years in the free-time activity of Hungarian young people aged between 15 and 19 years. Data obtained from two surveys conducted by the National Institute for Family and Social Policy, Hungary in 2000 and 2008 including 1780 and 2018 young people, respectively, were analysed and compared. The number of young people regularly involved in sport activity increased significantly, while their media-consumption failed to decrease. Physically active young people are more health-conscious, but regular sporting activity did not expel smoking, which was associated with a sedentary lifestyle and television watching. These data reveal new responses of a new generation; watching television still takes the largest part of their free time activity, but use of computers, and participation in social activities are not necessarily increase sedentary lifestyle and deviant habits. Internet has positive effects on the regularity of their physical activity.

  14. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  15. Clinical presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents: Is there an age effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolsi, Michele; Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Armando, Marco

    2017-06-01

    There is limited research on clinical features related to age of presentation of the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents (CAD). Based on findings in CAD with psychosis, we hypothesized that an older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome would be associated with less severe symptoms and better psychosocial functioning than presentation in childhood or younger adolescence. Ninety-four CAD (age 9-18) meeting Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome criteria participated in the study. The sample was divided and compared according to the age of presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (9-14 vs 15-18 years). The predictive value of age of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome presentation was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve calculations. The two Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome groups were homogeneous in terms of gender distribution, IQ scores and comorbid diagnoses. Older Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome patients showed better functioning and lower depressive scores. ROC curves revealed that severity of functional impairment was best predicted using an age of presentation cut-off of 14.9 years for social functioning and 15.9 years for role functioning. This study partially confirmed our hypothesis; older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome was associated with less functional impairment, but age was not associated with psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attitudes to HPV Vaccination among Parents of Children Aged 10 to 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Güvenç, Gülten; Şahin, Eda; Akyüz, Aygül

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the willingness of parents to allow their sons and/or daughters aged 10-13 years to be vaccinated for human papillomavirus (HPV). This was a descriptive study conducted in an elementary school to recruit students' parents into the study. The sample consisted of 368 (69.1%) parents of children aged 10-13 years who were willing to participate in the study as a couple. Questionnaire-based data were collected from the couples. Prior information regarding HPV and vaccination and the opinions of parents of children aged 10-13 about HPV vaccination for their daughter or son. Only 26.9% of mothers and 25.0% of fathers claimed to be aware of HPV, and only 24.5% of mothers and 21.2% of fathers claimed to be aware of its vaccine. If the vaccine were available in Turkey, 21.6% of mothers and 22.4% of fathers would be willing to vaccinate their sons; although the vaccine for girls is available in Turkey, only 14.4% of mothers and 15.5% of fathers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. Few participants reported knowing about the HPV vaccine, while far fewer intended to vaccinate their daughters and sons against the infection. Both males and females should be informed about HPV and its vaccine, and initiatives to increase both awareness and the information of health care professionals should be encouraged. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Waist-to-height ratio and its association with TV viewing in a sample of Portuguese children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Fernandes, Romulo; Gama, Augusta; Mourao, Isabel; Nogueira, Helena; Marques, Vitor; Padez, Cristina

    2017-09-10

    During the past decades, increased TV viewing and reduced physical activity (PA) levels may have contributed to the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity. This study aimed to analyze the association between TV viewing and central adiposity risk in Portuguese children. The sample comprised 3987 children (1997 girls and 1990 boys) aged 7-9 years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated as the ratio of waist/height with a cut-off of 0.5 used to define risk of abdominal obesity. WHtR does not depend on sex- or age-specific reference criteria. TV viewing and PA were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions were used, with adjustments for age, PA, and parental education. This study revealed a positive significant association between central adiposity risk and sedentary behaviors in Portuguese boys. In addition, the final model showed an important inverse association between PA and the risk of abdominal obesity in both boys and girls (males: β = -0.01 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.00; females: β = -0.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00). Findings revealed that associations between TV viewing and obesity risk could be highly influenced by socioeconomic factors. Future research should extend a similar design to children in other geographic contexts, and incorporate other behavioral variables in the statistical models, to confirm or not some of the aforementioned findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Knowledge assessment of sports-related concussion among parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years enrolled in recreational tackle football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannings, Carol; Kalynych, Colleen; Joseph, Madeline Matar; Smotherman, Carmen; Kraemer, Dale F

    2014-09-01

    Sports-related concussion among professional, collegiate, and, more recently, high school athletes has received much attention from the media and medical community. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of research regarding parental knowledge of sports-related concussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental knowledge of concussion in young children who participated in recreational tackle football. Parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years attending recreational tackle football games were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports Quiz. The parents were asked about their level of agreement regarding statements that represent definition, symptoms, and treatment of concussion. A total of 310 of 369 parents (84% response rate) voluntarily completed the questionnaire, with 94% believing that their child had never had a concussion. However, only 13% (n = 41) could correctly identify all seven statements. Most did not identify that a concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury and can be achieved from something other than a direct blow to the head. Race, sex, and zip code had no significant association with correctly answering statements. Education (r = 0.24, p child played (r = 0.11, p = 0.049) had a small association. Fifty-three percent and 58% of the parents reported that someone had discussed the definition and the symptoms of concussion with them, respectively, with only about half reporting that information came from their health care provider. No parent was able to classify all symptoms listed as correctly related or not related to concussion. However, identification of correct concussion statements correlated with identification of correct symptoms (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). While most parents of young athletes demonstrated some knowledge regarding concussion, important misconceptions remain regarding the definition, symptoms, and treatment of

  19. Experiences of 23 patients ≥ 90 years of age treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshikazu; Shikama, Naoto; Ohata, Takeo; Okazaki, Youichi; Kiyono, Kunihiro; Sone, Shusuke

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To present 23 patients ≥ 90 years old treated with radiotherapy, and to retrospectively evaluate the results of radiotherapy and tolerance in these patients. Methods and Materials: The clinical records of 27 patients over 90 years of age who were treated with radiotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Shinshu University Hospital, and eight affiliated general hospitals from 1990 until 1995 were reviewed. The strategy of radiotherapy was individually planned depending on the stage of the disease and performance status (PS) of the patient; however, it was not modified, based solely on chronologic age. The overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring criteria of acute and late reactions of radiation therapy were used. Results: This group of patients accounted for 0.37% of all patients treated with radiotherapy in these hospitals. Of these, 23 patients in whom cancer was pathologically confirmed and whose follow-up data were available for retrospective analysis were included in the final evaluation of data. The age of the 23 patients ranged from 90 to 96 years (median 93). Tumor was untreated and in the early stage in five patients, locoregionally advanced in 13, recurrent in four, and systemic in one. Definitive radiation therapy was administered in 12 patients (13 sites), preoperative intent in one, and palliative intent in 10. The period of observation ranged from 2.5 to 6 years (median 18 months). Seven patients were alive for 15-67 months. Fourteen patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility associated with active cancer, and two because of senility without evidence of cancer. The overall and relapse-free survival rates were 65% and 30% at 1 year and 30% and 21% at 2 years, respectively. Definitive radiation therapy was completed in 13 of 13 patients (100%), and local control was attained in 9 of 13 patients at 6 months (62%). Palliative

  20. Testing Direct and Indirect Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…

  1. Guillain Barré syndrome in a population less than 15 years old in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Tosta Elza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To know the impact of the Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS in the population less than 15 years old, after the eradication of poliomyelitis. Data bank from the program of epidemiological surveillance of acute flaccid palsies (AFP from the Fundação Nacional de Saúde were analyzed between 1990 -- 1996. From 3619 notifications of AFP there were 1678 GBS. GBS yearly incidence rates is 0.39-0.63 cases/100,000. No consistent seasonal variation existed or relationship to vaccines. Weakness at inclusion were, moderate 52.1%, severe in 47.9%, sixty days after 57.1% normal, 7.4% mild, 15.7% moderate, 10.4% with severe deficits, death in 5.4%. 67 (4.0% cases unknown. Death rates varies from 2.8% in southeast to 7.9% in the northeast. GBS was the most frequent cause of AFP. In spite of the severity of this disease being similar in the different regions, the outcome varies according to origin of the cases, possibly reflecting the economical conditions in those places.

  2. Effectiveness of 14-15 years old tennis players’ competition functioning considering correction of their psychological fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Makuts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determination influence of individualized psychological training on effectiveness of 14-15 years old tennis players’ competition functioning. Material: in the research 24 tennis players of 14-15 years’ age participated. Individualized psychological training consisted of 15 sessions of total duration of 1.5 months. Results: We substantiated necessity of individualized approach to tennis players’ psychological training. Individual psychological profiles for tennis players, which determined content of psychological training and their selection, were worked out. Informative indicators for assessment of 14-15 years old tennis players’ competition functioning were determined: 1 percentage of won and lost scores at the account of own actions; 2 integral criteria of tennis players’ competition functioning assessment (coefficient of stability and effectiveness; complex indicator of efficiency. Conclusions: it is recommended to consider individual potentials and bents of sportsmen in the course of psychological training.

  3. Does a one year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria

    2017-08-22

    Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.

  4. Students' unchanging smoking habits in urban and rural areas in the last 15years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Gulfer; Guner, Sukru Nail; Akca, Unal; Kilic, Mehtap; Sancak, Recep; Ozturk, Fadil

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main preventable public health problem particularly for youth worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of smoking habits among students at secondary and high schools, and to compare the findings with those of a study conducted 15years ago in the same area. In this cross-sectional study 6212 students (51.2% female; 48.8% male) were selected randomly from rural and urban areas in Samsun. All students completed a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.0% (male students, 18.1%; female students, 8.2%). The mean starting age of smoking was 14.1 ± 1.5years. Prevalence of smoking was 15.7% in urban areas and 8.1% in rural areas. The most important factors for starting smoking were social group and families. Compared with a study conducted 15years previously in the same area for male students, smoking prevalence was increased in rural, but decreased in urban areas. Smoking prevalence in students in Samsun was similar to that in a study conducted 15years previously. It is important to use anti-smoking campaigns directly targeted at teenager and they should be fully informed of the harmful effects of smoking. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. [Homicide and suicide in 15 to 24 year-old people in Colombia, 1998-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Doris; Segura, Ángela María; Espinosa, Adriana; Segura, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial behaviors are the object of indifference, which has lead to a generalized increase in attitudes favoring violence. Among these, we can find young people as victims or killers. To describe the behavior of mortality due to homicide and suicide in young population between 15 and 24 years old in the departments of Colombia from 1998 to 2008. This was a descriptive study form a secondary source. We used 150,433 death certificates with homicide or suicide as cause of death in 15 to 24 years old population in Colombia during the period 1998-2008. We calculated an index for favorable conditions for violence according to economical, social and educational variables. Mortality rate was 95.6 deaths/100,000 people in this age range for homicide, and 10.1 for suicide. Men showed greater risk than women, with it being 12.3 higher for homicide and 1.2 for suicide. This evidences the way in which violence takes productive and reproductive lives, thus affecting the structure by sex and age and decreasing the opportunity window, but having a higher risk in some departments more than in others. According to the index for conditions for violence, the departments of Vaupés, Guaviare, Arauca and Guainía are the ones with more favorable conditions for an increased risk of dying by homicide and suicide in people from 15 to 24 years old, regardless of other departments having higher deaths rates.

  6. Femoral Neck Stress Fractures in Children Younger Than 10 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Matthew J; Hogue, Grant D; Heyworth, Benton E; Ackerman, Kathryn; Quinn, Bridget; Yen, Yi-Meng

    2017-03-01

    Femoral neck stress fractures are rare in healthy children, with only 9 cases previously reported. The present article reviews our institutional experience with femoral neck stress fractures in children younger than 10 years of age, to highlight the unique features of this condition. We undertook a retrospective review of clinical records of patients who had been treated at our institution for an idiopathic femoral neck stress fracture between 2000 and 2014. To focus on children rather than adolescents, the World Health Organization's definition of adolescent as a person between 10 and 19 years of age was used; we thereby limited our analysis to patients younger than 10 years of age. The study included 6 patients (3 males, 3 females) treated for an idiopathic femoral neck stress fracture, with a mean age at diagnosis of 7.7 years (range, 5.2 to 8.9 y). All patients presented with a limp, which worsened with activity and had persisted for a mean of 5 weeks (range, 2 to 9 wk). None of the patients had experienced an increase in activity level or sporting volume before symptom onset. On examination, 3 patients experienced pain with terminal hip flexion and 3 patients demonstrated pain-free hip range of motion. Plain radiography demonstrated inferior femoral neck cortical disruption, suggesting a compression-type stress fracture mechanism. The diagnosis was confirmed by cross-sectional imaging in all cases. All patients were initially treated with 6 to 8 weeks of non-weight-bearing followed by 4 to 6 weeks of partial weight-bearing, leading to complete healing in 4 patients. Two patients demonstrated incomplete healing and were managed with spica casting for an additional 6 weeks. Our case series illustrates the unique features of this rare condition in children, with a history and examination profile distinct from those of adolescents and adults. Compliance with weight-bearing restrictions is difficult in this population and hip spica casting may be required to permit

  7. Prevalence of dementia among population age over 45 years in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangtongkum, Suparus; Sucharitkul, Phongsakorn; Silprasert, Nutcharut; Inthrachak, Rudeethawinl

    2008-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of dementia in Thai people with age 45 years and above. This project used a cross sectional research design to study the prevalence of dementia in Chiang Mai. Door-to-door technique was assigned in condition with multi-stage probability random sampling to obtain subjects representing the population of Chiang Mai between Oct 2004 and Sep 2005. The researchers collected the data from the subjects aged 45 years and above. All subjects were located from every Amphurs of Chiang Mai. They were first screened with Thai Mini Mental State Examination (TMSE) and Thai Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The subjects whose TMSE was less than 24 were assessed and diagnosed by a neurologist. Subjects who were determined as having dementia might be laboratory analyzed and classified based on DSM-IV and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The authors enrolled 2,311 people and screened them with Batteries test. One thousand four hundred ninety two people qualified with 610 males and 882 females, whose mean age was 59.7 +/- 10.4 years. The authors found that among the 35 people with dementia, the mean age was 67.9 +/- 8.9 years (45-88 years). The prevalence of dementia among the study participants was 2.35%. In the present study, Alzheimer's disease was the most common type of dementia diagnosed (75.0%) and vascular dementia was the second most commonly diagnosed (12.5%). The prevalence of dementia in Chiang Mai was 2.35%, which does not differ from the previous study Alzheimer's disease was the most common type of dementia diagnosed.

  8. Adolescents attitudes towards organic food : a survey of 15- to 16 year old school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Casimir, G.J.; Borghuis, J.; Marks, I.; Meijer, L.; Zebeda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16¿years was

  9. 15 CFR 325.9 - Reconsidering an application that has been denied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconsidering an application that has been denied. 325.9 Section 325.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  11. Potential lives saved in 73 countries by adopting multi-cohort vaccination of 9-14-year-old girls against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc

    2018-02-15

    Up to 2016, low- and middle-income countries mostly introduced routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for just a single age-cohort of girls each year. However, high-income countries have reported large reductions in HPV prevalence following "catch-up" vaccination of multiple age-cohorts in the year of HPV vaccine introduction. We used the mathematical model PRIME to project the incremental impact of vaccinating 10- to 14-year-old girls compared to routine HPV vaccination only in the same year that routine vaccination is expected to be introduced for 9-year-old girls across 73 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Adding multiple age-cohort vaccination could increase the number of cervical cancer deaths averted by vaccine introductions in 2015-2030 by 30-40% or an additional 1.23-1.79 million over the lifetime of the vaccinated cohorts. The number of girls needed to vaccinate to prevent one death is 101 in the most pessimistic scenario, which is only slightly greater than that for routine vaccination of 9-year-old girls (87). These results hold even when assuming that girls who have sexually debuted do not benefit from vaccination. Results suggest that multiple age-cohort vaccination of 9- to 14-year-old girls could accelerate HPV vaccine impact and be cost-effective. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  12. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children agingyear through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations.

  13. Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2018-02-03

    Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.

  14. Insulin Resistance and the IGF-I-Cortical Bone Relationship in Children Ages 9 to 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Joseph M; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Oshri, Assaf; Jenkins, Nathan T; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Ding, Ke-Hong; Hausman, Dorothy B; McCabe, George P; Martin, Berdine R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Warden, Stuart J; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    IGF-I is a pivotal hormone in pediatric musculoskeletal development. Although recent data suggest that the role of IGF-I in total body lean mass and total body bone mass accrual may be compromised in children with insulin resistance, cortical bone geometric outcomes have not been studied in this context. Therefore, we explored the influence of insulin resistance on the relationship between IGF-I and cortical bone in children. A secondary aim was to examine the influence of insulin resistance on the lean mass-dependent relationship between IGF-I and cortical bone. Children were otherwise healthy, early adolescent black and white boys and girls (ages 9 to 13 years) and were classified as having high (n = 147) or normal (n = 168) insulin resistance based on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Cortical bone at the tibia diaphysis (66% site) and total body fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. IGF-I, insulin, and glucose were measured in fasting sera and HOMA-IR was calculated. Children with high HOMA-IR had greater unadjusted IGF-I (p insulin resistance as a potential suppressor of IGF-I-dependent cortical bone development, though prospective studies are needed. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Prevalence of obesity and arterial hypertension and their relationship with age and gender in the city of Resistencia, Argentina, in the years 2008-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M E V; Cusumano, A M; Torres, C; Rojas, N G; Velasco, G A

    2018-05-17

    Obesity (OB) is a global pandemic, which is associated with arterial hypertension (AH). The differences in this relationship according to gender and age remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of OB and AH in an adult population, and to determine the risk of AH associated with OB in relationship to gender and age. A cross-sectional study was performed using the database of successive cross-sectional studies carried out in 5 city squares in Resistencia (Argentina) during the years 2008-2014. The sample was randomised according to gender and age, according to the distribution of the last National Argentine Census. A total of 7,898 passers-by (46.8% males) with a mean age 42.74 ± 16.70 years were included. OB in men increased from 21.3% to 26.9%, and in women from 15.2% to 23%, the former having the highest prevalence between 40-49 years, and the latter between 50-59 years, and thereafter it was always higher in women. AH increased in men from 39.9% to 42.7%, and in women from 25.8% to 29.2%, the former having the highest prevalence between 60-69 years, the latter between 70-79 years. In the 7 years of the study, OB and AH prevalence increased. It was higher in men, although the risk of developing AH associated with OB was greater in older women. The highest prevalence of OB and AH appears a decade earlier in men. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Research of individual psychological particular qualities handball players 15-17 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova H.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences of individual-psychological characteristics of young handball players playing in different game roles. It is shown the relationship of certain personality characteristics of athletes with a line of attack handball players. In research took part handball players at the age of 15-17 years. It is analyzed data from questionnaires by R. Kettela and R. Rusalova. Evaluated the differences in the properties of the temperament handball players of different roles. Established that the distribution of game functions athletes must take into account their individual psychological characteristics.

  18. 15 CFR 303.9 - Restrictions on the transfer of duty-exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on the transfer of duty-exemptions. 303.9 Section 303.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES...

  19. West Nile Review: 15 Years of Human Disease in South Dakota, 2002-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2017-08-01

    During the past 15 years, 2002-2016, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged in South Dakota resulting in 509 neuroinvasive disease (NID) cases, 745 hospitalizations and 38 deaths. Culex tarsalis is the state's primary mosquito vector. South Dakota's average annual incidence of WNV-NID and death rate are the highest of any state in the U.S. WNV cases have been reported from all counties in the state. All age groups have been infected with cases peaking in the 40-44 year age group, but deaths peaking in cases 70 years and older. Although South Dakota's WNV season lasts six months, May-October, the first week of August has been the peak week of WNV disease onsets. West Nile is now enzootic in South Dakota. Every citizen, local mosquito control programs, medical and public health infrastructures must continue to prevent and respond to annual WNV outbreaks, and prepare for the next arboviral disease to emerge. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  20. Hearing alterations in children aged 7 to 9 years old from an elementary public school in São Luís, Maranhão - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tereza Fonseca da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the hearing alterations and their frequencies in children aged 7-9 years old from a public elementary school in São Luís, Maranhão. The study was carried out from May to July, 2004, with 101 first grade scholars, 52 boys and 49 girls. The scholars were evaluated by means of otoscopic, audiometric and tympanometric procedures at the Medical Dental Integrated Clinic. The tests involving 202 ears demonstrated that 27% (54 of these had cerumen impaction. One scholar showed perforated tympanic membrane (0.5%. Hearing within the normal limits was observed in 75.7% (153 of the ears, while 24.3% (49 presented hearing alterations. The most frequent alterations were the conductive hearing loss, in 15% (31 of the ears, followed by the sensorineural hearing loss, in 6% (13. Mixed hearing loss occurred in 2.5% (5. Imitation testing involving 201 ears showed altered tympanic membrane: type B curve in 8.5% (17 and type C curve in 9.5% (19. There were no statistical associations between hearing impairments and gender or between hearing impairments and laterality of the ear. It was concluded that hearing evaluation of school children is necessary for the early identification and correction of its multiple consequences.

  1. Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreidy R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Raghid Kreidy1, Pascale Salameh2, Mirna Waked31Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, 2Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, LebanonAim: Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients.Methods: From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years. The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years.Results: The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001, pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001, treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001, and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084.Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia

  2. Gestational length in Carthusian broodmares: effects of breeding season, foal gender, age of mare, year of parturition, parity and sire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, K; Felipe, M; Mota, J; Muñoz, A

    2011-01-01

    The length of gestation in Carthusian broodmares was calculated on the basis of 339 spontaneous full-term deliveries taking place in the 8-year period 1998-2005 from 158 broodmares and 29 stallions in a major farm of Spanish horses of Carthusian strain in southern Spain. Ultrasonography was used to determine follicular dehiscence, 1st day of pregnancy and to confirm conception in mares. Mean GL was 332.4 +/- 12.1 days, and a normal interval of 297-358 days was established for this breed. GL records were grouped on the basis of foal sex (colts or fillies), mating month (between November and January; February and April; May and July), age of the mare (4 to 7 years; 8 to 12 years; 13 to 17 years), breeding year, stallion and parity (primiparous vs. multiparous). GLs were 12.9 days shorter in mares mated between May and July than those mated between November and January and 15.3 days in mares mated between February and April (p < 0.001). Mares aged between 8-12 years had 5.3 days shorter GLs than those aged between 13-17 years (p < 0.05). Pregnancy was significantly 5.7 days longer when the mare gave birth to colts than fillies (p < 0.05). GL was 14.5 days longer in primiparous than in multiparous mares ( p < 0.001). No statistical differences in GL were found between the studied years. This study shows the influence of certain stallion on GL.

  3. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific

  4. Ultrasound evaluation of liver disease in cystic fibrosis as part of an annual assessment clinic: A 9-year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Stuart M.; Goodman, Robin; Thomson, Anne; McHugh, Kieran; Lindsell, David R.M.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To review 9 years of annual assessment data in cystic fibrosis (CF) and evaluate the frequency of hepatobiliary abnormalities and the correlation between ultrasound and biochemical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 9-year period (1990-99), 168 children (age range 1-18 years) with CF have undergone an annual assessment which has included clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic evaluation of the hepatobiliary system. We have retrospectively reviewed the sequential ultrasound reports and correlated them with the contemporaneous biochemical results. RESULTS: A total of 725 ultrasound examinations were performed over the review period. Sixty patients had at least one examination showing an abnormality of liver echo texture and in 39 patients this was a persisting finding. Seven patients (4.2%) developed frank cirrhotic change on ultrasound criteria, while 15 patients (8.9%) had evidence of persistent splenomegaly. Gall-bladder calculi were present in 4.8%. In 176 examinations (24%) there was disparity between the ultrasound findings and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. In 3.0% of cases (five patients) there were persisting abnormalities of liver echo texure and persisting splenomegaly with a normal range AST value. CONCLUSION: No perfect method of assessing hepatobiliary involvement in CF is currently available. Ultrasonographic and biochemical assessment may reflect different aspects of disease progression. Routine use of ultrasound in annual assessment allows identification of a minority of patients with liver changes but with normal biochemistry. Williams, S.M. et al. (2002)

  5. PARENT NURTURE MODEL IN SHAPING BEHAVIOR OF ADOLESCENCE 12-15 AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Hadi Prayoga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The deviation problem of smoking activity an adolescent is come to anxious level for parents, teachers, and society. The correlation between parents nurture model and smoking activity of adolescent needs to be examined further. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between parents nurture model with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old. Method: This was correlational research with cross sectional approach. The sample were 84 adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk. The independent variables was parents nurture model and the dependent variable was adolescent smoking activity. Data were collected by using questionnare, then examined by using chi square with the level of significant α=0,05. Result: Statistical analysis had showed the low correlation between permissive parents nurture model with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk (p=0,049; r = 0,210 and no correlation between democratic nurture model (p=0,554 and authoritative nurture model (p=0,418 with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk, but only permissive model which correlate with smoking activity. The permissive parents with no control and demand caused adolescent to be feeling unimpeded to do smoking activity since there is no warning and punishment from the parents. Discussion: So that, School nurses should provide health promotion to parents in making appropriate parenting in adolescence. Parents should have the right parenting provided in accordance with the age and development of adolescents because appropriate parenting will have a positive impact on adolescent behavior. Further research on parenting questionnaires must be checked for cross-compatibility between questionnaire answers given adolescent and parents to know the truth in filling out the questionnaire. The differences in this study compared to previous studies is the researcher doing research in

  6. The change in lifestyle data during 9 years: the reliability and continuity of baseline health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetaka, Hanayo; Ohno, Yuko; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2013-07-01

    To reveal change patterns in self-reported lifestyle data for 9 years, and examine the characteristics of changes by type of lifestyle and ageing. The authors used the lifestyle data of 7,080 male workers aged 20-59 who received checkups for 9 years. The proportions of change patterns during the 9 years were determined in seven health practices; smoking, eating breakfast, sleeping hours, working hours, physical exercise, eating nutritional balanced diets, and mental stress. Among seven health practices, the keep rate of good health practice was highest for the non-smoking (90.8 %), followed by eating breakfast (69.0 %);and the lowest was physical exercise (13.7 %). The keep rate of poor health practice was highest for smoking (73.8 %), followed by non-physical exercise (67.1 %). The lowest rate of multiple changes during 10 years was smoking (7.1 %); the highest was mental stress (68.5 %). As for the life style on smoking and eating breakfast seemed to be stable, using the data obtained at a specific point in time wouldn't much affect the results. On the contrary, for other life styles, they showed poor continuity during 9 years, so it would be necessary to take into consideration the time point of data collection.

  7. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  8. OVARIAN AGING AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to changes in the socio-economic environment the first pregnancy is being more often postponed to advanced age; an increasing number of women seek medical help for infertility in their late thirties. Degenerative processes in the ovary start as early as after 35 years of age. When the woman is over 38, the signs of hormonal changes occur (FSH, inhibin, the menstrual cycle changes, and fertility is being increasingly reduced. Infertility treatment by assisted reproduction technology (ART has proved less efficient in older than in younger women.Material and methods. In a retrospective analysis we evaluated the success rates achieved with homologous intrauterine insemination (IUI, in vitro fertilization and embryo-transfer (IVF-ET, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and compared them in regard to the women > 38 years vs. < 38 years.Results. After IUI the pregnancy rate in the women over 38 was 3.7% per patient (1.5% per cycle and 28.0% (9.9% in the women younger than 38 years. After IVF-ET the pregnancy rate in the over 38-year group was 16% per patient (14% per cycle, and 28% per patient (25% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. After ICSI, the pregnancy rate in the group over 38 years was 11% per patient (9% per cycle, and 25% per patient (22% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. In the analysed population, the spontaneous abortion rate was 26.0% in the group of women aged over 38 years, and 14.0% in the group of women aged less than 38 years.Conclusions. Before introduction of an ART procedure the woman with advanced age should be properly counselled and well informed about poor success of their infertility treatment and high spontaneous abortion rate.

  9. Reliability and validity of Yo-Yo tests in 9- to 16-year-old football players and matched non-sports active schoolboys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Castagna, Carlo; Soares, José M C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted Yo-Yo intermittent tests in football players aged 9-16 years (n = 70) and in age-matched non-sports active boys (n = 72). Within 7 days, each participant performed two repetitions...... performances and HRpeak are reliable for 9- to 16-year-old footballers and non-sports active boys. Additionally, performances of the three Yo-Yo tests were seemingly better for football-trained than for non-sports active boys, providing evidence of construct validity....

  10. 15 CFR 310.9 - Report of the Secretary on Federal participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of the Secretary on Federal participation. 310.9 Section 310.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS OFFICIAL U.S...

  11. Persistence of hepatitis B immune memory until 9-10 years of age following hepatitis B vaccination at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; B'Chir, Siham; Da Costa, Xavier; Vidor, Emmanuel

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies and the response to a HB challenge re-vaccination in children who had received a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T (Hexaxim™) or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T (Infanrix hexa™). Two cohorts of participants who had previously received HB vaccine at birth followed by either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T co-administered with PCV7 at 2, 4, 6 months of age in a randomized, Phase III, observer-blind study in Thailand, were followed up for anti-HBs antibodies (geometric mean concentrations [GMCs] and seroprotection [SP] rate [% of participants with a titer ≥10 mIU/mL]) at 12-18 months of age and 9-10 years of age. A monovalent HB challenge re-vaccination was administered at 9-10 years of age and the anamnestic response was evaluated. Anti-HBs GMCs and SP rates in the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T and DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T groups were high and similar post-primary vaccination series (2477 mIU/mL and 99.5% and 2442 mIU/mL and 99.5%, respectively) and declined to a similar extent in each group at 12-18 months (154.5 mIU/mL and 90.8% and 162.3 mIU/mL and 96.5%, respectively). Antibody levels further declined at 9-10 years of age (13.3 mIU/mL and 49.3% and 8.0 mIU/mL and 42.9%) and a strong anamnestic