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Sample records for agents ga gb

  1. Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection.

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also pre...

  2. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  3. Pocket-size solid-state iPOD and flash drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images: Review and work initiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A locally assembled image viewer system with pocket-size iPOD (80 GB and flash (2 GB drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images, oriented towards training purposes, is described. Both the iPOD and flash drive enable storage of thousands of images from diverse medical-imaging equipments. The iPOD, in addition, can display with sufficient resolution any of these images and serves as a transportable preview device. Through the use of a computer, these devices can access/ store/ display the images/ photos from a CD, digital camera or the internet. A TV image viewing unit is also provided. The operational features and the advantages of these devices are discussed in detail. The quality assurance (QA of the displays has been successfully carried out with standard test patterns. The image quality has been tested with dynamic and static medical images. The system will be highly useful for storage and remote display of multitude of images from several modalities in the hospital, as well as other images, from the point of view of education and training. It has good potential for use in clinical diagnosis as well. Other recent advancements using iPHONE and improved but expensive computers, integrated with picture archiving and communication system (PACS as well as radiology and hospital information system (RHIS for versatile applications in modern radiology, are also highlighted.This system, assembled with indigenous equipments, is much less expensive and specially suited for teaching radiologists, physicists and technologists, particularly in developing countries.

  4. Pocket-size solid-state iPOD and flash drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images: Review and work initiated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, A

    2009-07-01

    A locally assembled image viewer system with pocket-size iPOD (80 GB) and flash (2 GB) drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images, oriented towards training purposes, is described. Both the iPOD and flash drive enable storage of thousands of images from diverse medical-imaging equipments. The iPOD, in addition, can display with sufficient resolution any of these images and serves as a transportable preview device. Through the use of a computer, these devices can access/ store/ display the images/ photos from a CD, digital camera or the internet. A TV image viewing unit is also provided. The operational features and the advantages of these devices are discussed in detail. The quality assurance (QA) of the displays has been successfully carried out with standard test patterns. The image quality has been tested with dynamic and static medical images. The system will be highly useful for storage and remote display of multitude of images from several modalities in the hospital, as well as other images, from the point of view of education and training. It has good potential for use in clinical diagnosis as well. Other recent advancements using iPHONE and improved but expensive computers, integrated with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) as well as radiology and hospital information system (RHIS) for versatile applications in modern radiology, are also highlighted.This system, assembled with indigenous equipments, is much less expensive and specially suited for teaching radiologists, physicists and technologists, particularly in developing countries.

  5. A 2.5 gb/s GaAs ATM Mux Demux ASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Lassen, Peter Stuhr

    1995-01-01

    provides a cell based interface between networks/systems operating at different data rates, the high speed interface being 2.5 Gb/s and the low speed interface being 155/622 Mb/s. Self-timed FIFOs are used for handling the speed gaps between domains operating at different clock rates, and a Self......-Timed At Receiver's Input (STARI) interface is used at all high speed chip-to-chip links to eliminate timing skews The AMDA demonstrated operation above 4 Gb/s (500 MHz clock frequency) with an associated power dissipation of 5 W...

  6. 2.5 Gb/s laser-driver GaAS IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    A laser-diode driver GaAs IC incorporating an optional NRZ/RZ (non-return-to-zero/return-to-zero) conversion facility, having ECL (emitter-coupled logic) and SCFL (source-coupled FET logic)-compatible inputs and providing a 0-60-mA adjustable output current into a 50-Ω/5-V termination at bit rates...

  7. 4 Gb/s two-level to 2 symbol/s four-level converter GaAs IC for semiconductor optical amplifier modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, J.; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1993-01-01

    A design of a 50 Ω impedance matched two-to-four level converter GaAs IC for two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier modulators is presented. Eye diagrams with good eye openings and 0.33 V spacing between adjacent logic levels are demonstrated for input bit rates up to 4 Gb/s. A novel...

  8. Facile hydrolysis-based chemical destruction of the warfare agents VX, GB, and HD by alumina-supported fluoride reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershonov, E; Columbus, I; Zafrani, Y

    2009-01-02

    A facile solvent-free hydrolysis (chemical destruction) of the warfare agents VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GB (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate or sarin), and HD (2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide or sulfur mustard) upon reaction with various solid-supported fluoride reagents is described. These solid reagents include different alumina-based powders such as KF/Al(2)O(3), AgF/KF/Al(2)O(3), and KF/Al(2)O(3) enriched by so-called coordinatively unsaturated fluoride ions (termed by us as ECUF-KF/Al(2)O(3)). When adsorbed on these sorbents, the nerve agent VX quickly hydrolyzed (t(1/2) range between 0.1-6.3 h) to the corresponding nontoxic phosphonic acid EMPA as a major product (>90%) and to the relatively toxic desethyl-VX (<10%). The latter byproduct was further hydrolyzed to the nontoxic MPA product (t(1/2) range between 2.2-161 h). The reaction rates and the product distribution were found to be strongly dependent on the nature of the fluoride ions in the KF/Al(2)O(3) matrix and on its water content. All variations of the alumina-supported fluoride reagents studied caused an immediate hydrolysis of the highly toxic GB (t(1/2) < 10 min) to form the corresponding nontoxic phosphonic acid IMPA. A preliminary study of the detoxification of HD on these catalyst supports showed the formation of the nontoxic 1,4-thioxane as a major product together with minor amounts of TDG and vinylic compounds within a few days. The mechanisms and the efficiency of these processes were successfully studied by solid-state (31)P, (13)C, and (19)F MAS NMR.

  9. Analysis of Urinary Metabolites of Nerve and Blister Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Warfare Agents GA Tabun , ethyl dimethylphosphoramidate GB Sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate GD Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate...and their metabolites Agent Metabolite GA, Tabun O P O N CN Ethyl Dimethylphosphoroamidate, EDMAP, GA Acid HO P O N CN GB, Sarin P O

  10. 技嘉GA-8IPE1000 Pro2主板

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别理我

    2003-01-01

    GA-8IPE1000 Pro2是GA-8IPE1000系列中的一员,该系列除了对Intel 865PE系列芯片组的特性提供支持以外,还加入了GIGABYTE C.I.A.(CPU Intelligent Accelerator)处理器动态超频、GIGABYTE M.I.B(Memory Intelligent Booster)内存动态超频、Dual BIOS双BIOS等技术,同时在软件上也提供诸如EasyTune4、@BIOS等强大支持,是一款非常成熟的i865PE芯片组主板。

  11. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  12. Development of Novel Decontamination Techniques for Chemical Agents (GB, VX, HD) Contaminated Facilities. Phase I. Identification and Evaluation of Novel Decontamination Concepts. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    evaluation were the use of hot gases, :: "vapor circulation and chemical methods, using either monoethanol amine , ¶’ n-octyl-pyridinium aldoxime bromide...ntambor) Chemical Agents Decontamination Concepts Thermal Oximes GB Installation Restoration Facilities Amines VX Structures Concrete Abrasive Ammonia...steam, ammonia, oximes and amines either alone or in series. ** V- nil- -- m- 4’- t. -U °.% INSp 119CURIlY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGElfW~on Date

  13. Ga@C-dots as an antibacterial agent for the eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Natan, Michal; Jacobi, Gila; Porat, Ze’ev; Banin, Ehud; Gedanken, Aharon

    2017-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are difficult to treat by antibiotic therapy. This research article reports on the synthesis of gallium (Ga) doped in carbon (C)-dots (Ga@C-dots) and their antimicrobial activity against free-living P. aeruginosa bacteria. The synthesis of Ga@C-dots was carried out by sonicating molten Ga (for 2.5 h) in polyethylene glycol-400, which acts as both a medium and carbon source. The resultant Ga@C-dots, having an average diameter of 9±2 nm, showed remarkably enhanced antibacterial activity compared with undoped C-dots. This was reflected by the much lower concentration of Ga doped within Ga@C-dots which was required for full inhibition of the bacterial growth. These results highlight the possibility of using Ga@C-dots as potential antimicrobial agents. PMID:28176980

  14. Genotoxicity of the phosphoramidate agent tabun (Ga). (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Kawakami, T.G.; Cone, N.; Henderson, J.D.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    Five mutagenicity tests were performed on Agent GA (Tabun, phosphoramidocyanidic acid, dimethyl-, ethyl ester) as part of a program to demilitarize chemical warfare agents. GA was mutagenic in Salmonella spp. assays with S-9 and it was a direct-acting mutagen to mouse lymphoma cells. GA did not promote unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes; it induced sister chromatid exchanges in mouse cells in vitro but not in vivo. The conclusion that GA is a weakly acting mutagen is supported by the fact that it was mutagenic in only three of the five assays, and that increases in mutagenicity were often less than 2-fold the controls and occurred near toxic levels. Tabun, Agent GA, Phosphoroamidocyanidic acid, Dimethyl-, Ethyl ester, Genotoxicity, Mutagenic assays.

  15. The MEDESS-GIB database: tracking the Atlantic water inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sotillo, Marcos; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio; Orfila, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Rubio, Pablo; Cristobal Maraver, José; Conti, Daniel; Padorno, Elena; Jiménez, José Antonio; Capó, Este; Pérez, Fernando; Sayol, Juan Manuel; de los Santos, Francisco Javier; Amo, Arancha; Rietz, Ana; Troupin, Charles; Tintore, Joaquín; Álvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    On 9 September 2014, an intensive drifter deployment was carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar. In the frame of the MEDESS-4MS Project (EU MED Program), the MEDESS-GIB experiment consisted of the deployment of 35 satellite tracked drifters, mostly of CODE-type, equipped with temperature sensor sampling at a rate of 30 min. Drifters were distributed along and on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. The MEDESS-GIB deployment plan was designed as to ensure quasi-synoptic spatial coverage. To this end, four boats covering an area of about 680 NM2 in 6 h were coordinated. As far as these authors know, this experiment is the most important exercise in the area in terms of number of drifters released. Collected satellite-tracked data along drifter trajectories have been quality controlled and processed to build the presented MEDESS-GIB database. This paper reports the MEDESS-GIB data set that comprises drifter trajectories, derived surface currents and in situ SST measurements collected along the buoys tracks. This series of data is available through the PANGAEA (Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science) repository, with the following doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.853701. Likewise, the MEDESS-GIB data will be incorporated as part of the Copernicus Marine historical products. The MEDESS-GIB data set provides a complete Lagrangian view of the surface inflow of Atlantic waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and thus, very useful data for further studies on the surface circulation patterns in the Alboran Sea, and their links with one of the most energetic Mediterranean Sea flows: the Algerian Current.

  16. Ga@C-dots as an antibacterial agent for the eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar VB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vijay Bhooshan Kumar,1 Michal Natan,2 Gila Jacobi,2 Ze’ev Porat,3,4 Ehud Banin,2 Aharon Gedanken1,5 1Department of Chemistry, 2Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan Institute for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 3Division of Chemistry, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, 4Institutes of Applied Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be’er-Sheva, Israel; 5National Cheng Kung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tainan, Taiwan Abstract: The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are difficult to treat by antibiotic therapy. This research article reports on the synthesis of gallium (Ga doped in carbon (C-dots (Ga@C-dots and their antimicrobial activity against free-living P. aeruginosa bacteria. The synthesis of Ga@C-dots was carried out by sonicating molten Ga (for 2.5 h in polyethylene glycol-400, which acts as both a medium and carbon source. The resultant Ga@C-dots, having an average diameter of 9±2 nm, showed remarkably enhanced antibacterial activity compared with undoped C-dots. This was reflected by the much lower concentration of Ga doped within Ga@C-dots which was required for full inhibition of the bacterial growth. These results highlight the possibility of using Ga@C-dots as potential antimicrobial agents. Keywords: C-dots, Ga@C-dots, sonochemistry, gallium, antibacterial, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  17. ALICE breaks through the one Gigabyte/sec barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The test phases of the ALICE data acquisition system, known as the Data Challenges, are celebrating their fourth anniversary. The fruit of collaboration between several of the experiment's groups and IT Division, the 2002 tests concentrated on the system's performance and stability.

  18. FeGA: A feedback-generating agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Mioch, T.

    2008-01-01

    In current simulation-based training of knowledgeintensive tasks, human instructors are needed to evaluate a student's task performance. This paper reports a study into the development of a multi-agent-based training system that evaluates student behavior at the result-level (quality of performance)

  19. A 4 Gb/s 2-level to 2 Gsymbol/s 4-level converter GaAs IC for semiconductor optical amplifier QPSK modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, J.; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1994-01-01

    The design of a 50 Ω impedance matched two-to-four level converter GaAs IC for two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) modulators is presented. The designed IC exhibits eye diagrams with eye openings of better than 0.30 V and a spacing between adjacent output signal levels of 0.33 V...... transmission experiment using a packaged sample of the designed IC and a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier phase modulator has been conducted...

  20. Preparation and evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-ECC as a PET renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaei, Alireza; Jaililan, Amir Reza; Mazidi, Mohammad; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shabani, Gholamli; Ardaneh, Khosro [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geramifar, Patham; Beiki, Davood [Research Center for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop {sup 68}Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 68}Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based {sup 68}GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). {sup 68}Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; −1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10–20 min. The SUV{sub max} ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous {sup 99m}Tc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time.

  1. Daily Planet Imagery: GIBS MODIS Products on ArcGIS Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA EOSDIS Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is rapidly becoming an invaluable GIS resource for the science community and for the public at large. Reliable, fast access to historical as well as near real time, georeferenced images form a solid basis on which many innovative applications and projects can be built. Esri has recognized the value of this effort and is a GIBS user and collaborator. To enable the use of GIBS services within the ArcGIS ecosystem, Esri has built a GIBS reflector server at http://modis.arcgis.com, server which offers the facilities of a time enabled Mosaic Service on top of the GIBS provided images. Currently the MODIS reflectance products are supported by this mosaic service, possibilities of handling other GIBS products are being explored. This reflector service is deployed on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud platform, and is freely available to the end users. Due to the excellent response time from GIBS, image tiles do not have to be stored by the Esri mosaic server, all needed data being retrieved directly from GIBS when needed, continuously reflecting the state of GIBS, and greatly simplifying the maintenance of this service. Response latency is usually under one second, making it easy to interact with the data. The remote data access is achieved by using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) Tiled Web Map Server (TWMS) driver. The response time of this server is excellent, usually under one second. The MODIS imagery has proven to be one of the most popular ones on the ArcGIS Online platform, where it is frequently use to provide temporal context to maps, or by itself, to tell a compelling story.

  2. [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole: a promising agent for PET detection of tumor hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkou; Hao, Guiyang; Ramezani, Saleh; Saha, Debabrata; Zhao, Dawen; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new (68) Ga-based imaging agent for detecting tumor hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET). The new hypoxia targeting agent reported here, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole ([(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI), was constructed by linking a nitroimidazole moiety with the macrocyclic ligand component of ProHance®, HP-DO3A. The hypoxia targeting capability of this agent was evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in SCID mice bearing subcutaneous A549 tumor xenografts. The cellular uptake assays showed that significantly more [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI accumulates in hypoxic tumor cells at 30, 60 and 120 min than in the same cells exposed to 21% O2 . The agent also accumulated in hypoxic tumors in vivo to give a tumor/muscle ratio (T/M) of 5.0 ± 1.2 (n = 3) as measured by PET at 2 h post-injection (p.i.). This was further confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution data. In addition, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI displayed very favorable pharmacokinetic properties, as it was cleared largely through the kidneys with little to no accumulation in liver, heart or lung (%ID/g 68) Ga]-HP-DO3A, which lacks the nitroimidazole moiety, and by PET imaging of tumor-bearing mice breathing air versus 100% O2 . Given the commercial availability of cGMP (68) Ge/(68) Ga generators and the ease of (68) Ga labeling, the new agent could potentially be widely applied for imaging tumor hypoxia prior to radiation therapy.

  3. GIBS block speller: toward a gaze-independent P300-based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel; Nunes, Urbano; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) opens a new communication channel for individuals with severe motor disorders. In P300-based BCIs, gazing the target event plays an important role in the BCI performance. Individuals who have their eye movements affected may lose the ability to gaze targets that are in the visual periphery. This paper presents a novel P300-based paradigm called gaze independent block speller (GIBS), and compares its performance with that of the standard row-column (RC) speller. GIBS paradigm requires extra selections of blocks of letters. The online experiments made with able-bodied participants show that the users can effectively control GIBS without moving the eyes (covert attention), while this task is not possible with RC speller. Furthermore, with overt attention, the results show that the improved classification accuracy of GIBS over RC speller compensates the extra selections, thereby achieving similar practical bit rates.

  4. Pharmacognostic standardization of stems of Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chumbhale DS; Upasani CD

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas ) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out for qualitative phytochemical evaluation of various extracts of stems of T. lampas. Results: Chemo-microscopy revealed the presence of lignin, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Physico-chemical evaluation used to determine numerical standards showed a result with total ash (9.03 ± 0.05) % w/w, acid insoluble ash (1.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, water soluble ash (2.51 ± 0.02) % w/w, sulphated ash (7.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, ethanol soluble extractive (0.24 ± 0.02) % w/w, water soluble extractive (0.08 ± 0.01) % w/w, moisture content (6.03 ± 0.05) % w/w and total crude fibre content of stem powder (47.36 ± 0.32) % w/w. Behavior characteristics of the stem powder showed presence of steroids, starch, alkaloid, flavonoids and proteins. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids such as dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, n- hexadecanoic acid, 9-tetradecenal and HPTLC fingerprinting revealed the presence of β– sitosterol and quercetin in stems of T. lampas. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic standardization of T. lampas is useful towards establishing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  5. (68) Ga-Ca-phytate particles: A potential lung perfusion agent of synthetic origin prepared in a cold kit format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, William; Ali, Masood; Praehofer, Renee; Tsopelas, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the radiosynthesis of (68) Ga-Ca-phytate particles and then characterize the formulation for radiochemical purity, radioactive particle size distribution, and biodistribution in normal rats. This radiotracer was prepared using a commercial phytate cold kit after reconstitution with saline, (68) Ga-chloride generator eluent, calcium chloride, and air, then heating at 100°C for 30 minutes to achieve 99% radiochemical purity of (68) Ga-particles that were 21% 3-5 μm, 8% 5-15 μm, and 71% >15 μm in diameter. This optimal formulation was stable for 2 hours at room temperature. Intravenous administration of (68) Ga-particles in rats resulted in an uptake of 93% in the lungs, 4% in the liver plus spleen, and 3% in the carcass after 20 minutes. Two-thirds of the carcass activity was radioactive blood, likely to be (68) Ga-transferrin. The positron emission tomography image was superior than the (99m) Tc-MAA image because it displayed high lung uptake against a low background. Low uptake by the liver, spleen did not interfere with the diagnostic quality, and faint activity in the submandibular (salivary) glands was due to (68) Ga-transferrin. The preclinical data so far indicate that (68) Ga-Ca-phytate particles have good potential as a lung perfusion imaging agent.

  6. Potential use of {sup 68}Ga-apo-transferrin as a PET imaging agent for detecting Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijay.kumar@swahs.health.nsw.gov.a [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Boddeti, Dilip K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Evans, Scott G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Roesch, Frank [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (Germany); Howman-Giles, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: {sup 67}Ga citrate has been extensively used to detect infection and inflammation since 1971. However, its clinical utility is compromised due to several limitations. The present project explored whether {sup 68}Ga-apo-transferrin ({sup 68}Ga-TF), when prepared in vitro, is a useful agent for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of bacterial infection. Methods: An infection was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 5x10{sup 5} CFU units of Staphyococcus aureus in the right thigh muscle. {sup 68}Ga-TF was synthesized by mixing {sup 68}GaCl{sub 3} with apo-transferrin (TF, 2 mg) in sodium carbonate (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and incubating at 40{sup o}C for 1 h. Animals were injected with 10-15 MBq of {sup 68}Ga-TF containing approximately 0.2 mg TF and imaged at different time intervals using Siemens Biograph PET-CT. Results: When {sup 68}Ga-TF were injected in the infected rats, the infection lesion was detectable within 20 min post injection. The biodistribution showed the uptake at the lesion increased with time as shown by significantly increased standard uptake values for up to 4 h post injection. There was a considerable decrease in the background activity during the same period of study, giving higher target-to-muscle ratios. Blood pool activity at 3 h post injection was insignificant. {sup 68}GaCl{sub 3} (when not conjugated to TF) did not localize at the infection lesion up to 120 min post injection. Conclusion: The preliminary results suggest that {sup 68}Ga-TF is capable of detecting S. aureus infection in the rat model, within an hour after intravenous injection.

  7. Toxicity studies on agents Gb and Gd (Phase 2): Delayed neuropathy study of soman in SPF white leghorn chickens. Final technical report, July 1985-August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    A dose rangefinding study, a delayed neuropathy study, and a neurotoxic esterase study, were performed in White Leghorn chickens using the organophosphate ester Soman. The hens used for the Rangefinding study were dosed once orally with 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, or 0 microns g/Kg GD, on Day 1. They were pretreated and protected daily through Day 7 with atropine. Surviving hens were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital on Day 21. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to be used in the Delayed Neuropathy Study was chosen based upon the rangefinding data. Fifty hens were assigned to a Single Dose Delayed Neuropathy study. Groups of ten hens were given 14.2 (MTD), 7.1 (MTD/2), 3.5 (MTD/4), 0 (negative control) microns/Kg GD or 51 0 mg/Kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) (positive control). Rangefinding study. They were evaluated for signs of neurologic toxicity/ataxia. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Sections of cerebellum, medulla, spinal cord (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), both sciatic nerves and their tibial branch were examined microscopically.... Delayed neuropathy; Agents; Soman; Chickens.

  8. Assessing Protection Against OP Pesticides and Nerve Agents Provided by Wild-Type HuPON1 Purified from Trichoplusia ni Larvae or Induced via Adenoviral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    times the median lethal dose (LD50) of the OP nerve agents tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and cyclosarin (GF), or chlorpyrifos oxon, the toxic...Doctor, M.P. Nambiar, Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of glyco-GA compounds as anticancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qin He; Zhong Hu; La Mei Yuan; Xiao Shan Wang; Yi Hua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel glyco-gambogic acid (GA) compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-proliferative activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.All compounds showed much better aqueous solubility (0.92-1.89 mg/mL) than GA (0.013 mg/mL),and displayed potent inhibition on HCC cells (IC50:0.21-12.23 μmol/L) and little affects on non-tumor liver cells (IC50:42.56-86.43 μmol/L),suggesting that glyco-GA compounds selectively inhibit HCC proliferation,and may be promising candidates for further intensive study.

  10. Comparison of ent-kaurene synthetase A and B activities in cell-free extracts from young tomato fruits of wild-type, and dwarf gib-1 and gib-3 tomato plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensen, R.J.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The non-allelic gib-1 and gib-3 tomato (Lycopersion esculentum Mill.) mutants are gibberellin deficient and exhibit a dwarfed gowth habit. Previous work has shown that this dwarfed growth pattern can be reversed by the application of a number of gibberellins and their precursors, including ent-kaurene. This indicates that the mutants are blocked in gibberellin biosynthesis at a step prior to ent-kaurene metabolism. The normal accumulation of carotenoids observed in these mutants suggests a fully functional isoprenoid pathway. Ent-kaurene is synthesized from the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate in a two-step process with copalyl pyrophosphate as an interemediate. In vitro assays using young fruit extracts from gib-1 plants, indicated a reduced ability for synthesis of copalyl pyrophosphate from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and thus a reduced ent-kaurene synthetase A activity. Similarly, gib-3 extracts demonstrated a reduced ability to synthesize ent-kaurene from copalyl pyrophosphate, and thus a reduced ent-kaurene synthetase B activity. These results establish the site of the mutation in gib-1 and gib-3 tomatoes as being in the enzymatic conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to copalyl pyrophosphate, and copalyl pyrophosphate to ent-kaurene, respectively.

  11. Management of Antiplatelet Agents and Anticoagulants in Patients with Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Neena S

    2015-07-01

    Antithrombotic drugs (anticoagulants, aspirin, and other antiplatelet agents) are used to treat cardiovascular disease and to prevent secondary thromboembolic events. These drugs are independently associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), and, when prescribed in combination, further increase the risk of adverse bleeding events. Clinical evidence to inform the choice of endoscopic hemostatic procedure, safe temporary drug cessation, and use of reversal agents is reviewed to optimize management following clinically significant GIB.

  12. 技嘉主板四年质保%GIGABYTE Motherboard Warranting 4 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    技嘉科技自2006年开始率先导人全固态电容主板之后,便掀起主板业新一波的浪潮,至今全固态电容主板已成为主板业界的标准。技嘉科技大量导入全固态电容主板,目前已成为业界机型最齐全、销售比重最高的主板厂商。

  13. Graphite Girls in a Gigabyte World: Managing the World Wide Web in 700 Square Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Tamra; Saurino, Penelope; Johnson, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Our action research project examined the on-task and off-task behaviors of university-level student, use of wireless laptops in face-to-face classes in order to establish rules of wireless laptop etiquette in classroom settings. Participants in the case study of three university classrooms included undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students.…

  14. Synthesis, {sup 68}Ga labeling and preliminary evaluation of DOTA peptide binding vascular adhesion protein-1: a potential PET imaging agent for diagnosing osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujula, Tiina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Salomaeki, Satu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Virsu, Pauliina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Lankinen, Petteri; Maekinen, Tatu J. [Orthopedic Research Unit, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Autio, Anu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Yegutkin, Gennady G. [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jalkanen, Sirpa [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); National Public Health Institute, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku, Turku (Finland)], E-mail: anne.roivainen@utu.fi

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an infection/inflammation-inducible endothelial glycoprotein. Based on our previous studies, the most VAP-1-selective peptide (VAP-P1) was 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N',N'',N''',N,,,,-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated, {sup 68}gallium ({sup 68}Ga)-labeled (named [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1) and evaluated preliminarily. Methods: Targeting was evaluated by using VAP-1-transfected cells. Biodistribution of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 was studied by positron emission tomography imaging of healthy rats and rats with bone inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Uptake of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 in osteomyelitis was compared with negative control peptide and competition with an excess of unlabeled DOTAVAP-P1. Results: [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 bound more efficiently to VAP-1-transfected cells than to controls. In rats, [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 cleared rapidly from blood circulation, excreted quickly in urine and showed an in vivo half-life of 26{+-}2.3 min. Imaging of osteomyelitis demonstrated modest target-to-background ratio. Studies with the negative control peptide and competitors revealed a significantly lower uptake at the infection site compared to [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1. Conclusions: The results represent a proof-of-concept that infection-induced VAP-1 can be targeted by [{sup 68}Ga]DOTA peptide. [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 is just the first candidate peptide and an essential opening for developing VAP-1-specific imaging agents.

  15. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS...

  16. Gallium as a Therapeutic Agent: A Thermodynamic Evaluation of the Competition between Ga(3+) and Fe(3+) Ions in Metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Valia; Angelova, Silvia; Markova, Nikoleta; Dudev, Todor

    2016-03-10

    Gallium has been employed (in the form of soluble salts) to fight various forms of cancer, infectious, and inflammatory diseases. The rationale behind this lies in the ability of Ga(3+) cation to mimic closely in appearance the native ferric ion, Fe(3+), thus interfering with the biological processes requiring ferric cofactors. However, Ga(3+) ion cannot participate in redox reactions and, when substituting for the "native" Fe(3+) ion in the enzyme active site, renders it inactive. Although a significant body of information on the Ga(3+)-Fe(3+) competition in biological systems has been accumulated, the intimate mechanism of the process is still not well understood and several questions remain: What are the basic physical principles governing the competition between the two trivalent cations in proteins? What type of metal centers are the most likely targets for gallium therapy? To what extent are the Fe(3+)-binding sites in the key enzyme ribonucleotide reductase vulnerable to Ga(3+) substitution? Here, we address these questions by studying the competition between Ga(3+) and Fe(3+) ions in model metal binding sites of various compositions and charge states. The results obtained are in line with available experimental data and shed light on the intimate mechanism of the Ga(3+)/Fe(3+) selectivity in various model metal binding sites and biological systems such as serum transferrin and ribonucleotide reductase.

  17. Toxics testing performance evaluation for GB and GD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, H.J.; Schneider, J.F.; Brubaker, K.L.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1997-10-01

    Residues resulting from demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah, are currently listed as hazardous wastes by the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality. The US Army Test and Evaluation Command believes that certain categories of waste generated at DPG are not hazardous. To demonstrate this, analytical methods capable of quantitatively measuring the concentrations of chemical agents, including GB and GD, in the different waste media must be available. Argonne National Laboratory has developed methods to analyze metal substrate, spent hypochlorite decontamination fluid, and soil matrices for GB and GD. These methods involve the use of sorbent cartridge preconcentration and thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography using flame photometric detection to achieve the desired sensitivity and specificity. This report describes the methods and presents results for these three common waste matrices. The test results indicate that these methods can be used to quantitatively determine concentrations of GB and GD in the low parts-per-billion range in all sample media tested.

  18. {sup 68}Ga-labelled exendin-3, a new agent for the detection of insulinomas with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brom, Maarten; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Joosten, Lieke; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Insulinomas are neuroendocrine tumours derived from pancreatic {beta}-cells. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed with a high incidence (>90%) and high density in insulinomas. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), the natural ligand of GLP-1R, is rapidly degraded in vivo. A more stable agonist of GLP-1R is exendin-3. We investigated imaging of insulinomas with DOTA-conjugated exendin-3 labelled with {sup 68}Ga. Targeting of insulinomas with [Lys{sup 40}(DOTA)]exendin-3 labelled with either {sup 111}In or {sup 68}Ga was investigated in vitro using insulinoma tumour cells (INS-1). [Lys{sup 40}({sup 111}In-DTPA)]Exendin-3 was used as a reference in this study. In vivo targeting was investigated in BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous INS-1 tumours. PET imaging was performed using a preclinical PET/CT scanner. In vitro exendin-3 specifically bound and was internalized by GLP-1R-positive cells. In BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous INS-1 tumours a high uptake of [Lys{sup 40}({sup 111}In-DTPA)]exendin-3 in the tumour was observed (33.5 {+-} 11.6%ID/g at 4 h after injection). Uptake was specific, as determined by coinjection of an excess of unlabelled [Lys{sup 40}]exendin-3 (1.8 {+-} 0.1%ID/g). The pancreas also exhibited high and specific uptake (11.3 {+-} 1.0%ID/g). High uptake was also found in the kidneys (144 {+-} 24%ID/g) and this uptake was not receptor-mediated. In this murine tumour model optimal targeting of the GLP-1R expressing tumour was obtained at exendin doses {<=}0.1 {mu}g. Remarkably, tumour uptake of {sup 68}Ga-labelled [Lys{sup 40}(DOTA)]exendin-3 was lower (8.9 {+-} 3.1%ID/g) than tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled [Lys{sup 40}(DTPA)]exendin-3 (25.4 {+-} 7.2%ID/g). The subcutaneous tumours were clearly visualized by small-animal PET imaging after injection of 3 MBq of [Lys{sup 40}({sup 68}Ga-DOTA)]exendin-3. [Lys{sup 40}({sup 68}Ga-DOTA)]Exendin-3 specifically accumulates in insulinomas, although the uptake is lower than that of [Lys

  19. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  20. Preliminary investigation of /sup 68/Ga-pyrophosphate as a potential scanning agent. [Toxicity testing in mice and rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopper, J.F.; Srivastava, S.; Meinken, G.; Atkins, H.L.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    Studies in mice and rabbits indicate that it would be possible to obtain the ideal low levels of blood radioactivity required for heart imaging with /sup 68/Ga-PYP only with the addition of relatively high (5-10 mg/kg) levels of carrier gallium. Since the toxicity of such levels of gallium could be outside of the safety margin, the usefulness of the method for clinical studies may be limited.

  1. WiGig and IEEE 802.11ad for Multi-Gigabyte- Per-Second WPAN and WLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai Shankar N; Debashis Dash; Hassan EI Madi; Guru Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) and I EEE 802.11 ad are developing a multigigabit wireless personal and local area network (WPAN/ WLAN) specification in the 60 GHz millimeter wave band. Chipset manufacturers, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and telecom companies are also assisting in this development. 60 GHz millimeter wave transmission will scale the speed of WLANs and WPANs to 6.75 Gbit/s over distances less than 10 meters. This technology is the first of its kind and will eliminate the need for cable around personal computers, docking stations, and other consumer electronic devices. High-definition multimedia interface (HDMI), display port, USB 3.0, and peripheral component interconnect express (PCle) 3.0 cables will all be eliminated. Fast downloads and uploads, wireless sync, and multi-gigabit-per-second WLANs will be possible over shorter distances. 60 GHz millimeter wave supports fast session transfer (FST) protocol, which makes it backward compatible with 5 GHz or 2.4 GHz WLAN so that end users experience the same range as in today' s WLANs. IEEE 802.1 lad specifies the physical (PHY) sublayer and medium access control (MAC) sublayer of the protocol stack. The MAC protocol is based on time-division multiple access (TDMA), and the PHY layer uses single carrier (SC) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to simultaneously enable low-power, high-performance applications.

  2. Can 100Gb/s wavelengths be deployed using 10Gb/s engineering rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ross; Nicholl, Gary; Wollenweber, Kevin; Schmidt, Ted

    2007-09-01

    A key challenge set by carriers for 40Gb/s deployments was that the 40Gb/s wavelengths should be deployable over existing 10Gb/s DWDM systems, using 10Gb/s link engineering design rules. Typical 10Gb/s link engineering rules are: 1. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) tolerance of 10ps (mean); 2. Chromatic Dispersion (CD) tolerance of +/-700ps/nm 3. Operation at 50GHz channel spacing, including transit through multiple cascaded [R]OADMs; 4. Optical reach up to 2,000km. By using a combination of advanced modulation formats and adaptive dispersion compensation (technologies rarely seen at 10Gb/s outside of the submarine systems space), vendors did respond to the challenge and broadly met this requirement. As we now start to explore feasible technologies for 100Gb/s optical transport, driven by 100GE port availability on core IP routers, the carrier challenge remains the same. 100Gb/s links should be deployable over existing 10Gb/s DWDM systems using 10Gb/s link engineering rules (as listed above). To meet this challenge, optical transport technology must evolve to yet another level of complexity/maturity in both modulation formats and adaptive compensation techniques. Many clues as to how this might be achieved can be gained by first studying sister telecommunications industries, e.g. satellite (QPSK, QAM, LDCP FEC codes), wireless (advanced DSP, MSK), HDTV (TCM), etc. The optical industry is not a pioneer of new ideas in modulation schemes and coding theory, we will always be followers. However, we do have the responsibility of developing the highest capacity "modems" on the planet to carry the core backbone traffic of the Internet. As such, the key to our success will be to analyze the pros and cons of advanced modulation/coding techniques and balance this with the practical limitations of high speed electronics processing speed and the challenges of real world optical layer impairments. This invited paper will present a view on what advanced technologies are likely

  3. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of Gb3 and iGb3 ceramides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlercreutz, Dietlind; Weadge, Joel T; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Dovichi, Norman J; Palcic, Monica M

    2010-07-02

    Gb3 and iGb3 are physiologically important trihexosylceramides with a terminal alpha-d-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-d-Galp- and alpha-d-Galp-(1-->3)-beta-d-Galp sequence, respectively. In particular iGb3 is attracting considerable attention as it is believed to serve as a ligand for natural killer T cells. Whether or not iGb3 is present in humans and which enzyme might be responsible for its synthesis is at present a matter of lively debate. In the current investigation we evaluated human blood group B galactosyltransferase (GTB) for its ability to catalyze the formation of iGb3 from lactosylceramide and UDP-Galp. GTB is a retaining glycosyltransferase that in vivo catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Galp donors to OH-3 of Galp on the H-antigen (alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-Galp) acceptor forming the blood group B antigen. GTB tolerates modifications in donor and acceptor substrates and its ability to accept lactosides as acceptors makes it a possible candidate for iGb3 production in humans. For comparison iGb3 and Gb3 were also synthesized from the same acceptor using an alpha-(1-->3)- and alpha-(1-->4)-specific galactosyltransferase, respectively. All the enzymes tested catalyzed the desired reactions. Product characterization by NMR analysis clearly differentiated between the alpha-Galp-(1-->3)-Galp and alpha-Galp-(1-->4)-Galp product, with the GTB product being identical to that of the alpha-(1-->3)-GalT-catalyzed reaction. The rate of transfer by GTB however was very low, only 0.001% of the rate obtained with a good substrate, H antigen disaccharide (octyl alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-Galp). This is too low to account for the possible formation of the iGb3 structure in humans in vivo.

  5. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-06-06

    Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.

  6. The Giraffe Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) II. Metallicity distributions and alpha element abundances at fixed Galactic latitude

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O A; Vasquez, S; Hill, V; Rejkuba, M; Valenti, E; Rojas-Arriagada, A; Renzini, A; Babusiaux, C; Minniti, D; Brown, T M

    2015-01-01

    High resolution (R$\\sim$22,500) spectra for 400 red clump giants, in four fields within $\\rm -4.8^{\\circ} \\lesssim b \\lesssim -3.4^{\\circ}$ and $\\rm -10^{\\circ} \\lesssim l \\lesssim +10^{\\circ}$, were obtained within the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) project. To this sample we added another $\\sim$ 400 stars in Baade's Window, observed with the identical instrumental configuration. We constructed the metallicity distributions for the entire sample, as well as for each field individually, in order to investigate the presence of gradients or field-to-field variations in the shape of the distributions. The metallicity distributions in the five fields are consistent with being drawn from a single parent population, indicating the absence of a gradient along the major axis of the Galactic bar. The global metallicity distribution is well fitted by two Gaussians. The metal poor component is rather broad, with a mean at $\\rm =-0.31$ dex and $\\sigma=0.31$ dex. The metal-rich one is narrower, with mean $\\rm =+0.26$ a...

  7. Exploring Intra-Urban Accessibility and Impacts of Pollution Policies with an Agent-Based Simulation Platform: GaMiroD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Fosset

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we address the issue of sustainable cities by focusing on one of their very central components: daily mobility. Indeed, if cities can be interpreted as spatial organizations allowing social interactions, the number of daily movements needed to reach this goal is continuously increasing. Therefore, improving urban accessibility merely results in increasing traffic and its negative externalities (congestion, accidents, pollution, noise, etc., while eventually reducing the quality of life of people in the city. This is why several urban-transport policies are implemented in order to reduce individual mobility impacts while maintaining equitable access to the city. This challenge is however non-trivial and therefore we propose to investigate this issue from the complex systems point of view. The real spatial-temporal urban accessibility of citizens cannot be approximated just by focusing on space and implies taking into account the space-time activity patterns of individuals, in a more dynamic way. Thus, given the importance of local interactions in such a perspective, an agent based approach seems to be a relevant solution. This kind of individual based and “interactionist” approach allows us to explore the possible impact of individual behaviors on the overall dynamics of the city but also the possible impact of global measures on individual behaviors. In this paper, we give an overview of the Miro Project and then focus on the GaMiroD model design from real data analysis to model exploration tuned by transportation-oriented scenarios. Among them, we start with the the impact of a LEZ (Low Emission Zone in the city center.

  8. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  9. HCMV gB shares structural and functional properties with gB proteins from other herpesviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sapna [Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Wisner, Todd W.; Johnson, David C. [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Heldwein, Ekaterina E., E-mail: katya.heldwein@tufts.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Glycoprotein B (gB) facilitates HCMV entry into cells by binding receptors and mediating membrane fusion. The crystal structures of gB ectodomains from HSV-1 and EBV are available, but little is known about the HCMV gB structure. Using multiangle light scattering and electron microscopy, we show here that HCMV gB ectodomain is a trimer with the overall shape similar to HSV-1 and EBV gB ectodomains. HCMV gB ectodomain forms rosettes similar to rosettes formed by EBV gB and the postfusion forms of other viral fusogens. Substitution of several bulky hydrophobic residues within the putative fusion loops with more hydrophilic residues reduced rosette formation and abolished cell fusion. We propose that like gB proteins from HSV-1 and EBV, HCMV gB has two internal hydrophobic fusion loops that likely interact with target membranes. Our work establishes structural and functional similarities between gB proteins from three subfamilies of herpesviruses.

  10. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  11. 100 Gb/s single VCSEL data transmission link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Li, Bomin

    2012-01-01

    100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation.......100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation....

  12. Synthesis, 68Ga-Radiolabeling, and Preliminary In Vivo Assessment of a Depsipeptide-Derived Compound as a Potential PET/CT Infection Imaging Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botshelo B. Mokaleng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive imaging is a powerful tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of various disease processes, such as infections. An alarming shortage of infection-selective radiopharmaceuticals exists for overcoming the diagnostic limitations with unspecific tracers such as 67/68Ga-citrate or 18F-FDG. We report here TBIA101, an antimicrobial peptide derivative that was conjugated to DOTA and radiolabeled with 68Ga for a subsequent in vitro assessment and in vivo infection imaging using Escherichia coli-bearing mice by targeting bacterial lipopolysaccharides with PET/CT. Following DOTA-conjugation, the compound was verified for its cytotoxic and bacterial binding behaviour and compound stability, followed by 68Gallium-radiolabeling. µPET/CT using 68Ga-DOTA-TBIA101 was employed to detect muscular E. coli-infection in BALB/c mice, as warranted by the in vitro results. 68Ga-DOTA-TBIA101-PET detected E. coli-infected muscle tissue (SUV = 1.3–2.4 > noninfected thighs (P=0.322 > forearm muscles (P=0.092 > background (P=0.021 in the same animal. Normalization of the infected thigh muscle to reference tissue showed a ratio of 3.0 ± 0.8 and a ratio of 2.3 ± 0.6 compared to the identical healthy tissue. The majority of the activity was cleared by renal excretion. The latter findings warrant further preclinical imaging studies of greater depth, as the DOTA-conjugation did not compromise the TBIA101’s capacity as targeting vector.

  13. A Rapid and Sensitive Strip-Based Quick Test for Nerve Agents Tabun, Sarin, and Soman Using BODIPY-Modified Silica Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Estela; Biyikal, Mustafa; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Dropa, Tomáš; Urban, Martin; Costero, Ana M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Rurack, Knut

    2016-08-01

    Test strips that in combination with a portable fluorescence reader or digital camera can rapidly and selectively detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), and Soman (GD) and their simulants in the gas phase have been developed. The strips contain spots of a hybrid indicator material consisting of a fluorescent BODIPY indicator covalently anchored into the channels of mesoporous SBA silica microparticles. The fluorescence quenching response allows the sensitive detection of CWAs in the μg m(-3) range in a few seconds.

  14. GB-hash : Hash Functions Using Groebner Basis

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Dhananjoy; Sengupta, Indranath

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an improved version of HF-hash, viz., GB-hash : Hash Functions Using Groebner Basis. In case of HF-hash, the compression function consists of 32 polynomials with 64 variables which were taken from the first 32 polynomials of hidden field equations challenge-1 by forcing last 16 variables as 0. In GB-hash we have designed the compression function in such way that these 32 polynomials with 64 variables form a minimal Groebner basis of the ideal generated by them with respect to graded lexicographical (grlex) ordering as well as with respect to graded reverse lexicographical (grevlex) ordering. In this paper we will prove that GB-hash is more secure than HF-hash as well as more secure than SHA-256. We have also compared the efficiency of our GB-hash with SHA-256 and HF-hash.

  15. Experience in the Clinical Application of Naokong (GB19)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汎

    2005-01-01

    @@ Naokong (GB19) is located 1.5 cun above Fengchi (GB20) and at the level with Naohu (GV17) in the depression of the lateral side of the external occipital protuberance. It belongs to the Gallbladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang, and is a crossing point of the Foot Shaoyang Channel and the Yangwei Channel. As is said in A Collection of Gems in Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Naokong (GB19) is indicated for emaciation due to over strain and stress, fever, neck rigidity, unbearable pain in the head, heavy eyes and palpitation as well as xenophthalmia and rhinalgia caused by epileptic seizure in severe cases. In clinical practice, the author has adopted Naokong (GB 19) as the main point in treating some obstinate diseases and obtained quite good therapeutic effects.

  16. The new textiles GB to be implemented in August

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After a transitional period of one year, the new version of the National Textile Product General Safety Tech- nical Code will be implemented from August 1. Compared to the old GB, the new GB expanded the age range covered by the infant textile products, 2~3 years old children’s clothing pro- duced in accordance with the original standard will be off the shelf after Au- gust. According to reports, the mandatory

  17. GB4706.1-1998与GB4706.1-92标准差异%The Discrepancies Between the GB4706.11998 GB4706.192 Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王攀

    2005-01-01

    GB4706.1-1998 《The first part of safety regulation household appliances and similar products:Universal Requirements》 is one of the standards of 3C certification, it has much differences from the former version GB4706.1-92. The paper dwells on the main differences between these two standards from the definition - symbol- safety regulation, mechanical intensity, etc so as to facilitate the inspecting staff to grasp them better.

  18. Analysis on Differences of Standards GB 21456-2008 and GB 21456-2014%GB 21456-2008与GB 21456-2014标准差异及分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯杰; 江叶东

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes the differences of power scope, equipment, and test method in the old edition standard GB 21456-2008 and the new edition standard GB 21456-2014, “The minimum allowable values of the energy efficiency and energy efficiently grades for household induction cookers”. And it discusses the function and significance of the reversion of standard GB 21456-2014 to energy efficiency test of induction cookers; and the influence of it to the induction cookers industry.%本文针对GB 21456-2014与GB 21456-2008《家用电磁灶能效限定值及能效等级》在功率适用范围、仪器设备、测试方法等方面的差异进行了对比和分析研究,探讨了GB 21456-2014标准的修订对电磁灶能效测试的作用和意义及新版标准实施对电磁灶行业的影响。

  19. Kinetics of sarin (GB) following a single sublethal inhalation exposure in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Christopher E; McGuire, Jeffrey M; Miller, Dennis B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Thomson, Sandra A; Lumley, Lucille A; McDonough, John H; Shih, Tsung-Ming A

    2007-06-01

    To improve toxicity estimates from sublethal exposures to chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA), it is necessary to generate mathematical models of the absorption, distribution, and elimination of nerve agents. However, current models are based on representative data sets generated with different routes of exposure and in different species and are designed to interpolate between limited laboratory data sets to predict a wide range of possible human exposure scenarios. This study was performed to integrate CWNA sublethal toxicity data in male Duncan Hartley guinea pigs. Specific goal was to compare uptake and clearance kinetics of different sublethal doses of sarin (either 0.1 x or 0.4 x LC50) in blood and tissues of guinea pigs exposed to agent by acute whole-body inhalation exposure after the 60-min LC50 was determined. Arterial catheterization allowed repeated blood sampling from the same animal at various time periods. Blood and tissue levels of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and regenerated sarin (rGB) were determined at various time points during and following sarin exposure. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the graph of plasma or RBC rGB concentration versus time: time to reach the maximal concentration; maximal concentration; mean residence time; clearance; volume of distribution at steady state; terminal elimination-phase rate constant; and area under plasma concentration time curve extrapolated to infinity using the WinNonlin analysis program 5.0. Plasma and RBC t(1/2) for rGB was also calculated. Data will be used to develop mathematical model of absorption and distribution of sublethal sarin doses into susceptible tissues.

  20. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  1. Gb-Sar Interferometry for Structure Monitoring during Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Juan, A.; Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Monserrat, O.; Crosetto, M.; Hoffman, C.; Ledesma, A.; Criollo, R.; Pujades, E.; Velasco, V.; García, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring is a necessary task for infrastructure projects. Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has been used in a large variety of displacement measurements. However, it has not yet been applied as a monitoring tool during construction projects. This paper aims to demonstrate that GB-SAR can be very helpful for understanding the mechanisms that control structure deformations and for identifying unexpected events and sensitive areas during construction projects. This could be done in a cost-effective way, which complements the traditional displacement measurements. An experiment was performed in the future railway station of La Sagrera, Barcelona (Spain) to demonstrate the utility of GB-SAR on structure monitoring during construction projects. In this experiment, GB-SAR precisely quantified wall displacements induced by dewatering. Manual data and numerical models have been used to confirm the measurements with a correlation analysis and by comparing measurements and deformation patterns, which have produced similar results. These results validate the use of the GB-SAR technique as a monitoring tool during construction projects.

  2. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Miles, A.K

    2004-02-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD{sub 50} of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap. - Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 is unlikely to harm bobwhite embryos when applied according to product label guidance, but could pose a potential risk to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  3. Interpretation of the Differences between GB4343.1-2003 and GB4343-1995%GB4343.1-2003与GB4343-1995差异解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海霞; 李邦协

    2004-01-01

    @@ GB4343.1-2003是等同采用国际无线电干扰特别委员会CISPR14-1 2000和其修订件A1 2001来修订GB4343-1995(eqv CIS-PR14-1:1993 3.0版)而成的标准,于2003年10月9日经国家质量监督检验检疫总局批准、发布,2004年6月1日起实施.

  4. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine: Remote access and distribution of a multi-gigabyte data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the 1986 Long-Range Plan for the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the Planning Panel on Medical Education wrote that NLM should '...thoroughly and systematically investigate the technical requirements for and feasibility of instituting a biomedical images library.' The panel noted the increasing use of images in clinical practice and biomedical research. An image library would complement NLM's existing bibliographic and factual database services and would ideally be available through the same computer networks as are these current NLM services. Early in 1989, NLM's Board of Regents convened an ad hoc planning panel to explore possible roles for the NLM in the area of electronic image libraries. In its report to the Board of Regents, the NLM Planning Panel on Electronic Image Libraries recommended that 'NLM should undertake a first project building a digital image library of volumetric data representing a complete, normal adult male and female. This Visible Human Project will include digitized photographic images for cryosectioning, digital images derived from computerized tomography, and digital magnetic resonance images of cadavers.' The technologies needed to support digital high resolution image libraries, including rapid development; and that NLM encourage investigator-initiated research into methods for representing and linking spatial and textual information, structural informatics. The first part of the Visible Human Project is the acquisition of cross-sectional CT and MRI digital images and cross-sectional cryosectional photographic images of a representative male and female cadaver at an average of one millimeter intervals. The corresponding cross-sections in each of the three modalities are to be registerable with one another.

  5. GIGABYTE^TM技嘉金牌主板 中国之队决战釜山——LOL:输在心态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奕

    2012-01-01

    如果单纯论实力,中国的《英雄联盟》爱好者对中国LOL代表队充满了信心,而他们自己也充满信心。在赛前LOL代表队并没有把美国队和加拿大队归为自己最大的对手,他们认为最难对付的是主场作战韩国代表队。

  6. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Albers, P H; Melancon, M J; Miles, A K

    2004-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  7. Humans lack iGb3 due to the absence of functional iGb3-synthase: implications for NKT cell development and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Christiansen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The glycosphingolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide, or isogloboside 3 (iGb3, is believed to be critical for natural killer T (NKT cell development and self-recognition in mice and humans. Furthermore, iGb3 may represent an important obstacle in xenotransplantation, in which this lipid represents the only other form of the major xenoepitope Galalpha(1,3Gal. The role of iGb3 in NKT cell development is controversial, particularly with one study that suggested that NKT cell development is normal in mice that were rendered deficient for the enzyme iGb3 synthase (iGb3S. We demonstrate that spliced iGb3S mRNA was not detected after extensive analysis of human tissues, and furthermore, the iGb3S gene contains several mutations that render this product nonfunctional. We directly tested the potential functional activity of human iGb3S by expressing chimeric molecules containing the catalytic domain of human iGb3S. These hybrid molecules were unable to synthesize iGb3, due to at least one amino acid substitution. We also demonstrate that purified normal human anti-Gal immunoglobulin G can bind iGb3 lipid and mediate complement lysis of transfected human cells expressing iGb3. Collectively, our data suggest that iGb3S is not expressed in humans, and even if it were expressed, this enzyme would be inactive. Consequently, iGb3 is unlikely to represent a primary natural ligand for NKT cells in humans. Furthermore, the absence of iGb3 in humans implies that it is another source of foreign Galalpha(1,3Gal xenoantigen, with obvious significance in the field of xenotransplantation.

  8. Nanoheteroestructuras de GaAs/AlGaAs. Simulación y aplicación en transistores de alta movilidad GaAs/AlGaAs nanoheterostructures: simulation and application on high mobility transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Eduardo Martín

    2011-05-01

    ="es-CO"> 

     

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB">This work analyses the features of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, highlighting semiconductor junction properties. Charge confinement was produced when two materials having different band-gap were fixed; such high electron concentration is called two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG.

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB"> GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB">Device simulation for smart integrated systems (DESSIS is simulation software which uses physical models and robust numerical methods for simulating semiconductor devices and 3-5 element heterostructures. Results for different heterostructure doping profiles and voltages are presented in this work.

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB"> GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs are one of the most important applications for heterostructures; they work on 30 to 300 GHz frequency ranges. These transistors are simulated in this work; a 1 A/mmGB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">2 GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">high current density was obtained in the channel, such value being comparable to other values reported for similar transistors.GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-default-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-latin-font-family: 'Times New Roman

  9. Development of an advanced uncooled 10-Gb DFB laser for volume manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gordon; Charles, Paul M.

    2003-03-01

    Optical communication systems operating at 10Gbit/s such as 10Gigabit Ethernet are becoming more and more important in Local Area Networks (LAN) and Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). This market requires optical transceivers of low cost, size and power consumption. This drives a need for uncooled DFB lasers directly modulated at 10Gbit/s. This paper describes the development of a state of the art uncooled high speed DFB laser which is capable of being manufactured in high volume at the low cost demanded by the GbE market. A DFB laser was designed by developing technological building blocks within the 'conventional" InGaAsP materials system, using existing well proven manufacturing processes modules wherever possible, limiting the design risk to a few key areas where innovation was required. The temperature and speed performance of the InGaAsP SMQW active layer system was carefully optimized and then coupled with a low parasitic lateral confinement system. Using concurrent engineering, new processes were demonstrated to have acceptable process capability within a manufacturing fabrication environment, proving their ability to support high volume manufacturing requirements. The DFB laser fabricated was shown to operate at 100C chip temperature with an open eye at 10Gbit/s operation (with an extinction ratio >5dB). Up to 90C operation this DFB shows threshold current as low as 29mA, optical power as high as 13mW and it meets the 10Gb scaled Ethernet mask with extinction ratio >6dB. It was found that the high temperature dynamic behavior of these lasers could not be fully predicted from static test data. A production test strategy was therefore followed where equipment was designed to fully test devices/subassemblies at 100C and up to 20Gbit/s at key points in the product build. This facilitated the rapid optimisation of product yields upon manufacturing ramp up and minimization of product costs. This state of the art laser is now transferred into volume manufacture.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption...

  12. Carbohydrate conformation and lipid condensation in monolayers containing glycosphingolipid Gb3: influence of acyl chain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Erik B; Gao, Haifei; Dennison, Andrew J C; Chopin, Nathalie; Struth, Bernd; Arnold, Thomas; Florent, Jean-Claude; Johannes, Ludger

    2014-09-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells, is the endocytic receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. Using x-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), lipid monolayers containing Gb3 were investigated at the air-water interface. XR probed Gb3 carbohydrate conformation normal to the interface, whereas GIXD precisely characterized Gb3's influence on acyl chain in-plane packing and area per molecule (APM). Two phospholipids, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), were used to study Gb3 packing in different lipid environments. Furthermore, the impact on monolayer structure of a naturally extracted Gb3 mixture was compared to synthetic Gb3 species with uniquely defined acyl chain structures. XR results showed that lipid environment and Gb3 acyl chain structure impact carbohydrate conformation with greater solvent accessibility observed for smaller phospholipid headgroups and long Gb3 acyl chains. In general, GIXD showed that Gb3 condensed phospholipid packing resulting in smaller APM than predicted by ideal mixing. Gb3's capacity to condense APM was larger for DSPC monolayers and exhibited different dependencies on acyl chain structure depending on the lipid environment. The interplay between Gb3-induced changes in lipid packing and the lipid environment's impact on carbohydrate conformation has broad implications for glycosphingolipid macromolecule recognition and ligand binding.

  13. Functional fluorescent protein insertions in herpes simplex virus gB report on gB conformation before and after execution of membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Gallagher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV into a target cell requires complex interactions and conformational changes by viral glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB. During viral entry, gB transitions from a prefusion to a postfusion conformation, driving fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane. While the structure of postfusion gB is known, the prefusion conformation of gB remains elusive. As the prefusion conformation of gB is a critical target for neutralizing antibodies, we set out to describe its structure by making genetic insertions of fluorescent proteins (FP throughout the gB ectodomain. We created gB constructs with FP insertions in each of the three globular domains of gB. Among 21 FP insertion constructs, we found 8 that allowed gB to remain membrane fusion competent. Due to the size of an FP, regions in gB that tolerate FP insertion must be solvent exposed. Two FP insertion mutants were cell-surface expressed but non-functional, while FP insertions located in the crown were not surface expressed. This is the first report of placing a fluorescent protein insertion within a structural domain of a functional viral fusion protein, and our results are consistent with a model of prefusion HSV gB constructed from the prefusion VSV G crystal structure. Additionally, we found that functional FP insertions from two different structural domains could be combined to create a functional form of gB labeled with both CFP and YFP. FRET was measured with this construct, and we found that when co-expressed with gH/gL, the FRET signal from gB was significantly different from the construct containing CFP alone, as well as gB found in syncytia, indicating that this construct and others of similar design are likely to be powerful tools to monitor the conformation of gB in any model system accessible to light microscopy.

  14. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P M.; Kleimeyer, J; Rowland, Brad; Gardner, Patrick J.

    2003-04-21

    Quantitative high resolution (0.1 cm -1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of pressure broadened (101.3 KPa N2), vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, nitrogen mustard (HN3), sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L).

  15. GB 19865 & GB 6675 ANNEX A.A —— SAFETY OF ELECTRICAL TOYS Differences Between the new and old Chinese National Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ganghua; He Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    This article anlayzes the different requirements for electrical toys safety between GB 6675-2003 and GB 19865-2005. This information is summed up in table form to make it easy for toy designers and manufacturers to grasp the new standard.

  16. Coherent 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an Optimal Supercomputer Optical Switch Fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko;

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates....

  17. Optimization Framework for Supporting 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Services over Heterogeneous Optical Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous traffic growth and crunched profit margins are leading network operators to deploying high-capacity backbone infrastructures with minimal capital investment. However, the cost-effective design of optical transport networks (OTNs remains a complex challenge subjected to multiple constraints, e.g., maximum bit rate per channel, electrical multiplexing capabilities, wavelength count per fiber, optical interface cost, maximum transparent reach, etc. To efficiently solve this multi-constrained dimensioning problem in presence of heterogeneous client demands and optical channel rates of 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s, this paper presents a novel hybrid optimization framework. The proposed approach is based on an iterative combination of linear programming and rounding algorithms for the demand routing, with graph coloring heuristics for the wavelength assignment. The performance of this framework is assessed and compared with a similar approach that resorts to an integer linear programming (ILP model to route the demands. The results obtained show that our proposal is able to reach the same low network expenditures as the ILP while requesting less computation time. We also confirm that the most cost-effective network solutions are attained when optical line rate heterogeneity is jointly applied with diverse multiplexing capabilities at the OTN electrical layer, such as grooming and inverse-multiplexing.

  18. GIBS Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The KML documentation standard provides a solution for imagery integration into mapping tools that utilize support the KML standard, specifically Google Earth. Using...

  19. CompaGB: An open framework for genome browsers comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiapello Hélène

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools to visualize and explore genomes hold a central place in genomics and the diversity of genome browsers has increased dramatically over the last few years. It often turns out to be a daunting task to compare and choose a well-adapted genome browser, as multidisciplinary knowledge is required to carry out this task and the number of tools, functionalities and features are overwhelming. Findings To assist in this task, we propose a community-based framework based on two cornerstones: (i the implementation of industry promoted software qualification method (QSOS adapted for genome browser evaluations, and (ii a web resource providing numerous facilities either for visualizing comparisons or performing new evaluations. We formulated 60 criteria specifically for genome browsers, and incorporated another 65 directly from QSOS's generic section. Those criteria aim to answer versatile needs, ranging from a biologist whose interest primarily lies into user-friendly and informative functionalities, a bioinformatician who wants to integrate the genome browser into a wider framework, or a computer scientist who might choose a software according to more technical features. We developed a dedicated web application to enrich the existing QSOS functionalities (weighting of criteria, user profile with features of interest to a community-based framework: easy management of evolving data, user comments... Conclusions The framework is available at http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/CompaGB. It is open to anyone who wishes to participate in the evaluations. It helps the scientific community to (1 choose a genome browser that would better fit their particular project, (2 visualize features comparatively with easily accessible formats, such as tables or radar plots and (3 perform their own evaluation against the defined criteria. To illustrate the CompaGB functionalities, we have evaluated seven genome browsers according to the implemented methodology

  20. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Epstein

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, SARS-like corona-, Marburg-, Ebola-, and astroviruses. In an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 Pteropus giganteus bats from Faridpur, Bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to GB virus A and C (GBV-A and -C. Viral nucleic acid was present in 5 of 98 sera (5% from a single colony of free-ranging bats. Infection was not associated with evidence of hepatitis or hepatic dysfunction. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.

  1. GC-MS/MS Analyses of Biological Samples in Support of Developmental Toxic Effects on Subcutaneous Exposure of Rats to GB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    WHOLE-BODY EXPOSURE TO GB IN RATS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) McGuire, Jeffrey M. (ECBC...dysfunction, involuntary movements, miosis, muscle fasciculations, respiratory distress, and seizures (Russell and Overstreet, 1987). In the event...animal model of nerve agent exposure to make more accurate human risk assessments. In addition, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and

  2. Asymmetrical TWDM-PON with 4 × 25-Gb/s downstream DSB OFDM and 4 × 10-Gb/s upstream OOK modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Li, Yiwei; Zhang, Shihao; Tang, Xuan

    2015-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an asymmetrical time wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (TWDM-PON) scheme with 100-Gb/s downstream and 40-Gb/s upstream capacity using four pairs of wavelengths. Double sideband (DSB) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with 16-QAM mapping is used for downstream transmission, while on-off keying (OOK) modulation is used for upstream transmission. The experimental results show that the power budget for bidirectional transmission is more than 35.5-dB. This scheme can be a promising solution for 100-Gb/s TWDM-PON with high power budget.

  3. Ligand "Brackets" for Ga-Ga Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Skatova, Alexandra A; Dodonov, Vladimir A; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Chudakova, Valentina A; Piskunov, Alexander V; Demeshko, Serhiy; Baranov, Evgeny V

    2016-09-06

    The reactivity of digallane (dpp-Bian)Ga-Ga(dpp-Bian) (1) (dpp-Bian = 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene) toward acenaphthenequinone (AcQ), sulfur dioxide, and azobenzene was investigated. The reaction of 1 with AcQ in 1:1 molar ratio proceeds via two-electron reduction of AcQ to give (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)Ga(dpp-Bian) (2), in which diolate [AcQ](2-) acts as "bracket" for the Ga-Ga bond. The interaction of 1 with AcQ in 1:2 molar ratio proceeds with an oxidation of the both dpp-Bian ligands as well as of the Ga-Ga bond to give (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (3). At 330 K in toluene complex 2 decomposes to give compounds 3 and 1. The reaction of complex 2 with atmospheric oxygen results in oxidation of a Ga-Ga bond and affords (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)(μ2-O)Ga(dpp-Bian) (4). The reaction of digallane 1 with SO2 produces, depending on the ratio (1:2 or 1:4), dithionites (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-O2S-SO2)Ga(dpp-Bian) (5) and (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-O2S-SO2)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (6). In compound 5 the Ga-Ga bond is preserved and supported by dithionite dianionic bracket. In compound 6 the gallium centers are bridged by two dithionite ligands. Both 5 and 6 consist of dpp-Bian radical anionic ligands. Four-electron reduction of azobenzene with 1 mol equiv of digallane 1 leads to complex (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-NPh)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (7). Paramagnetic compounds 2-7 were characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and their molecular structures were established by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Magnetic behavior of compounds 2, 5, and 6 was investigated by superconducting quantum interference device technique in the range of 2-295 K.

  4. 160 Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Data Modulator based on Cross Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated 160 Gb/s all-optical data modulation with an extinction ratio of 18.5 dB based on XPM in a silicon nanowire. Error free performance is achieved for the optically modulated 160 Gb/s signal.......We have demonstrated 160 Gb/s all-optical data modulation with an extinction ratio of 18.5 dB based on XPM in a silicon nanowire. Error free performance is achieved for the optically modulated 160 Gb/s signal....

  5. Identification of iGb3 and iGb4 in melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells and the iNKT cell-mediated antitumor effect of dendritic cells primed with iGb3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Igor C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD1d-restricted iNKT cells are protective against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 growing subcutaneously in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice as inferred from the fast tumor development in CD1d-KO in comparison with wild type animals. CD1d glycoproteins are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation, particularly by dentritic cells (DC, of lipid antigens to iNKT cells. In the present work we attempted to identify the endogenous lipid mediator expressed in melanoma cells inducing such immunesurveillance response and study the possibility of protecting animals challenged with tumor cells with lipid-primed DC. Results Crude cytosolic and membrane fractions from in vivo growing melanoma contained iNKT-stimulating substances. Lipids were then extracted from these cells and one of the fractions (i.e. F3A was shown to prime bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC to stimulate iNKT murine hybridoma (DN32D3 cells to produce IL-2. The active fraction was analyzed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-LIT-MS and both iGb3 and iGb4 were identified along with GM3. When iGb3 was incubated with BMDC and tested with DN32D3 cells, IL-2 was equally produced indicating iNKT cell activation. GM3 consistently inhibited this response. To assess the antitumor response-induced by iGb3, a cytotoxicity assay in vitro was used with [3H]-thymidine labeled B16F10-Nex2 cells. At target/effector (iGb3-activated iNKT cell ratio of 100-1-100-4 tumor cell lysis was shown. The antitumor activity in vivo was tested in mice challenged i.v. with B16F10-Nex2 cells and treated with iGb3- or α-galactosylceramide-primed DCs. A 4-fold lower tumor load in the lungs was observed with either treatment. Conclusion Our results show the expression of globo and isoglobohexosylceramides in murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2. The expression of iGb3 and its precursor, iGb4, on tumor cells may prime an effective iNKT cell-dependent antitumor response

  6. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico

    2014-09-12

    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  7. Experimental characterization of dispersion maps with Raman gain in 160 Gb/s transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Seoane, Jorge; Siahlo, Andrei;

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of dispersion compensation and Raman amplification in SMF-based transmission span of 160 Gb/s system. The post compensation map shows better power tolerance.......We investigate the combined effects of dispersion compensation and Raman amplification in SMF-based transmission span of 160 Gb/s system. The post compensation map shows better power tolerance....

  8. 4 Gb/s optical wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Durhuus, T.; Braagaard, C.

    1993-01-01

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers used for efficient wavelength conversion up to 4 Gb/s are discussed. The rise and fall times as well as extinction ratio are experimentally analyzed. System performance at 4 Gb/s is evaluated showing a penalty of only 1.5 dB for the converted signal for conversion...

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB7A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB7A-2G4NF 1GB7 2G4N A F KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN...HHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N F 2G4NF IVQNN--...n> 0.7096549868583679 1.3399250507354736 EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB5A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB5A-2G4NF 1GB5 2G4N A F KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN... HHHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N F 2G4NF IVQNN...89938545227 1.3731060028076172 EVID>EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF KILDK-VG

  11. First Experimental Demonstration of Coherent CAP for 300-Gb/s Metropolitan Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zibar, Darko;

    2014-01-01

    We report on high - capacity coherent links employing dual polarization 2D - CAP modulation, allowing for signal design in 8 - dimensional space. Successful demodulation of 221 Gb/s (7.5 b/s/Hz) and 336 Gb/s (7.8 b/s/Hz) after 225 km and 451 km of standard single - mode fiber (SSMF) is achieved....

  12. Optical performance monitoring at 640Gb/s via slow-light in a silicon nanowire

    CERN Document Server

    Corcoran, B; Pelusi, M; Grillet, C; White, T P; Faolain, L O; Krauss, T F; Eggleton, B J; Moss, David J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical performance monitoring of in-band optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and residual dispersion, at bit rates of 40Gb/s, 160Gb/s and 640Gb/s, using slow-light enhanced optical third harmonic generation (THG) in a compact (80 micron) dispersion engineered 2D silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that there is no intrinsic degradation in the enhancement of the signal processing at 640 Gb/s relative to that at 40Gb/s, and that this device should operate well above 1Tb/s. This work represents a record 16-fold increase in processing speed for a silicon device, and opens the door for slow light to play a key role in ultra-high bandwidth telecommunications systems.

  13. GABAB receptor subunit GB1 at the cell surface independently activates ERK1/2 through IGF-1R transactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Baloucoune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional GABA(B receptor is believed to require hetero-dimerization between GABA(B1 (GB1 and GABA(B2 (GB2 subunits. The GB1 extracellular domain is required for ligand binding, and the GB2 trans-membrane domain is responsible for coupling to G proteins. Atypical GABA(B receptor responses observed in GB2-deficient mice suggested that GB1 may have activity in the absence of GB2. However the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by using cells overexpressing a GB1 mutant (GB1asa with the ability to translocate to the cell surface in the absence of GB2, we show that GABA(B receptor agonists, such as GABA and Baclofen, can induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of GB2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GB1asa induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation through Gi/o proteins and PLC dependent IGF-1R transactivation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that GB1 may form a functional receptor at the cell surface in the absence of GB2.

  14. 68Ga-Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Production and Application Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Velikyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of 68Ga to the promotion and expansion of clinical research and routine positron emission tomography (PET for earlier better diagnostics and individualized medicine is considerable. The potential applications of 68Ga-comprising imaging agents include targeted, pre-targeted and non-targeted imaging. This review discusses the key aspects of the production of 68Ga and 68Ga-based radiopharmaceuticals in the light of the impact of regulatory requirements and endpoint pre-clinical and clinical applications.

  15. Derivatization of organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products for gas chromatography with ICPMS and TOF-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Douglas D; Caruso, Joseph A

    2007-06-01

    Separation and detection of seven V-type (venomous) and G-type (German) organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products by gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) is described. The nonvolatile alkyl phosphonic acid degradation products of interest included ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA, VX acid), isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA, GB acid), ethyl hydrogen dimethylamidophosphate sodium salt (EDPA, GA acid), isobutyl hydrogen methylphosphonate (IBMPA, RVX acid), as well as pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid (CMPA, GF acid). N-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluroacetamide with 1% TBDMSCl was utilized to form the volatile TBDMS derivatives of the nerve agent degradation products for separation by GC. Exact mass confirmation of the formation of six of the TBDMS derivatives was obtained by GC-time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The method developed here allowed for the separation and detection of all seven TBDMS derivatives as well as phosphate in less than ten minutes. Detection limits for the developed method were less than 5 pg with retention times and peak area precisions of less than 0.01 and 6%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to river water and soil matrices. To date this is the first work describing the analysis of chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products by GC-ICPMS.

  16. Using adaptive four-band OFDM modulation with 40 Gb/s downstream and 10 Gb/s upstream signals for next generation long-reach PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C H; Chow, C W; Chen, H Y; Chen, B W

    2011-12-19

    In this demonstration, we propose and demonstrate an adaptive long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) using four-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) channels. The downstream traffic rates from 6.25 to 40 Gb/s (using fixed quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) level in the four OFDM bands) and from 9.37 to 40.3 Gb/s (using variable QAM levels in the four OFDM bands) can be achieved adaptively in the optical network units (ONUs) depending on different fiber transmission lengths from 0 to 100 km. For the upstream transmission, a 10 Gb/s 16-QAM OFDM signal with pre-emphasis is experimentally performed by using a 2.5 GHz directly modulated laser (DML). Based on the simulation and experimental results, the proposed adaptive four-band OFDM system could be a promising candidate for the future LR-PON.

  17. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Wig, Faith Virginia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Erickson, Kari Natania [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  18. Study on the Similarities and Differences of Body Measurement Terminology between ASTM and China GB Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方方; 张渭源; 张文斌

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and differences of ASTM and China GB standard are studied in three aspects:measure instrument,terminology and applicable field.They are similar on the measuring apparatus and GB has less measurements,such as girth,length and width measurements than ASTM and it lack across chest width,back width,total crotch length and shoulder slope which are important measurements in pattern making.ASTM classifies its standards according to the customers' size,gender and age.So we think GB standard could make some modifications from these fields to satisfy the users.

  19. Study on a Multiplexer a 40 Gb/s OTDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In a 4×10Gb/s OTDM system (optical time-division-multiplication) system, multiplexing devices are key devices. The time interval of four channels of the 40Gb/s OTDM system is 25ps respectively. If the time intervals are no accurate, will induce the system performance to degeneration. In order to make out OTDM device and carry out a transmission experiment in a 40Gb/s OTDM system, a kind of OTDM device is researched. This scheme be used to fabricate multiplex device. Also the device have been used to a 4...

  20. 80 Gb/s transmission over 80 km and demultiplexing using a highly non-linear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kim Skaalum; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Siahlo, Andrei;

    2002-01-01

    We report on, transmission of an 80 Gb/s signal over 80 km of standard single mode fibre with subsequent demultiplexing to 10 Gb/s in a NOLM containing a novel photonic crystal fibre......We report on, transmission of an 80 Gb/s signal over 80 km of standard single mode fibre with subsequent demultiplexing to 10 Gb/s in a NOLM containing a novel photonic crystal fibre...

  1. A Pilot Study: Warm Stimulation on Guangming (GB37 to Relief Asthenopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermometry was performed in 15 female asthenopia patients (average ± SD: 54.88 ± 7.30 years prior to, during, and after stimulation using electrothermal Bian-stone at the Guangming (GB37 acupoints. The results of this controlled pilot study (control points at the Yongquan (KI1 and Tianshu (ST25 points showed significant (P≤0.05 increases in eyes’ temperature. At the same time, no changes were found at the control points. Furthermore, after warm stimulation on Guangming (GB37 acupoints, the clinical symptoms were getting better than the control points. The symptoms’ score was decreased significantly too (P≤0.05. It was demonstrated that there is some relationship between Guangming (GB37 point and eyes, and warm stimulation on Guangming (GB37 could relief uncomfortable of asthenopia.

  2. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P H; Hoffman, D J; Buscemi, D M; Melancon, M J

    2003-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  3. [Analysis on the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixing; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Suhe

    2015-12-01

    To explore the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31). Through the study of the ancient and modern data,the analysis and integration of the acupuncture books,the comparison of the locations of Fengshi (GB 31) by doctors from all dynasties and the integration of modern anatomia, the modern simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31) is definite, which is the same as the traditional way. It is believed that the simple selec tion method is in accord with the human-oriented thought of TCM. Treatment by acupoints should be based on the emerging nature and the individual difference of patients. Also, it is proposed that Fengshi (GB 31) should be located through the integration between the simple method and body surface anatomical mark.

  4. Signal generation and processing at 100 Gb/s based on optical time division multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li HUO; Qiang WANG; Yanfei XING; Caiyun LOU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent works in 100 Gb/s signal generation and processing. A high-speed 100 Gb/s system with on-off keying (0OK) modulation format is implemented by using optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) method. As modifications of this system, simultaneous multicolor optical signal generation and 100Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ)-to-non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format conversion are presented. We also demonstrate basic all-optical signal processing functions of 100 GHz clock recovery and 100 Gb/s all-optical 2R generation based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs).

  5. Transgenic Gb NPR 1 Tobacco Can Enhance Resistance to Tobacco Diseases%转GbNPR1基因提高烟草抗病性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月琳; 林春晶; 韦正乙; 王云鹏; 仲晓芳; 邢少辰

    2015-01-01

    It is generally known that disease was the mainly adverse factor resulting in loss of yield and quality, and one of practical channels is to create transgenic plants for improving resistance of tobacco by using biological technology, including the application of key factors closely related to disease resistance in plants such as non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes1 (NPR1). In the present study, GbNPR1 gene was isolated from sea island cotton and two vectors, 35S-GbNPR1 and CUT1-GbNPR1 harboring Gb NPR 1 gene, were constructed. The target gene was separately drove by epidermal-specific promoter CUT1 and constitutive promoter 35S. The two vectors were transferred into tobacco via A grobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR analysis of both T0 and T1 transgenic plants showed that Gb NPR 1 gene has been integrated into nuclear genome of tobacco. RT-PCR analysis of T1 plants displayed Gb NPR 1 gene already expressed at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the positive result of test strip also confirmed that bar gene linking with Gb NPR 1 gene can normally transcript and translate into protein. The PCR-positive plants were subjected to conduct in vitro innoculation experiment of three species of tobacco diseases, Alteraria alternate, Colletotrichum micotianae and Colletotrichum capsici, respectively. The results demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants transformed with CUT1-GbNPR1 vector showed slightly lower resistance to those three diseases than the transgenic plants transformed with CUT1-GbNPR1 vector, but both of transgenic plants showed better resistance than the wild-type plants. To our knowledge, it is the first report that transgenic tobacco plant with Gb NPR 1 gene was resistance to the diseases of black death disease and anthracnose disease.%病害是造成烟草减产和品质降低的主要因素,而利用生物技术提高烟草抗病性是解决此问题的有效途径,其中包括利用与植物抗病性密切相关的关键因子如病程

  6. Specialty fibers for 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Berg, Kim Skaalum; Clausen, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated.......Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated....

  7. Short Range 10 Gb/s THz Communications. Proof of Concept Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    GHz. After optical amplification using an EDFA , the combined optical heterodyne signal was modulated with a 27-1 PRBS data pattern using on-off...keying (OOK) at 1 Gb/s in a Mach- Zehnder electro-optic modulator. The resulting signal was re-amplified using a further EDFA and input to a packaged...distributed feedback DSB double sideband ECL external cavity laser EDFA erbium-doped fibre amplifier Gb/s giga bits per second IF

  8. Low-penalty Raman-assisted XPM wavelength conversion at 320 Gb/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2007-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration and optimization of cross-phase modulation-based wavelength conversion at 320 Gb/s assisted by Raman gain. Error free operation is demonstrated with low penalty.......We report on an experimental demonstration and optimization of cross-phase modulation-based wavelength conversion at 320 Gb/s assisted by Raman gain. Error free operation is demonstrated with low penalty....

  9. Phase Modulation for postcompensation of dispersion in 160-Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Clausen, A. T.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end.......Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end....

  10. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio UWB over fiber transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio UWB generation using an uncooled distributed feedback laser. After 50km fiber transmission the signal is recovered without errors using a digital signal processing receiver.......We demonstrate 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio UWB generation using an uncooled distributed feedback laser. After 50km fiber transmission the signal is recovered without errors using a digital signal processing receiver....

  11. 160 Gb/s Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM wavelength conversion and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2007-01-01

    In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown.......In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown....

  12. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  13. Tumor-specific Hsp70 plasma membrane localization is enabled by the glycosphingolipid Gb3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Gehrmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tumors differ from normal tissues in their capacity to present Hsp70, the major stress-inducible member of the HSP70 family, on their plasma membrane. Membrane Hsp70 has been found to serve as a prognostic indicator of overall patient survival in leukemia, lower rectal and non small cell lung carcinomas. Why tumors, but not normal cells, present Hsp70 on their cell surface and the impact of membrane Hsp70 on cancer progression remains to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although Hsp70 has been reported to be associated with cholesterol rich microdomains (CRMs, the partner in the plasma membrane with which Hsp70 interacts has yet to be identified. Herein, global lipid profiling demonstrates that Hsp70 membrane-positive tumors differ from their membrane-negative counterparts by containing significantly higher amounts of globotriaoslyceramide (Gb3, but not of other lipids such as lactosylceramide (LacCer, dodecasaccharideceramide (DoCer, galactosylceramide (GalCer, ceramide (Cer, or the ganglioside GM1. Apart from germinal center B cells, normal tissues are Gb3 membrane-negative. Co-localization of Hsp70 and Gb3 was selectively determined in Gb3 membrane-positive tumor cells, and these cells were also shown to bind soluble Hsp70-FITC protein from outside in a concentration-dependent manner. Given that the latter interaction can be blocked by a Gb3-specific antibody, and that the depletion of globotriaosides from tumors reduces the amount of membrane-bound Hsp70, we propose that Gb3 is a binding partner for Hsp70. The in vitro finding that Hsp70 predominantly binds to artificial liposomes containing Gb3 (PC/SM/Chol/Gb3, 17/45/33/5 confirms that Gb3 is an interaction partner for Hsp70. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the presence of Gb3 enables anchorage of Hsp70 in the plasma membrane of tumors and thus they might explain tumor-specific membrane localization of Hsp70.

  14. Anti-tubercular agents from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity guided isolation of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae / Fabaceae) roots resulted in the characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid as a major anti-tubercular agent. Further, GA-1 was semi-synthetically converted into its nine derivatives, which were in-vitro evaluated for their antitubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using BACTEC-460 radiometric susceptibility assay. All the derivatives were active, but the benzylamide (GA-8, MIC 12.5μg/ml) and ethyl oxylate (GA-3, MIC 25.0 μg/ml) derivatives were significantly active against the pathogen. This was further supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for GA-3 (120.3) and GA-8 (112.6) with respect to the standard anti-tubercular drug, rifampicin (92.94) on the DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) target site. Finally, the in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA-3 and GA- 8 possesses drug-like properties. This is the first ever report on the anti-tubercular potential of GA and its derivatives. These results may be of great help in anti-tubercular drug development from a very common, inexpensive, and non toxic natural product.

  15. 新版GB3836系列标准解读与实施%The Interpretation and Implementation of New GB3836 Series Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建平

    2011-01-01

    介绍了GB3836系列标准的形成历史、标准构成和最新修订情况,重点梳理了爆炸性环境用电气设备"通用要求"和由隔爆外壳"d"、增安型"e"、本质安全型"i"保护的电气设备的新旧GB3836系列标准间的主要技术变化及其与相应IEC标准的差异.新旧GB3836系列标准间的主要变化包括:融合了Ⅲ类设备的要求、引入了设备保护级别、关注更多的潜在点燃源、引入了基于设备保护级别的防爆型式符号和防爆标志新方法、规定了防爆产品说明书的细节要求、增加了多种隔爆面结构形式、增加了高压电动机进行爆炸试验的要求,增加本质安全型"ic"保护等级、引入了0区用双重防爆技术等.最后,就新版GB3836系列标准的有效实施指出了防爆安全相关的制造厂商、检验机构、设计院和用户等各方的职责.%The formation history, composition of GB3836 series standards and its latest revisions are introduced.The main technical changes between new and old GB3836 series standards and deviation against corresponding IEC standards for the general requirements of equipments used in explosive atmosphere, as well as electric equipments with type of protection flameproof enclosure “d”, increased safety “e”, intrisic safety “i” are outlined.The significant changes between new and old GB3836 series standards mainly include as following: immission of technical requirments of group Ⅲ equipment,introduction of equipment protection level (EPL), attention to more ignition sources, introduction of new Ex-marking and sysmbol for type of protection based on EPL, detail requirment of explosionprotection product specification, increase structure of many types of protection flameproof enclosure,increase of explosion test requirment for Ex “e” high-voltage motors, increase of protection level “ic”,introduction of “dual” types of protection for use of zone 0 and etc..Finally the

  16. 10Gb/s symmetric WDM-PON realization with colorless ONUs%基于无色ONU的10Gb/s对称WDM-PON实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓斐; 李新

    2012-01-01

    提出一个使用无色ONU的上下行对称速率WDM-PON系统解决方案,构建一个包含16个无色ONU的WDM-PON实验系统,其中每个ONU可实现10Gb/s的上下行对称传输速率.仿真实验表明当串扰信号位于相对较高频带时,系统的道际串音容限可以得到很大程度的提高.%A symmetric WDM-PON scheme with colorless ONU is proposed,a WDM-PON system with 16 colorless ONUs is established, and l0Gb/s symmetric transmission for each ONU is realized. Experiment shows that the system tolerance to the intrachannel crosstalk is greatly improved when the crosstalk signal locates at relatively higher frequency band.

  17. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Buscemi, D.M.; Melancon, M.J

    2003-10-01

    Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 poses a minimal risk to red-winged blackbird embryos when applied according to product label guidance. - Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  18. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on mallard and bobwhite embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil or GB-1111 is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae. The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB-1111 but the product label warns that ?GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on days 4 or 11 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3, or 10 times the maximum rate (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos/ hatchlings, lower body and liver weights of hatchlings and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal P450-associated monooxygenase activity (EROD) in hatchlings. Recommended rates of field application of GB-1111 are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos.

  19. High-speed railway bridge dynamic measurement based on GB-InSAR technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Ding, Ke-liang; Liu, Xianglei; Song, Zichao

    2015-12-01

    It is an important task to evaluate the safety during the life of bridges using the corresponding vibration parameters. With the advantages of non-contact and high accuracy, the new remote measurement technology of GB-InSAR is suitable to make dynamic measurement for bridges to acquire the vibration parameters. Three key technologies, including stepped frequency-continuous wave technique, synthetic aperture radar and interferometric measurement technique, are introduced in this paper. The GB-InSAR is applied for a high-speed railway bridge to measure of dynamic characteristics with the train passing which can be used to analyze the safety of the monitored bridge. The test results shown that it is an reliable non-contact technique for GB-InSAR to acquire the dynamic vibration parameter for the high-speed railway bridges.

  20. [Using Guangming (GB37) acupoint to treat eye diseases: from historical suspense to modern clinical experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T; Wu, M Z

    2016-05-01

    Guangming (GB37) gained its name before the writing of Huang di Ming Tang Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Mingtang Classic), the earliest work of the art of acupuncture point. However, in acupuncture and moxibustion works before the Song Dynasty, this acupoint was not used to treat eye diseases. In Dou Hanqing's Zhen jiu biao you fu (Song to Elucidate Mysteries in Acupuncture Moxibustion), Guangming was used to treat oculopathy as an alias of Cuanzhu (BL2). Influenced by this, the alias "Guangming" was mistaken as Guangming (GB37) of the Gallbladder Meridian in the Bian que shen ying zhen jiu yu long jing (Bian Que Acupuncture and Moxibustion Jade Dragon Classic) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the symptom of eye itch was added to the indications of Guangming (GB37). This was wrongly informed in the later acupuncture and moxibustion works, and the modern scholars also accepted it and confirmed its effect by the clinical and experimental research.

  1. The Development of Recycling Agent for Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A type of recycling agent was developed and its use for modifying used asphalt is described.The results show that the viscosity and three main properties of the aged asphalt were remarkably improved.With 5%-7% content of recycling agent, the main properties of recycled asphalt comported with China GB asphalt standard AH-70 and the recycled asphalt concrete could be used as high-grade highway.Furthermore,the recycling mechanism of the aged asphalt is discussed.

  2. Broad Area Distributed Gain, Distributed Index Profile GaAlAs Semiconductor Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-14

    time-zero char- "’S. D. Offsey, W. J. Schaff , P. J. Tasker. H. Ennen. and L. F. Eastman, acterization of strained-layer In. Ga, - . As-GaAs quantum...35 11. S.D. Offsey, W.J. Schaff , P.J. Tasker, H. Ennen, and L.F. Eastman, Appi. Phys. Lett. 54, 2527 (1989). 12. S.E. Fischer, D. Fekete, G.B. Feak...setting up wave Technol.. vol. LT-5. pp 305-315. Mar. 1987 the software package iSMILE and for many technical dis- [24) M. J. Adams et al.. -Analysis

  3. Effects of GJIC diminuendo agent 18α-GA on transdifferentiation from adipocytes to osteoblasts in rabbits%G JIC 渐弱剂18α-甘草次酸对兔脂肪细胞向成骨细胞横向分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉博; 曾旋; 彭浩; 王凤宇; 王兆杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is to explore the effects of transdifferentiation from adipocytes to osteoblasts and gap junction in-tercellular communication( GJIC) by gap junction Diminuendo agent 18α-GA.Methods Groin adipose tissue was taken from 3 months old New Zealand White Rabbit and collected mature adipocytes.Made the mature adipocytes dedifferentiate and ob-tained the dedifferentiated adipocytes.The 3rd generation of the dedifferentiated adipocytes were induced and differentiated in-to osteoblasts.There were two experimental groups that the diminuendo group with adding 18α-GA and the control group. The toxic action of 18α-GA in osteoblasts growth and proliferation were detected by MTT assay.Osteoblasts were qualitatively detected by alizarin red staining and collagen typeⅠimmunohistochemistry staining.The expressions of Cx43 were measured by western-blot and sorape-loading and dye transfet ( SLDT) method.Results The results of MTT assay showed that 18α-GA had no significant effect on cell proliferation.The results of Alizarin red staining showed that calcific nodules were dyed red in each group.Immunohistochemistry staining results showed that the expressions of collagen typeⅠwere weakened in the diminuendo group.The results of Western blot showed that the expressions of Cx43 were decreased in the diminuendo group. Conclusion 18α-GA diminuendo the capability of transdifferentiation from adipocytes to osteoblasts with enhancement of GJIC.%目的:探讨缝隙连接通讯渐弱剂18α-甘草次酸( GA)对脂肪细胞向成骨细胞横向分化及细胞间缝隙连接通讯的影响。方法选取3月龄新西兰大白兔腹股沟处脂肪组织,分离提取成熟脂肪细胞,使其去分化得到去分化脂肪细胞,取第三代去分化的脂肪细胞进行成骨诱导,加入GJIC渐弱剂18α-GA设为减弱组,并设立对照组, MTT法观察18α-GA对细胞倍增是否有影响,进行茜素红钙结节染色和I型胶原免疫组化染色

  4. The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160 Gb/s demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Oxenlowe, L.K.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2006-01-01

    The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160Gb/s demultiplexer is investigated by using two pulse sources with different timing jitter properties. It is found that jitter in the range 20kHz-10MHz is essential to minimize. (C)2005 Optical Society of America.......The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160Gb/s demultiplexer is investigated by using two pulse sources with different timing jitter properties. It is found that jitter in the range 20kHz-10MHz is essential to minimize. (C)2005 Optical Society of America....

  5. Dispersion and nonlinearity tolerance of modulation formats for 160 Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Peucheret, Christophe; Siahlo, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    We compare the RZ-DQPSK modulation format in 160 Gb/s single channel systems with RZ, CSRZ, RZ-DPSK and CSRZ-DPSK for the first time. We find that RZ-DQPSK offers nearly three time better dispersion tolerance than CSRZ-DPSK.......We compare the RZ-DQPSK modulation format in 160 Gb/s single channel systems with RZ, CSRZ, RZ-DPSK and CSRZ-DPSK for the first time. We find that RZ-DQPSK offers nearly three time better dispersion tolerance than CSRZ-DPSK....

  6. Demonstration of a 16×10-Gb/s OTDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou; Yizhi Gao

    2007-01-01

    A 16×10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) system was demonstrated experimentally with a well-designed ultrashort pulse source based on an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) and nonlinear fiber compressor. The obtained 10-GHz stable and pedestal-free pulse train has 2-ps width, high extinction ratio, and low timing jitter. An ultrafast demultiplexer based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) including a commercially available highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) is employed to demultiplex data signal from 160 to 10 Gb/s. A back-to-back error-free demultiplexing experiment is carried out to verify the system performance.

  7. Broadband Packaging of Photodetectors for 100 Gb/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, Heinz-Gunter;

    2013-01-01

    The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D electromagn......The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D...

  8. Implementation of area optimization precoder in a 40 Gb/s PolDM-DQPSK system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-ming; ZHANG Yang-an; ZHANG Ming-lun; WANG Gai; ZHANG Jin-nan; HUANG Yong-qing; LI Ling

    2010-01-01

    @@ In this paper,a new model based on an improved Brent Kung(BK)parallel prefix network(PPN)algorithm is proposed and realized in the field programmable gate array(FPGA).This model is employed in the implementation of 20 Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying(DQPSK)precoder in 40 Gb/s polarization division multiplex(PolDM)DQPSK system.In the computation process,the computation complexity(area)optimization with fan-out limited is achieved.In the implementation,770 FPGA slice registers are utilized,which save about 60% logic resources compared with the previous Kogge Stone(KS)algorithm.

  9. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up......, we show that colorless 40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 20 km SMF in the C-band is achievable...

  10. Robust Multi-Agent Sensor Network Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    Decision and Control December 15-17, 2010 Hilton Atlanta Hotel , Atlanta, GA, USA 978-1-4244-7744-9/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE 402 II. PRELIMINARIES We will...interference caused by other simultaneously active transmissions. • We derived analytical expression for the capacity of the above network. • Considering...which are robust against the loss of multiple agents. A formation is said to be rigid if by actively maintaining a designated set of inter-agent

  11. Technology of upgrading optical network from 10Gb/s To 40/100Gb/s%10Gb/s光网络向40/100G b/s演进的扩容方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锋; 王婧

    2009-01-01

    With the development of requirement, service providers always have to face the pressure of enlarg-ing the capacity of the optical networks. Under the new technology conditions, the former methods have more and more limitations for fitting in with the needs of expanding bandwidth. This paper start with this limitation, introduces the advantages and shortages of the new technologis of expanding bandwidth, by analysing these technologies such as DP-QPSK.%随着需求的增长,业务提供商一直都面临着光网络带宽扩容的压力.在新的技术条件下,以往靠增加网络规模来进行扩容的常规方法已经受到越来越多的局限.文章从常规带宽扩容手段的局限性入手,介绍和分析了DP-QPSK等当前热门的带宽扩容技术在光通信网络由10Gb/s向40/100Gb/s演进过程中的广阔前景及存在的不足.

  12. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ling Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter.

  13. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yong-Ling; Shen, Yong-Bao; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Shui-Yuan; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter. PMID:26351628

  14. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sukun [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Du, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Chunfu [Soochow University, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yalan [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Qinxue, E-mail: qhu@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George' s University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry.

  15. 关于爱立信BSC Gb over IP改造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红军

    2011-01-01

    文章简单介绍7Gb over IP技术,然后详细分析了爱立信BSC设备Gb over IP改造技术,包括网络设计方案及相关原理、现网BSC进行Gb□ IP化改造的内容以及BSC部分数据定义等几方面,对Gb over IP方式下的统计优化进行了探讨,最后举例说明了Gb over IP在实际工作中出现的故障及其处理.

  16. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from Gossypium barbadense

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Liu; Kaijing Zuo; Fei Zhang; Ying Li; Jieting Xu; Lida Zhang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2009-12-01

    An AGAMOUS (AG)-like gene, GbAGL2, was isolated from Gossypium barbadense and characterized. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GbAGL2 shared high homology with AG-subfamily genes and belonged to a C-class gene family. DNA gel blot analysis showed that GbAGL2 belonged to a low-copy gene family. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed that GbAGL2 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues including ovules and carpels, but barely expressed in vegetative tissues. In addition, GbAGL2 expression in a cotton cultivar XuZhou142 (wt) (XZ142, G. hirsutum L.) and its fibreless mutant XZ142 (fl) was examined. RNA in situ hybridization analysis indicated that GbAGL2 transcripts were preferentially restricted to outer ovule integuments, carpels and fibres. These expression patterns implied that GbAGL2 might participate in the development of the carpel and ovule. Furthermore, Arabidopsis transformation was performed and modifications occurred in flowers, and the silique length of transgenic plants also increased slightly, suggesting that the GbAGL2 gene may have a positive effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. Our findings suggest that GbAGL2 might not only specify the identity of floral organs but also play a potential key role in ovary or fibre development in cotton.

  17. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal;

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  18. Flat-top pulse enabling 640 Gb/s OTDM demultiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In ultra-high speed optical time division multiplexed systems (OTDM) with bit rates of 640 Gb/s at single wavelength and single polarisation, timing jitter is perhaps the most detrimental factor, limiting switching quality. Here, we report on using a novel flat-top pulse shaping technique, which ...

  19. Analysis of GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys in Detail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Introduction GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys, which is a compulsory national standard and developed in accordance with the Standardization Law of P. R. China and the Product Quality Law ofP. R. China,has been officially issued on Oct. 9th, 2003.

  20. 8x40 Gb/s RZ all-optical broadcasting utilizing an electroabsorption modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Chi, Nan; Yvind, Kresten

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical broadcasting through simultaneous 8 × 40 Gb/s wavelength conversion in the RZ format based on cross absorption modulation in an electroabsorption modulator. The original intensity-modulated information is successfully duplicated onto eight wavelengths...

  1. 10 Gb/s Real-Time All-VCSEL Low Complexity Coherent scheme for PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Cheng, Ning; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2012-01-01

    Real time demodulation of a 10 Gb/s all-VCSEL based coherent PON link with a simplified coherent receiver scheme is demonstrated. Receiver sensitivity of −33 dBm is achieved providing high splitting ratio and link reach....

  2. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...

  3. Metal Inhibition of Growth and Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J.; Sposito, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (MnO2) are ubiquitous nanoparticulate minerals that contribute to the adsorption of nutrient and toxicant metals, the oxidative degradation of various organic compounds, and the respiration of metal-reducing bacteria in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The formation of these minerals is catalyzed by a diverse and widely-distributed group of bacteria and fungi, often through the enzymatic oxidation of aqueous Mn(II) to Mn(IV). In metal-impacted ecosystems, toxicant metals may alter the viability and metabolic activity of Mn-oxidizing organisms, thereby limiting the conditions under which biogenic MnO2 can form and diminishing their potential as adsorbent materials. Pseudomonas putida GB-1 (P. putida GB-1) is a model Mn-oxidizing laboratory culture representative of freshwater and soil biofilm-forming bacteria. Manganese oxidation in P. putida GB-1 occurs via two single-electron-transfer reactions, involving a multicopper oxidase enzyme found on the bacterial outer membrane surface. Near the onset of the stationary phase of growth, dark brown MnO2 particles are deposited in a matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, thus forming heterogeneous biomineral assemblages. In this study, we assessed the influence of various transition metals on microbial growth and manganese oxidation capacity in a P. putida GB-1 culture propagated in a nutrient-rich growth medium. The concentration-response behavior of actively growing P. putida GB-1 cells was investigated for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn at pH ≈ 6 in the presence and absence of 1 mM Mn. Toxicity parameters such as EC0, EC50 and Hillslope, and EC100 were obtained from the sigmoidal concentration-response curves. The extent of MnO2 formation in the presence of the various metal cations was documented 24, 50, 74 and 104 h after the metal-amended medium was inoculated. Toxicity values were compared to twelve physicochemical properties of the metals tested. Significant

  4. Similarities and Differences Between JJF 1101-2003 and GB/T 5170%JJF 1101-2003与GB/T 5170的异同分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易军; 黄蓓

    2014-01-01

    通过介绍JJF 1101-2003《环境试验设备温度、湿度校准规范》和GB/T 5170系列标准在环境试验设备中的温度、湿度方面的异同点,指出这两种依据标准中容易混淆的内容,有助于校准或检验环境试验设备时更好地选择标准.

  5. [Uricosuric agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Iwao

    2008-04-01

    Urate lowering treatment is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, tophi, gouty arthropathy, radiographic changes of gout, multiple joint involvement, or associated uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uricosuric agents like benzbromarone and probenecid are very useful to treat hyperuricemia as well as allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). Uricosuric agents act the urate lowering effect through blocking the URAT1, an urate transporter, in brush border of renal proximal tubular cells. In order to avoid the nephrotoxicity and urolithiasis due to increasing of urinary urate excretion by using uricosuric agents, the proper urinary tract management (enough urine volume and correction of aciduria) should be performed.

  6. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  7. Low threshold all-optical crossbar switch on GaAs-GaAlAs channel waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    1994-09-01

    During the Phase 2 project entitled 'Low Threshold All-Optical Crossbar Switch on GaAs - GaAlAs Channel Waveguide Array,' Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the basic principles for the fabrication of all-optical crossbar switches. Based on this development. POC fabricated a 2 x 2 GaAs/GaAlAs switch that changes the direction of incident light with minimum insertion loss and nonlinear distortion. This unique technology can be used in both analog and digital networks. The applications of this technology are widespread. Because the all-optical network does not have any speed limitations (RC time constant), POC's approach will be beneficial to SONET networks, phased array radar networks, very high speed oscilloscopes, all-optical networks, IR countermeasure systems, BER equipment, and the fast growing video conferencing network market. The novel all-optical crossbar switch developed in this program will solve interconnect problems. and will be a key component in the widely proposed all-optical 200 Gb/s SONET/ATM networks.

  8. Vasoactive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatmen...

  9. Introduction and Interpretation of National Standard GB 19522-2010%国家标准GB 19522-2010介绍及解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢春艳

    2011-01-01

    the full-text content of the National Standard GB 19522-2010 "threshold of alcohol content in blood and breath,and test standard for vehicle drivers" was introduced.The specific criteria for drinking driving and drunk driving,i.e.blood alcohol content greater than or equal to 20mg/100mL and less than 80mg/100mL for drinking driving;blood alcohol content greater than or equal to 80mg/100mL for drunk driving,were emphasized.%介绍了国标GB 19522-2010《车辆驾驶人员血液、呼气酒精含量阈值与检验标准》的全文内容,并重点说明了饮酒驾车和醉酒驾车的具体标准,即车辆驾驶人员血液中的酒精含量大于或者等于20mg/100mL,小于80mg/100mL的驾驶行为为饮酒驾车;车辆驾驶人员血液中的酒精含量大于或者等于80mg/100mL的驾驶行为为醉酒驾车。

  10. 28 Gb/s duobinary signal transmission over 40 km based on 10 GHz DML and PIN for 100 Gb/s PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxuan; Yi, Lilin; Wang, Xiaodong; Hu, Weisheng

    2015-08-10

    In this paper, we demonstrate the direct modulation and direct detection of 28-Gb/s duobinary signal for the future downstream capacity upgrade in next generation passive optical network (PON). Commercial 10-GHz directly modulated laser (DML) and PIN with a combined modulation bandwidth of ~7 GHz are used as transmitter and receiver respectively. In order to mitigate the chromatic dispersion induced signal distortion, an optical delay interferometer (DI) is employed to narrow down the signal spectrum, thereby realizing 40-km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission in C-band. Besides, the chirp-induced spectral broadening of the directly modulated signal enables a higher launch power than external modulation schemes, which increases the loss budget of the system. As a result, 31-dB loss budget is achieved, supporting 64 users with 40-km reach. Also, as the transceivers in both optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network unit (ONU) are commercial l0-GHz devices, the proposed scheme is compatible with 40-Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (TWDM-PON) systems, providing a cost-efficient alternative for the development of 100G PON.

  11. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P; Lamb, Robert A; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2007-11-10

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY(112-113) and WLIY(193-196), with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis Strain GB2, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Soil Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Bottos, Eric; Thijs, Sofie; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Monterroso, Carmela; Kidd, Petra Suzan; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-06-23

    We report the 4.39 Mb draft genome of Bacillus licheniformis GB2, a hydrocarbonoclastic Gram-positive bacterium of the family Bacillaceae, isolated from diesel-contaminated soil at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain GB2 is an effective plant-growth promoter useful for diesel fuel remediation applications based on plant-bacterium associations.

  13. GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan W.; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Piner, Edwin L.

    2012-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) has enormous potential for applications in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) used in RF and power devices. Intrinsic device properties such as high electron mobility, high breakdown voltage, very high current density, electron confinement in a narrow channel, and high electron velocity in the 2-dimensional electron gas of the HEMT structure are due in large part to the wide band gap of this novel semiconductor material system. This presentation discusses the properties of GaN that make it superior to other semiconductor materials, and outlines the research that will be undertaken in a new program at Texas State University to advance GaN HEMT technology. This program's aim is to further innovate the exceptional performance of GaN through improved material growth processes and epitaxial structure design.

  14. [Inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shigetake

    2003-05-01

    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  15. Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Whipple, Richard E.; Grant, Patrick M.; O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.

    1981-01-01

    Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

  16. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  17. 2.5Gb/s 16:1MUX IC Design with CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-an; SONG Qi-feng; WANG Zhi-gong

    2004-01-01

    A low-power and high-speed 16:1 MUX IC designed for optical fiber communication based on TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS technology is presented. A tree-type architecture was utilized. The output data bit rate is 2.5 Gb/s at input clock rate of 1.25 GHz. The simulation results show that the output signal has peak-to-peak amplitude of 400 mV, the power dissipation is less than 200 mW and the power dissipation of core circuit is less than 20 mW at the 2.5 Gb/s standard bit rate and supply voltage of 2.5 V. The chip area is 1.8 mm2.

  18. Delivering 10 Gb/s optical data with picosecond timing uncertainty over 75 km distance

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulos, N; Nuijts, R; de Waardt, H; Koelemeij, J C J

    2014-01-01

    We report a method to determine propagation delays of optical 10 Gb/s data traveling through a 75 km long amplified fiber link with an uncertainty of 4 ps. The one-way propagation delay is determined by two-way exchange and cross correlation of short (< 1 ms) bursts of 10 Gb/s data, with a single-shot time resolution better than 2.5 ps. We thus achieve a novel optical communications link suited for both long-haul high-capacity data transfer and time transfer with picosecond-range uncertainty. This opens up the perspective of synchronized optical telecommunication networks allowing picosecond-range time distribution and millimeter-range positioning.

  19. Design of a 10-Gb/s satellite downlink at millimeter-wave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Richard W.; Nippa, David W.; Yen, Stephen; Barnum, Thomas J.

    2011-03-01

    System requirements, including carrier frequency, transmitted power and antenna gain are presented for a 10 Gb/s satellite downlink operating at millimeter-wave frequencies. Telecommunications-grade optical components and a high-speed photodiode are used to generate and modulate millimeter-wave carrier frequencies between 90 GHz and 100 GHz at data rates in excess of 10 Gb/s. Experimental results are presented that determine the minimum received power level needed for error-free wireless data transmission. Commercially available W-band power amplifiers are shown to increase the transmitted power level and extend the error-free propagation distance to distances of 10 km. Experimental results and documented atmospheric attenuation values for clouds, fog and rain are used to estimate link budgets for a wireless downlink located on a low-earth-orbiting satellite operating at an altitude of 350 km.

  20. High Performance Design of 100Gb/s DPSK Optical Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L; Shah, Nor Shahihda Mohd;

    2016-01-01

    High performance communication systems require high performance devices for exchanging information at a faster rate. These devices are experiencing several challenges e.g. bandwidth limitations, power limitations, design limitations and etc. The existing techniques are lacking in providing high...... performance output simultaneously by maintaining actual parameters of device. In this work, high performance 100Gb/s optical DPSK transmitter design is realized in Field Programming Gate (FPGA) using time constraint technique. Before applying the proposed technique actual FPGA’s frequency was 0.2 GHz......, high time score and low slack time. The high performance design is realized without disturbing actual bandwidth, power consumption and other parameters of the design. The proposed high performance design of 100Gb/s optical transmitter can be used with existing optical communication system to develop...

  1. Novel approach to reduce the pattern effect in 10-Gb/s clock recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Wang(王桐); Caiyun Lou(娄采云); Li Huo(霍力); Yizhi Gao(高以智)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A Fabry-Perot(F-P)etalon and a semiconductor optical amplifier(SOA)were combined to preprocess thedata signals before clock recovery.With this technology in the 10-Gb/s clock recovery utilizing injectionmode-locked laser(IMLL)based on SOA,the amplitude fluctuation and timing jitters caused by thepattern effect in recovered clock pulses were greatly reduced,experimentally.It also demonstrated thatclock could be recovered from the very degraded signals.

  2. The next generation recombinant human cytomegalovirus vaccine candidates-beyond gB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Anders E; Mason, Peter W

    2012-11-19

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects the majority of the global population and persists within the infected host for life; infection of healthy adults rarely leads to severe acute clinical symptoms. In contrast, HCMV is a leading infectious cause of congenital disease and a common cause of complications in transplant recipients. A vaccine to prevent HCMV disease in these populations is a widely recognized medical need. We review recent advances in our understanding of the candidate vaccine antigens and published clinical trial data for the four most recent HCMV vaccine candidates: a gB subunit adjuvanted with MF59, a DNA vaccine expressing gB and pp65, alphavirus replicon particles (VRPs) expressing gB and a pp65-IE1 fusion protein, and a pp65 peptide vaccine. The candidates are safe, although some adverse events were reported for an adjuvanted variant of the pp65 peptide vaccine. The gB/MF59 vaccine elicited strong humoral responses with limited durability. The gB/pp65 DNA vaccine elicited cellular immunity, and the pp65 peptide vaccine elicited modest cellular immunity, but only when formulated with an adjuvant. Only the VRP vaccine expressing gB and pp65-IE1 elicited both humoral and cellular immunity. The gB/MF59 vaccine showed a short-term 50% efficacy at preventing infection of seronegative women and significantly reduced viremia and need for antivirals in solid organ transplant recipients, and the gB/pp65 DNA vaccine showed signs of clinical benefit in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Importantly, the partial efficacy of the subunit and DNA vaccines is new evidence that both humoral and cellular immunity contribute to controlling HCMV-related disease. These data show the clinical feasibility of a recombinant HCMV vaccine. We discuss areas for potential improvements in the next generation of vaccine candidates.

  3. 10Gb/s Bang-Bang Clock and Data Recovery (CDR for optical transmission systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dodel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bang-Bang Clock-Data Recovery (CDR for 10Gb/s optical transmission systems is presented. A direct modulated architecture is used for the design. Its loop characteristics can be derived using an analogy to Σ Δ theory. The circuit was produced and measured in a commercial 0.25μm BiCMOS technology with a transition frequency fT70=GHz.

  4. 10Gb/s Bang-Bang Clock and Data Recovery (CDR) for optical transmission systems

    OpenAIRE

    N. Dodel; Klar, H.

    2005-01-01

    A Bang-Bang Clock-Data Recovery (CDR) for 10Gb/s optical transmission systems is presented. A direct modulated architecture is used for the design. Its loop characteristics can be derived using an analogy to Σ Δ theory. The circuit was produced and measured in a commercial 0.25μm BiCMOS technology with a transition frequency fT70=GHz.

  5. 160 Gb/s OFDM transmission utilizing an all-optical symbol generator based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Wei; Mei, Junyao; Qin, Yi

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a 160 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system using an all-optical symbol generator based on planar light circuit (PLC) technology. Excellent bit error rate (BER) is observed after long-distance transmission. The proposed symbol generator fundamentally eliminates the processing speed limits introduced by electronics and is suitable for high integration, making it physically realizable to build high-speed all-optical OFDM systems with a large number of subcarriers.

  6. Acupuncture on GB34 activates the precentral gyrus and prefrontal cortex in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Sujung; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Jahng, G H; Rosen, B.; Kim, S. H.; S. Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is increasingly used as an additional treatment for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, brain activation in response to acupuncture in a group of 12 patients with PD was compared with a group of 12 healthy participants. Acupuncture was conducted on a specific acupoint, the right GB 34 (Yanglingquan), which is a frequently used acupoint for motor function treatment in the oriental medical field. Results: ...

  7. 980-nm VCSELs for optical interconnects at bandwidths beyond 40 Gb/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, W. H.; Moser, P.; Wolf, P.; Larisch, G.; Unrau, W.; Bimberg, D.

    2012-03-01

    The copper-induced communication bottleneck is inhibiting performance and environmental acceptance of today's supercomputers. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are ideally suited to solve this dilemma. Indeed global players like Google, Intel, HP or IBM are now going for optical interconnects based on VCSELs. The required bandwidth per link, however, is fixed by the architecture of the data center. According to Google, a bandwidth of 40 Gb/s has to be accommodated. We recently realized ultra-high speed VCSELs suited for optical interconnects in data centers with record-high performance. The 980-nm wavelength was chosen to be able to realize densely-packed, bottom-emitting devices particularly advantageous for interconnects. These devices show error-free transmission at temperatures up to 155°C. Serial data-rates of 40 Gb/s were achieved up to 75° C. Peltier-cooled devices were modulated up to 50 Gb/s. These results were achieved from the sender side by a VCSEL structure with important improvements and from the receiver side by a receiver module supplied by u2t with some 30 GHz bandwidth. The novel VCSELs feature a new active region, a very short laser cavity, and a drastically improved thermal resistance by the incorporation of a binary bottom mirror. As these devices might be of industrial interest we had the epi-growth done by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition at IQE Europe. Consequently, the devices were fabricated using a three-inch wafer process, and the apertures were formed by proprietary in-situ controlled selective wet oxidation. All device data were measured, mapped and evaluated by our fully automated probe station. Furthermore, these devices enable record-efficient data-transmission beyond 30 Gb/s, which is crucial for green photonics.

  8. ACUPUNCTURE OF WANGU (GB 12) AS THE PRINCIPAL POINT FOR 34 CASES OF DIZZINESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dizziness, a commonly encountered disorder in clinic, is of complex etiology. The author applied acupuncture to treatment of 34 cases of dizziness with Wangu (完骨GB 12) as the principal point in combination with Sishencong (四神聪EX- HN 1) and other additional points based on the differentiation of syndromes and obtained satisfied therapeutic results. Following is the summary of the treatment.

  9. A new equalizer for 2 Gb/s short-reach SI-POF links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, C.; Guerrero, E.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Royo, G.; Aldea, C.; Celma, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new CMOS analog continuous-time equalizer that overcomes the limitations of the most widely used continuous-time equalizer, the degenerated differential pair. The equalizer has been proved for multi-gigabit short-range applications targeting up to 2 Gb/s through a 50-m SI-POF. The prototype consumes 2.7 mW for a 1-V supply voltage.

  10. 40-to-10-Gb/s demultiplexing using an electro-absorption sampling window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tao-rong; YAN Feng-ping; LV Be; WANG Lin; LIU Peng; LI Tang-jun; JIAN Shui-sheng

    2009-01-01

    The demultiplexing experiment from a 40 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing signal is completed by using electro-absorption sampling window based on electronic phase-locked loop circuit for clock recovery. Error-free demultiplexing is achieved when the launched optical power into electro-absorption sampling window reaches 5.5 dBm without optical filter following the EDFA.

  11. Modeling novel back-pressure mechanisms for a 100 Gb/s switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluate the performance of novel back-pressure mechanisms in a Clos-based 100 Gb/s switch system via OPNET modeler simulations. The effectiveness of the mechanisms under different switch configurations, as well as under different traffic patterns, is presented. Our results indicate...... that the proposed back-pressure techniques can effectively reduce the requirements for buffer space in the different stages of the Clos switch....

  12. Infrared Complex Optical Constants of GB, GF, HD, HN1, and VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    31 23. Imaginary refractive index of VX from ECBC (blue trace) and the PNNL database (black trace) expanded to the region near 1300 cm 1...been shown to give satisfactory performance when compared with other peak-picking methods for evaluating the positions of peaks in polystyrene ...9, which is an expanded view of the baselines in the fingerprint region of the GB absorption index spectra from ECBC and PNNL. The ellipsometer

  13. Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.

  14. BCM57710:10GbE聚合网络界面控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Broadcom日前推出单芯片双端口10GbE聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC)--BCM57710,以迎合大批量服务器的设计.基于之前两代成熟的NetXtreme II千兆以太网C-NIC技术,Broodcom此次成功发布业界首款10Gbps(千兆比特/每秒)速率的全功能、单芯片聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC),这款产品不需要外部缓存的支持.BCM57710丰富及完善了Broadcom以其市场领先的C-NIC、企业路由器和物理层设备为主的10GbE端到端解决方案的业务组合,使其OEM合作伙伴能够借助其提供的完整的10GbE网络架构解决方案增强下一代服务器的性能.

  15. End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jesse

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.

  16. Receiver Architecture for 12.5 Gb/s 16-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Gagliardi, R M; Hernandez, V J; Bennett, C V

    2008-07-11

    PPM is a signaling scheme that enables the transmission of multiple bits per symbol [1]. It has found favor in the regime of free space optical communications ('FSO' or 'Lasercom'); however, PPM has yet to be widely applied to fiber optic-based communications. Its limitation in fiber results from the exceedingly high bandwidth requirements needed to electronically process a directly detected pulse, especially as the symbol rate increases and the pulse width correspondingly decreases. As a solution, we introduced the concept of a virtual quadrant receiver for receiving 1.25 Gb/s 4-ary PPM, where photonic processing reduced the number of required electronic components [2]. In this paper, we extend these photonic process techniques to a 16-ary, 12.5 Gb/s (10 Gb/s plus 8B/10B line coding) PPM communications system for fiber optic avionics, wherein much of the receiver processing is enabled by techniques based on planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). The architecture is applicable to higher input data rates and M-ary PPM. In the following, we present the PPM encoding and decoding architectures and numerically simulated results.

  17. Expression and purification of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF fused with GB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusion expression is a promising strategy for the production of bioactive peptides in Escherichia coli. In this study, we constructed a new recombinant expression plasmid containing the coding sequence of 56-residue B1 domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1. For easy purification and cleavage of the recombinant proteins, except GB1, an engineered hexahistidine and tobacco etch virus (TEV protease recognition sites were included in the fusion sequence. Next, we cloned the coding sequence of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF into this new plasmid and produced the recombinant hEGF in E. coli. The bioactive hEGF is a 53-amino acid peptide and is stabilized by three intramolecular disulphide bonds. Compared with glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin and small ubiquitin-related modifier, GB1 greatly improved the expression and solubility of hEGF. Moreover, the recombinant hEGF bound to the nickel nitrilotriacetic acid resin column, was easily cleaved by TEV protease and the free hEGF was released. The results showed that this new plasmid was appropriate for recombinant production of small bioactive peptides, such as hEGF, which contains a high proportion of hydrophobic residues and intramolecular disulphide linkages.

  18. 基于建立施工企业质量管理体系模式的研究——以GB/T50430与GB/T19001的要求为依据%Constructing Quality Management System for Construction Enterprise:Based on the Requirement of GB/T50430 and GB/T19001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋梅

    2012-01-01

    GB/T19001-2008《质量管理体系要求》与GB/T 50430-2007《工程建设施工企业质量管理规范》相结合应用于建立实施施工企业质量管理体系,能更加有效的提高规范施工企业质量管理活动、提高工作质量和工程质量、提高顾客满意度的有效性和效率.%Integrating GBf/T19001-2008 Requirements of Quality Management System and GB/T 50430-2007 Quality Management Standard for Engineering Construction Enterprise together and applying it to building and implementing quality management system of construction enterprise can effectively improve and regulate quality management of construction enterprise, improve working quality and engineering quality, and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of customer satisfaction.

  19. Architectural Design Study for a 10Gb/s Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    The demand for 10Gb/s switches at this early stage in the market is primarily for modular solutions that can grow as do the bandwidth requirements. This indicates a requirement for chassis based solutions where individual line cards can be added to a chassis infrastructure and have to communicate across a 10Gb/s switching backplane. The present study is provides an architectural design solution for a passive copper backplane used for moving data between the line cards of a 10Gb/s Ethernet switch system. The ability to pass multi-gigabit data rates through a backplane system requires great attention to details previously thought to be irrelevant at lower frequencies. The trace dimensions, the via holes diameters, the backplane materials and choice of connectors, all play a crucial role in determining the success of the system. At high-speed even a subtle change in any of these elements can drastically affect the end-to-end system performance. In this context, the study presents the modeling and simulation work...

  20. Development of Novel Decontamination Techniques for Chemical Agents (GB, VX, HD) Contaminated Facilities. Phase II. Laboratory Evaluation of Novel Agent Decontamination Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-21

    Frijlink, C., "Degradation of S-2-di-isopropyla- minoethyl O-ethyl Methylphosphonothioate in Soil:Sulphur Containing Products", Pestic . Science, 8, 510-514...Soil:Phosphorus Containing Products", Pestic . Science, 7, 355-362 (1976). 586 ............ APPENDIX VIII SUBTASK 10. JACADS DECONTAMINANT DATA BASE 587

  1. Absorbent Analysis of Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Munition Demilitarization Building (MDB) Banks 1 and 2 Filter Samples Following Completion of The GB Agent and VX Rocket Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    relationships to determine the residual life of these filters. The ANCDF design included a MDB air-ventilation system, which consisted of nine carbon... ghost peaks between successive injections that were caused by chemical entrapment in this tubing. The connection between the end of the collection tube... residual adsorption capacity. In this study, carbon samples were examined from MDB Filter Banks 1 and 2 and the PFS Filter, along with a control

  2. Pyoverdine synthesis by the Mn(II-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Lundquist Parker

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When iron-starved, the Mn(II-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida strains GB-1 and MnB1 produce pyoverdines (PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1, siderophores that both influence iron uptake and inhibit manganese(II oxidation by these strains. To explore the properties and genetics of a PVD that can affect manganese oxidation, LC-MS/MS and various siderotyping techniques were used to identify the peptides of PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1 as being (for both PVDs: chromophore-Asp-Lys-OHAsp-Ser-Gly-aThr-Lys-cOHOrn, resembling a structure previously reported for P. putida CFML 90-51, which does not oxidize Mn. All three strains also produced an azotobactin and a sulfonated PVD, each with the peptide sequence above, but with unknown regulatory or metabolic effects. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequenced genome of P. putida GB-1 suggested that a particular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, coded by the operon PputGB1_4083-4086, could produce the peptide backbone of PVDGB-1. To verify this prediction, plasmid integration disruption of PputGB1_4083 was performed and the resulting mutant failed to produce detectable PVD. In silico analysis of the modules in PputGB1_4083-4086 predicted a peptide sequence of Asp-Lys-Asp-Ser-Ala-Thr-Lsy-Orn, which closely matches the peptide determined by MS/MS. To extend these studies to other organisms, various Mn(II-oxidizing and non-oxidizing isolates of P. putida, P. fluorescens, P. marincola, P. fluorescens-syringae group, P. mendocina-resinovorans group and P. stutzerii group were screened for PVD synthesis. The PVD producers (12 out of 16 tested strains were siderotyped and placed into four sets of differing PVD structures, some corresponding to previously characterized PVDs and some to novel PVDs. These results combined with previous studies suggested that the presence of OHAsp or the flexibility of the pyoverdine polypeptide may enable efficient binding of Mn(III.

  3. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  4. GIBS Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GDAL is an open source translator library for raster geospatial data formats that presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported...

  5. GIBS Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TWMS specification is a custom extension to the OGS WMS standard developed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Similar to the OGC WMTS specification, TWMS...

  6. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  7. Highly Polarized Electrons from GaAs-GaAsP and InGaAs-AlGaAs Strained Layer Superlattice Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, T; Kuwahara, M; Naniwa, K; Nishitani, T; Okumi, S; Yamamoto, N; Yasui, K

    2004-01-01

    GaAs-GaAsP strained layer superlattice photocathode has been developed for highly polarized electron beams. This cathode achieved a maximum polarization of 92% with a quantum efficiency of 0.5%. Criteria for achieving the highest polarization together with high quantum efficiency using superlattice photocathodes are discussed based on experimental spin-resolved quantum efficiency spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs, InGaAs-AlGaAs and GaAs-GaAsP superlattice structures.

  8. Single molecule force spectroscopy reveals critical roles of hydrophobic core packing in determining the mechanical stability of protein GB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Tianjia; Wang, Hui-Chuan Eileen; Li, Hongbin

    2012-08-21

    Understanding molecular determinants of protein mechanical stability is important not only for elucidating how elastomeric proteins are designed and functioning in biological systems but also for designing protein building blocks with defined nanomechanical properties for constructing novel biomaterials. GB1 is a small α/β protein and exhibits significant mechanical stability. It is thought that the shear topology of GB1 plays an important role in determining its mechanical stability. Here, we combine single molecule atomic force microscopy and protein engineering techniques to investigate the effect of side chain reduction and hydrophobic core packing on the mechanical stability of GB1. We engineered seven point mutants and carried out mechanical φ-value analysis of the mechanical unfolding of GB1. We found that three mutations, which are across the surfaces of two subdomains that are to be sheared by the applied stretching force, in the hydrophobic core (F30L, Y45L, and F52L) result in significant decrease in mechanical unfolding force of GB1. The mechanical unfolding force of these mutants drop by 50-90 pN compared with wild-type GB1, which unfolds at around 180 pN at a pulling speed of 400 nm/s. These results indicate that hydrophobic core packing plays an important role in determining the mechanical stability of GB1 and suggest that optimizing hydrophobic interactions across the surfaces that are to be sheared will likely be an efficient method to enhance the mechanical stability of GB1 and GB1 homologues.

  9. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  10. (68) Ga-labeled Ciprofloxacin Conjugates as Radiotracers for Targeting Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Drishty; Arjun, Chanda; Krishnamohan, Repaka; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    With an aim of developing a bacteria-specific molecular imaging agent, ciprofloxacin has been modified with a propylamine spacer and linked to two common bifunctional chelators, p-SCN-Bz-DOTA and p-SCN-Bz-NOTA. The two ciprofloxacin conjugates, CP-PA-SCN-Bz-DOTA (1) and CP-PA-SCN-Bz-NOTA (2), were radiolabeled with (68)Ga in >90% radiochemical yield and were moderately stable in vitro for 4 h. The efficacy of (68)Ga-1 and (68)Ga-2 has been investigated in vitro in Staphylococcus aureus cells where bacterial binding of the radiotracers (0.9-1.0% for (68)Ga-1 and 1.6-2.3% for (68)Ga-2) could not be blocked in the presence of excess amount of unlabeled ciprofloxacin. However, uptake of radiotracers in live bacterial cells was significantly higher (p 68)Ga-1 and (68)Ga-2 was tested in vivo in rats where the infected muscle-to-inflamed muscle ((68)Ga-1: 2 ± 0.2, (68)Ga-2: 3 ± 0.5) and infected muscle-to-normal muscle ratios ((68)Ga-1: 3 ± 0.4, (68)Ga-2: 6.6 ± 0.8) were found to improve at 120 min p.i. Fast blood clearance and renal excretion was observed for both the radiotracers. The two (68)Ga-labeled infection targeting radiotracers could discriminate between bacterial infection and inflammation in vivo and are worthy of further detailed investigation as infection imaging agents at the clinical level.

  11. Radioprotective Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    claimed to be effective are gallic acid derivatives, eg, sodium gallate 12053-21-61 (295-297) and propyl gallate 1121-79-91 (298). p...inhibition of a-adrenergic receptors can be achieved through the use of the antiradiation agents 2-(5-aminopentylamino)ethanephos- phorothioic acid ...tissue was ap- preciated immediately as a potential medical set, and they were put to use en- thusiastically. Early workers did notice an erythematous

  12. Coulomb excitation of Ga-73

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diriken, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Balabanski, D.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Cederkaell, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Eberth, J.; Ekstrom, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Georgiev, G.; Gladnishki, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Kroell, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Koester, U.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lo Bianco, G.; Maierbeck, P.; Marsh, B. A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Patronis, N.; Pauwels, D.; Reiter, P.; Seliverstov, M.; Sletten, G.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Walters, W. B.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wrzosek, K.

    2010-01-01

    The B(E2; I-i -> I-f) values for transitions in Ga-71(31)40 and Ga-73(31)42 were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of Ga-71,Ga-73 at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted gamma rays were dete

  13. 40 Gb/s Microstrip Line Polymer Electro-Optic Modulators%40Gb/s微带线电极聚合物电光调制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白一鸣; 曲欣; 王晓林; 王士杰; 吴伯瑜

    2011-01-01

    40 Gb/s polymer electro-optic modulators with microstrip line traveling-wave electrode are designed, fabricated and tested. Assuming that the electro-optic coefficient γ33 of the core polymer is 30 pm/V, the performance parameters of the designed modulator are half-wave voltage Vx = 4. 94 V and modulation bandwidth 42 GHz. The modulator is fabricated using the second-order nonlinear optical polymer material BPAN-NT with a completely independent intellectual property as the core layer material of the polymer electro-optic modulator. After that, the performances of the modulators in direct current (DC), low frequencies and microwave regions are tested. The low-frequency (237 Hz) Vx values at 1. 31 and 1. 55 μm wavelengths are 32. 1 and 40. 5 V, respectively. The electro-optic coefficient of core layer material γ33 is thus obtained as 3.856 pm/V. The extinction ratio is measured to be 20 dB. Within the frequencies ranging from 50 MHz to 40 GHz, the actual measured microwave attenuation coefficient ao of the electrode system is 0. 6 dB·cm-1 ·GHz-1/2, Using this value, the modulation bandwidth of the modulator is calculated to be 42.70 GHz. The modulation indices are measured by using optical spectrum analyzer in the frequency range from 7.5 to 16 GHz and from 32 to 40 GHz. And the frequency response curve of the modulation index M of the electro-optic polymer modulator is also obtained. The 3 dB bandwidth of the 40 Gb/s modulator is 30 GHz.%设计、制作和测试了用于1.31和1.55 μm光波长的40 Gb/s微带线行波电极的电光调制器.假设聚合物材料的电光系数γ33=30 pm/V,设计的调制器性能参数分别是半波电压Vπ=4.92 V和调制带宽42 GHz.用有完全自主知识产权的二阶非线性光学聚合物材料BPAN-NT作为芯层材料制作了聚合物电光调制器.对调制器的各项特性参数进行了直流、低频和微波的测试,在1.31和1.55 μm波长上测得低频(237 Hz)Vπ分别为32.1和40.5 V,折算得

  14. Preparation and evaluation of a radiogallium complex-conjugated bisphosphonate as a bone scintigraphy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuma, E-mail: kogawa@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Takai, Kenichiro; Kanbara, Hiroya; Kiwada, Tatsuto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro [Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Odani, Akira [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: {sup 68}Ga is a radionuclide of great interest as a positron emitter for positron emission tomography (PET). To develop a new bone-imaging agent with radiogallium, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was chosen as a chelating site and Ga-DOTA complex-conjugated bisphosphonate, which has a high affinity for bone, was prepared and evaluated. Although we are interested in developing {sup 68}Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, in these initial studies {sup 67}Ga was used because of its longer half-life. Methods: DOTA-conjugated bisphosphonate (DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP) was synthesized by conjugation of 2-(4-isothiocyanatebenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid to 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (alendronate). {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared by coordination with {sup 67}Ga, and its in vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. Results: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared with a radiochemical purity of over 95% without purification. {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP had great affinity for hydroxyapatite in binding assay. In biodistribution experiments, {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP accumulated in bone rapidly but was hardly observed in tissues other than bone. Pretreatment of an excess amount of alendronate inhibited the bone accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. Conclusions: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP showed ideal biodistribution characteristics as a bone-imaging agent. These findings should provide useful information on the drug design of bone imaging agents for PET with {sup 68}Ga.

  15. Design and OAM&P aspects of a DWDM system equipped with a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent 10Gb/s channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijts, Roeland; Bjørn, Lars Lange; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental investigations of the interaction, in terms of BER performance, between a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent (50GHz spacing) 10Gb/s NRZ-OOK channels. Experiments were conducted on the Hamburg-Copenhagen section of the Amsterdam-Copenhagen CBF (Cross...... Border Fiber) connection between SURFnet and NORDUnet. Furthermore, we investigated the OAM&P (Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning) of an alien wavelength in CBF transmission systems....

  16. Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane down-converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J M M; Rajbhandari, S; Tsonev, D; Chun, H; Guilhabert, B; Krysa, A B; Kelly, A E; Haas, H; O'Brien, D C; Laurand, N; Dawson, M D

    2016-05-02

    We report free space visible light communication using InGaN sources, namely micro-LEDs and a laser diode, down-converted by a red-emitting AlInGaP multi-quantum-well nanomembrane. In the case of micro-LEDs, the AlInGaP nanomembrane is capillary-bonded between the sapphire window of a micro-LED array and a hemispherical sapphire lens to provide an integrated optical source. The sapphire lens improves the extraction efficiency of the color-converted light. For the case of the down-converted laser diode, one side of the nanomembrane is bonded to a sapphire lens and the other side optionally onto a dielectric mirror; this nanomembrane-lens structure is remotely excited by the laser diode. Data transmission up to 870 Mb/s using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) with fractionally spaced decision feedback equalizer is demonstrated for the micro-LED-integrated nanomembrane. A data rate of 1.2 Gb/s is achieved using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM) with the laser diode pumped sample.

  17. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist;

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier...... transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM signal with its characteristic sinc-shaped time-domain trace is converted into an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal with sinc-shaped spectra for each subcarrier...

  18. Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe;

    2004-01-01

    Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km...... span composed of superlarge effective area fiber and inverse dispersion fiber. For longest system reach, second-order pumping and backward pumping have larger pump power tolerance than bidirectional pumping, while the optimal span input signal power margin of second-order pumping is the largest...

  19. GB Virus C Proteine interferieren mit der Replikation von HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    GB Virus C (GBV-C) was discovered in 1995 within the search for new hepatitis viruses. The human apathogenic enveloped RNA virus belongs to the family of the Flaviviridae and replicates primarily in lymphocytes. Transmission occurs mainly by sexual or parenteral exposure. In developed countries up to 6% of the healthy population and up to 40% of multiply exposed individuals, such as HIV patients, are viremic for GBV-C. Since the late 1990s, GBV-C has been investigated in the context of HIV. U...

  20. An all-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons operating at 10 Gb/s

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Jae K; Schröder, Jochen; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the operation of an all-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons stored in a nonlinear passive fiber ring resonator. Unwanted acoustic interactions between neighboring solitons are suppressed by modulating the phase of the external laser driving the cavity. A new locking scheme is presented that allows the buffer to operate with an arbitrarily large number of cavity solitons in the loop. Experimentally, we are able to demonstrate the storage of 4536 bits of data, written all-optically into the fiber ring at 10 Gb/s, for 1 minute.

  1. Cascaded all-optical operations in a hybrid integrated 80-Gb/s logic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrange, J D; Dinu, M; Sochor, T; Bollond, P; Kasper, A; Cabot, S; Johnson, G S; Kang, I; Grant, A; Kay, J; Jaques, J

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate logic functionalities in a high-speed all-optical logic circuit based on differential Mach-Zehnder interferometers with semiconductor optical amplifiers as the nonlinear optical elements. The circuit, implemented by hybrid integration of the semiconductor optical amplifiers on a planar lightwave circuit platform fabricated in silica glass, can be flexibly configured to realize a variety of Boolean logic gates. We present both simulations and experimental demonstrations of cascaded all-optical operations for 80-Gb/s on-off keyed data.

  2. Performance evaluation of modulation formats in 40×40-Gb/s WDM repeaterless transmission systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangshan Lu; Kun Xu; Jian Wu; Jintong Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Transmission performance of six modulation formats is numerically compared in 40 × 40-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) repeaterless systems. The results indicate that return-to-zero differential phase shift keying (RZ-DPSK) (33% duty cycle) demonstrates the best performance among all the formats when the accumulated amplified spontaneous emission power (AASEP) is small. But with the increasing of AASEP, the superiority of RZ-DPSK transmission performance over the other five modulation formats is vanished. AASEP is justified to be the major source for the deterioration of the superiority.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF SOLITON TRANSMISSION AT 2.5 GB/S OVER 200 KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. S. AL-KHATEEB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soliton characteristics and soliton transmission have been simulated using a VPI simulator. Simulation was also used to construct and study a soliton communication system. Near soliton pulses emitted by an actively mode-locked laser is then compressed in a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF to produce solitons. The effects of non-linearity and active pre-chirping of mode-locked laser diode sources were also investigated. Assessment on a modeled system using real data shows that propagation over 250 km at 2.5 Gb/s in standard fibers with 20 ps pulse widths is possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  4. 16×10Gb/s symmetric WDM-FOFDM-PON realization with colorless ONUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Xie, Shizhong

    2011-08-01

    A novel symmetric WDM-PON scheme with colorless ONU is proposed. The baseband 4-ASK Fast-OFDM signal is upconverted by an intermediate frequency carrier, reserving a frequency gap between the FOFDM signal and the optical carrier. After distributing different wavelengths to corresponding ONU by AWG, periodic BPFs are employed to extract the optical carriers for upstream transmission, achieving colorless ONUs. A WDM-PON system with 16 colorless ONUs is established, and 10-Gb/s symmetric transmission for each ONU is also realized. Experiment shows that the system tolerance to the intrachannel crosstalk is greatly improved when the crosstalk signal locates at relatively higher frequency band.

  5. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can...... the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  6. Mapping regions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB) important for fusion function with gH/gL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Aileen E; Reimer, Jessica J; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2011-04-25

    Glycoproteins gB and gH/gL are required for entry of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into cells, but the role of each glycoprotein and how they function together to mediate fusion is unclear. Analysis of the functional homology of gB from the closely related primate gammaherpesvirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus (Rh-LCV), showed that EBV gB could not complement Rh gB due to a species-specific dependence between gB and gL. To map domains of gB required for this interaction, we constructed a panel of EBV/Rh gB chimeric proteins. Analysis showed that insertion of Rh gB from residues 456 to 807 restored fusion function of EBV gB with Rh gH/gL, suggesting this region of gB is important for interaction with gH/gL. Split YFP bimolecular complementation (BiFC) provided evidence of an interaction between EBV gB and gH/gL. Together, our results suggest the importance of a gB-gH/gL interaction in EBV-mediated fusion with B cells requiring the region of EBV gB from 456 to 807.

  7. Numerical simulation of grain boundary effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taretto, K. [Departamento de Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Rau, U. [Institute of Physical Electronics, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe.rau@ipe.uni-stuttgart.de; Werner, J.H. [Institute of Physical Electronics, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells show that grain boundary (GB) recombination can deteriorate the photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of these devices by about 9% absolute with respect to a starting value of 21.7% that would hold for a material without GBs. The achieved record efficiencies of 19% are only possible if the recombination velocity S at GBs is kept below S=10{sup 3} cm s{sup -1}. Comparing devices that have all defects homogeneously distributed in the bulk to devices where the same number of defects is concentrated at GBs only unveils that the latter situation is more favorable because of kinetic restrictions. The efficiency difference between the homogeneous and the concentrated cases is, however, only 1% (absolute). We further model the possible effect of an additional hole barrier at the GB by assuming asymmetric capture cross-sections for electrons and holes. We find that the positive consequence of this feature is rather limited and much dependent on the specific properties of the GB defects. For example, the efficiency improves by 2% when introducing a hole barrier of 120 meV at a GB with midgap defects. The same improvement would result from a reduction of the GB defects by a factor of 2.5.

  8. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  9. Experimental Investigation of Digital Compensation of DGD for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK Clock Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Oliviera, Julio Cesar R.; Ribeiro, Vitor B.;

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, the impact of DGD on clock recovery for 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK is experimentally investigated and quantified. We propose and experimentally demonstrate novel digital adaptive timing error detector which is robust to DGD.......For the first time, the impact of DGD on clock recovery for 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK is experimentally investigated and quantified. We propose and experimentally demonstrate novel digital adaptive timing error detector which is robust to DGD....

  10. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Su Cho; Chan Woong Park; Chun-Ki Kim; Hee Young Jeon; Wan Gi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Young-Myeong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED),and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng.Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus,we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study.As a comparative control,the results were compared to those obtained using KRG.In addition,possible mechanisms of action for GB0710 were investigated.While KRG and GB0710 both displayed dose-dependent relaxation effects on precontracted rabbit CCSM in vitro,GB0710 was shown to be more potent than KRG.The GB0710-induced relaxation could be partially reduced by removing the endothelium.In addition,pre-treatment with several nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors significantly inhibited the relaxation of muscle strips.Furthermore,administration of GB0710 increased intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in a rat in vivo model in both a dose-and duration-dependent manner.Intracellular NO production in human microvascular endothelial cells could be induced by GB0710 and inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.In conclusion,GB0710 had a greater relaxation effect on rabbit CCSM than did KRG extract,and increased ICP in a rat model in both a dose-and a duration-dependent manner.This relaxing effect might be mediated by NO production.

  11. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: Development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6......GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...

  12. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6......GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...

  13. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  14. Occurrence of bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides host strains (ARABA 84 and GB-124) in fecal samples of human and animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diston, David; Wicki, Melanie

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriophage-based microbial source-tracking studies are an economical and simple way of identifying fecal sources in polluted water systems. Recently isolated Bacteroides spp. strains ARABA 84, and GB-124 have been shown to detect bacteriophages exclusively in aquatic systems impacted by human fecal material. To date, limited examination of the occurrence or concentration of phages capable of infecting Bacteroides fragilis strain GB-124 or B. thetaiotaomicron strain ARABA 84 in human and animal feces has been carried out. This study reports the prevalence rates and concentrations of phages infecting ARABA 84 and GB-124 host strains in human and a range of animal feces. Discrete human fecal samples (n=55) and pooled animal samples (n=46, representing the feces of over 230 animals) were examined for phages infecting the host strains ARABA 84, GB-124, and E. coli strain WG5. Both human Bacteroides host strains were highly specific (95% and 100% for ARABA 84 and GB-124, respectively), challenging results from previous studies. This study supports the use of Bacteroides strains GB-124 and ARABA 84 in fecal source tracking studies for the detection of human fecal contamination.

  15. Faster than fiber: over 100-Gb/s signal delivery in fiber wireless integration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Chi, Nan

    2013-09-23

    We summarize several different approaches for the realization of large capacity (>100Gb/s) fiber wireless integration system, including optical polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) combined with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) reception, advanced multi-level modulation, optical multi-carrier modulation, electrical multi-carrier modulation, antenna polarization multiplexing and multi-band multiplexing. These approaches can effectively reduce the signal baud rate as well as the required bandwidth for optical and electrical devices. We also investigate the problems, such as wireless multi-path effect due to different wireless transmission distance, existing in the large capacity fiber wireless integration system. We demonstrate these problems can be effectively solved based on advanced digital-signal-processing (DSP) algorithms including classic constant modulus algorithm (CMA). Moreover, based on the combination of these approaches as well as advanced DSP algorithms, we have successfully demonstrated a 400G fiber wireless integration system, which creates a capacity record of wireless delivery and ushers in a new era of ultra-high bit rate (>400Gb/s) optical wireless integration communications at mm-wave frequencies.

  16. Dynamic PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangjun Li; Cao Diao; Xiangfeng Gong; Yongjun Fu; Zhongwei Tan; Yan Liu; Muguang Wang; Shuisheng Jian; Caiyun Lou; Li Huo; Hejun Yao; Tigang Ning; Jie Cui; Fangcheng Yang

    2005-01-01

    A 40-Gb/s optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) return-to-zero (RZ) transmission experiments in cluding a dynamic polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation was reported. The dynamic PMD compensator is made up of two-stage four degrees of freedom (DOF). The first stage adopts polarization controller and fixed time-delayed line. The second stage is variable differential group delay (DGD) element. The PMD monitoring technique is based on degree of polarization (DOP) as error signal. A novel practical adaptive optimization algorithm was introduced in dynamic adaptive PMD compensation. The experimental results show that the performance of the PMD compensator is excellent for 40-Gb/s RZ transmission systems with the large DGD. With this compensator, a significant improvement of system performance can be achieved in the eye pattern of a received signal. The first-order compensating ability of the compensator is greater than 30 ps. The second-order compensating ability is greater than 200 ps2.The first-order optimum compensating time is within 10 ms. The second-order optimum compensating time is within 24 ms.

  17. A monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Chi; Proesel, Jonathan E; Orcutt, Jason S; Haensch, Wilfried; Green, William M J

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics promises to address the challenges for next-generation short-reach optical interconnects. Growing bandwidth demand in hyper-scale data centers and high-performance computing motivates the development of faster and more-efficient silicon photonics links. While it is challenging to raise the serial line rate, further scaling of the data rate can be realized by, for example, increasing the number of parallel fibers, increasing the number of wavelengths per fiber, and using multi-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). Among these approaches, PAM has a unique advantage because it does not require extra lasers or a costly overhaul of optical fiber cablings within the existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate the first fully monolithically integrated silicon photonic four-level PAM (PAM-4) transmitter operating at 56 Gb/s and demonstrate error-free transmission (bit-error-rate < 10$^{-12}$) up to 50 Gb/s without forward error correction. The superior PAM-4 waveform is enabled by optimizatio...

  18. 320-Gb/s switch system to guarantee QoS of real-time traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Liu, Bin; Xu, Yang

    2003-08-01

    To provide QoS control for real time traffic in core routers, this paper designs and evaluates a 320 Gb/s switch system, which supports 16 line cards, each operating at OC192c line rate (10 Gb/s). This switch system contains a high performance switch fabric and supports variable-length IP packet interface. These two characters provide advantages over traditional switch fabrics with a cell interface. This switch system supports eight priorities to both unicast and multicast traffic. The highest priority with strict QoS guarantee is for real time traffic, and other seven lower priorities with weighted round-robin (WRR) service discipline are for other common data traffic. Through simulation under multi-priority burst traffic model, we demonstrate this switch system not only can provide excellent performance for real time traffic, but also can efficiently allocate bandwidth among all kinds of traffic. As a result, this switch system can serve as a key node in high-speed networks, and it can also meet the challenge of multimedia traffic to the next generation Internet.

  19. Soft-decision forward error correction for 100 Gb/s digital coherent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onohara, Kiyoshi; Sugihara, Takashi; Miyata, Yoshikuni; Sugihara, Kenya; Kubo, Kazuo; Yoshida, Hideo; Koguchi, Kazuumi; Mizuochi, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Soft-decision forward error correction (SD-FEC) and its practical implementation for 100 Gb/s digital coherent systems are discussed. In applying SD-FEC to a digital coherent transponder, the configuration of the frame structure of the FEC becomes a key issue. We present a triple-concatenated FEC, with a pair of concatenated hard-decision FEC (HD-FEC) further concatenated with an SD-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) code for 20.5% redundancy. In order to evaluate error correcting performance of SD-based LDPC code. We implement the entire 100 Gb/s throughput of LDPC code on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) based hardware emulator. The proposed triple-concatenated FEC can achieve a Q-limit of 6.4 dB and a net coding gain (NCG) of 10.8 dB at a post-FEC bit error ratio (BER) of 10 -15 is expected. In addition, we raise an important question for the definition of NCG in digital coherent systems with and without differential quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) coding, which is generally used to avoid phase slip caused by the practical limitations in processing the phase recovery algorithms.

  20. NMR studies on domain diffusion and alignment in modular GB1 repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph D; Meier, Katlyn; Ishima, Rieko; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2010-10-20

    Modular proteins contain individual domains that are often connected by flexible, unstructured linkers. Using a model system based on the GB1 domain, we constructed tandem repeat proteins and investigated the rotational diffusion and long-range angular ordering behavior of individual domains by measuring NMR relaxation parameters and residual dipolar couplings. Although they display almost identical protein-solvent interfaces, each domain exhibits distinct rotational diffusion and alignment properties. The diffusion tensor anisotropy of the N-terminal domain (NTD) is D(‖)/D(⊥) = 1.5-1.6, similar to that of single-GB1 domains (D(‖)/D(⊥) = 1.6-1.7), whereas the value for the C-terminal domain (CTD) is D(‖)/D(⊥) = 2.0-2.2. In addition, the two domains have different rotational correlation times. These effects are observed for linkers of three to 24 residues, irrespective of linker length. The NTD and CTD also differ in their degree of magnetic alignment, even with a flexible linker of 18 residues, exhibiting D(a) values of 7.7 Hz and 9.7 Hz, respectively. Our results suggest that diffusion differences and long-range influences may persist in modular protein systems, even for systems that have highly flexible linkers and exhibit no domain-domain or domain-linker interactions.

  1. Electronic compensator for 100-Gb//s PDM-CO-OFDM long-haul transmission systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Liu; Yaojun Qiao; Yuefeng Ji

    2011-01-01

    @@ We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation.EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments, respectively.Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD.Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.%We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation. EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments,respectively. Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD. Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.

  2. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanarsdall, Adam L; Howard, Paul W; Wisner, Todd W; Johnson, David C

    2016-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion) is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16-50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB.

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Vanarsdall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16-50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB.

  4. Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry and Its Deformation Monitoring%GB-InSAR技术及其形变监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙四春; 陈鹏琦; 袁英; 蒋宗立; 伍梦清

    2015-01-01

    地基InSAR( GB-InSAR)是最近10年发展起来的一种相对较新的形变监测技术。本文阐述了GB-InSAR技术的国内外研究现状、基于GB-InSAR技术的IBIS-L系统,以及GB-InSAR的基本原理、数据处理流程和关键技术,提出了GB-InSAR技术存在的主要问题及今后的发展方向。

  5. In vivo microdialysis and electroencephalographic activity in freely moving guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus nerve agents sarin and VX: analysis of acetylcholine and glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, John C; McDonough, John H; Shih, Tsung-Ming

    2011-12-01

    Organophosphorus nerve agents such as sarin (GB) and VX irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, causing a buildup of acetylcholine (ACh) in synapses and neuromuscular junctions, which leads to excess bronchial secretions, convulsions, seizures, coma, and death. Understanding the unique toxic characteristics of different nerve agents is vital in the effort to develop broad spectrum medical countermeasures. To this end, we employed a repeated measure multivariate design with striatal microdialysis collection and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis to measure changes in concentrations of several neurotransmitters (ACh, glutamate, aspartate, GABA) in the same samples during acute exposure to GB or VX in freely moving guinea pigs. Concurrent with microdialysis collection, we used cortical electrodes to monitor brain seizure activity. This robust double multivariate design provides greater fidelity when comparing data while also reducing the required number of subjects. No correlation between nerve agents' propensity for causing seizure and seizure-related lethality was observed. The GB seizure group experienced more rapid and severe cholinergic toxicity and lethality than that of the VX seizure group. Seizures generated from GB and VX exposure resulted in further elevation of ACh level and then a gradual return to baseline. Glutamate levels increased in the GB, but not in the VX, seizure group. There were no consistent changes in either aspartate or GABA as a result of either nerve agent. These observations reinforce findings with other nerve agents that seizure activity per se contributes to the elevated levels of brain ACh observed after nerve agent exposure.

  6. TMR study of GaMnAs/AlGaAs:Be/GaMnAs trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Joseph; Liu, Xinyu; Dobrowolska, Malgorzata; Furdyna, Jacek; Yoo, Taehee; Khym, Sungwon; Lee, Sanghoon

    2011-03-01

    GaMnAs/GaAs:Be/GaMnAs trilayers have recently demonstrated antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling between the two ferromagnetic (FM) layers, mediated by holes in the spacer layer. In this work, GaMnAs/ Al x Ga 1-x :Be/GaMnAs trilayer samples with varying Al concentrations were fabricated into magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices with range of pillar diameters to measure tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) under various conditions. SQUID measurements were use to measure the magnetization of the samples, including switching fields for parallel and antiparallel magnetization alignments of the FM layers. TMR was observed in the sample with Al 0.22 Ga 0.78 As:Be spacer, but was massively suppressed in the samples with lower Al content. The presence of holes in the spacer layer is shown to suppress TMR. This illustrates the difference in conditions for TMR and for AFM interlayer coupling. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1005851 and OISE-1015458.

  7. Quantitation of five organophosphorus nerve agent metabolites in serum using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Schulze, Nicholas D.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Lawrence, Richard J.; Crow, Brian S.; Jakubowski, E. M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2014-01-01

    Although nerve agent use is prohibited, concerns remain for human exposure to nerve agents during decommissioning, research, and warfare. Exposure can be detected through the analysis of the hydrolysis products in urine as well as blood. An analytical method to detect exposure to five nerve agents, including VX, VR (Russian VX), GB (sarin), GD (soman) and GF (cyclosarin), through the analysis of the hydrolysis products, which are the primary metabolites, in serum has been developed and charac...

  8. Effect of GbKTN1 from Gossypium barbadense on cell elongation of fission yeast(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weimin; WANG Zhixing; JIA Shirong

    2004-01-01

    The GbKTN1 gene was isolated from 10 DPA fiber cells of Gossypium barbadense using 5′RACE/3′RACE. Full-length cDNA of this gene is 2006 bp, including a 113 bp of 5′untranslated region, a 1563 bp of an open reading frame (ORF), and a 327 bp of 3′untranslated region (excluding the stop codon TAA). The ORF of GbKTN1 encodes a 521-amino acid protein with a predicted size of 55 kD. Near C-terminal of the deduced protein there is a putative ATP binding site between amino acid residues from 233 to 414. Southern blot analysis indicated that the GbKTN1 was a single copy gene in G. barbadense. Combining semi-quantitative RT-PCR with Southern blot hybridization revealed that GbKTN1 expressed in all the organs detected such as roots, stems, leaves and fibers. However, the mRNA of GbKTN1 was the most abundant in fiber cells, while it was the lowest in leaves. The GbKTN1 cDNA was transformed into S. pombe to verify its function on cell elongation. Results showed that most yeast cells over expressing GbKTN1 gene were elongated dramatically with an average length increase of 2.18 times than that of the non-induced cells. Even the morphology of some yeast cells appeared irregularly. To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence that KTN1 is correlated with cell elongation in vivo.

  9. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Aghanejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (68Ga citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC, chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS, radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe, and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC, specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM, chemical purity (Sn, FeConclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country.

  10. GB/T 6379.2在医疗器械方法学标准制定过程中的运用%Application of GB/T 6379.2 in Methodological Standard Development of Medical Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓慧; 吴平; 高冉冉

    2016-01-01

    GB/T 6379.2目前在我国医疗器械方法学标准制定过程中运用并不完善,本文明确了其在方法学标准中应用的重要性,介绍了GB/T 6379.2中给出的在多个实验室间开展协同试验的步骤,并结合GB/T 6379.2在医疗器械方法学标准中应用的实例,说明使用这一标准进行数据统计的详细过程。%The application of GB/T 6379.2 in our country is not perfect at present. The paper clariifed the importance of its application in methodological standard, introduced the steps of developing colaborative assessment experiments between laboratories in GB/T 6379.2, and ilustrated the detailed procedure of analyzing statistical data with an example of its application in methodological standard of medical device.

  11. Manufacturability and reliability on 10-Gb/s transponder for ethernet-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Min-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chiu, Chia-Hung; Cheng, Shou-Chien; Shen, Kun-Yi; Huang, Min-Fa; Shaw, Cheng-Da; Lee, Shin-Ge

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, manufacturing issues include Optical Sub-Assembly (OSA), Electrical Sub-Assembly (ESA) and reliability considerations of 10 Gb/s Ethernet transponder were studied by using experiments and implementation. In the growing optical communication industry, one of the star products is the Z-axis pluggable optical transceiver module. Under the broad usage of Ethernet means high port density, low cost, high utilities, compact size and still require excellent performance. After standardizing of 10 Gb/s ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae), many transceiver companies, silicon vendors and system vendors reached the agreement and signed up diversity of MSA (Multi-Source Agreement). These MSAs still keep modifying with system demands, customer requirements, cost and performance issue. This paper presents how to achieve these functions description in the MSA and own a highly manufacturability and reliability module design. According to composed block of transponder, we split it into OSA, ESA, mechanical design and related reliability experimental result. In the OSA, traditional TO-CAN package and optical components be introduced. Because the mature manufacture experience, vendor can easy to meet low cost and manufacturability requirements and only need to slightly modifications. A simply solution be implemented to solve this problem and discuss the critical point of the design. Thermal issue on OSA will also be mentioned because of the sensitive of light source and how to calculate the effect to find effective solutions. By the way, some manufacturability criteria will be discussed for OSA characteristics in 10 Gb/s applications. In the ESA, PMD (Physical media dependant) driving methods, Multi-Source Agreement related digital optical monitor function implement and performance comparison will be presented. On the other hand, we will examine the crosstalk effect between transmitter and receiver circuit and impact to the module Optical to Electrical convert interface design. We

  12. Environments of Ga in MFI-type Ga-silicates and their catalytic performance; MFI gata Ga-silicate chu no Ga no sonzai jotai to shokubai seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, H.; Takiyama, Y.; Higashida, K.; Otsuka, S.; Kishida, M.; Wakabayashi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shoji, H. [Maruzen Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    MFI-type Ga-silicates (GaS) of varying atomic Si/Ga ratio are synthesized from the gel stocks, to compare them one another for their properties and C4H10 conversion performance. GaS (M) synthesized by the Mobil method shows a broader Ga-MASNMR spectral peak relevant to the GaO4 tetrahedron and lower unit cell increase rate, when it contains a high proportion of Ga, than GaS (A) synthesized by the alkoxide method. It is therefore considered that GaS (M) has an increased content of the GaO4 tetrahedron of low symmetry, as Ga content increases. GaS (M) loses a larger quantity of Ga eluted out as a result of HCl treatment than GaS (A), indicating that the former contains the GaO4 tetrahedron of low symmetry under a less stable condition. GaS (M) gives a higher aromatic hydrocarbon yield in the C4H10 conversion than GaS (A), as its Ga content increases. This results from difference between their dehydrogenation performances, indicating that Ga in the GaO4 tetrahedron of lower symmetry has a higher dehydrogenation performance. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Fusion between perinuclear virions and the outer nuclear membrane requires the fusogenic activity of herpes simplex virus gB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine C; Wisner, Todd W; Hannah, Brian P; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Johnson, David C

    2009-11-01

    Herpesviruses cross nuclear membranes (NMs) in two steps, as follows: (i) capsids assemble and bud through the inner NM into the perinuclear space, producing enveloped virus particles, and (ii) the envelopes of these virus particles fuse with the outer NM. Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, gB and gH (the latter, likely complexed as a heterodimer with gL), are necessary for the second step of this process. Mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate in the perinuclear space or in herniations (membrane vesicles derived from the inner NM). Both gB and gH/gL are also known to act directly in fusing the virion envelope with host cell membranes during HSV entry into cells, i.e., both glycoproteins appear to function directly in different aspects of the membrane fusion process. We hypothesized that HSV gB and gH/gL also act directly in the membrane fusion that occurs during virus egress from the nucleus. Previous studies of the role of gB and gH/gL in nuclear egress involved HSV gB and gH null mutants that could potentially also possess gross defects in the virion envelope. Here, we produced recombinant HSV-expressing mutant forms of gB with single amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic "fusion loops." These fusion loops are thought to play a direct role in membrane fusion by insertion into cellular membranes. HSV recombinants expressing gB with any one of four fusion loop mutations (W174R, W174Y, Y179K, and A261D) were unable to enter cells. Moreover, two of the mutants, W174Y and Y179K, displayed reduced abilities to mediate HSV cell-to-cell spread, and W174R and A261D exhibited no spread. All mutant viruses exhibited defects in nuclear egress, enveloped virions accumulated in herniations and in the perinuclear space, and fewer enveloped virions were detected on cell surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that gB functions directly to mediate the fusion between perinuclear virus particles and the outer NM.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of 5-Gb/s Polarization-Multiplexed Fiber-Wireless MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei;

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 5-Gb/s fiber-wireless transmission system combining optical polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing technologies. The optical-wireless channel throughput is enhanced by achieving a 4b...... advantageous to the MIMO wireless system due to the inter-channel delay insensitivity. The hybrid transmission performance of 26km fiber and up to 2m wireless MIMO is investigated......./s/Hz spectral efficiency. Based on the implementation of constant modulus algorithm (CMA), the 2×2 MIMO wireless channel is characterized and adaptively equalized for signal demodulation. The performance of the CMA-based channel adaptation is studied and it is revealed that the algorithm is particularly...

  15. Dynamic PMD compensator for 40 Gb/s PM-DQPSK system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gai; ZHANG Yang-an; ZHANG Ming-lun; ZHOU Li-ming; ZHANG Jin-nan; YUAN Xue-guang; ZHANG Xiao-guang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The adaptive polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation in high-speed transmission system has become more and more necessary for the link PMD causing strong signal distortions.A dynamic adaptive PMD compensator in 40 Gb/s polar-multiplex differential quadrature phase shift keying (PM-DQPSK) system is reported.Experimental results show that the PMD compensator can track the average polarization state variation at 65 rad/s without any lost of the optimum tracking.The 1st-order PMD compensation is demonstrated experimentally, and the compensator can increase the maximal tolerable PMD value by 26 ps from 17 ps to 43 ps in an optical transmission system.

  16. GB/T 21085-2007 Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Background Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection (hereinafter referred to certificate) is a statutory certificate for automotive vehicle registration in China and also an important content of consistency management of vehicle manufacturers.In order to strengthen the management of automotive vehicle manufacturers and their products,prevent stealing,smuggling and illegal assembling,crack down the illegal acts of forging and reselling and improve the efficiency of automotive vehicle registration,National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and MPS jointly put forward a solution that is to standardize the certificate and its content and build up information management system of certificates.The development of GB/T 21085-2007 Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection was taken by the National Technical Committee of Auto Standardization (SAC/TC 114).

  17. Effects of optical layer impairments on 2.5 Gb/s optical CDMA transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H; Mendez, A; Heritage, J; Lennon, W

    2000-07-03

    We conducted a computer simulation study to assess the effects of optical layer impairments on optical CDMA (O-CDMA) transmission of 8 asynchronous users at 2.5 Gb/s each user over a 214-km link. It was found that with group velocity dispersion compensation, two other residual effects, namely, the nonzero chromatic dispersion slope of the single mode fiber (which causes skew) and the non-uniform EDFA gain (which causes interference power level to exceed signal power level of some codes) degrade the signal to multi-access interference (MAI) ratio. In contrast, four wave mixing and modulation due to the Kerr and Raman contributions to the fiber nonlinear refractive index are less important. Current wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies, including dispersion management, EDFA gain flattening, and 3 rd order dispersion compensation, are sufficient to overcome the impairments to the O-CDMA transmission system that we considered.

  18. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, Roberto; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers, results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  19. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-12-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers; results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  20. Field trial of 160 Gb/s all-optical packet switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Herrera, J.; Raz, O.; Tangdiongga, E.; Marti, J.; Ramos, F.; Maxwell, G.; Poustie, A.; Mulvad, H. C. H.; Hill, M. T.; de Waardt, H.; Khoe, G. D.; Koonen, A. M. J.; Dorren, H. J. S.

    2007-11-01

    We present the results of a transmission experiment, over 110 km of field installed fiber, for an all-optical 160 Gb/s packet switching system. The system uses in-band optical labels which are processed entirely in the optical domain using a narrow-band all-optical filter. The label decision information is stored by an optical flip-flop, which output controls a high-speed wavelength converter based on ultra-fast cross-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier. The packet switched node is located in between two different fiber sections, each having a length of 54.3-km. The field installed fibers are located around the city of Eindhoven in the Netherlands. The results show how the all-optical switch can effectively route the packets based on the optical information and that such packets may be transmitted across the fiber with an acceptable penalty level.

  1. Burst Mode Receiver for 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK with parallel DSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Benn C; Maher, Robert; Millar, David S; Savory, Seb J

    2011-12-12

    A burst mode 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK digital coherent optical receiver with parallel DSP suitable for implementation in a CMOS ASIC with a 218.75 MHz clock speed is presented. The receiver performance is validated in a five channel 50 GHz grid WDM burst switching experiment using a commercially available wavelength tunable laser as the local oscillator. A new equalizer initialization scheme that overcomes the degenerate convergence problem and ensures rapid convergence is introduced. We show that the performance of the tunable local oscillator is commensurate with burst mode coherent reception when differential decoding in employed and that required parallel DSP implementation does not seriously impair the polarization and frequency tracking performance of a digital coherent receiver under burst mode operation. We report a burst acquisition time of less than 200 ns.

  2. Recombination among GB virus C (GBV-C) isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Jason T; Ma, Gang; Polen, Clarissa; DuBois, Juwen C; Gast, Jonathon; Radens, Caleb M; Sterling, Richard K; Sherman, Kenneth E

    2016-07-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a non-pathogenic flavivirus that may play a role in modulating HIV disease. Multiple genotypes of GBV-C that have been identified to date that may differentially regulate HIV; however, the number of complete GBV-C sequences published to date is very limited. We sequenced full-length GBV-C genomes from four individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection in the United States. Intergenotypic recombination was evident in two of these individuals. Evaluation of additional full-length GBV-C genomes would facilitate the creation of full-length, replication-competent molecular clones of GBV-C to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of GBV-C genotypes and provide important molecular data on this understudied virus.

  3. A 3 Gb/s multichannel transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhang; Yusong, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a 65 nm 16-bit parallel transceiver IP macro, whose rate is 3 Gb/s with a 5 pF load including the HBM 2000 V ESD protection. Equalizers and clock data recovery modules, CRC checkers and 8 b/10 b encoders are not added in the design for reducing the latency, and the whole latency is 7 ns without cables. Since the transceiver has many robust features including a process, voltage and temperature independent phase-locked loop with calibrations, the low skew differential clock tree, and a stable current mode driver with common mode feedback, the transceiver can work properly at different process corners and extreme temperatures, and also can tolerate 20% power supply variations. The transceiver can be applied for the interface of sub-100 nm high performance processors, which require low latency and high stability. The transceiver shows a bitter error ratio of less than 10-15 at 3 Gbps.

  4. Contactless electroreflectance study of a GaAIAs/lnGaAs/ GaAs/GaAIAs step quantum well structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneger, S.; Qiang, H.; Pollak, Fred H.; Noble, T. F.

    1995-10-01

    Using contactless electroreflectance at 300 and 77K, we have studied the inter-subband transitions from a GaAlAs/InGaAs/GaAs/GaALAs step quantum well structure (small well inside a large well) consisting of two layers A (InxGa1-xAs) and B (GaAs) with widths LA and LB, respectively, bounded by two thick barrier regions of Gax AlyAs. By comparison of the observed spectral features with an envelope function calculation, including the effects of strain, we have been able to characterize the potential profile of the structure, i.e., LA, LB, x, and y. There is very good agreement between experiment and the intended materials param-eters. Such configurations are of considerable importance since (a) they form the basis for pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors, and (b) also have applications in optoelectronics due to their large Stark shifts.

  5. Enhanced performance of 400 Gb/s DML-based CAP systems using optical filtering technique for short reach communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Wang, Yiguang; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chi, Nan

    2014-12-01

    A parallel transmission approach is more likely to realize 400 Gb/s and above short reach transmission as it helps to reduce the cost of both electrical and optical device largely. Directly modulated lasers (DML) are more attractive in 400 Gb/s approach, because it requires relatively small amount of driving power and has low insertion loss, thus lowering its cost. However, the intrinsic chirp will degrade the transmission performance. In this paper, an optical filtering technique is introduced for 400 Gb/s high-speed DML-based carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation short reach systems for the first time. Owing to the additional optical filter, 1 dB and 3.6 dB sensitivity improvement at BER of 3.8 x 10(-3) is obtained for the back-to-back and 15 km fiber link transmission for single lane at the bitrate of 28 Gb/s. Then a 16-lane CAP16 system with a total bit rate of 413 Gb/s is demonstrated experimentally using low-cost 10 GHz-class DML using optical filtering technique.

  6. 200Gb/s 10-channel miniature optical interconnect transmitter module for high-performance computing (HPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Edris; Au, Hinmeng

    2010-02-01

    A major breakthrough to alleviating the interconnect bottleneck in intra cabinet system in HPC may happen by bringing optics directly to the processor package. In order to do so efficient and compact optical interconnect subassembly modules that utilize simple optical and electrical interfacing schemes are needed. In our current work the development of a novel 10-channel, miniature 7mm(W)x1.8mm(L)x3mm(H), optical interconnect transmitter subassembly module is described. The module consists of a high precision molded optical alignment unit with integrated microlens arrays, highspeed coplanar waveguide (CPW) electrical interfaces and a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array chip which is flip chip mounted. The module is designed to uniquely interface vertically with high-speed electrical I/O lines on a microprocessor style package or a motherboard to convert electrical signals to optical for transmission to other similar units using a standard (Multi-Terminal) MT style optical connector. We report on optical coupling efficiency, misalignment tolerance and high-speed electrical and optical measurements of the module. We have measured 40Gb/s electrical eye for the CPW interfaces on the module and 20Gb/s clear optical eyes for VCSEL assembled module from all the 10 channels to produce an aggregate transmitter bandwidth of 200Gb/s. We also measured 30Gb/s electrical and 20Gb/s optical eyes for the optical subassembly module that is bonded onto a microprocessor style package substrate.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at acupoint GB34 against CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Kyoung Yim; Hyun Lee; Kwon-Eui Hong; Young-Il Kim; Byung-Ryul Lee; Tae-Han Kim; Ji-Young Yi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB34) on CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats.METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated with manual acupuncture using reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34(Yanglingquan) 3 times a week for 10 wk. A nonacupoint in left gluteal area was selected as a sham point. To estimate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at GB34, measurement of liver index,biochemical assays including serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol, histological analysis and blood cell counts were conducted.RESULTS: Manual acupuncture at GB34 reduced the liver index, serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol levels as compared with the control group and the sham acupuncture group. It also increased and normalized the populations of WBC and lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: Manual acupuncture with reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34 reduces liver toxicity, protects liver function and liver tissue, and normalizes immune activity in CCl4-intoxicated rats.

  8. Some questions about the set pressure and relief area of safety valves in GB 150-1998%GB 150—1998中安全阀开启压力和排放面积疑义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志义; 王淑兰; 丁信伟

    2001-01-01

    The irrationality is analyzed of the design press ure of pressurevessels protected with safety valves, which is regulated in GB 1 50-1998 Steel Pressure Vessels. The error is pointed out relating to the calcul ation of the relief area of safety valves under subcritical flowing in GB 150-19 98. The importance correctly dealing with these two questions is stressed.%分析了GB150—1998《钢制压力容器》对装有安全阀的压力容器设计压力确定方法的不合理性,指出了其附录B中规定的亚临界条件下,安全阀排放面积计算式的错误,强调了正确处理这两个问题的重要性。

  9. Overview and perspectives on automation strategies in (68)Ga radiopharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Stefano; Malizia, Claudio; Lodi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The renaissance of (68)Ga radiopharmacy has led to great advances in automation technology. The availability of a highly efficient, reliable, long-lived (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator system along with a well-established coordination chemistry based on bifunctional chelating agents have been the bases of this development in (68)Ga radiopharmacy. Syntheses of (68)Ga peptides were originally performed by manual or semiautomated systems, but increasing clinical demand, radioprotection, and regulatory issues have driven extensive automation of their production process. Several automated systems, based on different post-processing of the (68)Ga generator eluate, on different engineering, and on fixed tubing or disposable cassette approaches, have been developed and are discussed in this chapter. Since automatic systems for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals should comply with qualification and validation protocols established by regulations such as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and local regulations, some regulatory issues and the more relevant qualification protocols are also discussed.

  10. 160-Gb/s polarization-multiplexing optical NRZ-DQPSK transmission using differential detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wen; Jinxin Liao; Xiaoping Zheng; Hanyi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Using differential detection,we perform polarization-multiplexing 160-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over 100-km standard single mode fiber at a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10-9.The enabling technology includes clock recovery,fine dispersion compensation,and polarization tracking for de-multiplexing.Furthermore,a hybrid clock recovery scheme is proposed.The scheme is realized with ordinary devices using an optoelectrical modulator to down-convert the clock frequency and a phase-locked loop for filtering,which can provide an indication signal that simultaneouslv monitors residual disoersion and tracking polarization.Given the ever increasing bandwidth demands (e.g.,for imaging,demand of video,gaming,etc.),the capacity of optical transmission systems is being constantly raised through the application of several approaches that include the use of advanced modulation formats with higher spectral efficiency,increasing the symbol rate of each channel,and orthogonal polarization multiplexing with idcntical wavelengths;these approaches are enabled by coherent detection[1-3].%Using differential detection, we perform polarization-multiplexing 160-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over 100-km standard single mode fiber at a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10~9. The enabling technology includes clock recovery, fine dispersion compensation, and polarization tracking for de-multiplexing. Furthermore, a hybrid clock recovery scheme is proposed. The scheme is realized with ordinary devices using an optoclectrical modulator to down-convert the clock frequency and a phase-locked loop for filtering, which can provide an indication signal that simultaneously monitors residual dispersion and tracking polarization.

  11. Si上GaN研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裕权

    2004-01-01

    <正> 亚琛电磁研究所订购了一台Aixtron公司的AIX200/4 RF—S设备。这台设备将用来研究基于Si衬底的GaN淀积。预计低成本的Si衬底与GaN结构相结合会大大影响未来高功率RF器件的价格。亚琛电磁研究所将用AIX 200/4 RF—S设备淀积高品质的AlGaN/GaN层和器件

  12. 100Gb/s线路侧光收发模块中ADC的时钟方案%Proposal of high speed ADC sampling clock in 100 Gb/s line side transponder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申曜铭; 黄芝平; 刘德胜; 巴俊皓

    2016-01-01

    100Gb/s线路侧光收发模块中ADC的时钟设计关键在于保证时钟的低抖动性,是光模块可靠工作的基础.介绍了100Gb/s线路侧光收发模块的基本架构和工作流程,提出两种时钟方案,对比分析了两种方案的性能,对线路侧光收发模块中ADC的时钟设计具有一定参考借鉴意义.

  13. 汽轮机性能试验ASME流量喷嘴及GB/T2624-93喷嘴校验%ASME Flow Nozzles and GB/T 2624-93 Flow Nozzles Calibration for Turbine Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才稳

    2009-01-01

    研究汽轮机试验ASME流量喷嘴检定的数据处理方法,就3组检定数据进行了计算处理,指出了数据分析的难点.讨论了用GB/T2624-93与ASME流量喷嘴检定方法与的异同,给出了由GB/T2624-93检定结果向ASME喷嘴检定结果转换方法.

  14. High breakdown voltage in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN quantum-well electron-blocking layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yao, Yung-Chi; Huang, Chun-Ying; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Lien; Liu, Ching-Yun; Wang, Mei-Tan; Hwang, Jung-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically study an enhancement of breakdown voltage in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) by using the AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN quantum-well (QW) electron-blocking layer (EBL) structure. This concept is based on the superior confinement of two-dimensional electron gases (2-DEGs) provided by the QW EBL, resulting in a significant improvement of breakdown voltage and a remarkable suppression of spilling electrons. The electron mobility of 2-DEG is hence enhanced as well. The dependence of thickness and composition of QW EBL on the device breakdown is also evaluated and discussed.

  15. Robust AlGaN/GaN MMIC Receiver Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Janssen, J.P.B.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Apart from delivering very high output powers, GaN can also be used to realize robust receiver components, such as Low Noise Amplifiersand Switches. This paper presents the designand measurement results of two GaN X-band switch and LNA MMICs, designed for integration in a radar front end. The switch

  16. Antisites and anisotropic diffusion in GaAs and GaSb

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-10-02

    The significant diffusion of Ga under Ga-rich conditions in GaAs and GaSb is counter intuitive as the concentration of Ga vacancies should be depressed although Ga vacancies are necessary to interpret the experimental evidence for Ga transport. To reconcile the existence of Ga vacancies under Ga-rich conditions, transformation reactions have been proposed. Here, density functional theory is employed to calculate the formation energies of vacancies on both sublattices and the migration energy barriers to overcome the formation of the vacancy-antisite defect. Transformation reactions enhance the vacancy concentration in both materials and migration energy barriers indicate that Ga vacancies will dominate.

  17. MAXIMAL ELEMENTS OF A FAMILY OF GB-MAJORIZED MAPPINGS IN PRODUCT FC-SPACES AND APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xie-ping

    2006-01-01

    A new family of GB-majorized mappings from a topological space into a finite continuous topological spaces (in short, FC-space) involving a better admissible set-valued mapping is introduced. Some existence theorems of maximal elements for the family of GB-majorized mappings are proved under noncompact setting of product FCspaces. Some applications to fixed point and system of minimax inequalities are given in product FC-spaces. These theorems improve, unify and generalize many important results in recent literature.

  18. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all-optical...... packet switch. Error free performance (BER optical burst switching protocols could eliminate the need for optical buffering in silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  19. Clock recovery for 320 Gb/s OTDM Data using filtering-assisted XPM in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Zibar, Darko; Galili, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel technique, which enables clock recovery at 320 Gb/s and relies on a filtering-assisted cross-phase modulation (f-a XPM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This technique is more spectrally efficient than four wave mixing (FWM) and can improve the effic......In this paper, we report on a novel technique, which enables clock recovery at 320 Gb/s and relies on a filtering-assisted cross-phase modulation (f-a XPM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This technique is more spectrally efficient than four wave mixing (FWM) and can improve...

  20. Demonstration of quantum dot SOA-based colorless ONU transmitter for symmetric 40 Gb/s TWDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Chang, Qingjiang; Gao, Zhensen; Ye, Chenhui; Xiao, Simiao; Huang, Xiaoan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Kaibin

    2016-02-01

    Detailed numerical investigation of self-seeded colorless ONU transmitter using quantum dot (QD) SOA as the intensity modulator for symmetric 40 Gb/s TWDM-PON has been developed. It is shown that the QD SOA-based intensity modulator is able to support 10 Gb/s OOK upstream signal transmission with an optical extinction ratio of over 10 dB. Chromatic dispersion compensation free of 20 km passive transmission has been achieved for error free reception. Moreover, the system performance and power budget have been analyzed and discussed for different transmission distance and split ratio.

  1. All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    This work assesses the prospects for high-speed all-optical wavelength conversion using the simple optical interaction with the gain in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) via the interband carrier recombination. Operation and design guidelines for conversion speeds above 10 Gb/s are described...... and the various tradeoffs are discussed. Experiments at bit rates up to 40 Gb/s are presented for both cross-gain modulation (XGM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) in SOAs demonstrating the high-speed capability of these techniques...

  2. Wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Pol-MUX signals in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time.......All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time....

  3. 41.6 Gb/s RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK Format Conversion in a Microring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Ozolins, Oskars; Ding, Yunhong

    2012-01-01

    RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme........RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme.....

  4. 56 Gb/s multi-band CAP for data center interconnects up to an 80 km SMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Sanchez, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first (to the best of our knowledge) experimental demonstration of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) signal transmission over an 80-km single-mode fiber link with zero overhead pre-FEC signal recovery and enhanced timing jitter tolerance for opti......We present the first (to the best of our knowledge) experimental demonstration of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) signal transmission over an 80-km single-mode fiber link with zero overhead pre-FEC signal recovery and enhanced timing jitter tolerance...

  5. Enabling technologies and challenges for transmission of 400 Gb/s signals in 50 GHz channel grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the recent progress in transmission of 400Gb/s, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) channels for optical networks based on the standard 50GHz grid. modulation, coding, and line We discussed the enabling system technologies, as well as the existing challenges. It is shown that, 400 Gb/s per channel signal can be transmitted on the standard 50 GHz ITU-T grid at 8.4 b/ds/Hz net spectral efficiency (SE) over meaningful transmission reach for regional and metropolitan applications. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential for meeting the requirements of long-haul transmission applications.

  6. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao;

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all......-optical packet switch. Error free performance (BER switched packet. The use of optical burst switching protocols could eliminate the need for optical buffering in silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  7. Estimation of a 10 Gb/s 5G Receiver’s Performance and Power Evolution Towards 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    , and extrapolation hereof to estimate trends, and main challenges, towards 2030. According to our results, in 2020 the receiver power consumption exceeds 3 W, and is thus a challenge to be addressed. Assuming the performance evolution continues as observed in this work, the 5G receiver will be on par......The 5G vision of 10 Gb/s leads to performance and power consumption challenges in the mobile terminal receiver because 10 Gb/s requires 400 MHz bandwidth, faster baseband processing, and an increased number of component carriers and MIMO streams. The contribution of this paper is to estimate...

  8. DLTS measurements on GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegner, Annika; Nowozin, Tobias; Marent, Andreas; Bimberg, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin (Germany); Tseng, Chi-Che [Institute of Photonics Technologies, NTHU (China); Lin, Shih-Yen [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, NTOU (China)

    2010-07-01

    Memory devices based on hole storage in self-organized quantum dots offer significant advantages with respect to storage time and scalability. Recently, we demonstrated a first prototype based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots at low temperatures. To enable feasible storage times at room temperature the localisation energy of the quantum dots has to be increased by using other material systems. A first step in this direction is the use of GaSb quantum dots within a GaAs matrix. We have characterized self-organized GaSb/GaAs quantum dots embedded into a n{sup +}p-diode structure. DLTS measurements on hole emission were conducted and yield a strong peak from which a mean emission energy of about 400 meV can be extracted. The reference sample without the quantum dots (containing only the wetting layer) shows no such peak.

  9. Growth and Optimization of 2 Micrometers InGaSb/AlGaSb Quantum-Well-Based VECSELs on GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) based on InGaSb/AlGaSb quantum wells grown on GaAs/ AlGaAs distributed Bragg...cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The optical properties of the III-Sb active regions are characterized by time-resolved... optically pumped vertical- external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) based on InGaSb/AlGaSb quantum wells grown on GaAs/ AlGaAs distri- buted Bragg

  10. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  11. 8 x 120 Gb/s unrepeatered transmission over 444 km (76.6 dB) using distributed Raman amplification and ROPA without discrete amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Do Il; Pelouch, Wayne; Patki, Pallavi; McLaughlin, John

    2011-12-12

    Unrepeatered transmission of 8 x 120 Gb/s over 444.2 km (76.6 dB) and multi-rate transmission of 8 x 120 Gb/s and 9 x 10.7 Gb/s over a 75.4 dB span have been demonstrated with off-line digital processing for the coherent 120 Gb/s channels. Transmission of 2 x 120 Gb/s with 7 x 12.5 Gb/s over 78 dB is also demonstrated with a real-time ASIC processor. All transmission results have been achieved using standard effective-area pure-silica-core fiber using forward and backward distributed Raman amplification and remotely-pumped erbium fiber. ASIC real-time processed results match well with off-line processing.

  12. Prostatic uptake of Ga-67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.T.; Rosen, P.R.; Weiland, F.L.; Ritchey, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    Midline activity low in the pelvis seen on Ga-67 scans is frequently attributed to colonic excretion of radionuclide. Two cases of infectious prostatitis with focal uptake of Ga-67 within the prostate gland are described. A technique of using limited quantities of barium administered by enema and appropriate positional imaging, which localized pelvic activity to the prostate, is described.

  13. Preclinical Comparative Study of (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA, NOTA, and HBED-CC Chelated Radiotracers for Targeting PSMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray Banerjee, Sangeeta; Chen, Zhengping; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala; Chen, Jian; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2016-06-15

    (68)Ga-labeled, low-molecular-weight imaging agents that target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are increasingly used clinically to detect prostate and other cancers with positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of three PSMA-targeted radiotracers: (68)Ga-1, using DOTA-monoamide as the chelating agent; (68)Ga-2, containing the macrocyclic chelating agent p-SCN-Bn-NOTA; and (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11, currently in clinical trials, which uses the acyclic chelating agent, HBED-CC. The PSMA-targeting scaffold for all three agents utilized a similar Glu-urea-Lys-linker construct. Each radiotracer enabled visualization of PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor, kidney, and urinary bladder as early as 15 min post-injection using small animal PET/computed tomography (PET/CT). (68)Ga-2 demonstrated the fastest rate of clearance from all tissues in this series and displayed higher uptake in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor compared to (68)Ga-1 at 1 h post-injection. There was no significant difference in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor uptake for the three agents at 2 and 3 h post-injection. (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 demonstrated the highest uptake and retention in normal tissues, including kidney, blood, spleen, and salivary glands and PSMA-negative PC3 flu tumors up to 3 h post-injection. In this preclinical evaluation (68)Ga-2 had the most advantageous characteristics for PSMA-targeted PET imaging.

  14. Pre vivo, ex vivo and in vivo evaluations of [{sup 68}Ga]-EDTMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterhauser, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria) and Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria) and Hospital Pharmacy, General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at; Toegel, Stefan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Wadsak, Wolfgang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Lanzenberger, Rupert R. [Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Mien, Leonhard-Key [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Kuntner, Claudia [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, Austrian Research Centers, Seibersdorf 2443 (Austria); Wanek, Thomas [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, Austrian Research Centers, Seibersdorf 2443 (Austria); Eidherr, Harald [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Ettlinger, Dagmar E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Viernstein, Helmut [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Kluger, Rainer [Department of Orthopedics, Donauspital, Vienna 1220 (Austria); Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Kletter, Kurt [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)

    2007-05-15

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to develop a simple preparation method for [{sup 68}Ga]-EDTMP and to evaluate the applicability of [{sup 68}Ga]-EDTMP as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) bone imaging agent using pre vivo, ex vivo and in vivo models. Methods: [{sup 68}Ga]-EDTMP was prepared using [{sup 68}Ga]-gallium chloride eluted from the {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator and commercially available Multibone kits. Binding affinity to bone compartments was evaluated using a recently established pre vivo model. In vivo (microPET) and ex vivo experiments were performed in mice, and the results of which were compared with those obtained with [{sup 18}F]-fluoride. Results: [{sup 68}Ga]-EDTMP was accessible via simple kit preparation and predominantly accumulated in bone tissue in vivo, ex vivo and pre vivo. Binding to mineral bone was irreversible, and low binding was observed in organic bone. In vivo microPET evaluation revealed predominant uptake in bone with renal excretion. Compared with [{sup 18}F]-fluoride, the uptake was lower and the PET image quality was reduced. Conclusions: From the present evaluation, apart from the autonomy for PET centers without an onsite cyclotron, the advantage of [{sup 68}Ga]-EDTMP over [{sup 18}F]-fluoride is not apparent and the future clinical prospect of [{sup 68}Ga]-EDTMP remains speculative.

  15. 银杏GbPAL基因启动子表达载体的构建%Construction of Plant Expression Vector of PAL Promoter in Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金宝; 唐寅; 许锋; 程华; 李琳玲; 程水源

    2012-01-01

    为弄清GbPAL启动子调控类黄酮代谢的功能,采用双酶切方法,用BamH Ⅰ+HindⅢ将GbPALp与植物表达载体pBI121分别酶切纯化,通过T4 DNA连接酶将GbPALp片段连接到已切除35S启动子的植物表达载体pBI121上,并转化到农杆菌LBA4404上,然后进行菌落PCR及酶切鉴定.结果表明:扩增到的GbPALp片段成功引入了BamH Ⅰ和HindⅢ酶切位点,GbPALp酶切后与酶切前的条带大小一致;将酶切后的空质粒和引入酶切位点的目的片段进行连接转化后,含目的基因pBI121:GbPALp:LBA4404菌落培养成功.成功构建了GbPAL基因启动子真核表达载体pBI121:GbPALp.%The GbPALp and plant expression vector pBI121 were digested with BamH I + Hind Ⅲ , respectively. Then the purified GbPALp fragment was connected to the plant expression vector pBI121 without 35S promoter by T4 DNA ligase. Finally the pBI121 containing GbPAL gene promoter was successfully transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The transferred A. Tumefaciens LBA4404 with pBH2\\-.GbPALp was identified by PCR and enzyme digestion.

  16. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time......-division multiplexed with four 10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) channels, thus constituting a 50-Gb/s OTDM serial signal. Error-free performances of the synchronized RZ packet and demultiplexed packet from the aggregated 50-Gb/s OTDM signal are achieved....

  17. Eye Gaze Patterns in Conversations: There is More to Conversational Agents Than Meets the Eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Slagter, R.; Veer, van der G.C.; Nijholt, A.; Jacko, J.; Sears, A.; Beaudouin-Lafon, M.; Jacob, R.J.K.

    2001-01-01

    In multi-agent, multi-user environments, users as well as agents should have a means of establishing who is talking to whom. In this paper, we present an experiment aimed at evaluating whether gaze directional cues of users could be used for this purpose. Using an eye tracker, we measured subject ga

  18. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both...

  19. Detection of 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist;

    2013-01-01

    320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM is generated by rectangular filtering with a bandwidth of 320 GHz and received by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM is converted...

  20. 20 × 960-Gb/s Space-division-multiplexed 32QAM transmission over 60 km few-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiffer, V A J M; Leoni, P; Jung, Y; Surof, J; Kuschnerov, M; Veljanovski, V; Alam, S U; Richardson, D J; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Sun, Y; Corbett, B; Winfield, R; Calabrò, S; de Waardt, H

    2014-01-13

    We show transmission of 20 wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) × 960-Gb/s space-division-multiplexed 32QAM modulated channels (spectral efficiency (SE) of 15 bits/s/Hz) over 60 km of few-mode fiber (FMF) with inline few-mode EDFA (FM-EDFA). Soft-decision FEC was implemented and used to achieve error-free transmission.

  1. Optical Switching and Detection of 640 Gb/s OTDM Data Packets Transmitted over 50 km of fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Agis, Fausto; Hu, Hao; Luo, Jun;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate 1X4 optical-packet switching with error-free transmission of 640 Gb/s single-wavelength OTDM data-packets including instantaneous clock extraction and short pulse generation for optical time-demultiplexing based on a cavity-less pulse source....

  2. Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 bacteriophages as novel human-associated faecal indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phages infecting human-associated Bacteroides fragilis (GB-124 phages) have been employed in the European Union (EU) to identify human fecal pollution, but their utility for U.S. was unclear. Primary sewage effluent samples were collected seasonally from seven wastewater treatme...

  3. Effect of Initial Chirping and Pulse Shape on 10 Gb/s Optical Pulse Transmission in Birefringent Nonlinear Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical method to solve the problem related with theinteractive effect of dispersion (both chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion) and nonlinearity on optical pulse transmission is present. Evolutions of pulses with various initial chirping and shape at bit-rate of 10 Gb/s are simulated and compared. Gaussian pulse with appropriate prechirping is propitious for high bit-rate transmission.

  4. Modeling the green building (GB) investment decisions of developers and end-users with transaction costs (TCs) considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Q.K.; Chan, E.H.W.; Visscher , H.J.; Lehmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper, through a “regenerative” lens, has focused upon a new conceptual game system involving transaction costs (TCs) for creating a more accessible green buildings (GB) market. Individual stakeholders steadfastly guard their own interests in any investment decision, which seldom considers any p

  5. High Spectrum Narrowing Tolerant 112 Gb/s Dual Polarization QPSK Optical Communication Systems Using Digital Adaptive Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich;

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate high spectrum narrowing tolerant 112-Gb/s QPSK polarization multiplex system based on digital adaptive channel estimation method. The proposed algorithm is able to detect severe spectrum-narrowed signal even with 20GHz 3dB bandwidth....

  6. 6Gb/s SAS部署推进存储技术飞速发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry Mason

    2011-01-01

    6Gb/s SAS市场正处于全面发展的鼎盛时期。服务器主板纷纷采用6Gb/s SAS器件或RAID控制器。支持SATA和SAS驱动器连接增量扩展的SAS扩展器在系统和驱动器存储设备领域获得大量部署。SAS可保护原有中间件投资,正快速改变主流服务器市场,并上升为领先的企业存储互联技术。从3Gb/s SAS到6Gb/s SAS的演进还在不断发展,并新增了标准化分区和扩展器发现等增强型企业级功能。新添加的改进功能将有助于开辟全新的市场和应用领域,从而推动SAS进一步向高可用性存储解决方案方向发展。

  7. Optical wavelength conversion over 18 nm at 2.5 Gb/s by DBR-laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, T.; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Mikkelsen, B.;

    1993-01-01

    Wavelength conversion over 18 nm is demonstrated at 2.5 Gb/s without change in BER performance. The converting element is a three-section distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser operating by gain saturation. Both IM-to-IM and IM-to-FM conversion schemes are investigated. For the latter scheme...

  8. Monitoring of Belvedere Glacier using a wide angle GB-SAR interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noferini, Linhsia; Mecatti, Daniele; Macaluso, Giovanni; Pieraccini, Massimiliano; Atzeni, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Belvedere Glacier, east face of the Mount Rosa, has experienced drastic changes in flow regime and morphology in the last years. Within the activities of the GALAHAD project funded by the European Commission, a ground-based SAR (GB-SAR) interferometer was employed on this glacier. Although based on the ground, the sensor works with the same principles as satellite radar interferometry measuring the deformation field of the illuminated surface. It was used for the first time on this glacier in 2004 and a new survey, here reported, was arranged last summer (2007). During this latter survey, the radar antenna moved around a vertical axis in order to illuminate a larger part of the glacier. It provided deformation maps of a wider part of the glacier every half an hour almost continually for 1 month. Finally, a procedure for building a digital elevation model (DEM) of the glacier was developed and the obtained DEM was compared with an available topographic map dated July 2005. Large differences in the ice surface height appear from the comparison confirming the overall reduction of the ice mass.

  9. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Kong, D; Palushani, E; Galili, M; Mulvad, H C H; Oxenløwe, L K

    2014-01-13

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM signal with its characteristic sinc-shaped time-domain trace is converted into an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal with sinc-shaped spectra for each subcarrier. The subcarrier frequency spacing of the converted OFDM signal is designed to be larger than the transform-limited case, here 10 times greater than the symbol rate of each subcarrier. Therefore, only passive filtering is needed to extract the subcarriers of the converted OFDM signal. In addition, a polarization diversity scheme is used in the four-wave mixing (FWM) based TD-OFT, and less than 0.5 dB polarization sensitivity is demonstrated in the OTDM receiver.

  10. Pathogenicity of GB virus C on virus hepatitis and hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Fu Zhu; Li-Min Yin; Peng Li; Jian Huang; Hui Zhuang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the pathogenicity of GB virus C (GBV-C)on liver and the effects of its co-infection on the clinical features and prognosis of patients with hepatitis B and C.METHODS: Cross-sectional study was carried out in 413patients with acute, chronic hepatitis B or liver cirrhosis,and in 67 hemodialysis patients. A 20-month prospective cohort study was carried out in 95 hepatitis B and 80 hepatitis C patients. A reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) of the 5′-noncoding region was used to detect circulating GBV-C RNA. Liver function was determined by an automated analyzer for all patients.RESULTS: The prevalence of GBV-C in the high-risk populations with the virus transmitted via blood was high,ranging from 16.2 to 28.8%. Co-infection with GBV-C in hepatitis B patients did not affect the clinical features of the disease or liver function. The dialysis patients infected with GBV-C alone did not develop functional changes to the liver.Prospective cohort study showed that GBV-C co-infection did not affect the clinical features, prognosis or negative serum conversion rate of chronic hepatitis B and C.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that GBV-C has no marked pathogenicity on liver, so it may not be a hepatitis virus.

  11. Discussion on National Standard GB 6167 "Methods for Testing the Performance of Airborne Particle Counter"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊杰; 朱能; 王君山

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particle counters are used widely to test the air cleanliness of cleanrooms. The current Chinese national standard of airborne particle counter calibration, GB6167-85, Methods for Testing the Performance of Dust Particle Counter, has kept the same for more than 10 years. It is necessary to be amended in time.This paper discusses the differences between Chinese airborne particle counter calibration procedure and other new calibration procedures in other countries, and points out the defects of current Chinese national standard.The draft of revised Chinese National Standard is also introduced. The new revised standard, Methods for Testing the Performance of Airborne Particle Counter, covers two level calibrations:primary and secondary. Primary calibration procedure includes testing 6 kinds of performances: sample airflow rate, false counting, particle size accuracy and resolution, particle counting stability, counting efficiency and particle concentration limit. Secondary calibration is a relative comparing test method to verify the counting accuracy of calibrated airborne particle counters. Finally, how to keep the calibration traceability is suggested.

  12. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  13. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  14. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  15. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light.

  16. Investigation on the bit error rate performance of 40Gb/s space optical communication system based on BPSK scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Li, Bowen; Zhang, Xuping; Song, Yuejiang; Liu, Jia; Tu, Guojie

    2015-08-01

    Space optical communication technique is attracting increasingly more attention because it owns advantages such as high security and great communication quality compared with microwave communication. As the space optical communication develops, people have already achieved the communication at data rate of Gb/s currently. The next generation for space optical system have goal of the higher data rate of 40Gb/s. However, the traditional optical communication system cannot satisfy it when the data rate of system is at such high extent. This paper will introduce ground optical communication system of 40Gb/s data rate as to achieve the space optical communication at high data rate. Speaking of the data rate of 40Gb/s, we must apply waveguide modulator to modulate the optical signal and magnify this signal by laser amplifier. Moreover, the more sensitive avalanche photodiode (APD) will be as the detector to increase the communication quality. Based on communication system above, we analyze character of communication quality in downlink of space optical communication system when data rate is at the level of 40Gb/s. The bit error rate (BER) performance, an important factor to justify communication quality, versus some parameter ratios is discussed. From results, there exists optimum ratio of gain factor and divergence angle, which shows the best BER performance. We can also increase ratio of receiving diameter and divergence angle for better communication quality. These results can be helpful to comprehend the character of optical communication system at high data rate and contribute to the system design.

  17. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  18. Influence of GaAsP Insertion Layers on Performance of InGaAsP/InGaP/AlGaAs Quantum-Well Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yu-Lian; CHEN Liang-Hui; LIAN Peng; MA Wen-Quan; WANG Qing; WU Xu-Ming; HE Guo-Rong; LI Hui; WANG Xiao-Dong; SONG Guo-Feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report on the use of very thin GaAsP insertion layers to improve the performance of an InGaAsP/InGaP/AlGaAs single quantum-well laser structure grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition.

  19. GaInNAs laser gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  20. k190gb.m77t and k190gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-90-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 06/14/1990 to 06/24/1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with SINS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise K-1-90-GB. The cruise was conducted in Glacier...

  1. a194gb.m77t and a194gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity A-1-94-GB in Prince William Sound, Yakutat Bay, Glacier Bay and Icy Strait, Alaska from 08/08/1994 to 08/17/1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise A-1-94-GB. The cruise was conducted in Prince...

  2. t198gb.m77t and t198gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity T-1-98-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 08/21/1998 to 09/01/1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise T-1-98-GB. The cruise was conducted in Glacier...

  3. Hydrogenation of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P. D., E-mail: pdhodgson@hotmail.co.uk; Hayne, M.; Zhuang, Q. D. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Ahmad Kamarudin, M. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Birindelli, S.; Capizzi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-08-25

    We present the results of photoluminescence measurements on hydrogenated type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot/ring (QD/QR) samples at temperatures ranging from 4.2 K to 400 K. Hydrogenation is found to suppress optically induced charge depletion (associated with the presence of carbon acceptors in this system). A redshift of the QD\\QR emission energy of a few tens of meV is observed at temperatures ≥300 K, consistent with a reduction in average occupancy by ∼1 hole. These effects are accompanied by a reduction in PL intensity post-hydrogenation. We conclude that although hydrogenation may have neutralized the carbon acceptors, multiple hole occupancy of type-II GaSb/GaAs QD/QRs is very likely a precondition for intense emission, which would make extending the wavelength significantly beyond 1300 nm at room temperature difficult.

  4. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R.; Allemann, Marco; Allen, Eric E.; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.

    2017-01-01

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for fatty acid biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the fatty acid profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph. PMID:28119683

  5. Integrated MEMS-based variable optical attenuator and 10Gb/s receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, James; Cusin, Pierre; Fettig, H.; Hickey, Ryan; Wylde, James

    2005-03-01

    MEMS devices can be successfully commercialized in favour of competing technologies only if they offer an advantage to the customer in terms of lower cost or increased functionality. There are limited markets where MEMS can be manufactured cheaper than similar technologies due to large volumes: automotive, printing technology, wireless communications, etc. However, success in the marketplace can also be realized by adding significant value to a system at minimal cost or leverging MEMS technology when other solutions simply will not work. This paper describes a thermally actuated, MEMS based, variable optical attenuator that is co-packaged with existing opto-electronic devices to develop an integrated 10Gb/s SONET/SDH receiver. The configuration of the receiver opto-electronics and relatively low voltage availability (12V max) in optical systems bar the use of LCD, EO, and electro-chromic style attenuators. The device was designed and fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting material. The design and performance of the device (displacement, power consumption, reliability, physical geometry) was defined by the receiver parameters geometry. This paper will describe how these design parameters (hence final device geometry) were determined in light of both the MEMS device fabrication process and the receiver performance. Reference will be made to the design tools used and the design flow which was a joint effort between the MEMS vendor and the end customer. The SOI technology offered a robust, manufacturable solution that gave the required performance in a cost-effective process. However, the singulation of the devices required the development of a new singulation technique that allowed large volumes of silicon to be removed during fabrication yet still offer high singulation yields.

  6. 42.8 Gb/s ASK homodyne receiver using standard DFB lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.; Mohr, D.; Datta, S.; Wree, C.; Bhandare, S.; Joshi, A.

    2009-05-01

    Optical synchronous coherent detection is attracting greater attention within the defense and security community because it allows linear recovery both of the amplitude and phase of optical signals. Fiber-based transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion can be compensated in the electrical domain. Additionally, synchronous detection offers the potential of improved receiver sensitivity and extended reach versus direct or interferometric detection schemes. 28 Gbaud/112 Gb/s and 42.8 Gbaud transmissions are now being considered in fiber networks worldwide. Due to the lack of broadband high frequency components centered at IF values of 56 GHz and 86 GHz, respectively, the coherent heterodyne approach is not viable for these baud rates. The homodyne approach remains one of the choices available to fully exploit the advantages of synchronous coherent detection at these transmission data rates. In order to implement the homodyne receiver, optical phase locking between the signal and local oscillator laser (LO) is required. Digital approaches for this task rely upon very complex, fast, and high power-consumption chips. A homodyne receiver using an analog approach for phase locking would allow for increased system simplicity at a lower cost. Use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) DFB lasers embedded within the receiver would also increase system feasibility for defense applications. We demonstrate synchronous demodulation of a 42.8 Gbaud signal using an analog optical phase-locked loop. The homodyne system was optimized to use COTS DFB lasers having an aggregate linewidth of ~2 MHz. We also analyze the impact of uncompensated phase noise on receiver performance.

  7. Characteristic Analysis and Preparation of GaN Nanowires by Sol-gel Method%GaN纳米线的溶胶-凝胶法制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景钰洲; 王雪文; 杨怡; 赵武; 邓周虎

    2012-01-01

    GaN nanowires were successfully prepared by Sol-gel method, which is a low cost and easily operated method. The precursor sol was synthesized by using gallium nitrate as Ga source and citric acid as complexing agent. To whirl coating on Si (111) substrates covered with catalyst. GaN nanowires were formed in ammonia environment. Using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS to characterize and analyze GaN nanowires. The result shows that the nanowires prepared have good crystallinity and its morphology are good in 1000℃. We also study the growth mechanism of catalytically grown GaN nanowires.%采用低成本、易操作的溶胶-凝胶法制备高质量的GaN纳米线.以硝酸镓为镓源、柠檬酸为络合剂制备出前驱物溶胶,甩胶于覆有催化剂的Si(111)衬底上,在氨气气氛下制备出GaN纳米线.利用XRD、SEM、TEM、EDS等对GaN纳米线进行表征与分析,结果表明1000℃氨化温度下,制备出的纳米线结晶度好,形貌优.并研究了催化生长GaN纳米线的生长机理.

  8. 16×10 Gb/s WDM bidirectional gating in a semiconductor optical amplifier for optical cross connects exploiting network connection symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Clausen, Anders;

    2000-01-01

    In order to further reduce the number of gating elements in space switches, the performance of 10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) bidirectional semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gating is investigated, We demonstrate for the first time that a conventional SOA can be used for bidir...... for bidirectional WDM gating operation at 10 Gb/s by the use of holding light injection...

  9. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  10. Wavelength Conversion of a 9.35-Gb/s RZ OOK Signal in an InP Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s (9.35 Gb/s net rate) return-to-zero ON-OFF keying signal is demonstrated using a simple InP photonic crystal H0 nanocavity with Lorentzian line shape. The shifting of the resonance induced by the generation of free-carriers enables the pump intensity modulation...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea ananatis GB1, a Plant-Growth-Promoting Hydrocarbonoclastic Root Endophyte, Isolated at a Diesel Fuel Phytoremediation Site Planted with Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Thijs, Sofie; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Monterroso, Carmela; Kidd, Petra Suzan; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-02-25

    We report the 4.76-Mb draft genome of Pantoea ananatis GB1, a Gram-negative bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from the roots of poplars planted for phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated plume at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain GB1 promotes plant growth in various hosts and metabolizes hydrocarbons.

  12. SOA-based clock recovery and demultiplexing in a lab trial of 640-Gb/s OTDM transmission over 50-km fibre link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangdiongga, E.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Waardt, H. de;

    2007-01-01

    We report for the first time SOA-based clock recovery and demultiplexing of 40-Gb/s channels from 640 Gb/s OTDM signals over 50-km link. The system operates at low power and has the potential to be integrated....

  13. Discussion about the Issues of Standard GB/T21417.1-2008 for Infra-Red Ear Thermometers%红外耳温计标准GB/T21417.1-2008问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩溟; 唐振宏; 窦维波; 王亚棋

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了现行红外耳温计国家推荐标准GB/T21417.1-2008与欧标BS EN 12470-5:2003的主要区别,介绍了在执行标准时对部分条款的理解,为红外耳温计的生产制造、日常检测和标准修订提供参考。%The main distinctions between the National Standard GB/T21417.1-2008 for infra-red ear thermometers and the European Standard BS EN 12470-5:2003 were analyzed in this paper. The comprehension of some terms in the standard was given, which offered references for manufacturing and daily detection of the infra-red ear thermometers as well the revision of related standards.

  14. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gD function in a redundant fashion to promote secondary envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David C; Wisner, Todd W; Wright, Catherine C

    2011-05-01

    Egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other herpesviruses from cells involves extensive modification of cellular membranes and sequential envelopment and deenvelopment steps. HSV glycoproteins are important in these processes, and frequently two or more glycoproteins can largely suffice in any step. Capsids in the nucleus undergo primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), and then enveloped virus particles undergo deenvelopment by fusing with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Capsids delivered into the cytoplasm then undergo secondary envelopment, involving trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes. The deenvelopment step involves HSV glycoproteins gB and gH/gL acting in a redundant fashion. This fusion has features common to the fusion that occurs between the virion envelope and cellular membranes when HSV enters cells, a process requiring gB, gD, and gH/gL. Whether HSV gD also participates (in a redundant fashion with gB or gH/gL) in deenvelopment has not been characterized. Secondary envelopment in the cytoplasm is known to involve HSV gD and gE/gI, also acting in a redundant fashion. Whether gB might also contribute to secondary envelopment, collaborating with gD and gE/gI, is also not clear. To address these questions, we constructed an HSV double mutant lacking gB and gD. The HSV gB(-)/gD(-) mutant exhibited no substantial defects in nuclear egress. In contrast, secondary envelopment was markedly reduced, and there were numerous unenveloped capsids that accumulated in the cytoplasm, as well as increased numbers of partially enveloped capsids and morphologically aberrant enveloped particles with thicker, oblong tegument layers. These defects were different from those observed with HSV gD(-)/gE(-)/gI(-) mutants, which accumulated capsids in large, aggregated masses in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that HSV gB functions in secondary envelopment, apparently acting downstream of gE/gI.

  15. RTTOV-gb - adapting the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV for the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Hocking, James; Martinet, Pauline; Kneifel, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs) offer a new capability to provide continuous observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer. Thus, they are potential candidates to supplement radiosonde network and satellite data to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through a variational assimilation of their data. However in order to assimilate MWR observations, a fast radiative transfer model is required and such a model is not currently available. This is necessary for going from the model state vector space to the observation space at every observation point. The fast radiative transfer model RTTOV is well accepted in the NWP community, though it was developed to simulate satellite observations only. In this work, the RTTOV code has been modified to allow for simulations of ground-based upward-looking microwave sensors. In addition, the tangent linear, adjoint, and K-modules of RTTOV have been adapted to provide Jacobians (i.e., the sensitivity of observations to the atmospheric thermodynamical state) for ground-based geometry. These modules are necessary for the fast minimization of the cost function in a variational assimilation scheme. The proposed ground-based version of RTTOV, called RTTOV-gb, has been validated against accurate and less time-efficient line-by-line radiative transfer models. In the frequency range commonly used for temperature and humidity profiling (22-60 GHz), root-mean-square brightness temperature differences are smaller than typical MWR uncertainties (˜ 0.5 K) at all channels used in this analysis. Brightness temperatures (TBs) computed with RTTOV-gb from radiosonde profiles have been compared with nearly simultaneous and co-located ground-based MWR observations. Differences between simulated and measured TBs are below 0.5 K for all channels except for the water vapor band, where most of the uncertainty comes from instrumental errors. The Jacobians calculated with the K-module of RTTOV-gb

  16. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tyler@medbio.umu.se [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Johansson, Anders [Department of Odontology, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Karlsson, Terese [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  17. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  18. Photocurrent Properties of the AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN Multilayer Structure on Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江若琏; 赵作明; 陈鹏; 席冬娟; 沈波; 张荣; 郑有炓

    2001-01-01

    Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N multilayer structures and GaN monolayer structures with AIN as the buffer layers were grown on Si substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. The photocurrent responses of these structures were measured and analysed. The multilayer structures showed a high response in a narrow range of wavelengths. The peak wavelength is located at 365 nm at which the responsivity is as high as 24 A/W under 5.5 V bias; this is much higher than the GaN monolayer structure. This high responsivity results mainly from the high polarization electric field in the GaN layer of the Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N heterostructure.

  19. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapleton, Jack T; Foung, Steven; Muerhoff, A Scott;

    2011-01-01

    -D) was discovered in bats. Only GBV-B, a second species within the genus Hepacivirus (type species hepatitis C virus), has been shown to cause hepatitis; it causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. The other GB viruses have however not been assigned to a genus within the family Flaviviridae....... Based on phylogenetic relationships, genome organization and pathogenic features of the GB viruses, we propose to classify GBV-A-like viruses, GBV-C and GBV-D as members of a fourth genus in the family Flaviviridae, named Pegivirus (pe, persistent; g, GB or G). We also propose renaming 'GB' viruses......In 1967, it was reported that experimental inoculation of serum from a surgeon (G.B.) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis. In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae, named GBV-A and GBV-B, were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation...

  20. 棉花不同GbU6启动子截短克隆及功能鉴定%Cloning and Functional Analysis of Different Truncated GbU6 Promoters in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷建峰; 李月; 徐新霞; 阿尔祖古丽·塔什; 蒲艳; 张巨松; 刘晓东

    2016-01-01

    U6启动子是CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体系统中驱动sgRNA转录的重要元件,而使用较短序列的启动子也是构建CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体的基本要求之一.将已经克隆的海岛棉GbU6-5P启动子(长度为1166 bp),采用Transfer PCR方法成功地截出6个长度不同的U6启动子,其长度分别为672、468、358、280、202和105 bp,并分别构建了6个启动子驱动的GUS融合植物表达载体.将构建好的6个GbU6-5Ps::GUS-pCAMBIA1300与初始克隆的GbU6-5P::GUS-pCAMBIA1300植物表达载体一起利用农杆菌真空渗透转化法分别转染棉花花粉.GUS组织化学染色显示,克隆到的7个不同截短大小的GbU6-5P启动子均能驱动GUS基因在棉花花粉中转录,棉花花粉被染成蓝色但颜色深浅存在显著差异.结果显示启动子长度越短,其转录活性越高.而且另外两种棉花U6启动子GbU6-1P和GbU6-7P也表现出类似的结果.本研究克隆了3个短小的、在棉花花粉细胞中具有转录功能的GbU6启动子.结果显示更短的U6启动子具有更高的转录活性,而且这一特点在不同U6启动子上具有共性.这预示着使用更短U6启动子不仅符合构建CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体的要求,而且会提高sgRNA的转录水平,进而可能提高基因组编辑效率.%U6 promoter is an important element for the transcription of sgRNA in the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Using a short promoter is also one of the basic requirements for the construction of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing vector. According to the sequence of GbU6-5P promoter cloned, six different truncated U6 promoters were successfully cloned using Transfer PCR method and their length were 672, 468, 358, 280, 202, and 105 bp, respectively. Together with GbU6-5P::GUS-pCAMBIA1300, GUS fusion expression vectors driven by corresponding truncated promoter were constructed and transformed into cotton pollen by the vacuum in filtration transformation method. Results of GUS

  1. Gibberellin biosynthesis in maize. Metabolic studies with GA{sub 15}, GA{sub 24}, GA{sub 25}, GA{sub 7}, and 2,3-dehydro-GA{sub 9}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Phinney, B.O.; Lange, T.; Croker, S.J.; Gaskin, P.; MacMillan, J.

    1999-11-01

    [17-{sup 14}C]-Labeled GA{sub 15}, GA{sub 24}, GA{sub 25}, GA{sub 7}, and 2,3-dehydro-GA{sub 9} were separately injected into normal, dwarf-1 (d1), and dwarf-5 (d5) seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.). Purified radioactive metabolites from the plant tissues were identified by sull-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention index data. The metabolites from GA{sub 15} were GA{sub 44}, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, GA{sub 113}, and GA{sub 15}-15,16-ene (artifact?). GA{sub 24} was metabolized to GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 17}. The metabolites from GA{sub 25} were GA{sub 17}, GA{sub 25} 16{alpha},17-H{sub 2}-17-OH, and HO-GA{sub 25} (hydroxyl position not determined). GA{sub 7} was metabolized to GA{sub 30}, GA{sub 3}, isoGA{sub 3} (artifact?), and trace amounts of GA{sub 7}-diene-diacid (artifact?). 2,3-Dehydro-GA{sub 9} was metabolized to GA{sub 5}, GA{sub 7} (trace amounts), 2,3-dehydro-GA{sub 10} (artifact?), GA{sub 31}, and GA{sub 62}. Their results provide additional in vivo evidence of a metabolic grid in maize (i.e., pathway convergence). The grid connects members of a putative, non-early 3,130hydroxylation branch pathway to the corresponding members of the previously documented early 13-hydroxylation branch pathway. The inability to detect the sequence GA{sub 12}{r{underscore}arrow} GA{sub 15} {r{underscore}arrow} GA{sub 24} {r{underscore}arrow} GA{sub 9} indicates that the non-early 3,13-hydroxylation pathway probably plays a minor role in the origin of bioactive gibberellins in maize.

  2. A new approach to grow C-doped GaN thick epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogova, D.; Siche, D.; Albrecht, M.; Irmscher, K.; Rost, H.J.; Fornari, R. [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Strasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Rudko, G.Yu. [V. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductors Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we employ a new method for growth of carbon-doped wurtzite crystalline GaN (GaN:C) based on vapour phase transport of Ga by the pseudohalide hydrogen cyanide HCN. GaN:C layers with a thicknesses from 10 to 100 {mu}m and up to 19 mm in size were grown from gallium melt and ammonia as feeding materials in a carbon-containing equipment. The properties of the GaN:C layers were characterized by low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL), High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and room-temperature Hall effect and Raman spectroscopy measurements. HRXRD studies demonstrated good crystalline quality of the thick GaN layers (the Rocking curve FWHMs are 570 arcsec for the (0004) reflection and 561 arcsec for the (10-14) reflection for 10 {mu}m thick samples). The LTPL and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the good optical and structural quality of the material. The carbon concentration measured by SIMS was 6x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, however, the room-temperature Hall effect experiments showed n-type conductivity. Carbon acceptor incorporation into GaN (from the transport agent) as well as the reason of its electrical overcompensation by unintentional impurities like oxygen and silicon is discussed. Ways of technological process improvement are proposed. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  4. Clock- and data-recovery IC with demultiplexer for a 2.5 Gb/s ATM physical layer controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Salama, C.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock-recovery is accom......A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock...

  5. All-optical clock recovery from 10-Gb/s NRZ data and NRZ to RZ format conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Yin; Yumei Yan; Yunfeng Zhou; Jian Wu; Jintong Lin

    2006-01-01

    A non-return-to-zero (NRZ) to pseudo-return-to-zero (PRZ) converter consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is proposed, by which the enhancement of clock frequency component and clock-to-data suppression ratio of the NRZ data are evidently achieved. Alloptical clock recovery from NRZ data at 10 Gb/s is successfully demonstrated with the proposed NRZ-to-PRZ converter and a mode-locked SOA fiber laser. Furthermore, NRZ-to-RZ format conversion of 10 Gb/s is realized by using the recovered clock as the control light of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer(TOAD), which further proves that the proposed clock recovery scheme is applicable.

  6. 100 Gb/s optical discrete multi-tone transceivers for intra- and inter-datacenter networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Ryo; Tanaka, Toshiki; Nishihara, Masato; Kai, Yutaka; Takahara, Tomoo; Liu, Bo; Li, Lei; Tao, Zhenning; Rasmussen, Jens C.

    2016-03-01

    Discrete multi-tone (DMT) technology is an attractive modulation technology for short-reach application due to its high spectral efficiency and simple configuration. In this paper, we first explain the features of DMT technology then discuss the impact of fiber dispersion and chirp on the frequency responses of the DMT signal and the importance in the relationship between chirp and the optical transmission band. Next, we explain our experiments of 100-Gb/s DMT transmission of 10 km in the O-band using directly modulated lasers for low-cost application. In an inter-datacenter network of more than several tens of kilometers, fiber dispersion mainly limits system performance. We also discuss our experiment of 100-Gb/s DMT transmission up to 100 km in the C-band without a dispersion compensator by using vestigial sideband spectrum shaping and nonlinear compensation.

  7. 1.25-3.125 Gb/s per user PON with RSOA as phase modulator for statistical wavelength ONU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guang Yong; Polo, Victor; Lerín, Adolfo; Tabares, Jeison; Cano, Iván N.; Prat, Josep

    2015-12-01

    We report a new scheme to support, cost efficiently, ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) for optical access networks. As validating experiment, we apply phase modulation of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) at the ONU with a single DFB, and simplified coherent receiver at OLT for upstream. We extend the limited 3-dB modulation bandwidth of available uncooled To-can packaged RSOA (~400 MHz) and operate it at 3.125 Gb/s with the optimal performance for phase modulation using small and large signal measurement characteristics. The optimal condition is selected at input power of 0 dBm, with 70 mA bias condition. The sensitivities at 3.125 Gb/s (at BER=10-3) for heterodyne and intradyne detection reach -34.3 dBm and -38.8 dBm, respectively.

  8. A cost-effective 100-Gb/s transmitter with low-speed optoelectronic devices and high spectral efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junming Gao; Qingjiang Chang; Tao Wang; Yikai Su

    2008-01-01

    A 100-Gb/s high-speed optical transmitter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on frequency-quadrupling technique, two sub-channels with a fixed 50-GHz spacing are obtained from one laser source. Using return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying (RZ-DQPSK) modulation format and polarization multiplexing (PolMux), only low-speed electronic devices of 12.5 GHz are needed for the 100-Gb/s transmitter. This eliminates the need of ultrahigh-speed optoelectronic devices and thus greatly reduces the cost. The experimental results show that this transmitter can achieve good performance in dispersion tolerance of a 25-km single mode fiber (SMF).

  9. Demostration of 520 Gb/s/λ pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM-OFDM signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yu, Jianjun; Cao, Zizheng; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Junwen; Li, Xinying

    2016-02-08

    In this paper, we successfully transmit 8 × 520 Gb/s pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal over 840 km SMF with BER under 2.4 × 10(-2). We discuss how to obtain accurate tranceivers' response during pre-equalization for DFT-spread OFDM with coherent detection and we find conventional OFDM symbols training sequences (TSs) outperform DFT-spread OFDM symbols TSs in obtaining channel response for pre-equalization and equalization. Additionally, the optimal IFFT/FFT size is explored for the pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM-OFDM transmission systems. It is the first time to realize 400 Gb/s/λ net rate OFDM signal transmission.

  10. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P. M.; Kleimeyer, J.; Rowland, Brad

    2003-08-01

    Quantitative, moderately high resolution (0.1 cm-1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of nitrogen broadened (1 atm N2) vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, Nitrogen Mustard (HN3), Sulfur Mustard (HD), and Lewisite (L). The spectra are acquired using a heated, flow-through White Cell1 of 5.6 meter optical path length. Each reported spectrum represents a statistical fit to Beer’s law, which allows for a rigorous calculation of uncertainty in the absorption coefficients. As part of an ongoing collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cross-laboratory validation is a critical aspect of this work. In order to identify possible errors in the Dugway flow-through system, quantitative spectra of isopropyl alcohol from both NIST and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are compared to similar data taken at Dugway proving Grounds (DPG).

  11. GaAs-MnAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, Janusz [MAX-Lab, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Siusys, Aloyzas; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Reszka, Anna; Kowalski, Bogdan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kovacs, Andras; Kasama, Takeshi [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Institute for Microstructure Research, Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Different strategies for obtaining nanowires (NWs) with ferromagnetic properties using the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown nanostructures combining GaAs and Mn were investigated. Four types of structures have been studied: (i) self-catalyzed GaAs:Mn NWs grown at low temperatures on GaAs(100) substrates; (ii) GaAs:Mn NWs grown at high temperatures on Si(100) substrates; (iii) GaAs-GaMnAs core-shell NW structures; (iv) GaAs-MnAs core-shell NW structures grown on Si(100). Structures of types (i), (iii), and (iv) exhibit ferromagnetic properties. Right: Scanning electron microscopy image of Mn doped GaAs NWs with Ga droplets at the tops, grown by MBE on oxidized Si(100) substrate in the autocatalytic growth mode. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Scaling single-wavelength optical interconnects to 180 Gb/s with PAM-M and pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dris, Stefanos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Faced with surging datacenter traffic demand, system designers are turning to multi-level optical modulation with direct detection as the means of reaching 100 Gb/s in a single optical lane; a further upgrade to 400 Gb/s is envisaged through wavelength-multiplexing of multiple 100 Gb/s strands. In terms of modulation formats, PAM-4 and PAM-8 are considered the front-runners, striking a good balance between bandwidth-efficiency and implementation complexity. In addition, the emergence of energy-efficient, high-speed CMOS digital-to-analog converters (DACs) opens up new possibilities: Spectral shaping through digital filtering will allow squeezing even more data through low-cost, low-bandwidth electro-optic components. In this work we demonstrate an optical interconnect based on an EAM that is driven directly with sub-volt electrical swing by a 65 GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Low-voltage drive is particularly attractive since it allows direct interfacing with the switch/server ASIC, eliminating the need for dedicated, power-hungry and expensive electrical drivers. Single-wavelength throughputs of 180 and 120 Gb/s are experimentally demonstrated with 60 Gbaud optical PAM-8 and PAM-4 respectively. Successful transmission over 1250 m SMF is achieved with direct-detection, using linear equalization via offline digital signal processing in order to overcome the strong bandwidth limitation of the overall link (~20 GHz). The suitability of Nyquist pulse shaping for optical interconnects is also investigated experimentally with PAM-4 and PAM-8, at a lower symbol rate of 40 Gbaud (limited by the sampling rate of the AWG). To the best of our knowledge, the rates achieved are the highest ever using optical PAM-M formats.

  13. 粮食作物种子第1部分:禾谷类(GB 4404.1-2008)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 范围 GB 4404的本部分规定了稻(Oryza sativa)、玉米(Zea mays)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)、大麦(Hordeum vulgate)、高粱(Sorghum bicolor)、粟(Setaris italica)和黍(Panicum miliaceum)种子的质量要求、检验方法和检验规则.

  14. Comparison of seismic actions and structural design requirements in Chinese Code GB 50011 and International Standard ISO 3010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚勇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the Chinese Code GB50011-2001 and the International Standard ISO3010: 2001(E), emphasizing the similarities and differences related to design requirements, seismic actions and analytical approaches. Similarities include: earthquake return period, conceptual design, site classification, structural strength and ductility requirements, deformation limits, response spectra, seismic analysis procedures, isolation and energy dissipation,and nonstructural elements. Differences exist in the following areas: seismic levels, earthquake loading, mode damping factors and structural control.

  15. 40-Gb/s star 16-QAM transmitter based on single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junming Gao; Xinyu Xu; Qingjiang Chang; Yikai Su

    2009-01-01

    We propose a 40-Gb/s star 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) transmitter using a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM). This transmitter is demonstrated through experiment and simulation and shows the advantage of simplicity for implementation. Simulation results indicate that error free performance could be achieved for the generated signal after 80-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission with coherent detection scheme.

  16. 25 Gb/s transmission over 820 m of MMF using a multimode launch from an integrated silicon photonics transceiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Bickham, Scott R; Liu, Hai-Feng; Dosunmu, Olufemi I; Hurley, Jason E; Li, Ming-Jun

    2014-01-27

    A new high bandwidth bend-insensitive MMF optimized for 1310 nm is designed and characterized. 25 Gb/s transmission over a record 820 m length using a multimode launch from an integrated SiPh transceiver at 1310 nm through the new fiber is demonstrated with a power penalty of 3.4 dB at 10(-12) BER. Detailed characteristics of the fiber and transceiver are presented along with BER measurements.

  17. Experimental demonstration of 110-Gb/s unsynchronized band-multiplexed superchannel coherent optical OFDM/OQAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Tao; Li, Haibo; Zhang, Xuebing; Li, Cai; Li, Chao; Hu, Rong; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Xu; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Qi; Yu, Shaohua

    2013-09-23

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the first 110-Gb/s multi-band superchannel coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM/OQAM) system. Unlike the conventional orthogonal band-multiplexed OFDM system, no timing or frequency synchronization is required for the OFDM/OQAM system. We further investigate the influence of guard band, and find that very trivial guard band spacing (OFDM system.

  18. Novel Preclinical and Radiopharmaceutical Aspects of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: A New PET Tracer for Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of prostate cancer lesions by PET imaging of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has gained highest clinical impact during the last years. 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC represents a successful novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has recently demonstrated its suitability in individual first-in-man studies. The radiometal chelator HBED-CC used in this molecule represents a rather rarely used acyclic complexing agent with chemical characteristics favourably influencing the biological functionality of the PSMA inhibitor. The simple replacement of HBED-CC by the prominent radiometal chelator DOTA was shown to dramatically reduce the in vivo imaging quality of the respective 68Ga-labelled PSMA-targeted tracer proving that HBED-CC contributes intrinsically to the PSMA binding of the Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx pharmacophore. Owing to the obvious growing clinical impact, this work aims to reflect the properties of HBED-CC as acyclic radiometal chelator and presents novel preclinical data and relevant aspects of the radiopharmaceutical production process of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.

  19. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  20. Design and performance of clock-recovery GaAs ICs for high-speed optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuhki; Sano, Eiichi; Nakamura, Makoto; Ishihara, Noboru; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Takashi

    1993-05-01

    Design and performance of clock-recovery GaAs ICs are presented. Four kinds of ICs were developed: a limiting amplifier, a tuning amplifier, a rectifier, and a differentiator. The cascaded limiting amplifier together with a tuning amplifier achieved a 58-dB gain and a 10-degree phase deviation with 20-dB input dynamic range at 10 GHz. A clock-recovery circuit successfully extracts a low-jitter 10-GHz clock signal of 1-dBm constant power from 10-Gb/s NRZ pseudorandom bit streams using a pulse pattern generator.

  1. Mass fragmentographic assay of nanogram amounts of the antidepressant drug mianserin hydrochloride (Org GB 94) in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, J J; Koppens, P C; van Hal, H J

    1977-05-01

    For the assay of the antidepressant compound mianserin hydrochloride (Org GB 94) in human plasma, a mass fragmentographic method, using the deuterated analogue as internal standard and a high-performance liquid chromatographie sample clean-up procedure has been developed. The assay specifications obtained are a lower limit for reliable measurements of 1 ng/ml, and accuracy of ca. 0.01 ng/ml, a precision of 6--7% and a capacity of about 60 samples per day. The applicability of the assay method is illustrated by measurements of single-dose and steady-state plasma levels in clinical experiments, demonstrating the possibility of monitoring plasma levels during at least 24 h after a single dose of 15 mg of Org GB 94. The mean steady-state plasma levels after a daily dose of 3 X 20 mg of Org GB 94 appeared to be remarkably constant with time: 38, 36 and 34 ng/ml after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment of 18 depressed patients.

  2. Electroacupuncture at Qiuxu (GB 40) for Treatment of Migraine——A Clinical Multicentral Random Controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-sheng; MA Xiao-shun; SHI Jing; WANG Yao-min; LI Yong-fang; YUAN Jun; LI Mei; ZHENG Li-xing; ZHANG Xiang-jian; WANG Shao-jin; GAO Jian-ying; LI Xiao-feng; HUO Yong-li

    2009-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at Qiuxu (GB 40) for treatment of migraine so as to provide clinical evidence for compilation of the Acupoints' Dictionary of the People's Republic of China. Methods: 275 migraine patients admitted in 3 hospitals were randomly divided into a treatment group treated by EA at Qiuxu (GB 40),and a control group treated by EA at Tianshu (ST 25). The indexes of the migraine symptoms and the 5-HT level were observed in both the groups before and after treatment. Results: There was an significant difference in VAS score between the two groups of the 3 clinical centers (P<0.01). The therapeutic effects of a 4-week treatment were much better in the treatment group than that of the control group. The 3-month follow-up survey showed that the long-term effects were in favor of the treatment group of the first and third clinical centers,though no significant difference was found in the treatment group of the second clinical center as compared with the control group. The results from the 6-month follow-up survey showed better effects in the treatment group of all the 3 clinical centers.Conclusion: EA at Qiuxu (GB 40) may show effect for migraine.

  3. GB-InSAR monitoring and observational method for landslide emergency management: the Montaguto earthflow (AV, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, F.; Gigli, G.; Fanti, R.; Casagli, N.

    2015-12-01

    On 10 March 2010, due to the heavy rainfall that occurred on the previous days, the Montaguto earthflow reactivated, involving the road SS 90 "Delle Puglie", as had happened previously in May 2005 and in September 2009, and reaching the Roma-Bari railway. This determined a special attention of the National Civil Protection Department and a widespread monitoring and analysis program was initiated. A monitoring activity using GB-InSAR (Ground Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) system began, in order to investigate the landslide kinematics, to plan urgent safety measures for risk mitigation and to design long term stabilization work. In this paper the GB-InSAR monitoring system results and its applications in the Observational Method (OM) approach are presented. The paper also highlights how the OM based on the GB-InSAR technique can produce savings in cost and time on engineering projects, without compromising safety, and how it can also benefit the geotechnical community by increasing scientific knowledge. This study focuses on the very much active role played by the monitoring activities, in both the design and plan modifications; with a special consideration for the emergency phase.

  4. Systematic identification of rhythmic genes reveals camk1gb as a new element in the circadian clockwork.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Tovin

    Full Text Available A wide variety of biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes are known to have daily rhythms driven by an endogenous circadian clock. While extensive research has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that constitute the circadian clock, the links between this clock and dependent processes have remained elusive. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and DNA microarrays to systematically identify clock-controlled genes in the zebrafish pineal gland. In addition to a comprehensive view of the expression pattern of known clock components within this master clock tissue, this approach has revealed novel potential elements of the circadian timing system. We have implicated one rhythmically expressed gene, camk1gb, in connecting the clock with downstream physiology of the pineal gland. Remarkably, knockdown of camk1gb disrupts locomotor activity in the whole larva, even though it is predominantly expressed within the pineal gland. Therefore, it appears that camk1gb plays a role in linking the pineal master clock with the periphery.

  5. [Development of immunoenzyme methods for detecting antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus gB glycoprotein in swine serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenkov, O S

    2000-01-01

    Four ELISA methods have been developed for detecting antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) glycoprotein gB. Indirect ELISA is based on affinity-purified gB (affi-gB-ELISA); three blocking ELISAs: indirect blocking ELISA (lbgB-ELISA), direct blocking ELISA (db-gB-ELISA), and two-site "sandwich" ELISA (sb-gB-ELISA) are based on monoclonal antibodies to conservative immunodominant epitopes of gB. The specificities and sensitivities of ELISAs were compared with each other and with indirect ELISA based on purified ADV virions (vir-ELISA). Affi-gB ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA possess 100% sensitivity, ib-gB-ELISA 98% sensitivity, and vir-ELISA 93% sensitivity. Affi-gB ELISA, ib-gB-ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA possess 100% specificity and vir-ELISA 92% specificity. The efficiency of detection of ADV-specific antibodies by affi-gB ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA was comparable to that of analogous commercial test. Since db-gB-ELISA is easier to perform than affi-gB-ELISA or sb-gB-ELISA, it is concluded to be the most appropriate test for detecting pigs infected with ADV among non-vaccinated animals.

  6. Integrating GB and US census microdata for studying the impact of family migration on partnered women's labour market status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P; Cooke, T; Halfacree, K; Smith, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the problems in integrating different data sets for social science research. A cross-national analysis of the effects of family migration on labor market participation rates for female partners was used as an example to concretize these problems. The data used in the cross national analysis came from the 1991 British Census Sample of Anonymised Records and the 1990 United States Public Use Microdata Sample. The problems addressed were the following: data collection; manipulation and reliability; question type and definition; and measurement of individual and family variables. As part of the analysis, some empirical findings were also presented. Significant overall differences between the US and Great Britain (GB) samples were observed, particularly concerning graduate qualifications, marital and employment status, and ethnic group. There were higher numbers of married partners and full-time workers in the US sample, while female partners undertaking part-time employment were greater in GB. Furthermore, the US sample had more couples with a female graduate as compared with the GB sample who had a higher proportion of nongraduate couples. Finally, this paper recognized the importance of cross- national research in the evaluation of national ideological and institutional structures.

  7. Effect of different solvents extracts and mode of action of Loktanella spp. Gb03 on toxic dinoflagellate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Anmar; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the algicidal activity of Loktanella sp. Gb-03 bacterial extracts against toxic dinoflagellate, using various polar and non-polar solvents. For this purpose, six different solvent extracts were prepared (i.e. methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, chloroform, acetonitrile and water). Ratio of 1:100 (v:v) (extract to dinoflagellate culture) of each extract was used for preliminary algicidal activity screening against toxic dinoflagellate Coolia malaynesis. Dinoflagellate cells at the stationary phase (1.0 × 103 cells/ mL) were treated with 1% (v/v) of each extract by using 24-well microplate. The plates were then incubated for 24 hours at dinoflagellate culture condition (under a light intensity of 140 µmol m-2s-1 and 12:12 hours light:dark photoperiod). The result of algicidal activity screening showed that all 6 extracts from Loktanella sp. Gb-03 had different ranges of algicidal activity against the toxic dinoflagellates. Ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity against C. malaynesis and also other harmful dinoflagellate (Alexandrium sp. Alexandrium leei, Alexandrium affine, Alexandrium tamiyavanichi, Alexandrium tamarense, Gambierdiscus belizeanus, and Ostreopsis). This study was the first to explore the algicidal activity of Loktanella sp. Gb-03 extracts against toxic dinoflagellate with ethyl acetate as the best solvent to extract algicidal active compounds.

  8. MOCVD growth of GaAs on Si using (Al,In) GaAs/GaAs buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K.; Shiba, Y.; Asai, K. (Advanced Tech. Research Labs., Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    GaAs was grown on Si using an (Al,In)GaAs/GaAs buffer layer. The etch pit density (EPD) revealed by molten KOH could be reduced by adding Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As or In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As to the GaAs buffer layer, depending on the composition (x); the lowest EPD, 4x10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} was obtained when x was 0.3 in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As. To understand the results, the initial growth stage of GaAs on Si was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. GaAs growth using an Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As layer produced small islands at a sufficiently high density that the islands coalesced, unlike those without the layer. The dependence of EPD and island density on the composition (x) were almost the same. This result indicates that improvement of the quality of the GaAs layer is related to the coalescence of the GaAs island at an early stage of the growth of GaAs on Si. (orig.).

  9. Different temperature dependence of carrier transport properties between Alx Ga1-xN/InyGa1-yN/GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jie; Xu Fu-Jun; Huang Cheng-Cheng; Lin Fang; Wang Xin-Qiang; Yang Zhi-Jian; Shen Bo

    2011-01-01

    The temperature dependence of carrier transport properties of AlxGai-xN/InyGa1-yN/GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures has been investigated. It is shown that the Hall mobility in Al0.25Ga0.75N/In0.03Ga0.97N/GaN heterostructures is higher than that in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures at temperatures above 500 K, even the mobility in the former is much lower than that in the latter at 300 K. More importantly, the electron sheet density in Al0.25Ga0.75N/In0.03Ga0.97N/GaN heterostructures decreases slightly,whereas the electron sheet density in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures gradually increases with increasing temperature above 500 K. It is believed that an electron depletion layer is formed due to the negative polarization charges at the InyGa1-yN/GaN heterointerface induced by the compressive strain in the InyGa1-yN channel, which effectively suppresses the parallel conductivity originating from the thermal excitation in the underlying GaN layer at high temperatures.

  10. Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Que, Christopher T. [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004 (Philippines); Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

  11. Development of novel radiogallium-labeled bone imaging agents using oligo-aspartic acid peptides as carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Ogawa

    Full Text Available (68Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET. Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting (68Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA-(Aspn (n = 2, 5, 8, 11, or 14 with easy-to-handle (67Ga, with the previously described (67Ga-DOTA complex conjugated bisphosphonate, (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. After synthesizing DOTA-(Aspn by a Fmoc-based solid-phase method, complexes were formed with (67Ga, resulting in (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn with a radiochemical purity of over 95% after HPLC purification. In hydroxyapatite binding assays, the binding rate of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn increased with the increase in the length of the conjugated aspartate peptide. Moreover, in biodistribution experiments, (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp8, (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp11, and (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp14 showed high accumulation in bone (10.5 ± 1.5, 15.1 ± 2.6, and 12.8 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively but were barely observed in other tissues at 60 min after injection. Although bone accumulation of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn was lower than that of (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP, blood clearance of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn was more rapid. Accordingly, the bone/blood ratios of (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp11 and (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp14 were comparable with those of (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. In conclusion, these data provide useful insights into the drug design of (68Ga-PET tracers for the diagnosis of bone disorders, such as bone metastases.

  12. Behaviour Study of a Multi-Agent Mobile Robot System during Potential Field Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Nagy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-agent based mobile robot simulation system will bepresented where the behaviour of the system is studied with different number of agents (1,3,6 and also with different number of ultrasonic range sensors on agents (8 or 16 USsensors on individual agents. The task of the autonomous agents is to create the potentialfield (PF of an unknown environment. The classic problems of PF building, like oscillationand trapping, are not the focus of the article, but instead, the article is concerned with theagents’ self-organizing ability where self-organizing is controlled by a genetic algorithm(GA. The GA is equipped with two fitness functions where one “maintains” the distancesbetween certain agents (spat distr, while another “watches” the area coverage (areacover. In fact, the paper can be divided into three main parts. The first part describes theultrasonic sensing and range measuring with systematic errors, the potential field (PFbuilding and the moving strategies. The second part contains description of the GA, theoperation of the GA, the structure of the system, the fitness functions and a general systemerrordetermination. In the final third part, the obtained results are analyzed and presentedin the appendices.

  13. Ipsilateral Putamen and Insula Activation by Both Left and Right GB34 Acupuncture Stimulation: An fMRI Study on Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; van den Noort, Maurits; Bosch, Peggy; Lim, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The modulatory effects on the brain during right versus left side acupuncture stimulation of the same acupuncture point have been a subject of controversy. For clarification of this important methodological issue, the present study was designed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent responses of acupuncture stimulation on the right versus left Yanglingquan (GB34). Twenty-two healthy subjects received right or left GB34 acupuncture. Our results show that acupuncture on the left GB34 induced neural responses in the left putamen, caudate body, insula, postcentral gyrus, claustrum, right and left thalamus, right middle frontal gyrus, hypothalamus, and subthalamic nucleus. Acupuncture on the right GB34 induced neural responses in the right middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, thalamus, putamen, lateral globus pallidus, medial globus pallidus, and insula. Interestingly, the putamen and insula were ipsilaterally activated by acupuncture on either the left or right GB34; therefore, they seem to be the main target areas affected by GB34 acupuncture. This is the first reported functional magnetic resonance imaging study directly comparing needling on the right and left GB34. Although more replication studies are needed, our preliminary results prove that acupuncture has different modulatory effects on the brain when performed on the right versus left side.

  14. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive gene expression and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in transgenic tobacco

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jie Qin; Kaijing Zuo; Jingya Zhao; Hua Ling; Youfang Cao; Chengxiang Qiu; Fupeng Li; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2006-06-01

    GbERF belongs to the ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family of transcription factors and regulates the GCC-box containing pathogen-related (PR) genes in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To study the function of GbERF in the process of biotic stress, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GbERF were generated. Overexpression of GbERF did not change transgenic plant’s phenotype and endogenous ethylene level. However, the expression profile of some ethylene-inducible GCC-box and non-GCC-box containing genes was altered, such as PR1b, PR2, PR3, PR4, Osmotin, CHN50, ACC oxidase and ACC synthase genes. These data indicate that the cotton GbERF could act as a transcriptional activator or repressor to regulate the differential expression of ethylene-inducible genes via GCC and non-GCC cis-elements. Moreover, the constitutive expression of GbERF in transgenic tobacco enhanced the plant’s resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci infection. In conclusion, GbERF mediates the expression of a wide array of PR and ethylene-responsive genes and plays an important role in the plant’s response to biotic stress.

  15. Recombination dynamics of type-II excitons in (Ga,In)As/GaAs/Ga(As,Sb) heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, S.; Holz, B.; Fuchs, C.; Stolz, W.; Heimbrodt, W.

    2017-01-01

    (Ga,In)As/GaAs/Ga(As,Sb) multi-quantum well heterostructures have been investigated using continuous wave and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy at various temperatures. A complex interplay was observed between the excitonic type-II transitions with electrons in the (Ga,In)As well and holes in the Ga(As,Sb) well and the type-I excitons in the (Ga,In)As and Ga(As,Sb) wells. The type-II luminescence exhibits a strongly non-exponential temporal behavior below a critical temperature of T c = 70 K. The transients were analyzed in the framework of a rate-equation model. It was found that the exciton relaxation and hopping in the localized states of the disordered ternary Ga(As,Sb) are the decisive processes to describe the dynamics of the type-II excitons correctly.

  16. Rapid genotyping of cytomegalovirus in dried blood spots by multiplex real-time PCR assays targeting the envelope glycoprotein gB and gH genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jutte J C; Wessels, Els; Korver, Anna M H; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Rusman, Lisette G; Kroes, Aloys C M; Vossen, Ann C T M

    2012-02-01

    Genotyping of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is useful to examine potential differences in the pathogenicity of strains and to demonstrate coinfection with multiple strains involved in CMV disease in adults and congenitally infected newborns. Studies on genotyping of CMV in dried blood spots (DBS) are rare and have been hampered by the small amount of dried blood available. In this study, two multiplex real-time PCR assays for rapid gB and gH genotyping of CMV in DBS were developed. Validation of the assays with 39 CMV-positive plasma samples of transplant recipients and 21 urine specimens of congenitally infected newborns was successful in genotyping 100% of the samples, with gB1 and gB3 being the most prevalent genotypes. Multiple gB and gH genotypes were detected in 36% and 33% of the plasma samples, respectively. One urine sample from a newborn with symptomatic congenital CMV was positive for gB1 and gB2. DBS of congenitally infected newborns (n = 41) were tested using 9 μl of dried blood, and genotypes were detected in 81% (gB) and 73% (gH) of the samples, with gB3 being the most prevalent genotype. No clear association of specific genotypes with clinical outcome was observed. In conclusion, the CMV gB and gH PCR assays were found to be rapid, sensitive for detecting mixed infections, and suitable for direct usage on DBS. These assays are efficient tools for genotyping of CMV in DBS of congenitally infected newborns.

  17. Reactivation of Brain Acetylcholinesterase by Monoisonitrosoacetone Increases the Therapeutic Efficacy Against Nerve Agents in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Biological Interactions 187 (2010) 318–324 Table 1 ChE reactivation by oxime treatments in brain regions, peripheral tissues and blood components following...the significant ChE reactivation by oxime treatments in brain regions, peripheral tissues and blood components following exposure to GB, GF, and VX.a...regions, peripheral tis- ues, or blood components , when an oxime treatment significantly eactivated nerve agent-inhibited ChE. For example, if an

  18. Micromechanical sensors based on GaAs/AlGaAs

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, K; Dehe, A.; SchuBler, M; Lee, W.Y.; Hartnagel, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The combination of high temperature stable electro­nics with micromachining is a powerful means to de­velop a variety of intelligent sensors. Especially in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system all advantages fit to­gether to realize micromachined sensors with integrated high temperature electronics. The technology includes new ohmic and Schottky contacts with high stability at increased ambient temperature. A thermal sensor is pre­sented that can detect total pressure, gas type as well as gas velo...

  19. Development of Novel Decontamination Techniques for Chemical Agents (GB, VX, HD) Contaminated Facilities. Phase 1. Identification and Evaluation of Novel Decontamination Concepts. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    composition reaction the effect will be probably smal I. 4.2.2 Removal or Reaction of Contaminant from Surface Complete decontamination of all surfaces is...spallIng and descaling . 1.2 Origination of Idea Used in the decontamination of nuclear facilities ond described in deta’l in the Decommissioning Handbook...for RD. 1.4 Variations of Idea Various application methods could be used including sprays, foams, gels , creams, etc. Inclusion of an additive might make

  20. Dual-polarization multi-band OFDM versus single-carrier DP-QPSK for 100 Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission over legacy infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, J; Giacoumidis, E; Grot, D; Guillossou, T; Gosset, C; Le Bidan, R; Le Gall, T; Jaouën, Y; Pincemin, E

    2013-07-15

    The transmission performance of coherent dual-polarization multi-band OFDM (DP-MB-OFDM) and QPSK (DP-QPSK) are experimentally compared for 100 Gb/s long-haul transport over legacy infrastructure combining G.652 fiber and 10 Gb/s WDM system. It is shown that DP-MB-OFDM and DP-QPSK have nearly the same performance at 100 Gb/s after transmission over a 10 × 100-km fiber line. Furthermore, the origin of performance degradations and limitations of the DP-MB-OFDM is explored numerically, as well as the impact of transmission distance and sub-band spacing.

  1. Comparison of short period InAs/GaSb superlattices on GaSb and GaAs substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Type II superlattices (SLs) short period InAs(4ML)/GaSb(8ML) were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on lattice-mismatched GaAs substrates and on GaSb substrates. A smooth GaSb epilayer was formed on GaAs substrates by inserting mulit-buffer layers including an interfacial misfit mode AlSb quantum dot layer and AlSb/GaSb superlattices smooth layer. SLs grown on GaAs substrates (GaAs-based SLs) showed well-resolved satellite peaks in XRD. GaSb-based SLs with better structural quality and smoother surface showed strong photoluminescence at 2.55 μm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 20 meV, narrower than 31 meV of GaAs-based SLs. Inferior optical absorption of GaAs-based SL was observed in the range of 2―3 μm. Photoresponse of GaSb-based SLs showed the cut-off wavelength at 2.6 μm.

  2. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  3. GB 28050-2011标注及应用中的主要问题分析%Analysis ofmajor issues on implementation and application of GB 28050-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月盈; 鲁燕骅; 张锡云

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition labeling refers to a media used by foodstuff producers to illustrate food nutrition information and characteristics, and a significant reference for consumers to understand food nutrition information intuitively in order to select food more reasonably according to their health characteristics. Releasing of GB 28050-2011National Food Safety Standard-General standard for the nutrition labeling of prepackaged foods marks the constitutor of the government standard intends to be in agreement with advanced concepts of international foodstuff administration, extends to normalize scientific diet instead of previous laying emphasis on food safety and quality merely, thereby upgrades safety management to a higher level of promoting public cognition of nutrition and leading balance diet on the basis of food safety supervision and management. This article focuses on statement of the author’s summary of common problems in all kinds of indication and labels discovered during inspection of prepackaged food nutrition labeling since the implementation of GB 28050, and offers proposal related scientific access and standard method of indications and labels in regard of marking nutrient composition data in nutrition information, for the users’ reference related to food supervision, production and inspection. In addition, this article also organizes a few practical application problems which are easily disputed and still needed to discuss during the implementation process of GB 28050, and looks forward to get clear and definite answers by mutual discussion.%营养标签是食品制造者向消费者展示食品营养信息和特性说明的媒介,也是消费者直观了解食品营养信息以求准确地结合自身健康特点进而更加合理挑选食品的重要依据。GB 28050-2011《食品安全国家标准预包装食品营养标签通则》的出台,标志着国家标准制定者与国际食品管理先进理念接轨的意愿,从以往单纯注重食品

  4. Electrical Characteristics of InGaN/AlGaN and InGaN/GaN MQW Near UV-LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Sen; YU Tong-Jun; HUANG Liu-Bing; JIA Chuan-Yu; PAN Yao-Bo; YANG Zhi-Jian; CHEN Zhi-Zhong; QIN Zhi-Xin; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Ino.05Gao.95N/AJo.07Gao.93N and Ino.05Gao.95N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) at 400 nm wavelength are measured. It is found that for In-GaN/AlGaN MQW LEDs, both ideality factor and parallel resistance are similar to those of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs, while series resistance is two times larger. It is suggested that the AJ0.07Ga0.93N barrier layer did not change crystal quality and electrical characteristic ofp-n junction either, but brought larger series resistance. As a result, InGaN/AlGaN MQW LEDs suffer more serious thermal dissipation problem although they show higher light output efficiency.

  5. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  6. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  7. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  8. A COMPILATION SUMMARY OF "CARBON STRUCTURAL STEEL" (GB700-88)%《碳素结构钢》(GB700-88)标准编制情况综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐一凡

    2001-01-01

    This paper highlights the necessity of revising "CarbonStructural Steel" (GB700-88), introduces the revised standards and gives a review. The content of Mn is raised and the contents of C, P and S are decreased using the international advanced standards and the foreign technical line. The different chemical composition and performance index are specified according to different quality classifications, which can meet the development market economy. The yield point,quality grade and deoxidation are used to express the brands of steels, which reflects the features of engineering structural steels. The new standards are also favorable for technical exchange internationally for China's products to enter international market.%重点介绍《碳素结构钢》(GB700-88)修订的必要性,介绍修订后的标准,并进行评述。GB700-88对原普碳钢标准是一次大的改革,采用了国际先进标准和国外技术路线,提锰降碳,减少磷硫含量;分质量等级,按不同质量等级分别规定不同的化学成分和性能指标,提高了基础标准的通用性,适应市场经济发展需要;钢的牌号表示方法改为用屈服点、质量等级、脱氧程度表示,反映了工程结构钢的特点,便于使用选材。新标准与国际接轨,便于与国际进行技术交流和我国产品进入国际市场。

  9. Thermal diffusion of Mn through GaAs overlayers on (Ga, Mn)As.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, J; Ulfat, I; Ilver, L; Sadowski, J; Karlsson, K; Kanski, J

    2011-03-02

    Thermally stimulated diffusion of Mn through thin layers of GaAs has been studied by x-ray photoemission. (Ga, Mn)As samples with 5 at% Mn were capped with 4, 6 and 8 monolayer (ML) GaAs, and Mn diffusing through the GaAs was trapped on the surface by means of amorphous As. It was found that the out-diffusion is completely suppressed for an 8 ML thick GaAs film. The short diffusion length is attributed to an electrostatic barrier formed at the (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs interface.

  10. Multilayers of InGaAs Nanostructures Grown on GaAs(210 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multilayers of InGaAs nanostructures are grown on GaAs(210 by molecular beam epitaxy. With reducing the thickness of GaAs interlayer spacer, a transition from InGaAs quantum dashes to arrow-like nanostructures is observed by atomic force microscopy. Photoluminescence measurements reveal all the samples of different spacers with good optical properties. By adjusting the InGaAs coverage, both one-dimensional and two-dimensional lateral ordering of InGaAs/GaAs(210 nanostructures are achieved.

  11. Thermal diffusion of Mn through GaAs overlayers on (Ga, Mn)As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, J; Ulfat, I; Ilver, L; Kanski, J [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sadowski, J [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Karlsson, K [Department of Life Sciences, University of Skoevde, SE-541 28 Skoevde (Sweden)

    2011-03-02

    Thermally stimulated diffusion of Mn through thin layers of GaAs has been studied by x-ray photoemission. (Ga, Mn)As samples with 5 at% Mn were capped with 4, 6 and 8 monolayer (ML) GaAs, and Mn diffusing through the GaAs was trapped on the surface by means of amorphous As. It was found that the out-diffusion is completely suppressed for an 8 ML thick GaAs film. The short diffusion length is attributed to an electrostatic barrier formed at the (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs interface.

  12. GB650型花式纱钩编机振动和噪声分析%Analysis for the vibration and noise of the fancy yam crochet machine of Model GB650

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季林息

    2002-01-01

    @@ 一、问题的提出 GB650型花式纱钩编机(以下简称钩编机)可以使用各种天然纤维和化学纤维,编织带子纱、蜈蚣纱、羽毛纱、波纹纱等各种花式纱线,以供制作多姿多采的服装面料、装饰用布、帽子、手套等等.因此,钩编机得到了市场的广泛需求.

  13. 浅谈JIF 1101-2003和GB/T5170.x-2008的区别%A Brief Introduction of the Differences between JJF 1101-2003 and GB/T5170.x-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    同金; 李彬; 马煜峰

    2010-01-01

    文章简述了JJF 1101-2003的六个计量特性与GB/T5170.x-2008中相应的检验项目的差异,以及两个标准在温、湿度试验设备的校准/检验上的区别,以使大家了解在验收和管理温、湿度试验设备时应怎样正确使用这两个标准.

  14. My opinion on hyphen usage prescribed in national standard GB /T 15834-1995%关于GB/T 15834-1995中连接号应用问题之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小萍

    2005-01-01

    通过对GB/T15834-1995中关于连接号应用标准的制定及在实际应用中存在问题的分析,提出有关连接号应用的分类原则,进而对其应用类型和应用标准提出修改意见,以达到易学易用、表意明确、避免误用混用的目的.

  15. BRIEF INTERPRETATION OF TEST STANDARD FOR ACCEPTANCE OF STEEL STRUCTURE, GB50205-2001%GB 50205-2001《钢结构工程施工质量验收规范》条文简释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路克宽; 侯兆欣

    2002-01-01

    介绍了GB 50205-2001的编制原则和内容;对各章节主要条文作了背景提示和简要释义;提出了提高钢材质量、扩大钢材品种,开展课题研究、组织技术交流,开展专业技术教育、提高钢结构人员素质以及加强管理、整顿市场的建议.

  16. Some Aspects on Standard GB11032-2000:Metal Oxide Surge Arrester%关于金属氧化物避雷器标准GB11032-2000的几点讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤金; 卢振亚; 李政文

    2003-01-01

    测试避雷器或电阻片的直流参考电压在承受大电流或方波冲击试验前后的变化率比测试其残压变化率更能判断该避雷器或电阻片受冲击后的电性能退化程度;建议修改GB11032-2000中的直流参考电压、残压要求;建议提高和完善对低压避雷器的特性要求.

  17. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  18. InGaAs/GaAs异质薄膜的MBE生长研究%The MBE growth research on InGaAs/GaAs heterofilms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗子江; 周勋; 杨再荣; 贺业全; 何浩; 邓朝勇; 丁召

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment research which utilized of the molecular beam epitaxy technology to grow the InGaAs/GaAs film. The growth conditions was monitored through the RHEED patterns in real-time,the growth rate was measured and the composition of InGaAs film was determined by RHEED intensity oscillations,and a method was put forward to control the composition of In/Ga in InGaAs/GaAs film. According to the R HEED patterns, the surface of InGaAs film was (2 × 3) reconstructed. After growth, the sample was quenched down to room temperature then transferred into STM for scanning. A smooth,atomically flat surface of InGaAs/GaAs film was confirmed by the STM images.%利用分子束外延技术,在GaAs(001)基片上外延InGaAs/GaAs异质薄膜,通过RHEED图像演变实时监控薄膜生长状况,采用RHEED强度振荡测量薄膜生长速率,确定薄膜中In/Ga的组分比,并提出控制InGaAs薄膜中In/Ga组分比的生长方法.根据RHEED图像,指出获得的InGaAs薄膜处于(2×3)表面重构相.样品经过淬火至室温后对样品做STM扫描分析,证实样品为表面原子级平整的InGaAs/GaAs异质薄膜.

  19. Thermal Stability of Strained AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; XIAO Hong-Di; LIN Zhao-Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ The thermal stability of strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is characterized by comparing unannealed and 700℃ 30-min annealed Ni Schottky contacts prepared on strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Using photoemission, capacitance-voltage measurements, and the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger's and Poisson's equations, it is found that after 700℃ 30-min thermal annealing the Schottky barrier height of Ni Schottky contacts on strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is increased, and the sheet density of polarization charges and the sheet density of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) electrons for the strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are reduced. These results are closely related to the performance of AlGaN/GaN HFETs at high temperature.

  20. Development of GaN/AlGaN Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-19

    AFOSR-Taiwan Nanoscience Initiative Project Final Report Project Title Development of GaN /AlGaN Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser...DATES COVERED 14-06-2007 to 13-06-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of GaN -Based Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the GaN /AlGaN active region for terahertz quantum cascade lasers using MOCVD system based on the quantum cascade structure proposed by Prof. Greg Sun

  1. Utilisation of GaN and InGaN/GaN with nanoporous structures for water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, J.; Bai, J.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We report a cost-effective approach to the fabrication of GaN based nanoporous structure for applications in renewable hydrogen production. Photoelectrochemical etching in a KOH solution has been employed to fabricate both GaN and InGaN/GaN nanoporous structures with pore sizes ranging from 25 to 60 nm, obtained by controlling both etchant concentration and applied voltage. Compared to as-grown planar devices the nanoporous structures have exhibited a significant increase of photocurrent with a factor of up to four times. An incident photon conversion efficiency of up to 46% around the band edge of GaN has been achieved.

  2. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Multi-MgxNy/GaN Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer. Compared with conventional HEMT devices with a low-temperature GaN buffer, smaller gate and source-drain leakage current could be achieved with this new buffer design. Consequently, the electron mobility was larger for the proposed device due to the reduction of defect density and the corresponding improvement of crystalline quality as result of using the multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer.

  3. Chemistry and electrical properties of surfaces of GaN and GaN/AlGaN heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Tamotsu; Ootomo, Shinya; Oyama, Susumu; Konishi, Masanobu; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2001-01-01

    Chemical and electrical properties of the surfaces of GaN and GaN/AlGaN heterostructures were systematically investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), capacitance–voltage, and current–voltage measurements. From in situ XPS study, relatively smaller band bending of 0.6 eV was seen at the GaN (2×2) surface grown by radio frequency-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy GaN template. After exposing the sample surface to air, strong band bending took...

  4. InGaN/GaN Tunnel Junctions For Hole Injection in GaN Light Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    InGaN/GaN tunnel junction contacts were grown on top of an InGaN/GaN blue (450 nm) light emitting diode wafer using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The tunnel junction contacts enable low spreading resistance n-GaN top contact layer thereby requiring less top metal contact coverage on the surface. A voltage drop of 5.3 V at 100 mA, forward resistance of 2 x 10-2 ohm cm2 and a higher light output power are measured in tunnel junction LED. A low resistance of 5 x 10-4 ohm cm2 was measur...

  5. Effects of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of protein GB1 studied by steered molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Regulation of the mechanical properties of proteins plays an important role in many biological processes, and sheds light on the design of biomaterials comprised of protein. At present, strategies to regulate protein mechanical stability focus mainly on direct modulation of the force-bearing region of the protein. Interestingly, the mechanical stability of GB1 can be significantly enhanced by the binding of Fc fragments of human IgG antibody, where the binding site is distant from the force-bearing region of the protein. The mechanism of this long-range allosteric control of protein mechanics is still elusive. In this work, the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of GB1 was investigated using steered molecular dynamics simulation, and a mechanism underlying the enhanced protein mechanical stability is proposed. We found that the external force causes deformation of both force-bearing region and ligand binding site. In other words, there is a long-range coupling between these two regions. The binding of ligand restricts the distortion of the binding site and reduces the deformation of the force-bearing region through a long-range allosteric communication, which thus improves the overall mechanical stability of the protein. The simulation results are very consistent with previous experimental observations. Our studies thus provide atomic-level insights into the mechanical unfolding process of GB1, and explain the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical properties of the protein through long-range allosteric regulation, which should facilitate effective modulation of protein mechanical properties.

  6. Assessment and self-assessment of the pharmacists' competencies using the global competency framework (GbCF in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pharmacists' competence represents a dynamic framework of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out tasks, and it reflects on improving the quality of life and on patients’ health. One of the documents for the Evaluation and Competency Development of Pharmacists is the Global Competency Framework (GbCF. The aim of this study was to implement the GBCF document into Serbian pharmacies, to perform assessment and self assessment of the competencies. Methods. The assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists’ competencies were performed during the period 2012−13 year in eight community pharmacy chains, in seven cities in Serbia. For assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists competencies the GbCF model was applied, which was adjusted to pharmaceutical practice and legislation in Serbia. External assessment was conducted by teams of pharmacists using the structured observation of the work of pharmacists during regular working hours. Evaluated pharmacists filled out the questionnaire about demographic indicators about the pharmacist and the pharmacy where they work. Results. A total of 123 pharmacists were evaluated. Pharmacists’ Professional Competency Cluster (KK1 had the lowest score (average value 2.98, while the cluster Management and Organizational Competency (KK2 had the highest score (average value 3.15. The competence Recognition of the Diagnosis and Patient Counseling (K8, which belonged to the cluster KK1, had the lowest score (average value for assessment and self-assessment were 2.09, and 2.34, respectively among the all evaluated competencies. Conclusion. GbCF might be considered as an instrument for the competencies' evaluation/selfevaluation and their improvement, accordingly.

  7. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  8. Evaluation of [{sup 11}C]GB67, a novel radioligand for imaging myocardial {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M.P.; Osman, S.; Pike, V.W.; Davenport, R.J.; Cunningham, V.J.; Rimoldi, O.; Rhodes, C.G.; Camici, P.G. [MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial Coll. School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Giardina, D. [Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche, Univ. degli Studi di Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2000-01-01

    Dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system underlies a number of myocardial disorders. Positron emission tomography (PET) offers a way of assessing receptor function non-invasively in humans, but there are no PET radioligands for assessing myocardial {alpha}-adrenoceptors. GB67, a structural and pharmacological analogue of the {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, was labelled with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2}=20.4 min) by {sup 11}C-methylation of N-desmethylamido-GB67 (GB99). [{sup 11}C]GB67 was injected intravenously into conscious rats. Serial arterial blood samples were taken. Rats were killed and tissues removed to determine radioactivity. The percentages of unchanged [{sup 11}C]GB67 and its radioactive metabolites in plasma and tissues were assessed by HPLC. Plasma clearance of radioactivity was rapid. Myocardial uptake was maximal at 1-2 min and decreased slowly during 60 min. Predosing with adrenoceptor antagonists demonstrated selectivity for myocardial {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors. GB67 and prazosin blocked uptake of radioactivity; the non-selective antagonist, phentolamine, partially blocked uptake; the {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX 821002, only blocked uptake at high dose and the {beta}-adrenoceptor antagonist, CGP 12177, had no effect. Additionally, injection of prazosin at 20 min after radioligand displaced radioactivity. In vivo competition curves obtained by injecting [{sup 11}C]GB67 with varying amounts of either unlabelled GB67 or its precursor GB99 were fitted to a competitive binding model to provide estimates of the maximum number of binding sites (B{sub max}) and half saturation doses (K) for myocardium. Assuming a tissue protein content of 10%, the values of B{sub max} [{proportional_to}13 pmol.(g tissue){sup -1}] were similar to those [50-170 fmol.(mg protein){sup -1}] reported for myocardial {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors assessed in vitro. Both GB67 and its precursor GB99 had high affinity for {alpha

  9. 三款主流2GB DDR2 800内存——价格便宜量又足

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    今年年初2GB DDR2 800内存的价格还在400元上下,如今已经跌去了100元左右,玩家使用2GB DDR2 800内存的成本已经非常低廉。不少玩家甚至在装机时一次性到位,直接采用两根2GB DDR2 800内存,达到了32位Windows操作系统的上限,让内存容量不再成为系统的瓶颈。下面我们为大家推荐三款中高端2GB DDR2 800内存。

  10. Temperature coefficients for GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, Arto; Isoaho, Riku; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Aho, Timo; Raappana, Marianna; Guina, Mircea [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-09-28

    We report the temperature coefficients for MBE-grown GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb multijunction solar cells and the corresponding single junction sub-cells. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements were carried out using a solar simulator equipped with a 1000 W Xenon lamp and a three-band AM1.5D simulator. The triple-junction cell exhibited an efficiency of 31% at AM1.5G illumination and an efficiency of 37–39% at 70x real sun concentration. The external quantum efficiency was also measured at different temperatures. The temperature coefficients up to 80°C, for the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current density, and the conversion efficiency were determined to be −7.5 mV/°C, 0.040 mA/cm{sup 2}/°C, and −0.09%/°C, respectively.

  11. Polarization-induced Zener tunnel diodes in GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Wenjun; Islam, S. M.; Pourang, Kasra; Fay, Patrick [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep, E-mail: djena@cornell.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Departments of ECE and MSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-10-19

    By the insertion of thin In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers into Nitrogen-polar GaN p-n junctions, polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions are studied. The reverse-bias interband Zener tunneling current is found to be weakly temperature dependent, as opposed to the strongly temperature-dependent forward bias current. This indicates tunneling as the primary reverse-bias current transport mechanism. The Indium composition in the InGaN layer is systematically varied to demonstrate the increase in the interband tunneling current. Comparing the experimentally measured tunneling currents to a model helps identify the specific challenges in potentially taking such junctions towards nitride-based polarization-induced tunneling field-effect transistors.

  12. GaAsP/InGaP heterojunction bipolar transistors grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Christopher; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.

    2017-01-01

    Heterojunction bipolar transistors with GaAsxP1-x bases and collectors and InyGa1-yP emitters were grown on GaAs substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, fabricated using conventional techniques, and electrically tested. Four different GaAsxP1-x compositions were used, ranging from x = 0.825 to x = 1 (GaAs), while the InyGa1-yP composition was adjusted to remain lattice-matched to the GaAsP. DC gain close to or exceeding 100 is measured for 60 μm diameter devices of all compositions. Physical mechanisms governing base current and therefore current gain are investigated. The collector current is determined not to be affected by the barrier caused by the conduction band offset between the InGaP emitter and GaAsP base. While the collector current for the GaAs/InGaP devices is well-predicted by diffusion of electrons across the quasi-neutral base, the collector current of the GaAsP/InGaP devices exceeds this estimate by an order of magnitude. This results in higher transconductance for GaAsP/InGaP than would be estimated from known material properties.

  13. RTTOV-gb - Adapting the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV for the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Hocking, James; Martinet, Pauline; Kneifel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is the single most important under-sampled part of the atmosphere. According to the WMO Statement Of Guidance For Global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), temperature and humidity profiles (in cloudy areas) are among the four critical atmospheric variables not adequately measured in the PBL. Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) provide temperature and humidity profiles in both clear- and cloudy-sky conditions with high temporal resolution and low-to-moderate vertical resolution, with information mostly residing in the PBL. Ground-based MWR offer to bridge this observational gap by providing continuous temperature and humidity information in the PBL. The MWR data assimilation into NWP models may be particularly important in nowcasting and severe weather initiation. The assimilation of thermodynamic profiles retrieved from MWR data has been recently experimented, but a way to possibly increase the impact is to directly assimilate measured radiances instead of retrieved profiles. The assimilation of observed radiances in a variational scheme requires the following tools: (i) a fast radiative transfer (RT) model to compute the simulated radiances at MWR channels from the NWP model fields (ii) the partial derivatives (Jacobians) of the fast radiative transfer model with respect to control variables to optimize the distances of the atmospheric state from both the first guess and the observations. Such a RT model is available from the EUMETSAT NWPSAF (Numerical Weather Prediction Satellite Application Facility) and well accepted in the NWP community: RTTOV. This model was developed for nadir-viewing passive visible, infrared, and microwave satellite radiometers, spectrometers and interferometers. It has been modified to handle ground-based microwave radiometer observations. This version of RTTOV, called RTTOV-gb, provides the tools needed to exploit ground-based upward looking MWR brightness temperatures into NWP variational data

  14. 3.5英寸SATA接口硬盘 希捷Barracuda 7200.10 750GB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    垂直记录技术从2005年底便开始受到业界的广泛关注,经过长时间的等待,希捷科技终于于2006年5月正式推出了其首款采用垂直记录的产品——希捷Barracuda 7200.10 750GB,这也预示着桌面级硬盘产品的容量将在短期内迅速攀升。

  15. Interferometric wavelength converter operating at 10 Gb/s based on a monolithic-integrated photonic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, C.; Coriasso, C.; Campi, D.; Stano, A.; Cacciatore, C.; Re, D.; Fornuto, G.; Soldani, D.; De Franceschi, R.; Ghiglieno, F.; Vallone, M.; Valenti, P.; Zucchelli, L.; Lupo, S.; Gambini, P.

    2000-02-01

    In this work we present a wavelength converter based on a Michelson interferometer. It is obtained by monolithic integration of two-semiconductor optical amplifiers with a passive waveguided X-coupler, incorporating turning mirrors. It operates in the 1.55 μm spectral window and allows the wavelength conversion of data streams up to 10 Gb/s, showing open-eye diagrams and extinction-ratio regeneration capabilities. Comparison of two structures with different active layers and their influence on the polarization sensitivity is also presented.

  16. Miniaturized volume holographic optical data storage and correlation system with a storage density of 10 Gb/cm3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Liangcai; HE Qingsheng; WEI Haoyun; LIU Guodong; OUYANG Chuan; ZHAO Jian; WU Minxian; JIN Guofan

    2004-01-01

    The general idea of holographic optical data storage (HODS) is briefly introduced. Based on the recent advances of HODS, the key techniques and the challenges of HODS are discussed. Some new techniques are proposed to improve the system. A miniaturized volume holographic data storage and correlation system is presented. It can achieve a density of 10 Gb/cm3 and a fast correlation recognition rate of more than 2000 images per second. It shows the attracting potential advantages over other conventional storage methods in the information storage as well as information processing.

  17. Experimental investigation and digital compensation of DGD for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK clock recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Olivera, Julio Cesar R. F.; Ribeiro, Vittor Bedotti;

    2011-01-01

    PMD can significantly affect the performance of the timing error detector gain, even for moderate values leading to system outage. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel digital adaptive timing error detector is robust to polarization mixing and DGD. The proposed timing error detector...... be performed in digital domain prior to signal demodulation in order to avoid cycle slips. For the first time, the impact of first order PMD, (DGD), is experimentally investigated and quantified for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal. We experimentally show that the combined effect of polarization mixing and first order...... algorithm combines the Gardner timing error detector algorithm with an adaptive structure based on gradient method....

  18. 4×10 Gb/s 800 km transmission system on G.652 fiber with dispersion compensation by chirped FBG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN; Shuisheng(简水生); YAN; Fengping(延凤平); LI; Tangjun; (李唐军); JIAN; Wei(简伟); PEI; Li(裴丽); NING; Tigang(宇提纲)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersion compensation of 4×10Gb/s 800km G.652 fiber by chirped optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was originally implemented. The characteristics of FBG are optimized, so that the ripple coefficient of reflectivity and time delay are less than 0.9dB and 30ps, respectively. When BER is 10?10, the power penalties of transmission are 1.36 dB, 0.89 dB, 1.67 dB and 1.32 dB.

  19. Study on the 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km dispersion compensation by chirped optical fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pei(裴丽); Tigang Ning(宁提纲); Wei Jian(简伟); Tangjun Li(李唐军); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersion compensation for 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km G.652 fiber by chirped optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is introduced. For the first time, we have measured and compensated the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of FBG, which in each channel is less than 1.1 ps. When the bit error rate (BER) is 10-10 and the bit error is zero, the transmission power penalty of each channel is less than 2 dB, and the best result is negative which means that the receiver sensitivity is increased after transmission.

  20. Free-Running 1550 nm VCSEL for 10.7 Gb/s Transmission in 99.7 km PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Ma, Ming; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood;

    2011-01-01

    We present a cooler-less, free-running 1550 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) directly modulated at 10.7 Gb/s. We also report on error-free transmission through 40 km of standard single-mode optical fiber, achieved without the use of dispersion-mitigation or mid-span amplification....... Inverse-dispersion fiber was utilized to realize a dispersion-matched 99.7 km optical access uplink supporting error-free transmission with 27 dB loss margin. These results indicate the feasibility of implementing cooler-less long-wavelength VCSEL devices in long-reach optical access networks....

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 1.25 Gb/s laser diode driver with pulse width optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Wang; Zhigong, Wang; Jian, Xu; Rong, Wang; Peng, Miao; Yin, Luo

    2010-09-01

    A 1.25 Gb/s laser diode driver (LDD) with pulse width optimization has been implemented in a 0.6-μm BiCMOS process. This paper illustrates the relation between the pulse width distortion (PWD) of the output eye diagram and the driving amplitude from the second pre-amplifier. Also, a specific current setting circuit working together with an LDD is proposed to generate the optimum driving amplitude and to avoid device nonlinearity, temperature variation and process deviation. The measured results show a maximum crossing deviation of -3% and indicate the desired independence and stability.

  2. MOVPE of n-doped GaAs and modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, K.; Klinger, V.; Wensorra, J.; Akabori, M.; Hardtdegen, H.; Grützmacher, D.

    2010-02-01

    Two different fabrication approaches were compared to obtain conductive GaAs nanowires: on one hand by modulation doping of GaAs/AlGaAs core/shell nanowires, on the other hand by Si-doping of GaAs nanowires. Modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires were grown by selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaAs (1 1 1) substrates. The influences of growth parameters and mask design on aspect ratio of the core structures were investigated. The specialty of this study was that the growth mode was switched from vertical GaAs wire growth to the AlGaAs conformal shell overgrowth by intentionally changing the growth chemistry from the use of a more stable group III source - trimethylgallium (TMGa) to more easily decomposed sources - the alternative sources triethylgallium (TEGa) and dimethylethylaminealane (DMEAAl). It was found that the diameter and length of the core structures strongly depend on the arsenic partial pressure and growth temperature as well as mask design. The uniformity of shell growth is also influenced by the mask design. Additionally an alternative approach for the production of conductive GaAs nanowires was under study. To this end, the influence of Si-doping on GaAs core growth was investigated. It was found that doping has a detrimental impact on growth morphology leading to an undesirable enhanced growth rate on the nanowire side facets.

  3. Amplitude Equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals using Saturation of Four-Wave Mixing in a Highly Nonlinear Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Yan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal......We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal...

  4. Time-lens based synchronizer and retimer for 10 Gb/s Ethernet packets with up to ±1MHz frequency offset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results.......We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results....

  5. Status and Advances of Researches on GA 20-oxidases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Chen Xiaoyang; Li Hui; Guo Hai

    2003-01-01

    GA 20-oxidase, the most important limiting enzyme, can catalyze a series of oxidization of GA biosynthesis pathwayfrom GA12 to GA9 and from GA53 to GA20 in the higher plants. This paper reviews the studies on the characters of GA 20-oxidase,the gene and the protein of GA 20-oxidase and the regulation of GA 20-oxidase gene expression in recent years. At the same time,the prospects for the gene transformation of GA 20-oxidase in agriculture, forestry and horticulture are also discussed.

  6. Design of 10Gb/s Reed-Solomon(255,239) Decoder%10Gb/s Reed-Solomon(255,239)解码器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖洁; 王志功; 胡庆生; 张军

    2005-01-01

    文章介绍10Gb/s Reed-Solomon(255,239)解码器的设计与实现.在优化解码器处理流程的基础上,通过采用4路数据复用解关键方程单元的方法,降低硬件实现的复杂度,减小芯片面积.除此之外,该解码器还具有对不可纠错码块进行判断和处理的功能.该解码器已采用Synopsys EDA工具和TSMC 0.18μmCMOS工艺实现了综合.结果表明,此设计完全可以实现10Gb/s RS码的解码功能,并且实现的复杂度大大降低.

  7. GB5413.10-2010中维生素K1检测的改进研究%Improvement research on the determination of vitamin K1 in the GB 5413.27-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜瑞清; 周琳; 胡桂林; 陈军; 李梅; 常建军

    2011-01-01

    通过对不同种酶进行研究对比之后发现,改用胰脂肪酶能够很好的使脂肪降解,避免了对维生素K1检测的干扰,而且其加标回收率和方法重现性都能满足GB/T 27404-2008的要求.%In the GB 513.10-2010, the fat was decomposed by the lipase incompletely, so the vitamin K, peaks was not separated with the fat peak in the chromatography diagram, and then the peak area of the vitamin K1 was inaccurate. In the present study, three kinds of enzymes that include the lipase from porcine pancreas, lipase from Candida rugosa and pancreatin from porcine pancreas, were tested through detecting the different milk power sample, the pancreatin from porcine pancreas was considered to be the best one by the test results. Especially the value of testing after the improvement was more close to the amount of addition for the milk product.

  8. 基于GB9706.1的医用电气设备的设计要点分析%Analysis of the Key Points in Design of Medical Electrical Equipment Based on GB9706.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆雨

    2015-01-01

    In combination with the standard GB 9706.1-2007 Medical Electrical Equipment Part 1:General Safety Requirements, this paper summarized and analyzed the principle and key points in design of medical electrical equipment from the perspective of safety, including design of power supply, application, over-current protection devices, equipment structure and layouts, interfaces as well as the requirements of hazard prevention and bio-safety.%本文主要从安全角度出发,结合标准GB9706.1-2007《医用电气设备第1部分:安全通用要求》,总结并分析了医用电气设备应遵循的设计原则及产品设计阶段需要重点考虑的内容,包括电源部分设计、应用部分设计、过电流保护装置设计、设备结构和布局设计、接口设计、对危险的防护及生物安全性要求。

  9. Reaction of nerve agents with phosphate buffer at pH 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, William R; Fry, Roderick A; McGarvey, David J

    2012-07-12

    Chemical weapon nerve agents, including isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB or Sarin), pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD or Soman), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), are slow to react in aqueous solutions at midrange pH levels. The nerve agent reactivity increases in phosphate buffer at pH 7, relative to distilled water or acetate buffer. Reactions were studied using (31)P NMR. Phosphate causes faster reaction to the corresponding alkyl methylphosphonic acids, and produces a mixed phosphate/phosphonate compound as an intermediate reaction product. GB has the fastest reaction rate, with a bimolecular rate constant of 4.6 × 10(-3) M(-1)s(-1)[PO(4)(3-)]. The molar product branching ratio of GB acid to the pyro product (isopropyl methylphosphonate phosphate anhydride) is 1:1.4, independent of phosphate concentration, and the pyro product continues to react much slower to form GB acid. The pyro product has two doublets in the (31)P NMR spectrum. The rate of reaction for GD is slower than GB, with a rate constant of 1.26 × 10(-3) M(-1)s(-1) [PO(4)(3-)]. The rate for VX is considerably slower, with a rate constant of 1.39 × 10(-5) M(-1)s(-1) [PO(4)(3-)], about 2 orders of magnitude slower than the rate for GD. The rate constant of the reaction of GD with pyrophosphate at pH 8 is 2.04 × 10(-3) min(-1) at a concentration of 0.0145 M. The rate of reaction for diisopropyl fluorophosphate is 2.84 × 10(-3) min(-1) at a concentration of 0.153 M phosphate, a factor of 4 slower than GD and a factor of 15 slower than GB, and there is no detectable pyro product. The half-lives of secondary reaction of the GB pyro product in 0.153 and 0.046 M solution of phosphate are 23.8 and 28.0 h, respectively, which indicates little or no dependence on phosphate.

  10. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  11. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  12. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  13. A computational-intelligence-based optimization of agents' initial positions in land combat simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunguo; LIANG Yanchun; GE Hongwei; CAO Lijuan; LEE Heow Pueh

    2003-01-01

    The optimization of agents' initial properties enables agents to perform their assigned tasks more perfectly. This paper presents an optimizing method using the combination of radial basis function (RBF) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA). In the land combat simulation, the method can ensure that the agents optimized defeat the agents not optimized absolutely. Compared with the optimization based on support vector machines (SVM), the proposed method improves the efficiency more than twenty times, so it suits the cases where the speed as well as performance is required.

  14. Marju Lauristin : eestlane olla on väga raske / Marju Lauristin ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lauristin, Marju, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    Poliitik Marju Lauristin räägib Eesti vaimsest õhustikust, Venemaa ja Gruusia konfliktist ning selle mõjust Eesti sisepoliitikale. Juttu on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kiirest ja jõulisest Gruusia toetamisest. Vt. samas: Miks eelarvekärpeid ei aruta riigikogu?

  15. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  16. B-sub-modules of Lie(G)/Lie(B) and Smooth Schubert Varieties in G/B

    CERN Document Server

    Carrell, James B

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a complex semi-simple linear algebraic group without G_2 factors, B a Borel subgroup of G and T a maximal torus in B. The flag variety G/B is a projective G-homogeneous variety whose tangent space at the identity coset is isomorphic, as a B-module, to Lie(G)/Lie(B). Recall that if w is an element of the Weyl group W of the pair (G,T), the Schubert variety X(w) in G/B is by definition the closure of the Bruhat cell BwB. In this note we prove that X(w) is non-singular iff the following two conditions hold: 1) its Poincar\\'e polynomial is palindromic and 2) the tangent space TE(X(w)) to the set T-stable curves in X(w) through the identity is a $B$-submodule of Lie(G)/Lie(B). This gives two criteria in terms of the combinatorics of W which are necessary and sufficient for X(w) to be smooth: \\sum_{x\\le w} t^{\\ell(x)} is palindromic, and every root of (G,T) in the convex hull of the set of negative roots whose reflection is less than w (in the Bruhat order on W) has the property that its T-weight space (in...

  17. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh akbarzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure at GB21 point. The infants’ physical indicators were compared to the control group one and three months after birth. The study data were analyzed using repeated measurement test, paired sample T-Test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s test. finding: The results showed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding the infants’ weight and height one and three months after birth (p0.05. Also, no significant difference was observed among the three groups concerning the infants’ head and arm circumference (P>0.05. Conclusion: BASNEF model improved the infants’ height and weight. Application of acupressure also improved the infants’ height, weight, and head and arm circumference compared to the control group. Hence, learning and application of techniques and models by the medical team are highly essential.

  18. 112 Gb/s sub-cycle 16-QAM Nyquist-SCM for intra-datacenter connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Dris, Stefanos; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Datacenter traffic is exploding. Ongoing advancements in network infrastructure that ride on Moore's law are unable to keep up, necessitating the introduction of multiplexing and advanced modulation formats for optical interconnects in order to overcome bandwidth limitations, and scale lane speeds with energy- and cost-efficiency to 100 Gb/s and beyond. While the jury is still out as to how this will be achieved, schemes relying on intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) are regarded as particularly attractive, due to their inherent implementation simplicity. Moreover, the scaling-out of datacenters calls for longer transmission reach exceeding 300 m, requiring single-mode solutions. In this work we advocate using 16-QAM sub-cycle Nyquist-SCM as a simpler alternative to discrete multitone (DMT), but which is still more bandwidth-efficient than PAM-4. The proposed optical interconnect is demonstrated at 112 Gb/s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest rate achieved in a single-polarization implementation of SCM. Off-the-shelf components are used: A DFB laser, a 24.3 GHz electro-absorption modulator (EAM) and a limiting photoreceiver, combined with equalization through digital signal processing (DSP) at the receiver. The EAM is driven by a low-swing (components; matched root-raised-cosine transmit and receive filters with 0.1 excess bandwidth are thus employed. Performance is assessed through transmission experiments over 1250 m and 2000 m of SMF.

  19. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh akbarzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators.Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure at GB21 point. The infants’ physical indicators were compared to the control group one and three months after birth. The study data were analyzed using repeated measurement test, paired sample T-Test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s test.finding: The results showed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding the infants’ weight and height one and three months after birth (p0.05. Also, no significant difference was observed among the three groups concerning the infants’ head and arm circumference (P>0.05.Conclusion: BASNEF model improved the infants’ height and weight. Application of acupressure also improved the infants’ height, weight, and head and arm circumference compared to the control group. Hence, learning and application of techniques and models by the medical team are highly essential.

  20. The characterization of the distant blazar GB6 J1239+0443 from flaring and low activity periods

    CERN Document Server

    Pacciani, L; Denney, K D; Assef, R J; Ikejiri, Y; Yamanaka, M; Uemura, M; Domingo, A; Giommi, P; Tarchi, A; Verrecchia, F; Longo, F; Rainó, S; Giusti, M; Vercellone, S; Chen, A W; Striani, E; Vittorini, V; Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Giuliani, A; Pucella, G; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Colafrancesco, S; Costa, E; De Paris, G; Del Monte, E; Di Cocco, G; Evangelista, Y; Ferrari, A; Feroci, M; Fiorini, M; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vallazza, E; Zanello, D; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Lucarelli, F; Salotti, L; Valentini, G

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 AGILE and Fermi detected gamma-ray flaring activity from the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1236+0457, recently associated with a flat spectrum radio quasar GB6 J1239+0443 at z=1.762. The optical counterpart of the gamma-ray source underwent a flux enhancement of a factor 15-30 in 6 years, and of ~10 in six months. We interpret this flare-up in terms of a transition from an accretion-disk dominated emission to a synchrotron-jet dominated one. We analysed a Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival optical spectrum taken during a period of low radio and optical activity of the source. We estimated the mass of the central black hole using the width of the CIV emission line. In our work, we have also investigated SDSS archival optical photometric data and UV GALEX observations to estimate the thermal-disk emission contribution of GB6 J1239+0443. Our analysis of the gamma-ray data taken during the flaring episodes indicates a flat gamma-ray spectrum, with an extension of up to 15 GeV, with no statistically...

  1. 107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, W; Yang, Q; Ma, Y

    2008-04-28

    Coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has emerged as an attractive modulation format for the forthcoming 100 Gb/s Ethernet. However, even the spectral-efficient implementation of CO-OFDM requires digital-to-analog converters (DAC) and analog-to-digital converters (ADC) to operate at the bandwidth which may not be available today or may not be cost-effective. In order to resolve the electronic bandwidth bottleneck associated with DAC/ADC devices, we propose and elucidate the principle of orthogonal-band-multiplexed OFDM (OBM-OFDM) to subdivide the entire OFDM spectrum into multiple orthogonal bands. With this scheme, the DAC/ADCs do not need to operate at extremely high sampling rate. The corresponding mapping to the mixed-signal integrated circuit (IC) design is also revealed. Additionally, we show the proof-of-concept transmission experiment through optical realization of OBM-OFDM. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first experimental demonstration of 107 Gb/s QPSK-encoded CO-OFDM signal transmission over 1000 km standard-single- mode-fiber (SSMF) without optical dispersion compensation and without Raman amplification. The demonstrated system employs 2x2 MIMO-OFDM signal processing and achieves high electrical spectral efficiency with direct-conversion at both transmitter and receiver.

  2. Two orthogonal carriers assisted 101-Gb/s dual-band DDO-OFDM transmission over 320-km SSMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqin; Hu, Rong; Yang, Qi; Luo, Ming; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Wei

    2015-05-04

    We propose a novel fading-free direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) scheme for 100-Gb/s medium-reach transmission. In the proposed scheme, we adopts two bands spaced at 100-GHz to accommodate the same complex-valued OFDM signal. However, the signals are coupled with a pair of orthogonal optical carriers. By doing so, real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued OFDM signal can be recovered from the two bands, respectively. We also propose a cost-effective scheme to generate such DDO-OFDM signal using an optical 90-degree hybrid and an optical I/Q modulator. The advantage of the proposed method is that it is fading-free, and the electrical spectral efficiency (SE) is doubled compared to traditional direct-detection method. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated a 101-Gb/s dual-band transmission over 320-km SSMF within only 30-GHz electrical bandwidth, which is highly competitive in both capacity and cost.

  3. Strain Field in GaAs/GaN Wafer-Bonding Interface and Its Microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; GUO Xia; GU Xiao-Ling; LI Yi-Bo; SHEN Guang-Di

    2007-01-01

    The strain fields in a wafer-bonded GaAs/GaN structure aFe measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).Image quality (IQ) of EBSD Kikuchi patterns and rotation angles of crystal lattices as strain sensirive parameters aFe employed to characterize the distortion and the rotation of crystal lattices in the GaAs-interface-GaN structure.as well as to display the strain fields.The results indicate that the influence region of the strains in the wafer-bonded GaAs/GaN structure is mainly located in GaAs side because the strength of GaAs is weaker than that of GaN.The cross-sectional image of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further reveals the distortion and the rotation of crystal lattices induced by strains systematically.

  4. Gate Leakage Current Reduction With Advancement of Graded Barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gate leakage current reduction solution of AlGaN/GaN HEMT device issue has been addressed in this paper with compositional grading of AlGaN barrier layer. This work is also conjugated with the critical thickness limitation of heterostructure material growth. Hence, critical thickness calculation of AlGaN over GaN has been kept in special view. 1D Schrodinger and Poisson solver was used to calculate the 2DEG concentration and effective location to use it in the ATLAS device simulator for the predictions. The proposed Al0.50Ga0.50N/Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.20Ga0.80N/GaN HEMT structure exhibits the leakage current of the order of around 15 nA/mm at gate voltage of 1 V.

  5. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X; Li, H; Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A; Sanchez-Garcia, M A; Calleja, E; Draxl, C; Trampert, A

    2016-02-12

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  6. Simulation of polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Na; ZHAO; Degang; YANG; Hui

    2004-01-01

    A method for introducing polarization effects in the simulation of GaN-based heterojunction devices is proposed. A δ doping layer is inserted at the interface of heterojunction and the ionized donors or acceptors act as polarization induced fixed charges. Thus polarization effects can be taken into account in a traditional device simulator. Ga-face and N-face single AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are simulated, and the simulation results show that carrier confinement takes place only in the former structure while not in the latter one. The sheet density of free electrons at the interface of Ga-face AlGaN/GaN increases with the Al composition and the thickness of AlGaN. The consistence of simulation results with the experiments and calculations reported elsewhere shows that this method can effectively introduce polarization effects in the simulation of GaN-based heterojunction devices.

  7. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Li, H.; Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Draxl, C.; Trampert, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  8. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  9. Good manufacturing practice production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use.

  10. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with selective area grown p-GaN gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliang, Huang; Lian, Zhang; Zhe, Cheng; Yun, Zhang; Yujie, Ai; Yongbing, Zhao; Hongxi, Lu; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li

    2016-11-01

    We report a selective area growth (SAG) method to define the p-GaN gate of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Compared with Schottky gate HEMTs, the SAG p-GaN gate HEMTs show more positive threshold voltage (V th) and better gate control ability. The influence of Cp2Mg flux of SAG p-GaN gate on the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs has also been studied. With the increasing Cp2Mg from 0.16 μmol/min to 0.20 μmol/min, the V th raises from -0.67 V to -0.37 V. The maximum transconductance of the SAG HEMT at a drain voltage of 10 V is 113.9 mS/mm while that value of the Schottky HEMT is 51.6 mS/mm. The SAG method paves a promising way for achieving p-GaN gate normally-off AlGaN/GaN HEMTs without dry etching damage. Project supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Nos. 61376090, 61306008) and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2014AA032606).

  11. Effect of substrate offcut on AlGaN/GaN HFET structures on bulk GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J. H.; Biswas, N.; Paskova, T.; Preble, E. A.; Evans, K. R.; Wu, M.; Ni, X.; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2011-02-01

    Bulk GaN substrates promise to bring the full potential of nitride-based devices to bear since they offer a low thermal and lattice mismatched alternative to foreign substrates for epitaxial growth. However, due to the high cost and low availability of bulk GaN substrates, effects such as surface misorientation (offcut), surface polishing, and preparation of such substrates on subsequent epitaxy are still not well understood. As such, AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with nominal Al compositions of 25% were grown by MOCVD on semi-insulating bulk GaN substrates with offcuts ranging from 0.05 to 1.95° in the m-direction (10 10) to attempt to determine the optimal offcut for bulk GaN substrates for AlGaN-based HFET devices. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that the Al composition does not vary with offcut, however reciprocal space mapping shows evidence of strain relaxation of the AlGaN in samples grown on substrates with offcut >1.1°. Additionally, we observed a minimum in sheet resistance of the 2DEGs for substrates with offcuts near 0.5°, arising from higher mobilities in these samples. Evidence of an optimal substrate misorientation is important for AlGaN-based devices grown on bulk GaN substrates.

  12. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  13. InGaN/GaN Nanowire LEDs and Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The large specific surface, and the associated high density of surface states was found to limit the light output power and quantum efficiency of nanowire-array devices, despite their potential for addressing the “green-gap” and efficiency-droop issues. The phonon and carrier confinement in nanowires also led to junction heating, and reduced heat dissipation. In this paper, we will present our studies on effective surface states passivation in InGaN/GaN quantum-disks (Qdisks)-in-nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers grown on silicon (Si), as well as our recent work on nanowires LEDs grown on bulk-metal, a non-conventional substrate.

  14. Ultraviolet Phototransistors on AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; JIANG Wen-Hai; REN Chun-Jiang; LI Zhong-Hui; JIAO Gang; DONG Xun; CHEN Tang-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of phototransistors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown over 6H-SiC substrates. The device has two functions: as a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and an ultraviolet photodetector at the same time. As an HEMT, its maximum transconductance is 170 mS/mm, while the minimum cutoff frequency fT and the maximum oscillation frequency fm axe 19 and 35 GHz, respectively.As a photodetector, the device is visible blind, with an ultraviolet/green contrast of three orders of magnitude,and a responsivity as high as 1700 A/W at the wavelength of 362nm.

  15. Preclinical evaluation of two {sup 68}Ga-siderophores as potential radiopharmaceuticals for Aspergillus fumigatus infection imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, Milos [Innsbruck Medical University, Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Palacky University, Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Franssen, Gerben M.; Laverman, Peter [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Haas, Hubertus; Schrettl, Markus [Innsbruck Medical University, Division of Molecular Biology/Biocenter, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoertnagl, Caroline; Lass-Floerl, Cornelia [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Helbok, Anna; Decristoforo, Clemens [Innsbruck Medical University, Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-07-15

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains high, mainly due to the difficulties and limitations in diagnosis. We have shown that siderophores can be labelled with {sup 68}Ga and can be used for PET imaging of A. fumigatus infection in rats. Here we report on the further evaluation of the most promising {sup 68}Ga-siderophore candidates, triacetylfusarinine (TAFC) and ferrioxamine E (FOXE). Siderophores were labelled with {sup 68}Ga using acetate buffer. Log P, protein binding and stability values were determined. Uptake by A. fumigatus was studied in vitro in cultures with high and low iron loads. In vivo biodistribution was determined in normal mice and an infection model was established using neutropenic rats inoculated with A. fumigatus. Static and dynamic {mu}PET imaging was performed and correlated with CT images, and lung infection was evaluated ex vivo. {sup 68}Ga-siderophores were labelled with high radiochemical purity and specific activity. {sup 68}Ga-TAFC and {sup 68}Ga-FOXE showed high uptake by A. fumigatus in iron-deficient cultures. In normal mice, {sup 68}Ga-TAFC and {sup 68}Ga-FOXE showed rapid renal excretion with high metabolic stability. In the rat infection model focal lung uptake was detected by {mu}PET with both compounds and increased with severity of the infection, correlating with abnormal CT images. {sup 68}Ga-TAFC and {sup 68}Ga-FOXE displayed excellent in vitro stability and high uptake by A. fumigatus. Both compounds showed excellent pharmacokinetics, highly selective accumulation in infected lung tissue and good correlation with severity of disease in a rat infection model, which makes them promising agents for A. fumigatus infection imaging. (orig.)

  16. Brittle-Ductile Relaxation Kinetics of Strained AlGaN/GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHASON, E.; FLORO, JERROLD A.; FOLLSTAEDT, DAVID M.; HAN, JUNG; HEARNE, SEAN JOSEPH; LEE, STEPHEN R.; TSONG, I.S.T.

    1999-10-05

    The authors have directly measured the stress evolution during metal organic chemical vapor deposition of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire. In situ stress measurements were correlated with ex situ microstructural analysis to directly determine a critical thickness for cracking and the subsequent relaxation kinetics of tensile-strained Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N on GaN. Cracks appear to initiate the formation of misfit dislocations at the AlGaN/GaN interface, which account for the majority of the strain relaxation.

  17. Blue light emission from the heterostructured ZnO/InGaN/GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ti; WU Hao; Wang, Zheng; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chang

    2013-01-01

    ZnO/InGaN/GaN heterostructured light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy and atomic layer deposition. InGaN films consisted of an Mg-doped InGaN layer, an undoped InGaN layer, and a Si-doped InGaN layer. Current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction indicated a diode-like rectification behavior. The electroluminescence spectra under forward biases presented a blue emission accompanied by a broad peak centered at 600 nm. With appropriate emission intensity r...

  18. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: AlGaN/GaN double-channel HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Quan; Yue, Hao; Xiaohua, Ma; Pengtian, Zheng; Yuanbin, Xie

    2010-04-01

    The fabrication of AlGaN/GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors on sapphire substrates is reported. Two carrier channels are formed in an AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN/GaN multilayer structure. The DC performance of the resulting double-channel HEMT shows a wider high transconductance region compared with single-channel HEMT. Simulations provide an explanation for the influence of the double-channel on the high transconductance region. The buffer trap is suggested to be related to the wide region of high transconductance. The RF characteristics are also studied.

  19. Contactless Mobility, Carrier Density, and Sheet Resistance Measurements on Si, GaN, and AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Si, GaN, and AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Wafers by Randy P Tompkins and Danh Nguyen Approved for...High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Wafers by Randy P. Tompkins Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate Danh Nguyen Lehighton...Resistance Measurements on Si, GaN, and AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Wafers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  20. Engineering of electric field distribution in GaN(cap)/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures: theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Janicki, L.; Misiewicz, J.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2016-09-01

    Polarization engineering of GaN-based heterostructures opens a way to develop advanced transistor heterostructures, although measurement of the electric field in such heterostructures is not a simple task. In this work, contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectroscopy has been applied to measure the electric field in GaN-based heterostructures. For a set of GaN(d  =  0, 5, 15, and 30 nm)/AlGaN(20 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of electric field in the GaN(cap) layer from 0.66 MV cm-1 to 0.27 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 have been observed with the increase in the GaN(cap) thickness from 5-30 nm. For a set of GaN(20 nm)/AlGaN(d  =  10, 20, 30, and 40 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 1.77 MV cm-1 to 0.64 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the GaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 were observed with the increase in the AlGaN thickness from 10-40 nm. To determine the distribution of the electric field in these heterostructures the Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved in a self-consistent manner and matched with experimental data. It is shown that the built-in electric field in the GaN(cap) and AlGaN layers obtained from measurements does not reach values of electric field resulting only from polarization effects. The measured electric fields are smaller due to a screening of polarization effects by free carriers, which are inhomogeneously distributed across the heterostructure and accumulate at interfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that CER measurements supported by theoretical calculations are able to determine the electric field distribution in GaN-based heterostructures quantitatively, which is very important for polarization engineering in this material system.

  1. DC~3 Gb/s LD/EA Drivers Using Discrete Double Polysilicon Bipolar Transistors%复合多晶硅双极晶体管DC~3 Gb/s LD/EA驱动器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子宇

    2002-01-01

    本文介绍了一种新型LD/EA驱动器.该驱动器采用四个塑封NPN多晶硅双极晶体管和一个常规硅双极晶体管作为有源器件,可以在25Ω负载上产生50mA的调制电流用于直接驱动激光器或在50Ω负载上产生2.5V的调制电压用于驱动EA调制器.该驱动器的工作速率为DC至3Gb/s,调制电流和偏置电流调节范围分别为5~50mA,上升、下降时间小于100ps.

  2. The suggestion to GB8239-1997 《Nonmal Concreto small hollow blak》%对GB 8239-1997《普通混凝土小型空心砌块》的一点建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百湛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 随着墙体材料改革的不断深入,烧结普通砖已在许多地方被禁止使用,替代产品也不断涌现,现在普通混凝土小型空心砌块已逐渐被人们接受.作为检测部门,我们接受的空心砌块检测越来越多,在按GB8239-1997检测过程中我们发现该标准简洁,实用.但对外观质量的技术要求中有一点不好理解.在此提出,与同行探讨.

  3. Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yongjin; Hu Fangren; Hane Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place wit...

  4. Internal quantum efficiency in yellow-amber light emitting AlGaN-InGaN-GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Thi Huong; Gil, Bernard; Valvin, Pierre [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb – UMR 5221, CNRS and University Montpellier, Case courier 074, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Damilano, Benjamin; Lekhal, Kaddour; De Mierry, Philippe [CRHEA-CNRS Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2015-09-21

    We determine the internal quantum efficiency of strain-balanced AlGaN-InGaN-GaN hetero-structures designed for yellow-amber light emission, by using a recent model based on the kinetics of the photoluminescence decay initiated by Iwata et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015)]. Our results indicate that low temperature internal quantum efficiencies sit in the 50% range and we measure that adding an AlGaN layer increases the internal quantum efficiency from 50% up to 57% with respect to the GaN-InGaN case. More dramatic, it almost doubles from 2.5% up to 4.3% at room temperature.

  5. 基于GB/T 20274的信息系统的安全技术保障度量与评估模型%GB/T 20274-based security assurance metrics and evaluation model for information systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江常青; 安伟; 林家骏; 张雪芹; 袁文浩

    2012-01-01

    A security assurance measurement and evaluation model was developed to reduce information system security risks.The Chinese GB/T 20274 standard defines security assurance for information systems and specifies a security technical assurance metric with six capability maturity levels.This paper classifies the information assurance elements into three categories as the composite independent security assurance,composite complementary security assurance and composite correlated security assurance according to the relationships among system components.An access path and the dependence and correlation relationships among components are used in an evaluation model for information system security assurance.%为了实现现代信息系统的安全低风险运行,研究了信息系统的安全技术保障度量及评估模型。基于国家标准GB/T 20274定义了信息系统安全技术保障评估的安全技术保障要素集,并建议以能力成熟度等级作为信息系统的安全技术保障程度的度量。依据信息系统中组件组合后的相互关系将信息系统安全技术保障要素划分为组合独立性安全技术保障要素、组合互补性安全技术保障要素以及组合关联性安全技术保障要素,并且通过引入访问路径的定义和组件之间的依赖和关联关系,给出了信息系统安全技术保障的形式化评估模型及项目实现。

  6. Development of new folate-based PET radiotracers: preclinical evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-folate conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); University Hospital Freiburg, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Wang, Xuejuan [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Nicolas, Guillaume [University Hospital Basel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Medina, Christelle; Raynal, Isabelle; Port, Marc [Guerbet, Research Department, Aulnay-sous-Bois (France)

    2011-01-15

    A number of {sup 111}In- and {sup 99m}Tc-folate-based tracers have been evaluated as diagnostic agents for imaging folate receptor (FR)-positive tumours. A {sup 68}Ga-folate-based radiopharmaceutical would be of great interest, combining the advantages of PET technology and the availability of {sup 68}Ga from a generator. The aim of the study was to develop a new {sup 68}Ga-folate-based PET radiotracer. Two new DOTA-folate conjugates, named P3026 and P1254, were synthesized using the 1,2-diaminoethane and 3-{l_brace}2-[2-(3-amino-propoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy{r_brace}-propylamine as a spacer, respectively. Both conjugates were labelled with {sup 67/68}Ga. Binding affinity, internalization and externalization studies were performed using the FR-positive KB cell line. Biodistribution and PET/CT imaging studies were performed in nude mice, on a folate-deficient diet, bearing KB and HT1080 (FR-negative) tumours, concurrently. The new radiotracers were evaluated comparatively to the reference molecule {sup 111}In-DTPA-folate ({sup 111}In-P3139). The K{sub d} values of {sup 67/68}Ga-P3026 (4.65 {+-} 0.82 nM) and {sup 67/68}Ga-P1254 (4.27 {+-} 0.42 nM) showed high affinity for the FR. The internalization rate followed the order {sup 67/68}Ga-P3026 >{sup 67/68}Ga-P1254 >{sup 111}In-P3139, while almost double cellular retention was found for {sup 67/68}Ga-P3026 and {sup 67/68}Ga-P1254, compared to {sup 111}In-P3139. The biodistribution data of {sup 67/68}Ga-DOTA-folates showed high and receptor-mediated uptake on the FR-positive tumours and kidneys, with no significant differences compared to {sup 111}In-P3139. PET/CT images, performed with {sup 68}Ga-P3026, showed high uptake in the kidneys and clear visualization of the FR-positive tumours. The DOTA-folate conjugates can be efficiently labelled with {sup 68}Ga in labelling yields and specific activities which allow clinical application. The characteristics of the {sup 67/68}Ga-DOTA-folates are comparable to {sup 111}In

  7. High-temperature characteristics of AixGa1-xN/GaN Schottky diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoling; Li Fei; Lv Changzhi; Xie Xuesong; Li Ying; Mohammad S N

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature characteristics of the metal/AlxGa1_xN/GaN M/S/S (M/S/S) diodes have been studied with current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at high temperatures. Due to the presence of the piezoelectric polarization field and a quantum well at the AIxGa1_xN/GaN interface, the AIxGa1_xN/GaNdiodes show properties distinctly different from those of the AIxGa1_xN diodes. For the AIxGa1_xN/GaN diodes, an increase in temperature accompanies an increase in barrier height and a decrease in ideality factor, while the AIxGa1_xN diodes are opposite. Furthermore, at room temperature, both reverse leakage current and reverse break-down voltage are superior for the AIxGa1_xN/GaN diodes to those for the AIxGa1_xN diodes.

  8. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  9. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moergestel, Leo van; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to ti

  10. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  11. Optical and magnetotransport properties of InGaAs/GaAsSb/GaAs structures doped with a magnetic impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalentyeva, I. L., E-mail: vikhrova@nifti.unn.ru; Zvonkov, B. N.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Danilov, Yu. A.; Demina, P. B.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Zdoroveyshchev, A. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    InGaAs/GaAsSb/GaAs bilayer quantum-well structures containing a magnetic-impurity δ-layer (Mn) at the GaAs/InGaAs interface are experimentally studied for the first time. The structures are fabricated by metal organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) and laser deposition on substrates of conducting (n{sup +}) and semi-insulating GaAs in a single growth cycle. The InGaAs-layer thickness is varied from 1.5 to 5 nm. The significant effect of a decrease in the InGaAs quantum-well thickness on the optical and magnetotransport properties of the structures under study is detected. Nonlinear magnetic-field dependence of the Hall resistance and negative magnetoresistance at temperatures of ≤30–40 K, circular polarization of the electroluminescence in a magnetic field, opposite behaviors of the photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission intensities in the structures, and an increase in the contribution of indirect transitions with decreasing InGaAs thickness are observed. Simulation shows that these effects can be caused by the influence of the δ-layer of acceptor impurity (Mn) on the band structure and the hole concentration distribution in the bilayer quantum well.

  12. GaAsP solar cells on GaP/Si with low threading dislocation density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaung, Kevin Nay; Vaisman, Michelle; Lang, Jordan; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2016-07-01

    GaAsP on Si tandem cells represent a promising path towards achieving high efficiency while leveraging the Si solar knowledge base and low-cost infrastructure. However, dislocation densities exceeding 108 cm-2 in GaAsP cells on Si have historically hampered the efficiency of such approaches. Here, we report the achievement of low threading dislocation density values of 4.0-4.6 × 106 cm-2 in GaAsP solar cells on GaP/Si, comparable with more established metamorphic solar cells on GaAs. Our GaAsP solar cells on GaP/Si exhibit high open-circuit voltage and quantum efficiency, allowing them to significantly surpass the power conversion efficiency of previous devices. The results in this work show a realistic path towards dual-junction GaAsP on Si cells with efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  13. A novel oxidation-based wet etching method for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jinbao; Wang Jinyan; Liu Yang; Xu Zhe; Wang Maojun; Yu Min; Xie Bing

    2013-01-01

    A novel wet etching method for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures is proposed using thermal oxidation followed by wet etching in KOH solution.It is found that an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure after high temperature oxidation above 700 ℃ could be etched off in a homothermal (70 ℃) KOH solution while the KOH solution had no etching effects on the region of the A1GaN/GaN heterostructure protected by a SiO2 layer during the oxidation process.A groove structure with 150 nm step depth on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was formed after 8 h thermal oxidation at 900 ℃ followed by 30 min treatment in 70 ℃ KOH solution.As the oxidation time increases,the etching depth approaches saturation and the roughness of the etched surface becomes much better.The physical mechanism of this phenomenon is also discussed.

  14. GaN Bulk Growth and Epitaxy from Ca-Ga-N Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal addresses the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of gallium nitride (GaN) films using nitrogen-enriched metal solutions. Growth of GaN from solutions...

  15. 墨CM57710:10GbE聚合网络界面控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Broadcom日前推出单芯片双端口10GbE聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC)——BCM57710,以迎合大批量服务器的设计。基于之前两代成熟的NetXtreme II千兆以太网C-NIC技术,Broadcom此次成功发布业界首款10Gbps(千兆比特/每秒)速率的全功能、单芯片聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC),这款产品不需要外部缓存的支持。

  16. Compiled data set of exact NOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings and scalar couplings for the protein GB3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Vögeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We compiled an NMR data set consisting of exact nuclear Overhauser enhancement (eNOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs and scalar (J couplings for GB3, which forms one of the largest and most diverse data set for structural characterization of a protein to date. All data have small experimental errors, which are carefully estimated. We use the data in the research article Vogeli et al., 2015, Complementarity and congruence between exact NOEs and traditional NMR probes for spatial decoding of protein dynamics, J. Struct. Biol., 191, 3, 306–317, doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.07.008 [1] for cross-validation in multiple-state structural ensemble calculation. We advocate this set to be an ideal test case for molecular dynamics simulations and structure calculations.

  17. Generation and transmission of 512-Gb/s quad-carrier digital super-Nyquist spectral shaped signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2013-12-16

    A novel digital super-Nyquist signal generation scheme is proposed to further suppress the Nyquist signal bandwidth and reduce the channel crosstalk without using optical pre-filtering. The spectrum of the generated super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is much more compact compared with regular Nyquist QPSK signal. Therefore, only optical couplers are needed for super-Nyquist WDM channel multiplexing. By using the 64-GSa/s high speed DAC, 32-GBaud super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is generated within 25-GHz grid for quad-carrier 400G channels. We successfully generate and transmit 4 channels quad-carrier 512-Gb/s super-Nyquist 9-QAM-like signal within 100-GHz grid over 2975-km at a net SE of 4b/s/Hz (after excluding the 20% soft-decision FEC overhead).

  18. Analyses of spectral efficiency and nonlinear tolerance of DPSK formats in 160-Gb/s Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jeppesen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    Five-channel 160-Gb/s wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems using ABA dispersion map and Raman amplification are investigated numerically. Transmission distance and system margin are evaluated for return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) and carrier-suppressed return......-to-zero (CSRZ)-DPSK formats. The results show that RZ-DPSK can offer 2300-km system reach at large WDM channel spacing, while CSRZ-DPSK is more robust against nonlinear effects in the fibers and offers a reach of 1900 km at a spectral efficiency of 0.53 b/s/Hz. CSRZ-DPSK can also provide twice the dispersion...

  19. 英飞凌发布GbE IP电话解决方案INCA—IP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    英飞凌科技公司目前发布了单芯片千兆以太网(GbE)IP电话解决方案INCA—IP2。该方案采用基于两个MIPS3224KEc处理器的创新架构,其中一个CPU用作网络处理器,另一个CPU用于独特的实时操作系统和专用VoIP硬件。这将该产品变成了一个功能强大的语音引擎,不仅能支持丰富的高级语音应用,同时又可提供卓越语音质量。与由一个CPU和一个DSP组成的传统方案相比,

  20. Performance evaluation for 160-Gb/s optical phase conjugation systems considering dispersion mapping and third-order dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiang Li; Kun Xu; Guangtao Zhou; Jian Wu; Jintong Lin

    2007-01-01

    The impact of third-order dispersion (TOD) is investigated by numerical simulations in 160-Gb/s singlechannel systems incorporated with dispersion mapping and optical phase conjugation (OPC). System performances using retrun-to-zero (RZ) or carrier-suppressed RZ (CSRZ) modulation format are evaluated on the optimized dispersion map. The results indicate that even though TOD has been fully compensated,the intra-channel nonlinearity induced by local TOD would degrade the system performance in nonlinear regime. The scheme with an optimized dispersion map provides a much higher performance and offers a larger tolerance on a variation of pre-compensation. CSRZ modulation format is more robust due to its tradeoff between tolerances on intra-channel nonlinearity and dispersion.

  1. Simultaneous demonstration on all-optical digital encoder and comparator at 40 Gb/s with semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xinliang; Dong, Jianji; Huang, Dexiu

    2007-11-12

    We proposed and experimental demonstrated all-optical two line-four line encoder and two bit-wise comparator of RZ data streams at 40Gb/s based on cross gain modulation (XGM) and four wave mixing (FWM) in three parallel SOAs. Five logic functions for digital encoder and comparator between two signals A and B: AB, AB, AB, AB and AOmicronB, were achieved simultaneously. The first three optical logics are realized based on XGM in SOAs, the fourth is realized with FWM, and the fifth is the mixing result of the first and the fourth. A detuning filter is employed to improve the output performance. The output extinction ratio (ER) for the XGM operation is above 10dB, and the ER for FWM operation is around 8 dB. Wide and clear eye patterns for the five logic outputs can be observed.

  2. A CMOS 0.13 mu m, 5-Gb/s laser driver for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Soos, C; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2012-01-01

    The GigaBit Laser Driver (GBLD) is a radiation tolerant ASIC designed to drive both edge emitting lasers and VCSELs at data rates up to 5 Gb/s. It is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) and Versatile Link projects, which are designing a bi-directional optical data transmission system capable of operating in the radiation environment of a typical HEP experiment. The GBLD can provide laser diode modulation currents up to 24 mA and laser bias currents up to 43 mA. Pre- and de-emphasis functions are implemented to compensate for high external capacitive loads and asymmetric laser response. The chip, designed in a 0.13 $\\mu$m CMOS technology, is powered by a single 2.5 V power supply and can be programmed via an $I2C$ interface.

  3. A 20-Gb/s 1:2 demultiplexer in 0.18-μm CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Changchun; Wang Zhigong; Shi Si; Li Wei

    2009-01-01

    A 1:2 demultiplexer (DEMUX) has been designed and fabricated in SMIC's standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology, based on standard CML logic and current-density-centric design philosophy. For the integrity of the DEMUX and the reliability of the internal operations, a data input buffer and a static latch were adopted. At the same time, the static latch enables the IC to work in a broader data rate range than the dynamic latch. Measurement results show that under a 1.8-V supply voltage, the DEMUX can operate reliably at any data rate in the range of 5-20 Gb/s. The chip size is 875 × 640 μm2 and the power consumption is 144 mW, in which the core circuit has a share of less than 28%.

  4. Bandwidth efficient bidirectional 5 Gb/s overlapped-SCM WDM PON with electronic equalization and forward-error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buset, Jonathan M; El-Sahn, Ziad A; Plant, David V

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate an improved overlapped-subcarrier multiplexed (O-SCM) WDM PON architecture transmitting over a single feeder using cost sensitive intensity modulation/direct detection transceivers, data re-modulation and simple electronics. Incorporating electronic equalization and Reed-Solomon forward-error correction codes helps to overcome the bandwidth limitation of a remotely seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based ONU transmitter. The O-SCM architecture yields greater spectral efficiency and higher bit rates than many other SCM techniques while maintaining resilience to upstream impairments. We demonstrate full-duplex 5 Gb/s transmission over 20 km and analyze BER performance as a function of transmitted and received power. The architecture provides flexibility to network operators by relaxing common design constraints and enabling full-duplex operation at BER ∼ 10(-10) over a wide range of OLT launch powers from 3.5 to 8 dBm.

  5. Compiled data set of exact NOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings and scalar couplings for the protein GB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Beat; Olsson, Simon; Riek, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2015-12-01

    We compiled an NMR data set consisting of exact nuclear Overhauser enhancement (eNOE) distance limits, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and scalar (J) couplings for GB3, which forms one of the largest and most diverse data set for structural characterization of a protein to date. All data have small experimental errors, which are carefully estimated. We use the data in the research article Vogeli et al., 2015, Complementarity and congruence between exact NOEs and traditional NMR probes for spatial decoding of protein dynamics, J. Struct. Biol., 191, 3, 306-317, doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.07.008 [1] for cross-validation in multiple-state structural ensemble calculation. We advocate this set to be an ideal test case for molecular dynamics simulations and structure calculations.

  6. Experimental demonstration of 30 Gb/s direct-detection optical OFDM transmission with blind symbol synchronisation using virtual subcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouziane, R; Milder, P A; Erkılınç, S; Galdino, L; Kilmurray, S; Thomsen, B C; Bayvel, P; Killey, R I

    2014-02-24

    The paper investigates the performance of a blind symbol synchronisation technique for optical OFDM systems based on virtual subcarriers. The test-bed includes a real-time 16-QAM OFDM transmitter operating at a net data rate of 30.65 Gb/s using a single OFDM band with a single FPGA-DAC subsystem and demonstrates transmission over 23.3 km SSMF with direct detection at a BER of 10(-3). By comparing the performance of the proposed synchronisation scheme with that of the Schmidl and Cox algorithm, it was found that the two approaches achieve similar performance for large numbers of averaging symbols, but the performance of the proposed scheme degrades as the number of averaging symbols is reduced. The proposed technique has lower complexity and bandwidth overhead as it does not rely on training sequences. Consequently, it is suitable for implementation in high speed optical OFDM transceivers.

  7. InGaAs quantum well-dots based GaAs subcell with enhanced photocurrent for multijunction GaInP/GaAs/Ge solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Maximov, M. V.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Zhukov, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    MOCVD-grown GaAs single-junction solar cells (SC) with quantum well-dots (QWD) were fabricated and tested. The QWD were formed by the deposition of In0.4Ga0.6As layers separated with GaAs spacers. A remarkable improvement of photocurrent was achieved and the reduction of open-circuit voltage was partly suppressed by decreasing the spacers’ growth rate as well as increasing their thickness up to 40 nm. Based on the experimentally obtained characteristics of these single-junction SCs we estimated that using QWD media in the middle (GaAs-based) subcell can provide 1 abs. %, increasing the efficiency of the triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge SCs.

  8. AlGaN nanocolumns and AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ulloa, J.M.; Calleja, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    This work reports on the characterization of hexagonal, single crystal AlGaN nanocolumns with diameters in the range of 30 to 100 nm grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The change of the flux ratio between the Al and the total III-element controls the alloy composition. The Al composition trend versus the Al flux is consistent both with the E{sub 2} phonon energy values measured by inelastic light scattering and the luminescence emission peaks position. High quality low dimensional AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN heterostructures with five GaN quantum discs, 2 and 4 nm thick, embedded into the AlGaN columns, were designed in order to study the quantum confinement effects. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Promoter Analysis and Transcriptional Profiling of Ginkgo biloba 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (GbHMGR gene in Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongling LIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terpene trilactones (TTLs are believed to be important for the pharmacological properties of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR is a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of TTLs. In this study, an 1.2-kb fragment of 5’ flanking region of the HMGR gene (GbHMGR, was isolated from G. biloba by genome walking. Extensive sequence analysis revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements in light-regulated transcription,  hormone signaling (gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylic acid, elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses, and plant defense signaling (W-box/WRKY that are common to the promoter region of GbHMGR. EMSA analysis suggested possible functionality of W-box in GbHMGR promoter region. The behavior of gene transcripts in ginkgo callus upon light, low temperature, MeJA and SA treatments further verified the regulatory function of GbHMGR promoter. A significant positive relationship between gene expression level and total TTL contents suggested that GbHMGR might be one of key genes involved in TTL biosynthesis in G. biloba.

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of electric field distribution in N-polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, M., E-mail: marta.gladysiewicz@pwr.edu.pl; Janicki, L.; Kudrawiec, R. [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Siekacz, M.; Cywinski, G. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Skierbiszewski, C. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-28

    Electric field distribution in N-polar GaN(channel)/AlGaN/GaN(buffer) heterostructures was studied theoretically by solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations in a self-consistent manner for various boundary conditions and comparing results of these calculations with experimental data, i.e., measurements of electric field in GaN(channel) and AlGaN layers by electromodulation spectroscopy. A very good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental data has been found for the Fermi-level located at ∼0.3 eV below the conduction band at N-polar GaN surface. With this surface boundary condition, the electric field distribution and two dimensional electron gas concentration are determined for GaN(channel)/AlGaN/GaN(buffer) heterostructures of various thicknesses of GaN(channel) and AlGaN layers.

  11. Access Path Planning of Mobile Agent in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyu Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the two-stage optimization model and hybrid optimized algorithm based on evolutionary computation, a new two-stage optimization model that more conforms to the actual demand is proposed on the basis of formal description of Mobile Agent access path planning. This new model divides the access path planning problem into two sub problems of integer linear programming --data integration sub paths and return sub paths, which can reduce search space and improve the efficiency of algorithm. Then a hybrid optimized method named GAPSO, combined with GA (Genetic Algorithm and PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization, is advanced to solve this model, which integrates discrete PSO into the interlace operation of GA to avoid infeasible solution and improve search quality. Meanwhile convergence can be accelerated by optimizing the GA population with PSO in search of return sub paths. By means of virtual connected topology graph, the high-quality to-be-accessed candidate node set is acquired, the number of to-be-selected nodes is reduced,and the complexity of solution space is decreased, making planning algorithm performance not rely on network scale directly any more. Simulation results show that the advantages of the optimization model is obvious as the node number increases, and GASPO has a better performance than GA and BPSO in the same model

  12. Simultaneous bioethanol distillery wastewater treatment and xylanase production by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sato, Ikuo; Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Ueda, Hirokazu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2015-12-01

    Bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass generates lignocellulosic bioethanol distillery wastewater (LBDW) that contains a large amount of xylose, making it a potential inexpensive source of xylose for biomaterials production. The main goal of this study was the production of useful enzymes from LBDW during treatment of this wastewater. In this study, we found that xylose strongly induced two yeast strains, Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 and GB-4(0), to produce novel xylanases, PaXynT and PaXynG, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of PaXynT [accession No. DF196774 (GAC73192.1)], obtained from the genome database of strain T-34 using its N-terminal amino acid sequence, was 91% identical to that of PaXynG (accession No. AB901085), and the deduced amino acid sequence is 98% identical. The specific activities of the purified PaXynT and PaXynG were about 52 U/mg. The optimal pH and temperature for both enzymes' activities were 5.2 and 50°C, respectively. They hydrolyzed xylan to xylose and neither had β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) activity, indicating that they are endo-β-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8). With these results, we expect that PaXyns can be employed in saccharizing lignocellulosic biomass materials for the production of useful products just like other endoxylanases. After 72 h of LBDW fed-batch cultivation using a jar-fermentor, strain GB-4(0) produced 17.3 U/ml (corresponding to about 0.3 g/l) of PaXynG and removed 63% of dissolved organic carbon and 87% of dissolved total phosphorus from LBDW. These results demonstrate the potential of P. antarctica for xylanase production during LBDW treatment.

  13. Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanopillar light-emitting diode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Haiyan

    Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction.......Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction....

  14. GaN High Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    HEMTs ) compared to SiC metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, GaN devices are not yet manufacturable because the...UV) emitters and detectors, and higher power radio frequency (RF) HEMTs . These considerable investments can be leveraged for GaN HPE. 1.2...with devices made using GaN films grown on sapphire or SiC substrates. The devices being fabricated are Schottky diodes (SDs) and HEMTs , with the

  15. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  16. Multiple Applications of GaAs semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jenrené; Wonka, Willy

    2003-03-01

    The object of this discussion will be to explore the many facets of Gallium Arsenide(GaAs) semiconductors. The session will begin with a brief overview of the basic properties of semiconductors in general(band gap, doping, charge mobility etc.). It will then follow with a closer look at the properties of GaAs and how these properties could potentially translate into some very exciting applications. Furthermore, current applications of GaAs semiconductors will be dicussed and analyzed. Finally, physical limits and advantages/disadvantages of GaAs will be considered.

  17. Tetrabromidobis(dicyclohexylphosphane-κPdigallium(Ga—Ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H. Mayo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, a GaII dimer, [Ga2Br4(C12H23P2], was synthesized by reaction of GaBr(THFn (THF is tetrahydrofuran with dicyclohexylphosphine in toluene. At 150 K the crystallographically centrosymmetric molecule exhibits disorder in which one of the two independent cyclohexyl groups is modelled over two sites in a 62 (1:38 (1 ratio. In d6-benzene solution, the compound exhibits virtual C2h symmetry as determined by 1H NMR. The coordination environment of the GaII atom is distorted tetrahedral.

  18. On SA, CA, and GA numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Caveney, Geoffrey; Sondow, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Gronwall's function $G$ is defined for $n>1$ by $G(n)=\\frac{\\sigma(n)}{n \\log\\log n}$ where $\\sigma(n)$ is the sum of the divisors of $n$. We call an integer $N>1$ a \\emph{GA1 number} if $N$ is composite and $G(N) \\ge G(N/p)$ for all prime factors $p$ of $N$. We say that $N$ is a \\emph{GA2 number} if $G(N) \\ge G(aN)$ for all multiples $aN$ of $N$. In arXiv 1110.5078, we used Robin's and Gronwall's theorems on $G$ to prove that the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) is true if and only if 4 is the only number that is both GA1 and GA2. Here, we study GA1 numbers and GA2 numbers separately. We compare them with superabundant (SA) and colossally abundant (CA) numbers (first studied by Ramanujan). We give algorithms for computing GA1 numbers; the smallest one with more than two prime factors is 183783600, while the smallest odd one is 1058462574572984015114271643676625. We find nineteen GA2 numbers $\\le 5040$, and prove that a GA2 number $N>5040$ exists if and only if RH is false, in which case $N$ is even and $>10^{8576}$.

  19. Characterization of a Ga-assisted GaAs nanowire array solar cell on si substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; Wood, B.;

    2016-01-01

    A single-junction core-shell GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cell on Si (1 1 1) substrates is presented. A Ga-assisted vapor–liquid–solid growth mechanism was used for the formation of a patterned array of radial p-i-n GaAs NWs encapsulated in AlInP passivation. Novel device fabrication utilizing facet...

  20. Ga self-diffusion in isotopically enriched GaAs heterostructures doped with Si and Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norseng, Marshall Stephen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This study attempts to advance the modeling of AlGaAs/GaAs/AlAs diffusion by experimental investigation of Ga self-diffusion in undoped, as-grown doped and Zinc diffused structures. We utilize novel, isotopically enriched superlattice and heterostructure samples to provide direct observation and accurate measurement of diffusion with a precision not possible using conventional techniques.

  1. Element specific investigation of ultrathin Co2MnGa/GaAs heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claydon, Jill S.; Hassan, Sameh; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad;

    2007-01-01

    We have used x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to study the element specific magnetic properties of ultrathin films of the Heusler alloy Co2MnGa at room temperature. Nine films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and engineered to vary in stoichiometry as Co1.86Mn0.99Ga1, Co1...

  2. Effect of Ga on the Wettability of CuGa10 on 304L Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silze, Frank; Wiehl, Gunther; Kaban, Ivan; Kühn, Uta; Eckert, Jürgen; Pauly, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, the effect of Ga on the wetting behavior of the Cu-rich braze filler CuGa10 (wt pct, Cu90.8Ga9.2 at. pct) on the steel 304L was investigated. For this, the macroscopic and microscopic effects governing the wetting of pure Ga, pure Cu, and CuGa10 alloy (wt pct) on the austenitic steel were analyzed and compared. Contact angle and surface tension measurements were carried out by means of the sessile drop technique, and, in addition, the phase formation at the interface was determined. Pure liquid Ga spreads on 304L, which supposedly is related to the formation of intermetallic Fe-Ga phases growing into the liquid Ga. Depending on the annealing time, FeGa3 and Fe14.5Ga12 were identified. In contrast, CuGa10 as well as pure Cu shows secondary wetting on the steel surface. Especially, liquid Cu prefers spreading laterally and vertically along the grain boundaries of the steel substrate. In spite of rather similar mechanisms, CuGa10 wets 304L steel at lower rate than pure Cu above the liquidus temperature.

  3. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction......Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  4. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  5. Long wavelength GaN blue laser (400-490nm) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DenBaars, S P; Abare, A; Sink, K; Kozodoy, P; Hansen, M; Bowers, J; Mishra, U; Coldren, L; Meyer, G

    2000-10-26

    Room temperature (RT) pulsed operation of blue nitride based multi-quantum well (MQW) laser diodes grown on c-plane sapphire substrates was achieved. Atmospheric pressure MOCVD was used to grow the active region of the device which consisted of a 10 pair In{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.79}N (2.5nm)/In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}N (5nm) InGaN MQW. The threshold current density was reduced by a factor of 2 from 10 kA/cm{sup 2} for laser diodes grown on sapphire substrates to 4.8 kA/cm{sub 2} for laser diodes grown on lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) GaN on sapphire. Lasing wavelengths as long as 425nm were obtained. LEDs with emission wavelengths as long as 500nm were obtained by increasing the Indium content. These results show that a reduction in nonradiative recombination from a reduced dislocation density leads to a higher internal quantum efficiency. Further research on GaN based laser diodes is needed to extend the wavelength to 490nm which is required for numerous bio-detection applications. The GaN blue lasers will be used to stimulate fluorescence in special dye molecules when the dyes are attached to specific molecules or microorganisms. Fluorescein is one commonly used dye molecule for chemical and biological warfare agent detection, and its optimal excitation wavelength is 490 nm. InGaN alloys can be used to reach this wavelength.

  6. Process dependency on threshold voltage of GaN MOSFET on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingpeng; Jiang, Ying; Miyashita, Takahiro; Motoyama, Shin-ichi; Li, Liuan; Wang, Dejun; Ohno, Yasuo; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2014-09-01

    GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with recessed gate on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure are reported in which the drain and source ohmic contacts were fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure and the electron channel was formed on the GaN buffer layer by removing the AlGaN barrier layer. Negative threshold voltages were commonly observed in all devices. To investigate the reasons of the negative threshold voltages, different oxide thickness, etching gas and bias power of inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) system were utilized in the fabrication process of the GaN MOSFETs. It is found that positive charges of around 1 × 1012 q/cm2 exist near the interface at the just threshold condition in both silane- and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS)-based devices. It is also found that the threshold voltages do not obviously change with the different etching gas (SiCl4, BCl3 and two-step etching of SiCl4/Cl2) at the same ICP bias power level (20-25 W) and will become deeper when higher bias power is used in the dry recess process which may be related to the much serious ion bombardment damage. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments were done to investigate the surface conditions. It is found that N 1s peaks become lower with higher bias power of the dry etching process. Also, silicon contamination was found and could be removed by HNO3/HF solution. It indicates that the nitrogen vacancies are mainly responsible for the negative threshold voltages rather than the silicon contamination. It demonstrates that optimization of the ICP recess conditions and improvement of the surface condition are still necessary to realize enhancement-mode GaN MOSFETs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure.

  7. Asymmetric quantum-well structures for AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin'an; Li, Yue; Wang, Ying; Xu, Shengrui; Hao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric quantum-well (QW) structures including the asymmetric potential-barrier and the asymmetric potential-well are proposed for AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). Theoretical investigation gives that an appropriate decrease in Al composition and thickness for emitter barrier as well as an appropriate increase of both for collector barrier can evidently improve the negative-differential-resistance characteristic of RTD. Numerical simulation shows that RTD with a 1.5-nm-thick GaN well sandwiched by a 1.3-nm-thick Al0.15Ga0.85N emitter barrier and a 1.7-nm-thick Al0.25Ga0.75N collector barrier can yield the I-V characteristic having the peak current (Ip) and the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 0.39 A and 3.6, respectively, about double that of RTD with a 1.5-nm-thick Al0.2Ga0.8N for both barriers. It is also found that an introduction of InGaN sub-QW into the diode can change the tunneling mode and achieve higher transmission coefficient of electron. The simulation demonstrates that RTD with a 2.8-nm-thick In0.03Ga0.97N sub-well in front of a 2.0-nm-thick GaN main-well can exhibit the I-V characteristic having Ip and PVCR of 0.07 A and 11.6, about 7 times and double the value of RTD without sub-QW, respectively. The purpose of improving the structure of GaN-based QW is to solve apparent contradiction between the device structure and the device manufacturability of new generation RTDs for sub-millimeter and terahertz applications.

  8. Physics-Based Modeling of Permeation: Simulation of Low-Volatility Agent Permeation and Aerosol Vapor Liquid Assessment Group Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    test, including material composition, thickness, and stress state;1,2 agent–material chemical interactions; environmental conditions such as... Environmental Impacts of Chemical Agents in Marine Environments. Chem. Rev. 2009, 109 (1), 236–256. 22. Nitsche, J.M.; Kasting, G.B. A Microscopic...model was shown to provide a reasonable worst-case scenario for permeation into skin in a real-world scenario because good contact is maintained

  9. Rapid Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Hydrolysis Products by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    to diethyl hydrogen phosphate, suggesting that hydrolysis of nerve agents to their initial acids would be significant following autoclaving... toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects. J. Chromatogr. A, 814, 1- 23. [4] Munro, N.B., Talmage, S.S., Griffin, G.D., Waters...Morrissey, K.M. and Durst, H.D. (2000). Trace determination of isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB) and bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide (HD) in chemical

  10. Threshold Voltage of AlGaN/GaN HFET%AlGaN/GaN异质结场效应晶体管的阈值电压

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兆军; 赵建芝; 张敏

    2007-01-01

    利用AlGaN/GaN异质结场效应晶体管(AlGaN/GaN HFET)栅结构的电容-电压(C-V)特性确定AlGaN/GaN HFET的阈值电压.通过对模拟计算得到的AlGaN/GaN HFET电流-电压(I-V)特性曲线与测试得到的AlGaN/GaN HFET曲线比较分析,证实了依据AlGaN/GaN HFET栅结构的C-V特性曲线的微分极值点确定阈值电压是一种切实可行的方法.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Glycoprotein B (gB of Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 and Type 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4 in Cellular Tropism and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Spiesschaert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein B (gB plays an important role in alphaherpesvirus cellular entry and acts in concert with gD and the gH/gL complex. To evaluate whether functional differences exist between gB1 and gB4, the corresponding genes were exchanged between the two viruses. The gB4-containing-EHV-1 (EHV-1_gB4 recombinant virus was analyzed for growth in culture, cell tropism, and cell entry rivaling no significant differences when compared to parental virus. We also disrupted a potential integrin-binding motif, which did not affect the function of gB in culture. In contrast, a significant reduction of plaque sizes and growth kinetics of gB1-containing-EHV-4 (EHV-4_gB1 was evident when compared to parental EHV-4 and revertant viruses. The reduction in virus growth may be attributable to the loss of functional interaction between gB and the other envelope proteins involved in virus entry, including gD and gH/gL. Alternatively, gB4 might have an additional function, required for EHV-4 replication, which is not fulfilled by gB1. In conclusion, our results show that the exchange of gB between EHV-1 and EHV-4 is possible, but results in a significant attenuation of virus growth in the case of EHV-4_gB1. The generation of stable recombinant viruses is a valuable tool to address viral entry in a comparative fashion and investigate this aspect of virus replication further.

  12. Electroacupuncture at the Wangu (GB 12) acupoint suppresses expression of inflammatory factors in the hippocampus and frontal lobe of rats with post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rubo Sui; Lei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Electroacupuncture was performed at the Wangu (GB 12) acupoint, whose position is similar to the cerebellar fastigial nucleus in rats with post-stroke depression. Results showed that the expression of nuclear factor-κB and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β decreased. Simultaneously, the extent of edema in the hippocampus and frontal lobe decreased, and the morphology of the nerve cells recovered to near normal. In addition, fluoxetine treatment displayed a similar effect on post-stroke depression as electroacupuncture at GB 12 acupoint. The results indicate that electroacupuncture at GB 12 acupoint can reduce the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and frontal lobe of rats with post-stroke depression, and thus provide a neuroprotective effect on post-stroke depression.

  13. Simple and flexible generation of vestigial side band modified duobinary return-to-zero signals at 10, 20 and 40 Gb/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang; Wang, Fei; Huang, Dexiu

    2010-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and flexible approach to generate vestigial side band modified duobinary return-to-zero (VSB MD-RZ) signals at 10-40 Gb/s, using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator and a detuned optical band-pass filter. The performance of the proposed VSB MD-RZ signal is investigated by comparing with double side band MD-RZ (DSB MD-RZ) and conventional VSB MD-RZ. Bit error ratio (BER) measurement at 10 Gb/s shows an error free operation for the generated signal. Good performance is further observed after 100 km of single-mode-fiber transmission at 40 Gb/s.

  14. Firefighting Agent Research, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Beowulf Linux cluster from Aspen Systems, Inc. This system contains eight nodes, each node having two 2.8 GHz processors and 2GB of memory, as... Clusters ........................................................................................................... 15 Aqueous Salts...14 Figure 11: A cluster of PFOA molecules solvated by water molecules. .......................... 14 Figure 18: Plots of temperature and

  15. HCMV gB genotypes in cervical secretion and placenta tissues in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastearn Brazil Genótipos gB de citomegalovírus humano em secreção cervical e placenta no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV displays genetic variability in several regions, supposed to be related with strain-specific tissue tropism and immunopathogenesis. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes gB glycoprotein, HCMV strains can be assigned to one of four genotypes. Previous studies have addressed gB genotyping mostly by investigating strains derived from immunosuppressed patients, sometimes without previous knowledge about genotype distribution in a geographic area. The present study verified the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes of strains obtained from immunocompetent women at Vitória City, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern, Brazil. The HCMV genome was extracted from their cervical secretion, fetal and maternal placenta tissues (chorionic villous and decidua from abortion cases and from white blood cells (WBCs. HCMV genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of amplified product from the high variability site of the UL55 gene. All four genotypes were observed in both cervical secretion and placenta, whereas in WBCs a single gB1 genotype was detected. HCMV gB1 and gB2 genotypes were detected, respectively, in nine and in six of the 23 studied samples, while gB3 and gB4 were each found in four separate samples of the total. The differences in genotype frequency were not considered statistically significant. No mixed genotype infection was observed. The results indicated that the four gB HCMV genotypes had no particular tropism for placenta tissues and that all genotypes circulated within immunocompetent women at the time and in the region of study.O citomegalovírus humano (HCMV apresenta variabilidade em diversas regiões do genoma, supostamente relacionada ao tropismo tecidual e imunopatogênese viral. Baseando-se na variação de seqüência do gene UL55 que codifica a glicoproteína gB, o HCMV pode ser classificado em um dos quatro genótipos. Estudos prévios têm investigado a

  16. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  17. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  18. Elimination of manganese(II,III) oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a double knockout of two putative multicopper oxidase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geszvain, Kati; McCarthy, James K; Tebo, Bradley M

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation. In several Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms, the identified Mn(II) oxidase belongs to either the multicopper oxidase (MCO) or the heme peroxidase family of proteins. However, the identity of the oxidase in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 has long remained unknown. To identify the P. putida GB-1 oxidase, we searched its genome and found several homologues of known or suspected Mn(II) oxidase-encoding genes (mnxG, mofA, moxA, and mopA). To narrow this list, we assumed that the Mn(II) oxidase gene would be conserved among Mn(II)-oxidizing pseudomonads but not in nonoxidizers and performed a genome comparison to 11 Pseudomonas species. We further assumed that the oxidase gene would be regulated by MnxR, a transcription factor required for Mn(II) oxidation. Two loci met all these criteria: PputGB1_2447, which encodes an MCO homologous to MnxG, and PputGB1_2665, which encodes an MCO with very low homology to MofA. In-frame deletions of each locus resulted in strains that retained some ability to oxidize Mn(II) or Mn(III); loss of oxidation was attained only upon deletion of both genes. These results suggest that PputGB1_2447 and PputGB1_2665 encode two MCOs that are independently capable of oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III). The purpose of this redundancy is unclear; however, differences in oxidation phenotype for the single mutants suggest specialization in function for the two enzymes.

  19. Isotype InGaN/GaN heterobarrier diodes by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fireman, Micha N.; Browne, David A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    The design of isotype InGaN/GaN heterobarrier diode structures grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy is presented. On the (0001) Ga-polar plane, a structure consisting of a surface n{sup +} GaN contact layer, followed by a thin InGaN layer, followed by a thick unintentionally doped (UID) GaN layer, and atop a buried n{sup +} GaN contact layer induces a large conduction band barrier via a depleted UID GaN layer. Suppression of reverse and subthreshold current in such isotype barrier devices under applied bias depends on the quality of this composite layer polarization. Sample series were grown under fixed InGaN growth conditions that varied either the UID GaN NH{sub 3} flow rate or the UID GaN thickness, and under fixed UID GaN growth conditions that varied InGaN growth conditions. Decreases in subthreshold current and reverse bias current were measured for thicker UID GaN layers and increasing InGaN growth rates. Temperature-dependent analysis indicated that although extracted barrier heights were lower than those predicted by 1D Schrödinger Poisson simulations (0.9 eV–1.4 eV for In compositions from 10% to 15%), optimized growth conditions increased the extracted barrier height from ∼11% to nearly 85% of the simulated values. Potential subthreshold mechanisms are discussed, along with those growth factors which might affect their prevalence.

  20. Normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using hydrogen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ronghui; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Li, Weiyi; Yuan, Jie; Song, Liang; Zhang, Zhili; Sun, Shichuang; Li, Xiajun; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Xinping; Zhang, Baoshun

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, we report a method by introducing hydrogen plasma treatment to realize normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices. Instead of using etching technology, hydrogen plasma was adopted to compensate holes in the p-GaN above the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel to release electrons in the 2DEG channel and form high-resistivity area to reduce leakage current and increase gate control capability. The fabricated p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT exhibits normally-off operation with a threshold voltage of 1.75 V, a subthreshold swing of 90 mV/dec, a maximum transconductance of 73.1 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 107, a breakdown voltage of 393 V, and a maximum drain current density of 188 mA/mm at a gate bias of 6 V. The comparison of the two processes of hydrogen plasma treatment and p-GaN etching has also been made in this work.