WorldWideScience

Sample records for agents ga gb

  1. "Maiden Flight" for LHC Computing grid breaks gigabyte-per-secnd barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "UK physicists have successfully taken part in a challenge to test an internationl scientific computing Grid under working conditions. During the week-long challenge, the LHC computing grid sustained transfer rates of a gigabyte per second. a world first for a permanent, international grid using scientific data" (2 pages)

  2. Pocket-size solid-state iPOD and flash drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images: Review and work initiated

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran A

    2009-01-01

    A locally assembled image viewer system with pocket-size iPOD (80 GB) and flash (2 GB) drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images, oriented towards training purposes, is described. Both the iPOD and flash drive enable storage of thousands of images from diverse medical-imaging equipments. The iPOD, in addition, can display with sufficient resolution any of these images and serves as a transportable preview device. Through the use of a computer, these devices c...

  3. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  4. 2.5 Gb/s laser-driver GaAS IC

    OpenAIRE

    Riishøj, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    A laser-diode driver GaAs IC incorporating an optional NRZ/RZ (non-return-to-zero/return-to-zero) conversion facility, having ECL (emitter-coupled logic) and SCFL (source-coupled FET logic)-compatible inputs and providing a 0-60-mA adjustable output current into a 50-Ω/5-V termination at bit rates up to 2 Gb/s NRZ and maintaining a clear eye opening of 50 mA at 2.5 Gb/s NRZ bit rate has been designed, using a commercial 1-μm gate-length (Fτ=12 GHz) GaAs MESFET foundry service. The high maximu...

  5. 2.5 Gb/s laser-driver GaAS IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    A laser-diode driver GaAs IC incorporating an optional NRZ/RZ (non-return-to-zero/return-to-zero) conversion facility, having ECL (emitter-coupled logic) and SCFL (source-coupled FET logic)-compatible inputs and providing a 0-60-mA adjustable output current into a 50-Ω/5-V termination at bit rates...... obtained. To verify laser driving performance a back-to-back optical-fiber transmission experiment was performed, giving good optical eye diagrams at 2.5 Gb/s. The electrooptical interplay between laser-diode driver and laser-diode has been demonstrated using SPICE simulations...... up to 2 Gb/s NRZ and maintaining a clear eye opening of 50 mA at 2.5 Gb/s NRZ bit rate has been designed, using a commercial 1-μm gate-length (Fτ=12 GHz) GaAs MESFET foundry service. The high maximum output current is obtained by implementing the output driver as a cascode differential amplifier...

  6. A 2.5 gb/s GaAs ATM Mux Demux ASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Lassen, Peter Stuhr

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high speed GaAs ATM Mux Demur ASIC (AMDA) which is the key element in a high speed ATM Add-Drop unit. This unit is used in a new distributed ATM multiplexing-demultiplexing architecture for broadband switching systems. The Add-Drop unit...... provides a cell based interface between networks/systems operating at different data rates, the high speed interface being 2.5 Gb/s and the low speed interface being 155/622 Mb/s. Self-timed FIFOs are used for handling the speed gaps between domains operating at different clock rates, and a Self-Timed At...... Receiver's Input (STARI) interface is used at all high speed chip-to-chip links to eliminate timing skews The AMDA demonstrated operation above 4 Gb/s (500 MHz clock frequency) with an associated power dissipation of 5 W...

  7. Pocket-size solid-state iPOD and flash drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images: Review and work initiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A locally assembled image viewer system with pocket-size iPOD (80 GB and flash (2 GB drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images, oriented towards training purposes, is described. Both the iPOD and flash drive enable storage of thousands of images from diverse medical-imaging equipments. The iPOD, in addition, can display with sufficient resolution any of these images and serves as a transportable preview device. Through the use of a computer, these devices can access/ store/ display the images/ photos from a CD, digital camera or the internet. A TV image viewing unit is also provided. The operational features and the advantages of these devices are discussed in detail. The quality assurance (QA of the displays has been successfully carried out with standard test patterns. The image quality has been tested with dynamic and static medical images. The system will be highly useful for storage and remote display of multitude of images from several modalities in the hospital, as well as other images, from the point of view of education and training. It has good potential for use in clinical diagnosis as well. Other recent advancements using iPHONE and improved but expensive computers, integrated with picture archiving and communication system (PACS as well as radiology and hospital information system (RHIS for versatile applications in modern radiology, are also highlighted.This system, assembled with indigenous equipments, is much less expensive and specially suited for teaching radiologists, physicists and technologists, particularly in developing countries.

  8. A monolithic GaAs clock and data recovery circuit for 2.5 Gb/s NRZ data stream

    OpenAIRE

    Pallotta, Andrea; Centurelli, F.; Trifiletti, Alessandro

    1997-01-01

    A GaAs monolithic clock and data recovery circuit for 2.5 Gb/s NRZ data stream has been designed and fabricated by using 0.3 mm HEMT technology from IAF FhG foundry. The main functions carried out by the IC are: signal amplification (25 dB), clock recovery and decision. The design is intended to achieve a complete 2.5 Gb/s receiver by using the IC and a LN preamplifier (transimpedance stage and limiting amplifier stage) placed in a DIL package. The overall scheme comprises about 200 active de...

  9. Uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation of 1.3 μm GaInNAs DQW lasers over a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongqiang; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Sadeghi, Mahdad; Wang, Shumin; Larsson, Anders; Savolainen, Pekka; Melanen, Petri; Sipilä, Pekko

    2006-04-01

    Ridge waveguide 1.3 μm GaInNAs lasers were fabricated from high quality double quantum well material grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Short cavity (250 μm) lasers have low threshold currents and small temperature dependencies of threshold current and slope efficiency, with a characteristic temperature of the threshold current as high as 200 K. The temperature stability allows for uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation up to temperatures as high as 110°C with a constant modulation voltage and only the bias current adjusted for constant average output power. Under these conditions, an extinction ratio larger than 6 dB and a spectral rms-width smaller than 2 nm are obtained.

  10. Uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation of 1.3 mum GaInNAs DQW lasers over a wide temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongqiang; Gustavsson, Johan S; Sadeghi, Mahdad; Wang, Shumin; Larsson, Anders; Savolainen, Pekka; Melanen, Petri; Sipilä, Pekko

    2006-04-01

    Ridge waveguide 1.3 mum GaInNAs lasers were fabricated from high quality double quantum well material grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Short cavity (250 mum) lasers have low threshold currents and small temperature dependencies of threshold current and slope efficiency, with a characteristic temperature of the threshold current as high as 200 K. The temperature stability allows for uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation up to temperatures as high as 110 degrees C with a constant modulation voltage and only the bias current adjusted for constant average output power. Under these conditions, an extinction ratio larger than 6 dB and a spectral rms-width smaller than 2 nm are obtained. PMID:19516408

  11. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  12. The MEDESS-GIB database: tracking the Atlantic water inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sotillo, Marcos; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio; Orfila, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Rubio, Pablo; Cristobal Maraver, José; Conti, Daniel; Padorno, Elena; Jiménez, José Antonio; Capó, Este; Pérez, Fernando; Sayol, Juan Manuel; de los Santos, Francisco Javier; Amo, Arancha; Rietz, Ana; Troupin, Charles; Tintore, Joaquín; Álvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    On 9 September 2014, an intensive drifter deployment was carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar. In the frame of the MEDESS-4MS Project (EU MED Program), the MEDESS-GIB experiment consisted of the deployment of 35 satellite tracked drifters, mostly of CODE-type, equipped with temperature sensor sampling at a rate of 30 min. Drifters were distributed along and on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. The MEDESS-GIB deployment plan was designed as to ensure quasi-synoptic spatial coverage. To this end, four boats covering an area of about 680 NM2 in 6 h were coordinated. As far as these authors know, this experiment is the most important exercise in the area in terms of number of drifters released. Collected satellite-tracked data along drifter trajectories have been quality controlled and processed to build the presented MEDESS-GIB database. This paper reports the MEDESS-GIB data set that comprises drifter trajectories, derived surface currents and in situ SST measurements collected along the buoys tracks. This series of data is available through the PANGAEA (Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science) repository, with the following doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.853701. Likewise, the MEDESS-GIB data will be incorporated as part of the Copernicus Marine historical products. The MEDESS-GIB data set provides a complete Lagrangian view of the surface inflow of Atlantic waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and thus, very useful data for further studies on the surface circulation patterns in the Alboran Sea, and their links with one of the most energetic Mediterranean Sea flows: the Algerian Current.

  13. Preparation of Ga-68-NOTA as a renal PET agent and feasibility tests in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) may provide more accurate quantification of kidney function such as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than gamma imaging. The purpose of these experiments was to prepare and evaluate Ga-68 complexes as potential PET agents for measurement of GFR. Methods: We labeled EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, and NOTA with Ga-68 obtained from a Ge-68/Ga-68-generator and measured the binding to serum and red blood cells. Biodistribution study was performed in male BALB/c mice after intravenous injection together with Cr-51-EDTA as the standard for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Animal-PET study was performed using BALB/c mice. Results: All the tested chelating agents except DTPA showed quantitative labeling yields (> 99%). Among them, Ga-68-NOTA showed consistently low binding to both human and mouse RBC and serum protein. Biodistribution study showed no significant difference between Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the GFR values obtained by Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA were almost same (0.26 ± 0.04 and 0.25 ± 0.04 mL/min, respectively). Animal-PET study showed almost the same GFR (0.25 mL/min) with the values obtained by biodistribution study. Conclusion: We proved that an easy-to-prepare agent Ga-68-NOTA is ideal for renal PET as well as for GFR measurement

  14. FeGA: A feedback-generating agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Mioch, T.

    2008-01-01

    In current simulation-based training of knowledgeintensive tasks, human instructors are needed to evaluate a student's task performance. This paper reports a study into the development of a multi-agent-based training system that evaluates student behavior at the result-level (quality of performance)

  15. Tumor imaging with novel radiogallium (67/68Ga) labeled agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P. V.; Antich, P. P.; Constantinescu, A.; Ranney, D. F.; Fernando, J. L.; Xiong, R.; Oz, O.; Parkey, R. W.

    1997-02-01

    Gallium-67 (t1/2: 78 h) has played an important role in tumor imaging. It is produced in a cyclotron and is commercially available for routine clinical use. 68Ga (t1/2: 68 min), a positron emitter, suitable for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, is obtained from a generator with long lived parent 68Ge (t1/2: 288 d). Radiogallium has been used mostly, as gallium citrate in imaging studies. Recently, receptor specific agents labeled with gallium have been developed. These include, agents to image somatostatin and folate receptors. We have shown that a new class of agents based on glycosaminoglycoans (GLYCOS) target a variety of tumors. Gallium labeled deferroxamine (DF) bound to sulfated glycosaminoglycans has the ability to rapidly target and permeate a wide variety of solid animal tumors and also undergo rapid blood clearance almost exclusively by the renal route. We have been able to image (within 5 min to 1 hr), prostate adenocarcinoma (AT-1 tumor) grown in surgically prepared pedicles of Copenhagen male rats and breast tumor in pedicles of Fisher female rats. 67Ga labeled agent was used in single photon imaging mode and 68Ga labeled agent was used in PET mode with a small animal PET imaging device built in our laboratory with plastic scintillating optical fibers.

  16. A 4 Gb/s 2-level to 2 Gsymbol/s 4-level converter GaAs IC for semiconductor optical amplifier QPSK modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, J.; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1994-01-01

    The design of a 50 Ω impedance matched two-to-four level converter GaAs IC for two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) modulators is presented. The designed IC exhibits eye diagrams with eye openings of better than 0.30 V and a spacing between adjacent output signal levels of 0.33 V f...

  17. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 68Ga-NOTA-IF7 as a tumor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing a new tumor imaging agent, the IFLLWQR (Ile-Phe-Leu-Leu-Trp-Glu-Arg, IF7) was conjugated with 1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N'-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with 68Ga. In the optimal conditions, the whole radio-synthesis was accomplished within 20 min. The decay-corrected radiochemical yield was more than 92 %. The radiochemical purity of 68Ga-NOTA-IF7 was more than 95 %. MicroPET studies showed a high tumor uptake at 15 min post-injection with 7.52 ± 0.16 %ID/g. The ratios of tumor to muscle uptake were 20.61 ± 0.31, 13.14 ± 0.21, 2.39 ± 0.12 at 15 min, 30 min and 60 min post-injection, respectively. 68Ga-NOTA-IF7 is a promising radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging. (author)

  18. ALICE breaks through the one Gigabyte/sec barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The test phases of the ALICE data acquisition system, known as the Data Challenges, are celebrating their fourth anniversary. The fruit of collaboration between several of the experiment's groups and IT Division, the 2002 tests concentrated on the system's performance and stability.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-ECC as a PET renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaei, Alireza; Jaililan, Amir Reza; Mazidi, Mohammad; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shabani, Gholamli; Ardaneh, Khosro [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geramifar, Patham; Beiki, Davood [Research Center for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop {sup 68}Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 68}Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based {sup 68}GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). {sup 68}Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; −1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10–20 min. The SUV{sub max} ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous {sup 99m}Tc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time.

  20. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance.

  1. Daily Planet Imagery: GIBS MODIS Products on ArcGIS Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA EOSDIS Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is rapidly becoming an invaluable GIS resource for the science community and for the public at large. Reliable, fast access to historical as well as near real time, georeferenced images form a solid basis on which many innovative applications and projects can be built. Esri has recognized the value of this effort and is a GIBS user and collaborator. To enable the use of GIBS services within the ArcGIS ecosystem, Esri has built a GIBS reflector server at http://modis.arcgis.com, server which offers the facilities of a time enabled Mosaic Service on top of the GIBS provided images. Currently the MODIS reflectance products are supported by this mosaic service, possibilities of handling other GIBS products are being explored. This reflector service is deployed on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud platform, and is freely available to the end users. Due to the excellent response time from GIBS, image tiles do not have to be stored by the Esri mosaic server, all needed data being retrieved directly from GIBS when needed, continuously reflecting the state of GIBS, and greatly simplifying the maintenance of this service. Response latency is usually under one second, making it easy to interact with the data. The remote data access is achieved by using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) Tiled Web Map Server (TWMS) driver. The response time of this server is excellent, usually under one second. The MODIS imagery has proven to be one of the most popular ones on the ArcGIS Online platform, where it is frequently use to provide temporal context to maps, or by itself, to tell a compelling story.

  2. Crystal structure of Gib2, a signal-transducing protein scaffold associated with ribosomes in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ero, Rya; Dimitrova, Valya Tenusheva; Chen, Yun; Bu, Wenting; Feng, Shu; Liu, Tongbao; Wang, Ping; Xue, Chaoyang; Tan, Suet Mien; Gao, Yong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    The atypical Gβ-like/RACK1 Gib2 protein promotes cAMP signalling that plays a central role in regulating the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Gib2 contains a seven-bladed β transducin structure and is emerging as a scaffold protein interconnecting signalling pathways through interactions with various protein partners. Here, we present the crystal structure of Gib2 at a 2.2-Å resolution. The structure allows us to analyse the association between Gib2 and the ribosome, as well as to identify the Gib2 amino acid residues involved in ribosome binding. Our studies not only suggest that Gib2 has a role in protein translation but also present Gib2 as a physical link at the crossroads of various regulatory pathways important for the growth and virulence of C. neoformans.

  3. GIBS block speller: toward a gaze-independent P300-based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel; Nunes, Urbano; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) opens a new communication channel for individuals with severe motor disorders. In P300-based BCIs, gazing the target event plays an important role in the BCI performance. Individuals who have their eye movements affected may lose the ability to gaze targets that are in the visual periphery. This paper presents a novel P300-based paradigm called gaze independent block speller (GIBS), and compares its performance with that of the standard row-column (RC) speller. GIBS paradigm requires extra selections of blocks of letters. The online experiments made with able-bodied participants show that the users can effectively control GIBS without moving the eyes (covert attention), while this task is not possible with RC speller. Furthermore, with overt attention, the results show that the improved classification accuracy of GIBS over RC speller compensates the extra selections, thereby achieving similar practical bit rates. PMID:22255793

  4. Potential use of 68Ga-apo-transferrin as a PET imaging agent for detecting Staphylococcus aureus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: 67Ga citrate has been extensively used to detect infection and inflammation since 1971. However, its clinical utility is compromised due to several limitations. The present project explored whether 68Ga-apo-transferrin (68Ga-TF), when prepared in vitro, is a useful agent for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of bacterial infection. Methods: An infection was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 5x105 CFU units of Staphyococcus aureus in the right thigh muscle. 68Ga-TF was synthesized by mixing 68GaCl3 with apo-transferrin (TF, 2 mg) in sodium carbonate (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and incubating at 40oC for 1 h. Animals were injected with 10-15 MBq of 68Ga-TF containing approximately 0.2 mg TF and imaged at different time intervals using Siemens Biograph PET-CT. Results: When 68Ga-TF were injected in the infected rats, the infection lesion was detectable within 20 min post injection. The biodistribution showed the uptake at the lesion increased with time as shown by significantly increased standard uptake values for up to 4 h post injection. There was a considerable decrease in the background activity during the same period of study, giving higher target-to-muscle ratios. Blood pool activity at 3 h post injection was insignificant. 68GaCl3 (when not conjugated to TF) did not localize at the infection lesion up to 120 min post injection. Conclusion: The preliminary results suggest that 68Ga-TF is capable of detecting S. aureus infection in the rat model, within an hour after intravenous injection.

  5. Pharmacognostic standardization of stems of Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chumbhale DS; Upasani CD

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas ) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out for qualitative phytochemical evaluation of various extracts of stems of T. lampas. Results: Chemo-microscopy revealed the presence of lignin, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Physico-chemical evaluation used to determine numerical standards showed a result with total ash (9.03 ± 0.05) % w/w, acid insoluble ash (1.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, water soluble ash (2.51 ± 0.02) % w/w, sulphated ash (7.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, ethanol soluble extractive (0.24 ± 0.02) % w/w, water soluble extractive (0.08 ± 0.01) % w/w, moisture content (6.03 ± 0.05) % w/w and total crude fibre content of stem powder (47.36 ± 0.32) % w/w. Behavior characteristics of the stem powder showed presence of steroids, starch, alkaloid, flavonoids and proteins. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids such as dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, n- hexadecanoic acid, 9-tetradecenal and HPTLC fingerprinting revealed the presence of β– sitosterol and quercetin in stems of T. lampas. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic standardization of T. lampas is useful towards establishing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  6. Comparison of 131I-tetracycline and 67Ga-citrate as abscess localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that radiolabeled tetracyclines tend to accumulate in infarcts and necrotic tumors. These results suggested that radiolabeled tetracyclines might also accumulate in necrotic abscesses or areas of inflammation. In order to develop a better abscess scanning agent, we compared the efficiency of 131I-tetracycline with 67Ga-citrate in labeling experimentally induced staphylococcal aureus abscesses in rats 24 and 72 hours after injection. In addition to evaluating 131I-tetracycline as an abscess scanning agent, we hoped to obtain data which might clarify the controversy regarding early versus late gallium scanning in suspected infection. 131I-tetracycline was chosen over sup(99m)Tc-tetracycline because the longer half-life of 131I would allow 72 hour imaging. Absolute concentrations of gallium in the abscess contents and in the surrounding areas of inflammation were significantly greater than the concentration of 131I-tetracycline at both 24 and 72 hours. With the exception of blood, muscle, and bone, the abscess-to-tissue activity ratios for gallium and 131I-tetracycline were similar; however, the ratio of gallium activity in the inflammed tissue to other tissues was greater than that of 131I-tetracycline for every tissue examined at both time periods. The data suggest that 131I-tetracycline has little potential as a general abscess scanning agent. The gallium tissue concentrations and tissue ratios suggest that abscesses which can be imaged at 72 hours can probably be imaged at 24 hours, thus allowing earlier initiation of appropriate therapy. Because of the higher lesion-to-blood ratio at 72 hours, a 72-hour scan would appear to be indicated before a scan is interpreted as normal. (orig.)

  7. Gibs: A Rich Visual Interface to NASA's Earth Science Data Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Huang, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plesea, L.; Ilavajhala, S.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) are being developed to promote and widen the use of NASA's vast archive of Earth science data across the research, education, governmental, and general public user communities. GIBS provides access to a large and growing image archive consisting of historical and frequently-updated near real time image (NRT) products representing geophysical parameters and themes from across an array of NASA-supported satellite instruments. All imagery is global in extent, available up to its full spatial resolution with near zero access latency, and is pedigreed with provenance information linking the source science data products as well as interpretive information such as a color legend and units. Currently, GIBS contains over 100 individual image layers that are available to everyone, including surface temperature, ozone, fires, sea ice, snow cover, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and true color surface reflectance. In this presentation, we highlight the use and incorporation of GIBS as a contextual visualization component into web tools, interfaces, and displays targeting different audiences and purposes. We will also discuss GIBS' open source software status, facilitating the deployment of a complementary set of similar services for non-NASA imagery.

  8. The Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET): An API for Matching Natural Events to GIBS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hidden within the terabytes of imagery in NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) collection are hundreds of daily natural events. Some events are newsworthy, devastating, and visibly obvious at a global scale, others are merely regional curiosities. Regardless of the scope and significance of any one event, it is likely that multiple GIBS layers can be viewed to provide a multispectral, dataset-based view of the event. To facilitate linking between the discrete event and the representative dataset imagery, NASA's Earth Observatory Group has developed a prototype application programming interface (API): the Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET). EONET supports an API model that allows users to retrieve event-specific metadata--date/time, location, and type (wildfire, storm, etc.)--and web service layer-specific metadata which can be used to link to event-relevant dataset imagery in GIBS. GIBS' ability to ingest many near real time datasets, combined with its growing archive of past imagery, means that API users will be able to develop client applications that not only show ongoing events but can also look at imagery from before and after. In our poster, we will present the API and show examples of its use.

  9. Tetrafluorophenolate of HBED-CC: a versatile conjugation agent for 68Ga-labeled small recombinant antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of 68Ga-labeled peptides for positron emission tomography of neuroendocrine tumors is mainly depending on the complex chemistry of this radioisotope. 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), the chelator of choice has however limitations if its application is expanded to heat-sensitive proteins. Recombinant antibodies like single chain Fv or diabodies belong to this class of proteins. They are suited to provide imaging contrast despite the short-lived 68Ga because of their rapid blood clearances and nanomolar affinities. The heterobifunctional agent N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) was chosen as an alternative ligand because this agent is complexing [68Ga]Ga3+ much faster than DOTA at ambient temperatures. A versatile technology for HBED-CC conjugation of proteins and 68Ga-labeling has been developed. This included HBED-CC-tetrafluorophenol (TFP) ester synthesis, coupling to the antibody at various pH and complexation reactions performed in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer under different conditions. The synthesis of the monoreactive 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenolate of HBED-CC at a carboxyl group not participating in complex formation used [Fe(HBED-CC)]- for ester formation. The removal of Fe3+ from purified (HBED-CC)TFP ester was achieved with RP18 cartridge technology. The conjugation chemistry was performed with mAb425 which binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This protein was used for optimizing purposes only. The influence of complexation parameters like temperature, pH, reaction time, and HBED-CC/antibody ratio on the biological activity of this model antibody was investigated. Furthermore, the outcome of this labeling procedure on the biological activity of a recombinant diabody (50 kDa) was studied. It is known that small HBED-CC/antibody ratios are prerequisites for minimal interference of labels with antigen

  10. Using GIBS and Worldview to Connect Global Processes to Local Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Worldview client and undelrying Global Image Browse Service (GIBS) are powerful tools for visualizing dynamic global processes in a clear and understandable manner. Currently viewable data layers, such as sea surface temperature, cloud and aersol parameters, snow cover and sea ice, and fires can be observed over time to gain a better understanding of the interrleationship between land, ocean and atmospheric processes, and how these relationships evolve over time. This presentation demonstrates the use of these tools to visualize (for example) relationships between fire and air quality over North America, the evolution of the recent El Nino, and changes in sea ice extent, using Worldview directly, and GIBS through both open source and commercial applications. The presentation also discusses visualizations that will be possible with anticipated new data layers.

  11. Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) - Rapidly Serving NASA Imagery for Applications and Science Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Plesea, L.; Hall, J. R.; Boller, R. A.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Thompson, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Expedited processing of imagery from NASA satellites for near-real time use by non-science applications users has a long history, especially since the beginning of the Terra and Aqua missions. Several years ago, the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) was created to greatly expand the range of near-real time data products from a variety of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) began exploring methods to distribute these data as imagery in an intuitive, geo-referenced format, which would be available within three hours of acquisition. Toward this end, EOSDIS has developed the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS, http://earthdata.nasa.gov/gibs) to provide highly responsive, scalable, and expandable imagery services. The baseline technology chosen for GIBS was a Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using this, global images and mosaics are divided into tiles with fixed bounding boxes for a pyramid of fixed resolutions. Initially, the satellite imagery is created at the existing data systems for each sensor, ensuring the oversight of those most knowledgeable about the science. There, the satellite data is geolocated and converted to an image format such as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG. The GIBS ingest server retrieves imagery from the various data systems and converts them into image tiles, which are stored in a highly-optimized raster format named Meta Raster Format (MRF). The image tiles are then served to users via HTTP by means of an Apache module. Services are available for the entire globe (lat-long projection) and for both polar regions (polar stereographic projection). Requests to the services can be made with the non-standard, but widely known, TWMS format or via the well-known OGC Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) standard format. Standard OGC Web Map Service (WMS) access to the GIBS server is also available. In addition, users may request a

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel {sup 68}Ga-chelate-conjugated bisphosphonate as a bone-seeking agent for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kentaro, E-mail: skentarou@ffri.co.jp; Satake, Miho; Suwada, Jun; Oshikiri, Shinobu; Ashino, Hiroki; Dozono, Hiroyuki; Hino, Akihiro; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Minamizawa, Takao

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 68}Ga is a positron-emitting nuclide that has significant imaging potential given that, unlike cyclotron-produced {sup 18}F, the isotope can be produced on-site utilizing a {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator. We recently synthesized a novel bone-seeking agent by coupling a bisphosphonate with the {sup 68}Ga chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). This study presents a first report on the potential of this {sup 68}Ga bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical in the detection of bone metastases. Methods: 4-Amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate was conjugated with 2-[4,7-di(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl]pentanedioic acid, yielding 2-[4,7-di(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl] -5-[(4-hydroxy-4,4-diphosphonobutyl)amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid (NOTA-BP). {sup 68}Ga-labeled NOTA-BP ([{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP) was prepared by complexation of NOTA-BP with [{sup 68}Ga] gallium chloride and evaluated in in vitro experiments, biodistribution experiments and micro-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging experiments. Results: The labeling of NOTA-BP with {sup 68}Ga was completed by heating for 10 min. [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP was determined to have a radiochemical purity of over 95%, a high affinity for hydroxyapatite and a high stability in plasma. In in vivo biodistribution experiments, [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP demonstrated high bone uptake potential. Compared with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled methylene diphosphonate ([{sup 99m}Tc]MDP) and [{sup 18}F]fluoride, [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP exhibited faster blood clearance and a higher bone-to-blood ratio. In addition, mouse model bone metastasis was detected by micro-PET imaging at 1 h postinjection of [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP. Conclusion: We have developed a novel {sup 68}Ga-radiolabeled bone-seeking agent. This [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP complex was found to have a high bone affinity and rapid blood clearance, and may thus prove to be useful as a bone-seeking agent for clinical PET.

  13. Synthesis, {sup 68}Ga labeling and preliminary evaluation of DOTA peptide binding vascular adhesion protein-1: a potential PET imaging agent for diagnosing osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujula, Tiina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Salomaeki, Satu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Virsu, Pauliina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Lankinen, Petteri; Maekinen, Tatu J. [Orthopedic Research Unit, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Autio, Anu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Yegutkin, Gennady G. [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jalkanen, Sirpa [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); National Public Health Institute, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku, Turku (Finland)], E-mail: anne.roivainen@utu.fi

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an infection/inflammation-inducible endothelial glycoprotein. Based on our previous studies, the most VAP-1-selective peptide (VAP-P1) was 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N',N'',N''',N,,,,-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated, {sup 68}gallium ({sup 68}Ga)-labeled (named [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1) and evaluated preliminarily. Methods: Targeting was evaluated by using VAP-1-transfected cells. Biodistribution of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 was studied by positron emission tomography imaging of healthy rats and rats with bone inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Uptake of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 in osteomyelitis was compared with negative control peptide and competition with an excess of unlabeled DOTAVAP-P1. Results: [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 bound more efficiently to VAP-1-transfected cells than to controls. In rats, [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 cleared rapidly from blood circulation, excreted quickly in urine and showed an in vivo half-life of 26{+-}2.3 min. Imaging of osteomyelitis demonstrated modest target-to-background ratio. Studies with the negative control peptide and competitors revealed a significantly lower uptake at the infection site compared to [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1. Conclusions: The results represent a proof-of-concept that infection-induced VAP-1 can be targeted by [{sup 68}Ga]DOTA peptide. [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 is just the first candidate peptide and an essential opening for developing VAP-1-specific imaging agents.

  14. Graphite Girls in a Gigabyte World: Managing the World Wide Web in 700 Square Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Tamra; Saurino, Penelope; Johnson, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Our action research project examined the on-task and off-task behaviors of university-level student, use of wireless laptops in face-to-face classes in order to establish rules of wireless laptop etiquette in classroom settings. Participants in the case study of three university classrooms included undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students.…

  15. 技嘉主板四年质保%GIGABYTE Motherboard Warranting 4 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    技嘉科技自2006年开始率先导人全固态电容主板之后,便掀起主板业新一波的浪潮,至今全固态电容主板已成为主板业界的标准。技嘉科技大量导入全固态电容主板,目前已成为业界机型最齐全、销售比重最高的主板厂商。

  16. GIBS Server-side Software for Visualizing Diverse Geospatial Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. T.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Chelikani, A.; De Cesare, C.; De Luca, A. P.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; King, J.; Pressley, N. N.; Plesea, L.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Server-side software used by the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services are responsible for efficiently delivering imagery for over a hundred different Earth Science data products to various Web applications and GIS tools. Images from a multitude of platforms and sensors are made available via common web protocols using the open source OnEarth software package originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. OnEarth is a highly-scalable server module that handles raster imagery of varying projections, resolutions, formats, and coverages including newly added support for granule-based imagery. The future roadmap of OnEarth may include several new features, such as support for vector data and data access via a service, which could be developed in the future or aided by other open source software. This presentation focuses on the current capabilities of the OnEarth software used in GIBS and similar open source packages as well as potential technologies that may be utilized to handle a more diverse set of data products in the future.

  17. A Note on Property (gb and Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingping Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An operator T∈ℬ(X defined on a Banach space X satisfies property (gb if the complement in the approximate point spectrum σa(T of the upper semi-B-Weyl spectrum σSBF+-(T coincides with the set Π(T of all poles of the resolvent of T. In this paper, we continue to study property (gb and the stability of it, for a bounded linear operator T acting on a Banach space, under perturbations by nilpotent operators, by finite rank operators, and by quasinilpotent operators commuting with T. Two counterexamples show that property (gb in general is not preserved under commuting quasi-nilpotent perturbations or commuting finite rank perturbations.

  18. Can 100Gb/s wavelengths be deployed using 10Gb/s engineering rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ross; Nicholl, Gary; Wollenweber, Kevin; Schmidt, Ted

    2007-09-01

    A key challenge set by carriers for 40Gb/s deployments was that the 40Gb/s wavelengths should be deployable over existing 10Gb/s DWDM systems, using 10Gb/s link engineering design rules. Typical 10Gb/s link engineering rules are: 1. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) tolerance of 10ps (mean); 2. Chromatic Dispersion (CD) tolerance of +/-700ps/nm 3. Operation at 50GHz channel spacing, including transit through multiple cascaded [R]OADMs; 4. Optical reach up to 2,000km. By using a combination of advanced modulation formats and adaptive dispersion compensation (technologies rarely seen at 10Gb/s outside of the submarine systems space), vendors did respond to the challenge and broadly met this requirement. As we now start to explore feasible technologies for 100Gb/s optical transport, driven by 100GE port availability on core IP routers, the carrier challenge remains the same. 100Gb/s links should be deployable over existing 10Gb/s DWDM systems using 10Gb/s link engineering rules (as listed above). To meet this challenge, optical transport technology must evolve to yet another level of complexity/maturity in both modulation formats and adaptive compensation techniques. Many clues as to how this might be achieved can be gained by first studying sister telecommunications industries, e.g. satellite (QPSK, QAM, LDCP FEC codes), wireless (advanced DSP, MSK), HDTV (TCM), etc. The optical industry is not a pioneer of new ideas in modulation schemes and coding theory, we will always be followers. However, we do have the responsibility of developing the highest capacity "modems" on the planet to carry the core backbone traffic of the Internet. As such, the key to our success will be to analyze the pros and cons of advanced modulation/coding techniques and balance this with the practical limitations of high speed electronics processing speed and the challenges of real world optical layer impairments. This invited paper will present a view on what advanced technologies are likely

  19. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, You-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is...

  20. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  1. 10 Gb/s OEIC optical receiver front-end and 3.125 Gb/s PHEMT limiting amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Chao; Chen Tangsheng; Yang Lijie; Feng Ou; Jiao Shilong; Wu Yunfeng; Ye Yutang

    2009-01-01

    A 10 Gb/s OEIC (optoelectronic integrated circuit) optical receiver front-end has been studied and fab ricated based on the φ-76 mm GaAs PHEMT process; this is the first time that a limiting amplifier (LA) has been designed and realized using depletion mode PHEMT. An OEIC optical receiver front-end mode composed of an MSM photodiode and a current mode transimpedance amplifier (TIA) has been established and optimized by simu lation software ATLAS. The photodiode has a bandwidth of 10 GHz, a capacitance of 3 fF/μm and a photosensitive area of 50×50 μm~2. The whole chip has an area of 1511×666 μm~2. The LA bandwidth is expanded by spiral inductance which has been simulated by software HFSS. The chip area is 1950×1910μm~2 and the measured results demonstrate an input dynamic range of 34 dB (10-500 mVpp) with constant output swing of 500 tnVpp.

  2. WiGig and IEEE 802.11ad for Multi-Gigabyte- Per-Second WPAN and WLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai Shankar N; Debashis Dash; Hassan EI Madi; Guru Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) and I EEE 802.11 ad are developing a multigigabit wireless personal and local area network (WPAN/ WLAN) specification in the 60 GHz millimeter wave band. Chipset manufacturers, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and telecom companies are also assisting in this development. 60 GHz millimeter wave transmission will scale the speed of WLANs and WPANs to 6.75 Gbit/s over distances less than 10 meters. This technology is the first of its kind and will eliminate the need for cable around personal computers, docking stations, and other consumer electronic devices. High-definition multimedia interface (HDMI), display port, USB 3.0, and peripheral component interconnect express (PCle) 3.0 cables will all be eliminated. Fast downloads and uploads, wireless sync, and multi-gigabit-per-second WLANs will be possible over shorter distances. 60 GHz millimeter wave supports fast session transfer (FST) protocol, which makes it backward compatible with 5 GHz or 2.4 GHz WLAN so that end users experience the same range as in today' s WLANs. IEEE 802.1 lad specifies the physical (PHY) sublayer and medium access control (MAC) sublayer of the protocol stack. The MAC protocol is based on time-division multiple access (TDMA), and the PHY layer uses single carrier (SC) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to simultaneously enable low-power, high-performance applications.

  3. Ga-66 labeled somatostatin analogue DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide as a potential agent for positron emission tomography imaging and receptor mediated internal radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide labeled somatostatin analogues selectively target somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing tumors as a basis for diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. Recently, a DOTA-functionalized somatostatin analogue, DOTATOC (DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide) has been developed. This compound has been shown to be superior to the other somatostatin analogues as indicated by its uniquely high tumor-to-non-target tissue ratio. DOTATOC can be labeled with a variety of radiometals including gallium radioisotopes. Gallium-66 is a positron emitting radionuclide (T1/2 =9.5 hr; β+=56%), that can be produced in carrier free form by a low-beam energy cyclotron. In this study we investigated SSTR targeting characteristics of 66Ga-DOTATOC in AR42J rat pancreas tumor implanted nude mice as a potential agent for diagnosis and receptor-mediated internal radiotherapy of SSTR-expressing tumors. We compared our results with 67Ga- and 68Ga- labeled DOTATOC. The radiolabeling procedure gave labeling yield ranged from 85-95% and radiochemical and chemical purity was >95%. In-vitro competitive binding curves and in-vivo competitive displacement studies with an excess of unlabeled peptide indicates that there is specific binding of the radioligand to SSTR. Animal biodistribution data and serial microPETTM images demonstrated rapid tumor uptake and rapid clearance from the blood and all tissues except kidney. Maximum % ID/g values for tumor were 10.0±0.7, 13.2±2.1 and 9.8±1.5 for 66Ga-, 67Ga-, and 68Ga-DOTATOC, respectively. Calculated tumor, kidney and bone marrow doses for 66Ga-DOTATOC based on biodistribution data were 178, 109 and 1.2 cGy/MBq, respectively. We conclude that 66Ga labeled DOTATOC can be used for PET diagnosis and quantitative imaging-based dosimetry of SSTR positive tumors. 66Ga-DOTATOC may also be used in higher doses for ablation of these tumors. However, kidney is the critical organ for toxicity (tumor/kidney ratio 1.64), and high kidney uptake must be eliminated

  4. Exploring Intra-Urban Accessibility and Impacts of Pollution Policies with an Agent-Based Simulation Platform: GaMiroD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Fosset

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we address the issue of sustainable cities by focusing on one of their very central components: daily mobility. Indeed, if cities can be interpreted as spatial organizations allowing social interactions, the number of daily movements needed to reach this goal is continuously increasing. Therefore, improving urban accessibility merely results in increasing traffic and its negative externalities (congestion, accidents, pollution, noise, etc., while eventually reducing the quality of life of people in the city. This is why several urban-transport policies are implemented in order to reduce individual mobility impacts while maintaining equitable access to the city. This challenge is however non-trivial and therefore we propose to investigate this issue from the complex systems point of view. The real spatial-temporal urban accessibility of citizens cannot be approximated just by focusing on space and implies taking into account the space-time activity patterns of individuals, in a more dynamic way. Thus, given the importance of local interactions in such a perspective, an agent based approach seems to be a relevant solution. This kind of individual based and “interactionist” approach allows us to explore the possible impact of individual behaviors on the overall dynamics of the city but also the possible impact of global measures on individual behaviors. In this paper, we give an overview of the Miro Project and then focus on the GaMiroD model design from real data analysis to model exploration tuned by transportation-oriented scenarios. Among them, we start with the the impact of a LEZ (Low Emission Zone in the city center.

  5. HCMV gB shares structural and functional properties with gB proteins from other herpesviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sapna [Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Wisner, Todd W.; Johnson, David C. [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Heldwein, Ekaterina E., E-mail: katya.heldwein@tufts.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Glycoprotein B (gB) facilitates HCMV entry into cells by binding receptors and mediating membrane fusion. The crystal structures of gB ectodomains from HSV-1 and EBV are available, but little is known about the HCMV gB structure. Using multiangle light scattering and electron microscopy, we show here that HCMV gB ectodomain is a trimer with the overall shape similar to HSV-1 and EBV gB ectodomains. HCMV gB ectodomain forms rosettes similar to rosettes formed by EBV gB and the postfusion forms of other viral fusogens. Substitution of several bulky hydrophobic residues within the putative fusion loops with more hydrophilic residues reduced rosette formation and abolished cell fusion. We propose that like gB proteins from HSV-1 and EBV, HCMV gB has two internal hydrophobic fusion loops that likely interact with target membranes. Our work establishes structural and functional similarities between gB proteins from three subfamilies of herpesviruses.

  6. The Giraffe Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) II. Metallicity distributions and alpha element abundances at fixed Galactic latitude

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O A; Vasquez, S; Hill, V; Rejkuba, M; Valenti, E; Rojas-Arriagada, A; Renzini, A; Babusiaux, C; Minniti, D; Brown, T M

    2015-01-01

    High resolution (R$\\sim$22,500) spectra for 400 red clump giants, in four fields within $\\rm -4.8^{\\circ} \\lesssim b \\lesssim -3.4^{\\circ}$ and $\\rm -10^{\\circ} \\lesssim l \\lesssim +10^{\\circ}$, were obtained within the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) project. To this sample we added another $\\sim$ 400 stars in Baade's Window, observed with the identical instrumental configuration. We constructed the metallicity distributions for the entire sample, as well as for each field individually, in order to investigate the presence of gradients or field-to-field variations in the shape of the distributions. The metallicity distributions in the five fields are consistent with being drawn from a single parent population, indicating the absence of a gradient along the major axis of the Galactic bar. The global metallicity distribution is well fitted by two Gaussians. The metal poor component is rather broad, with a mean at $\\rm =-0.31$ dex and $\\sigma=0.31$ dex. The metal-rich one is narrower, with mean $\\rm =+0.26$ a...

  7. 100 Gb/s single VCSEL data transmission link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Li, Bomin;

    2012-01-01

    100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation.......100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation....

  8. Experience in the Clinical Application of Naokong (GB19)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汎

    2005-01-01

    @@ Naokong (GB19) is located 1.5 cun above Fengchi (GB20) and at the level with Naohu (GV17) in the depression of the lateral side of the external occipital protuberance. It belongs to the Gallbladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang, and is a crossing point of the Foot Shaoyang Channel and the Yangwei Channel. As is said in A Collection of Gems in Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Naokong (GB19) is indicated for emaciation due to over strain and stress, fever, neck rigidity, unbearable pain in the head, heavy eyes and palpitation as well as xenophthalmia and rhinalgia caused by epileptic seizure in severe cases. In clinical practice, the author has adopted Naokong (GB 19) as the main point in treating some obstinate diseases and obtained quite good therapeutic effects.

  9. a Rail Central Displacement Method about Gb-Sar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Cai, J.; Yang, H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new method to correct rail errors of Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-SAR) in the discontinue mode. Generally, "light positioning" is performed to mark the GB-SAR position in the dis-continuous observation mode. Usually we assume there is no difference between the marked position and the real installation position. But in fact, it is hard to keep the GB-SAR positions of two campaigns the same, so repositioning errors can't be neglected. In order to solve this problem, we propose an algorithm to correct the rail error after analyzing the GB-SAR rail error geometry. Results of the simulation experiment and the real experiment of a landslide in Lvliang, Shanxi, China, show the proposed method achieves an mm-level precision, enabling the D-GBSAR mode to be used in engineering projects.

  10. The new textiles GB to be implemented in August

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After a transitional period of one year, the new version of the National Textile Product General Safety Tech- nical Code will be implemented from August 1. Compared to the old GB, the new GB expanded the age range covered by the infant textile products, 2~3 years old children’s clothing pro- duced in accordance with the original standard will be off the shelf after Au- gust. According to reports, the mandatory

  11. GB4706.1-1998与GB4706.1-92标准差异%The Discrepancies Between the GB4706.11998 GB4706.192 Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王攀

    2005-01-01

    GB4706.1-1998 《The first part of safety regulation household appliances and similar products:Universal Requirements》 is one of the standards of 3C certification, it has much differences from the former version GB4706.1-92. The paper dwells on the main differences between these two standards from the definition - symbol- safety regulation, mechanical intensity, etc so as to facilitate the inspecting staff to grasp them better.

  12. A Rapid and Sensitive Strip-Based Quick Test for Nerve Agents Tabun, Sarin, and Soman Using BODIPY-Modified Silica Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Estela; Biyikal, Mustafa; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Dropa, Tomáš; Urban, Martin; Costero, Ana M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Rurack, Knut

    2016-08-01

    Test strips that in combination with a portable fluorescence reader or digital camera can rapidly and selectively detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), and Soman (GD) and their simulants in the gas phase have been developed. The strips contain spots of a hybrid indicator material consisting of a fluorescent BODIPY indicator covalently anchored into the channels of mesoporous SBA silica microparticles. The fluorescence quenching response allows the sensitive detection of CWAs in the μg m(-3) range in a few seconds. PMID:27124609

  13. Analysis on Differences of Standards GB 21456-2008 and GB 21456-2014%GB 21456-2008与GB 21456-2014标准差异及分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯杰; 江叶东

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes the differences of power scope, equipment, and test method in the old edition standard GB 21456-2008 and the new edition standard GB 21456-2014, “The minimum allowable values of the energy efficiency and energy efficiently grades for household induction cookers”. And it discusses the function and significance of the reversion of standard GB 21456-2014 to energy efficiency test of induction cookers; and the influence of it to the induction cookers industry.%本文针对GB 21456-2014与GB 21456-2008《家用电磁灶能效限定值及能效等级》在功率适用范围、仪器设备、测试方法等方面的差异进行了对比和分析研究,探讨了GB 21456-2014标准的修订对电磁灶能效测试的作用和意义及新版标准实施对电磁灶行业的影响。

  14. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is...

  15. Kinetics of sarin (GB) following a single sublethal inhalation exposure in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Christopher E; McGuire, Jeffrey M; Miller, Dennis B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Thomson, Sandra A; Lumley, Lucille A; McDonough, John H; Shih, Tsung-Ming A

    2007-06-01

    To improve toxicity estimates from sublethal exposures to chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA), it is necessary to generate mathematical models of the absorption, distribution, and elimination of nerve agents. However, current models are based on representative data sets generated with different routes of exposure and in different species and are designed to interpolate between limited laboratory data sets to predict a wide range of possible human exposure scenarios. This study was performed to integrate CWNA sublethal toxicity data in male Duncan Hartley guinea pigs. Specific goal was to compare uptake and clearance kinetics of different sublethal doses of sarin (either 0.1 x or 0.4 x LC50) in blood and tissues of guinea pigs exposed to agent by acute whole-body inhalation exposure after the 60-min LC50 was determined. Arterial catheterization allowed repeated blood sampling from the same animal at various time periods. Blood and tissue levels of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and regenerated sarin (rGB) were determined at various time points during and following sarin exposure. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the graph of plasma or RBC rGB concentration versus time: time to reach the maximal concentration; maximal concentration; mean residence time; clearance; volume of distribution at steady state; terminal elimination-phase rate constant; and area under plasma concentration time curve extrapolated to infinity using the WinNonlin analysis program 5.0. Plasma and RBC t(1/2) for rGB was also calculated. Data will be used to develop mathematical model of absorption and distribution of sublethal sarin doses into susceptible tissues.

  16. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  17. Synthesis, 68Ga-Radiolabeling, and Preliminary In Vivo Assessment of a Depsipeptide-Derived Compound as a Potential PET/CT Infection Imaging Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botshelo B. Mokaleng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive imaging is a powerful tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of various disease processes, such as infections. An alarming shortage of infection-selective radiopharmaceuticals exists for overcoming the diagnostic limitations with unspecific tracers such as 67/68Ga-citrate or 18F-FDG. We report here TBIA101, an antimicrobial peptide derivative that was conjugated to DOTA and radiolabeled with 68Ga for a subsequent in vitro assessment and in vivo infection imaging using Escherichia coli-bearing mice by targeting bacterial lipopolysaccharides with PET/CT. Following DOTA-conjugation, the compound was verified for its cytotoxic and bacterial binding behaviour and compound stability, followed by 68Gallium-radiolabeling. µPET/CT using 68Ga-DOTA-TBIA101 was employed to detect muscular E. coli-infection in BALB/c mice, as warranted by the in vitro results. 68Ga-DOTA-TBIA101-PET detected E. coli-infected muscle tissue (SUV = 1.3–2.4 > noninfected thighs (P=0.322 > forearm muscles (P=0.092 > background (P=0.021 in the same animal. Normalization of the infected thigh muscle to reference tissue showed a ratio of 3.0 ± 0.8 and a ratio of 2.3 ± 0.6 compared to the identical healthy tissue. The majority of the activity was cleared by renal excretion. The latter findings warrant further preclinical imaging studies of greater depth, as the DOTA-conjugation did not compromise the TBIA101’s capacity as targeting vector.

  18. Bioactivity of pyridine-2-thiolato-1-oxide metal complexes: Bi(III), Fe(III) and Ga(III) complexes as potent anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis prospective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ignacio; Marino, Leonardo Biancolino; Demoro, Bruno; Echeverría, Gustavo A; Piro, Oscar E; Leite, Clarice Q F; Pavan, Fernando R; Gambino, Dinorah

    2014-11-24

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against tuberculosis and to further address the therapeutic potential of pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide (Hmpo) metal complexes, two new octahedral [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes, with M = Ga or Bi, were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. Attempts to crystallize [Ga(III)(mpo)3] in CH2Cl2 led to single crystals of the reaction product [GaCl(mpo)2], where the gallium(III) ion is in a square basis pyramidal environment, trans-coordinated at the basis to two pyridine-2-thiolato 1-oxide anions acting as bidentate ligands through their oxygen and sulfur atoms. The biological activity of the new [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes together with that of the previously reported Fe(III) analogous compound and the pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide sodium salt (Na mpo) was evaluated on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds showed excellent activity, both in the standard strain H37Rv ATCC 27294 (pan-susceptible) and in five clinical isolates that are resistant to the standard first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. These pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide derivatives are promising compounds for the treatment of resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25261824

  19. [Study on force feedback of acupuncture at Fengchi (GB 20)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Fu-Bo; Guo, Hai-Dong; Shao, Shui-Jin; Miao, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Guo, Chun-Xia; Mou, Fang-Fang; Yan, Zhen-Guo

    2013-10-01

    Acupuncture manipulations on Fengchi (GB 20) of famous doctors were taken through force feedback device, then the data was input into a digitized virtual human. Virtual Fengchi (GB 20) acupuncture force feedback simulation system was built through the virtual reality technology to achieve one-to-one high simulative manipulation effect for acupuncture students. The interaction force of the needle body and human tissues was analyzed during the acupuncture process on the 3D digital human integrated with information of Fengchi (GB 20) according to the physical characteristics of the tissues under this point. The mechanical model which is used to imitate the stress received by the body of the needle was established, and transmitted truly to the operator by the force feedback device. Thus, Fengchi (GB 20) virtual acupuncture force feedback simulation was preliminary established, and the sense of touch could be reproduced lively on the visualized virtual acupuncture human. It is held that Fengchi (GB 20) acupuncture force feedback research is a preliminary exploration for virtual acupuncture that integrated with the information of visual, tactile and force feedback. And it also provided a dynamic one-to-one simulation approach for acupuncture teaching. PMID:24377234

  20. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Miles, A.K

    2004-02-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD{sub 50} of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap. - Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 is unlikely to harm bobwhite embryos when applied according to product label guidance, but could pose a potential risk to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  1. 50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takeshi; Akiyama, Suguru; Imai, Masahiko; Hirayama, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Yoshiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Usuki, Tatsuya

    2013-05-20

    We achieved 50-Gb/s operation of a ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for the first time. The pin-diode phase shifter, which consists of a side-wall-grating waveguide, was loaded into the ring resonator. The forward-biased operation mode was applied, which exhibited a V(π)L as small as 0.28 V · cm at 25 GHz. The driving voltage and optical insertion loss at 50-Gb/s were 1.96 V(pp) and 5.2 dB, respectively. PMID:23736409

  2. Mesura de deformacions mitjançant GB-SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Monfort Codinach, Marta

    2014-01-01

    El present treball es centra en l’ús d’una tècnica de teledetecció terrestre basada en tecnologia Radar (GB-SAR) per la mesura de desplaçaments del terreny. El treball consta de dues parts principals: principis bàsics de la tècnica GB-SAR, descripció de dos procediments diferents per explotar les seves dades per la mesura de deformacions i, finalment, processat de les dades obtingudes sobre tres casos d’aplicació diferents. En aquest context, el treball ha estat enfocat a la co...

  3. A 25 Gb/s Silicon Photonics Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Baehr-Jones, Tom; Ding, Ran; Ayazi, Ali; Pinguet, Thierry; Streshinsky, Matt; Harris, Nick; Li, Jing; He, Li; Gould, Mike; Zhang, Yi; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Teo, Selin Hwee-Gee; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Hochberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Silicon has attracted attention as an inexpensive and scalable material system for photonic-electronic, system-on-chip development. For this, a platform with both photodetectors and modulators working at high speeds, with excellent cross-wafer uniformity, is needed. We demonstrate an optical-lithography, wafer-scale photonics platform with 25 Gb/s operation. We also demonstrate modulation with an ultra-low drive voltage of 1 Vpp at 25 Gb/s. We demonstrate attractive cross-wafer uniformity, an...

  4. Towards sequencing the 1 Gb wheat chromosome 3B

    OpenAIRE

    Choulet, Frédéric; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Sourdille, Pierre; Schlub, Stéphane; Brunel, Dominique; Barbe, Valérie; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    * BACKGROUND: Wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide but so far, the access to its genome sequence has been hampered by its size (17 Gb) and highly repetitive structure. We plan to sequence and annotate the largest bread wheat chromosome, 3B (1 Gb i.e. 2.5x the rice genome) using a hybrid approach combining Roche454 Titanium sequencing of BACs and Whole Chromosome Shotgun (WCS) with Illumina/Solexa GAII PE reads. In a pilot project, we sequenced and annotated 13 large contigs (18 Mb) ...

  5. Interpretation of the Differences between GB4343.1-2003 and GB4343-1995%GB4343.1-2003与GB4343-1995差异解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海霞; 李邦协

    2004-01-01

    @@ GB4343.1-2003是等同采用国际无线电干扰特别委员会CISPR14-1 2000和其修订件A1 2001来修订GB4343-1995(eqv CIS-PR14-1:1993 3.0版)而成的标准,于2003年10月9日经国家质量监督检验检疫总局批准、发布,2004年6月1日起实施.

  6. A 5 Gb/s Radiation Tolerant Laser Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, L; Da Silva, S; Mazza, G; Meroli, S; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2009-01-01

    A laser driver for data transmission at 5 Gb/s has been developed as a part of the Giga Bit Transceiver (GBT) project. The Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) targets High Energy Physics (HEP) applications for which radiation tolerance is mandatory. The GBLD ASIC can drive both VCSELs and some types of edge emitting lasers. It is essentially composed of two drivers capable of sinking up to 12 mA each from the load at a maximum data rate of 5 Gb/s, and of a current sink for the laser bias current. The laser driver include also pre-emphasis and duty cycle control capabilities.

  7. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Albers, P H; Melancon, M J; Miles, A K

    2004-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  8. Humans lack iGb3 due to the absence of functional iGb3-synthase: implications for NKT cell development and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Christiansen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The glycosphingolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide, or isogloboside 3 (iGb3, is believed to be critical for natural killer T (NKT cell development and self-recognition in mice and humans. Furthermore, iGb3 may represent an important obstacle in xenotransplantation, in which this lipid represents the only other form of the major xenoepitope Galalpha(1,3Gal. The role of iGb3 in NKT cell development is controversial, particularly with one study that suggested that NKT cell development is normal in mice that were rendered deficient for the enzyme iGb3 synthase (iGb3S. We demonstrate that spliced iGb3S mRNA was not detected after extensive analysis of human tissues, and furthermore, the iGb3S gene contains several mutations that render this product nonfunctional. We directly tested the potential functional activity of human iGb3S by expressing chimeric molecules containing the catalytic domain of human iGb3S. These hybrid molecules were unable to synthesize iGb3, due to at least one amino acid substitution. We also demonstrate that purified normal human anti-Gal immunoglobulin G can bind iGb3 lipid and mediate complement lysis of transfected human cells expressing iGb3. Collectively, our data suggest that iGb3S is not expressed in humans, and even if it were expressed, this enzyme would be inactive. Consequently, iGb3 is unlikely to represent a primary natural ligand for NKT cells in humans. Furthermore, the absence of iGb3 in humans implies that it is another source of foreign Galalpha(1,3Gal xenoantigen, with obvious significance in the field of xenotransplantation.

  9. Nanoheteroestructuras de GaAs/AlGaAs. Simulación y aplicación en transistores de alta movilidad GaAs/AlGaAs nanoheterostructures: simulation and application on high mobility transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Eduardo Martín

    2011-05-01

    ="es-CO"> 

     

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB">This work analyses the features of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, highlighting semiconductor junction properties. Charge confinement was produced when two materials having different band-gap were fixed; such high electron concentration is called two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG.

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB"> GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB">Device simulation for smart integrated systems (DESSIS is simulation software which uses physical models and robust numerical methods for simulating semiconductor devices and 3-5 element heterostructures. Results for different heterostructure doping profiles and voltages are presented in this work.

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB"> GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs are one of the most important applications for heterostructures; they work on 30 to 300 GHz frequency ranges. These transistors are simulated in this work; a 1 A/mmGB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">2 GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">high current density was obtained in the channel, such value being comparable to other values reported for similar transistors.GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-default-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-latin-font-family: 'Times New Roman

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB0A-2EQLA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB0A-2EQLA 1GB0 2EQL A A KLFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN...SKCELAHKLKAQEMDGFGGYSLANWVCMAEYESNFNTRAFNGKNANGSSDYGLFQLNNKWWCKDNK-RSSSNACNIMCSKLLDENIDDDISCAKRVVRDPKGMSAWKA...G HHHHH 0 2EQL... A 2EQLA CKDNK-RSSSN<

  11. Coherent 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an Optimal Supercomputer Optical Switch Fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko;

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates.......We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates....

  12. Carbohydrate conformation and lipid condensation in monolayers containing glycosphingolipid Gb3: influence of acyl chain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Erik B; Gao, Haifei; Dennison, Andrew J C; Chopin, Nathalie; Struth, Bernd; Arnold, Thomas; Florent, Jean-Claude; Johannes, Ludger

    2014-09-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells, is the endocytic receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. Using x-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), lipid monolayers containing Gb3 were investigated at the air-water interface. XR probed Gb3 carbohydrate conformation normal to the interface, whereas GIXD precisely characterized Gb3's influence on acyl chain in-plane packing and area per molecule (APM). Two phospholipids, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), were used to study Gb3 packing in different lipid environments. Furthermore, the impact on monolayer structure of a naturally extracted Gb3 mixture was compared to synthetic Gb3 species with uniquely defined acyl chain structures. XR results showed that lipid environment and Gb3 acyl chain structure impact carbohydrate conformation with greater solvent accessibility observed for smaller phospholipid headgroups and long Gb3 acyl chains. In general, GIXD showed that Gb3 condensed phospholipid packing resulting in smaller APM than predicted by ideal mixing. Gb3's capacity to condense APM was larger for DSPC monolayers and exhibited different dependencies on acyl chain structure depending on the lipid environment. The interplay between Gb3-induced changes in lipid packing and the lipid environment's impact on carbohydrate conformation has broad implications for glycosphingolipid macromolecule recognition and ligand binding.

  13. GIGABYTE^TM技嘉金牌主板 中国之队决战釜山——LOL:输在心态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奕

    2012-01-01

    如果单纯论实力,中国的《英雄联盟》爱好者对中国LOL代表队充满了信心,而他们自己也充满信心。在赛前LOL代表队并没有把美国队和加拿大队归为自己最大的对手,他们认为最难对付的是主场作战韩国代表队。

  14. GB 19865 & GB 6675 ANNEX A.A —— SAFETY OF ELECTRICAL TOYS Differences Between the new and old Chinese National Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ganghua; He Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    This article anlayzes the different requirements for electrical toys safety between GB 6675-2003 and GB 19865-2005. This information is summed up in table form to make it easy for toy designers and manufacturers to grasp the new standard.

  15. CompaGB: An open framework for genome browsers comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiapello Hélène

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools to visualize and explore genomes hold a central place in genomics and the diversity of genome browsers has increased dramatically over the last few years. It often turns out to be a daunting task to compare and choose a well-adapted genome browser, as multidisciplinary knowledge is required to carry out this task and the number of tools, functionalities and features are overwhelming. Findings To assist in this task, we propose a community-based framework based on two cornerstones: (i the implementation of industry promoted software qualification method (QSOS adapted for genome browser evaluations, and (ii a web resource providing numerous facilities either for visualizing comparisons or performing new evaluations. We formulated 60 criteria specifically for genome browsers, and incorporated another 65 directly from QSOS's generic section. Those criteria aim to answer versatile needs, ranging from a biologist whose interest primarily lies into user-friendly and informative functionalities, a bioinformatician who wants to integrate the genome browser into a wider framework, or a computer scientist who might choose a software according to more technical features. We developed a dedicated web application to enrich the existing QSOS functionalities (weighting of criteria, user profile with features of interest to a community-based framework: easy management of evolving data, user comments... Conclusions The framework is available at http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/CompaGB. It is open to anyone who wishes to participate in the evaluations. It helps the scientific community to (1 choose a genome browser that would better fit their particular project, (2 visualize features comparatively with easily accessible formats, such as tables or radar plots and (3 perform their own evaluation against the defined criteria. To illustrate the CompaGB functionalities, we have evaluated seven genome browsers according to the implemented methodology

  16. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Epstein

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, SARS-like corona-, Marburg-, Ebola-, and astroviruses. In an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 Pteropus giganteus bats from Faridpur, Bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to GB virus A and C (GBV-A and -C. Viral nucleic acid was present in 5 of 98 sera (5% from a single colony of free-ranging bats. Infection was not associated with evidence of hepatitis or hepatic dysfunction. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.

  17. GIBS Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The KML documentation standard provides a solution for imagery integration into mapping tools that utilize support the KML standard, specifically Google Earth....

  18. Experimental characterization of dispersion maps with Raman gain in 160 Gb/s transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Seoane, Jorge; Siahlo, Andrei;

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of dispersion compensation and Raman amplification in SMF-based transmission span of 160 Gb/s system. The post compensation map shows better power tolerance.......We investigate the combined effects of dispersion compensation and Raman amplification in SMF-based transmission span of 160 Gb/s system. The post compensation map shows better power tolerance....

  19. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico

    2014-09-12

    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  20. First Experimental Demonstration of Coherent CAP for 300-Gb/s Metropolitan Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zibar, Darko;

    2014-01-01

    We report on high - capacity coherent links employing dual polarization 2D - CAP modulation, allowing for signal design in 8 - dimensional space. Successful demodulation of 221 Gb/s (7.5 b/s/Hz) and 336 Gb/s (7.8 b/s/Hz) after 225 km and 451 km of standard single - mode fiber (SSMF) is achieved....

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB7A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB7A-2G4NF 1GB7 2G4N A F KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN...HHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N F 2G4NF IVQNN--...n> 0.7096549868583679 1.3399250507354736 EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB5A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB5A-2G4NF 1GB5 2G4N A F KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN... HHHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N F 2G4NF IVQNN...89938545227 1.3731060028076172 EVID>EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF KILDK-VG

  3. Optical performance monitoring at 640Gb/s via slow-light in a silicon nanowire

    CERN Document Server

    Corcoran, B; Pelusi, M; Grillet, C; White, T P; Faolain, L O; Krauss, T F; Eggleton, B J; Moss, David J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical performance monitoring of in-band optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and residual dispersion, at bit rates of 40Gb/s, 160Gb/s and 640Gb/s, using slow-light enhanced optical third harmonic generation (THG) in a compact (80 micron) dispersion engineered 2D silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that there is no intrinsic degradation in the enhancement of the signal processing at 640 Gb/s relative to that at 40Gb/s, and that this device should operate well above 1Tb/s. This work represents a record 16-fold increase in processing speed for a silicon device, and opens the door for slow light to play a key role in ultra-high bandwidth telecommunications systems.

  4. GABAB receptor subunit GB1 at the cell surface independently activates ERK1/2 through IGF-1R transactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Baloucoune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional GABA(B receptor is believed to require hetero-dimerization between GABA(B1 (GB1 and GABA(B2 (GB2 subunits. The GB1 extracellular domain is required for ligand binding, and the GB2 trans-membrane domain is responsible for coupling to G proteins. Atypical GABA(B receptor responses observed in GB2-deficient mice suggested that GB1 may have activity in the absence of GB2. However the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by using cells overexpressing a GB1 mutant (GB1asa with the ability to translocate to the cell surface in the absence of GB2, we show that GABA(B receptor agonists, such as GABA and Baclofen, can induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of GB2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GB1asa induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation through Gi/o proteins and PLC dependent IGF-1R transactivation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that GB1 may form a functional receptor at the cell surface in the absence of GB2.

  5. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar Hameed Bloh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup’s Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06 were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity. Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  6. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Wig, Faith Virginia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Erickson, Kari Natania [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  7. Study on the Similarities and Differences of Body Measurement Terminology between ASTM and China GB Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方方; 张渭源; 张文斌

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and differences of ASTM and China GB standard are studied in three aspects:measure instrument,terminology and applicable field.They are similar on the measuring apparatus and GB has less measurements,such as girth,length and width measurements than ASTM and it lack across chest width,back width,total crotch length and shoulder slope which are important measurements in pattern making.ASTM classifies its standards according to the customers' size,gender and age.So we think GB standard could make some modifications from these fields to satisfy the users.

  8. Study on a Multiplexer a 40 Gb/s OTDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In a 4×10Gb/s OTDM system (optical time-division-multiplication) system, multiplexing devices are key devices. The time interval of four channels of the 40Gb/s OTDM system is 25ps respectively. If the time intervals are no accurate, will induce the system performance to degeneration. In order to make out OTDM device and carry out a transmission experiment in a 40Gb/s OTDM system, a kind of OTDM device is researched. This scheme be used to fabricate multiplex device. Also the device have been used to a 4...

  9. 68Ga-Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Production and Application Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Velikyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of 68Ga to the promotion and expansion of clinical research and routine positron emission tomography (PET for earlier better diagnostics and individualized medicine is considerable. The potential applications of 68Ga-comprising imaging agents include targeted, pre-targeted and non-targeted imaging. This review discusses the key aspects of the production of 68Ga and 68Ga-based radiopharmaceuticals in the light of the impact of regulatory requirements and endpoint pre-clinical and clinical applications.

  10. [Analysis on the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixing; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Suhe

    2015-12-01

    To explore the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31). Through the study of the ancient and modern data,the analysis and integration of the acupuncture books,the comparison of the locations of Fengshi (GB 31) by doctors from all dynasties and the integration of modern anatomia, the modern simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31) is definite, which is the same as the traditional way. It is believed that the simple selec tion method is in accord with the human-oriented thought of TCM. Treatment by acupoints should be based on the emerging nature and the individual difference of patients. Also, it is proposed that Fengshi (GB 31) should be located through the integration between the simple method and body surface anatomical mark.

  11. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P H; Hoffman, D J; Buscemi, D M; Melancon, M J

    2003-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  12. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Buscemi, D.M.; Melancon, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-111 I; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  13. Low polarization dependent loss of InP-based waveguide photodetector integrated with spot-size converter for 100Gb/s coherent receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Ho; Choe, Joong-Seon; Han, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Kwon, Yong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated the waveguide photodetector (WG PD) integrated with spot-size converter (SSC) for coherent receiver of 100Gb/s operation. The WG PD integrated with SSC was designed as diluted WG, dual lateral taper structure, and PIN-photodiode. The epitaxial layers of InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP, InxGa1-xAsyP1-y, and InGaAs were adopted as the diluted WG, dual tapers, and absorber of PD, respectively. The shape and thickness of each structure were determined through the simulation of 3D finite-difference beam propagation method. Although the evanescent coupling was highly sensitive, we optimized the structures with simulated responsivity and polarization dependent loss (PDL) as 0.70 A/W and 0.1 dB, respectively. We successfully obtained the SSC-integrated WG PD through numerous fabrication process including photolithography. The electrical and optical properties were characterized with laser launching. Fabricated PDs had almost similar responsivity and PDL with the simulation results. The responsivity and PDL were measured as 0.7 A/W and less than 0.3 dB respectively. The 3 dB-bandwidth was measured as 34 GHz. We successfully realized low PDL and high responsivity by adopting the lateral taper structure for SSC-integrated WG PD.

  14. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle;

    2006-01-01

    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  15. 160 Gb/s Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM wavelength conversion and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2007-01-01

    In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown.......In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown....

  16. Specialty fibers for 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Berg, Kim Skaalum; Clausen, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated.......Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated....

  17. Phase Modulation for postcompensation of dispersion in 160-Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Clausen, A. T.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2005-01-01

    Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end.......Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end....

  18. A sequential Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed to determine the reliability of the energy infrastructure. The model integrates the gas and electricity network into a single sequential Monte Carlo simulation. The model minimises the combined costs of the gas and electricity network, these include gas supplies, gas storage operation and electricity generation. The Monte Carlo model calculates reliability indices such as loss of load probability and expected energy unserved for the combined gas and electricity network. The intention of this tool is to facilitate reliability analysis of integrated energy systems. Applications of this tool are demonstrated through a case study that quantifies the impact on the reliability of the GB gas and electricity network given uncertainties such as wind variability, gas supply availability and outages to energy infrastructure assets. Analysis is performed over a typical midwinter week on a hypothesised GB gas and electricity network in 2020 that meets European renewable energy targets. The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on the reliability of the energy system is assessed. The results highlight the value of greater gas storage facilities in enhancing the reliability of the GB energy system given various energy uncertainties. -- Highlights: •A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed. •Reliability indices are calculated for the combined GB gas and electricity system. •The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on reliability of the energy system is assessed. •Integrated reliability indices could be used to assess the impact of investment in energy assets

  19. 40 Gb/s MSA协议标准Transponder模块

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡毅; 高繁荣; 邹行川

    2004-01-01

    分析开发40 Gb/s光收发模块的必然性,探讨模块的主要技术难点和急需解决的技术问题,提出了40 Gb/s光收发模块的研发初步方案设想,并对模块的研发现状和市场需求作了分析和预测.

  20. Targeting Gb3 and apoptosis-related proteins to overcome cisplatin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cisplatin is used for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but treatment with cisplatin often leads to acquired resistance to cisplatin, resulting in poor patient survival. Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) have been associated with cisplatin resistance. Gb3 serves as a receptor for verotoxin-1 (VT-1), which induces apoptosis, and has been shown to have a functional dependency to MDR1 and heat s...

  1. Manganese (Mn oxidation increases intracellular Mn in Pseudomonas putida GB-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Banh

    Full Text Available Bacterial manganese (Mn oxidation plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other compounds, and the diversity and prevalence of Mn oxidizers have been well established. Despite many hypotheses of why these bacteria may oxidize Mn, the physiological reasons remain elusive. Intracellular Mn levels were determined for Pseudomonas putida GB-1 grown in the presence or absence of Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Mn oxidizing wild type P. putida GB-1 had higher intracellular Mn than non Mn oxidizing mutants grown under the same conditions. P. putida GB-1 had a 5 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to the non Mn oxidizing mutant P. putida GB-1-007 and a 59 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to P. putida GB-1 ∆2665 ∆2447. The intracellular Mn is primarily associated with the less than 3 kDa fraction, suggesting it is not bound to protein. Protein oxidation levels in Mn oxidizing and non oxidizing cultures were relatively similar, yet Mn oxidation did increase survival of P. putida GB-1 when oxidatively stressed. This study is the first to link Mn oxidation to Mn homeostasis and oxidative stress protection.

  2. Tumor-specific Hsp70 plasma membrane localization is enabled by the glycosphingolipid Gb3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Gehrmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tumors differ from normal tissues in their capacity to present Hsp70, the major stress-inducible member of the HSP70 family, on their plasma membrane. Membrane Hsp70 has been found to serve as a prognostic indicator of overall patient survival in leukemia, lower rectal and non small cell lung carcinomas. Why tumors, but not normal cells, present Hsp70 on their cell surface and the impact of membrane Hsp70 on cancer progression remains to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although Hsp70 has been reported to be associated with cholesterol rich microdomains (CRMs, the partner in the plasma membrane with which Hsp70 interacts has yet to be identified. Herein, global lipid profiling demonstrates that Hsp70 membrane-positive tumors differ from their membrane-negative counterparts by containing significantly higher amounts of globotriaoslyceramide (Gb3, but not of other lipids such as lactosylceramide (LacCer, dodecasaccharideceramide (DoCer, galactosylceramide (GalCer, ceramide (Cer, or the ganglioside GM1. Apart from germinal center B cells, normal tissues are Gb3 membrane-negative. Co-localization of Hsp70 and Gb3 was selectively determined in Gb3 membrane-positive tumor cells, and these cells were also shown to bind soluble Hsp70-FITC protein from outside in a concentration-dependent manner. Given that the latter interaction can be blocked by a Gb3-specific antibody, and that the depletion of globotriaosides from tumors reduces the amount of membrane-bound Hsp70, we propose that Gb3 is a binding partner for Hsp70. The in vitro finding that Hsp70 predominantly binds to artificial liposomes containing Gb3 (PC/SM/Chol/Gb3, 17/45/33/5 confirms that Gb3 is an interaction partner for Hsp70. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the presence of Gb3 enables anchorage of Hsp70 in the plasma membrane of tumors and thus they might explain tumor-specific membrane localization of Hsp70.

  3. 10Gb/s symmetric WDM-PON realization with colorless ONUs%基于无色ONU的10Gb/s对称WDM-PON实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓斐; 李新

    2012-01-01

    提出一个使用无色ONU的上下行对称速率WDM-PON系统解决方案,构建一个包含16个无色ONU的WDM-PON实验系统,其中每个ONU可实现10Gb/s的上下行对称传输速率.仿真实验表明当串扰信号位于相对较高频带时,系统的道际串音容限可以得到很大程度的提高.%A symmetric WDM-PON scheme with colorless ONU is proposed,a WDM-PON system with 16 colorless ONUs is established, and l0Gb/s symmetric transmission for each ONU is realized. Experiment shows that the system tolerance to the intrachannel crosstalk is greatly improved when the crosstalk signal locates at relatively higher frequency band.

  4. 新版GB3836系列标准解读与实施%The Interpretation and Implementation of New GB3836 Series Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建平

    2011-01-01

    介绍了GB3836系列标准的形成历史、标准构成和最新修订情况,重点梳理了爆炸性环境用电气设备"通用要求"和由隔爆外壳"d"、增安型"e"、本质安全型"i"保护的电气设备的新旧GB3836系列标准间的主要技术变化及其与相应IEC标准的差异.新旧GB3836系列标准间的主要变化包括:融合了Ⅲ类设备的要求、引入了设备保护级别、关注更多的潜在点燃源、引入了基于设备保护级别的防爆型式符号和防爆标志新方法、规定了防爆产品说明书的细节要求、增加了多种隔爆面结构形式、增加了高压电动机进行爆炸试验的要求,增加本质安全型"ic"保护等级、引入了0区用双重防爆技术等.最后,就新版GB3836系列标准的有效实施指出了防爆安全相关的制造厂商、检验机构、设计院和用户等各方的职责.%The formation history, composition of GB3836 series standards and its latest revisions are introduced.The main technical changes between new and old GB3836 series standards and deviation against corresponding IEC standards for the general requirements of equipments used in explosive atmosphere, as well as electric equipments with type of protection flameproof enclosure “d”, increased safety “e”, intrisic safety “i” are outlined.The significant changes between new and old GB3836 series standards mainly include as following: immission of technical requirments of group Ⅲ equipment,introduction of equipment protection level (EPL), attention to more ignition sources, introduction of new Ex-marking and sysmbol for type of protection based on EPL, detail requirment of explosionprotection product specification, increase structure of many types of protection flameproof enclosure,increase of explosion test requirment for Ex “e” high-voltage motors, increase of protection level “ic”,introduction of “dual” types of protection for use of zone 0 and etc..Finally the

  5. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Buscemi, D.M.; Melancon, M.J

    2003-10-01

    Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 poses a minimal risk to red-winged blackbird embryos when applied according to product label guidance. - Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  6. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on mallard and bobwhite embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil or GB-1111 is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae. The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB-1111 but the product label warns that ?GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on days 4 or 11 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3, or 10 times the maximum rate (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos/ hatchlings, lower body and liver weights of hatchlings and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal P450-associated monooxygenase activity (EROD) in hatchlings. Recommended rates of field application of GB-1111 are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos.

  7. Serial 100 Gb/s connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopodis, Vasilis; Kouloumentas, Christos; Konczykowska, Agnieszka; Jorge, Filipe; Groumas, Panos; Zhang, Ziyang; Beretta, Antonio; Dede, Alberto; Dupuy, Jean-Yves; Nodjiadjim, Virginie; Cangini, Giulio; Von Büren, George; Miller, Eric; Dinu, Raluca; Choi, Jung Han; Pech, Detlef; Keil, Norbert; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Grote, Norbert; Vannucci, Antonello; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2012-12-17

    We demonstrate the first integrated transmitter for serial 100 Gb/s NRZ-OOK modulation in datacom and telecom applications. The transmitter relies on the use of an electro-optic polymer modulator and the hybrid integration of an InP laser diode and InP-DHBT electronics with the polymer board. Evaluation is made at 80 and 100 Gb/s through eye-diagrams and BER measurements using a receiver module that integrates a pin-photodiode and an electrical 1:2 demultiplexer. Error-free performance is confirmed both at 80 and 100 Gb/s revealing the viability of the approach and the potential of the technology. PMID:23263091

  8. High-speed railway bridge dynamic measurement based on GB-InSAR technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Ding, Ke-liang; Liu, Xianglei; Song, Zichao

    2015-12-01

    It is an important task to evaluate the safety during the life of bridges using the corresponding vibration parameters. With the advantages of non-contact and high accuracy, the new remote measurement technology of GB-InSAR is suitable to make dynamic measurement for bridges to acquire the vibration parameters. Three key technologies, including stepped frequency-continuous wave technique, synthetic aperture radar and interferometric measurement technique, are introduced in this paper. The GB-InSAR is applied for a high-speed railway bridge to measure of dynamic characteristics with the train passing which can be used to analyze the safety of the monitored bridge. The test results shown that it is an reliable non-contact technique for GB-InSAR to acquire the dynamic vibration parameter for the high-speed railway bridges.

  9. [Using Guangming (GB37) acupoint to treat eye diseases: from historical suspense to modern clinical experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T; Wu, M Z

    2016-05-01

    Guangming (GB37) gained its name before the writing of Huang di Ming Tang Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Mingtang Classic), the earliest work of the art of acupuncture point. However, in acupuncture and moxibustion works before the Song Dynasty, this acupoint was not used to treat eye diseases. In Dou Hanqing's Zhen jiu biao you fu (Song to Elucidate Mysteries in Acupuncture Moxibustion), Guangming was used to treat oculopathy as an alias of Cuanzhu (BL2). Influenced by this, the alias "Guangming" was mistaken as Guangming (GB37) of the Gallbladder Meridian in the Bian que shen ying zhen jiu yu long jing (Bian Que Acupuncture and Moxibustion Jade Dragon Classic) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the symptom of eye itch was added to the indications of Guangming (GB37). This was wrongly informed in the later acupuncture and moxibustion works, and the modern scholars also accepted it and confirmed its effect by the clinical and experimental research. PMID:27485868

  10. Epitaxial synthesis of GaN/Ga2O3 core/shell nanocable heterostructures by atmosphere control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional nanoheterostructures consisting of single crystalline hexagonal GaN nanowire cores and single crystalline monoclinic Ga2O3 shells were synthesized epitaxially using NH3 and O2 gases as the reaction agents in sequence during the thermal evaporation of GaN powders. It was possible to obtain a coaxial nanocable structure with a sharp interface and a uniform smooth surface which was formed by the heteroepitaxial overgrowth of a tubular Ga2O3 layer in the radial direction over the GaN nanowire core. The thickness of the Ga2O3 shell could be controlled by changing the flow rate of the oxidizing agent O2. The novel method introduced in this study enabled the epitaxial synthesis of coaxial GaN/Ga2O3 nanoheterostructures potentially suitable for the application to nanoscaled electronic device, demonstrating the advantages over conventional thermal oxidation process in terms of simplicity, morphological and geometrical controllability, and crystalline quality.

  11. A negative allosteric modulator modulates GABAB-receptor signalling through GB2 subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Chen, Linhai; Liu, Lei; Xia, Zhixiong; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Nan, Fajun; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-15

    An γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB)-receptor mediates slow and prolonged synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system, which represents an interesting target for the treatment of various diseases and disorders of the central nervous system. To date, only one activator of the GABAB-receptor, baclofen, is on the market for the treatment of spasticity. Inhibitors of the GABAB-receptor, such as antagonists, show anti-absence seizure activity and pro-cognitive properties. In a search for allosteric compounds of the GABAB-receptor, although several positive allosteric modulators have been developed, it is only recently that the first negative allosteric modulator (NAM), CLH304a (also named Compound 14), has been reported. In the present study, we provide further information on the mechanism of action of CLH304a, and also show the possibility of designing more NAMs, such as CLH391 and CLH393, based on the structure of CLH304a. First we show that CLH304a inhibits native GABAB-receptor activity in cultured cerebellar granular neurons. We then show that CLH304a has inverse agonist properties and non-competitively inhibits the effect of agonists, indicating that it binds at a different site to GABA. The GABAB-receptor is a mandatory heterodimer made of GB1 subunits, in which agonists bind, and GB2 subunits, which activate G-proteins. By using various combinations made up of wild-type and/or mutated GB1 and GB2 subunits, we show that CLH304a acts on the heptahelical domain of GB2 subunits. These data revealed the possibility of designing innovative NAMs acting in the heptahelical domain of the GB2 subunits, offering novel possibilities for therapeutic intervention based on GABAB-receptor inhibition. PMID:26772870

  12. Temperature independent 80 Gb/s transmission system using spectral phase modulation-based TDC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangping Zhong; Tangjun Li; Nan Jia; Jian Sun; Muguang Wang

    2012-01-01

    A temperature independent 80-Gb/s 100-km transmission system is demonstrated with the use of spectral phase modulation-based tunable dispersion compensator (TDC). The principle of dispersion compensation based on spectral phase modulation as well as the relationship between spectral phase modulation function and group velocity dispersion (GVD) are theoretically studied. TDC based on spectral phase modulation is implemented. The performance of 80-Gb/s transmission system is experimentally evaluated. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and temperature-induced dispersion fluctuations is demonstrated through the asymmetric temperature-induced power penalty without dispersion compensation. With respect to the low temperature area, the temperature-induced dispersion fluctuations are smaller than those in the high temperature area. By using the proposed TDC, temperature independent 80-Gb/s transmission is successfully demonstrated under a temperature range of -20 - 60 °C with a power penalty of less than 0.8 Db.%A temperature independent 80-Gb/s 100-km transmission system is demonstrated with the use of spectral phase modulation-based tunable dispersion compensator (TDC).The principle of dispersion compensation based on spectral phase modulation as well as the relationship between spectral phase modulation function and group velocity dispersion (GVD) are theoretically studied.TDC based on spectral phase modulation is implemented.The performance of 80-Gb/s transmission system is experimentally evaluated.The nonlinear relationship between temperature and temperature-induced dispersion fluctuations is demonstrated through the asymmetric temperature-induced power penalty without dispersion compensation.With respect to the low temperature area,the temperature-induced dispersion fluctuations are smaller than those in the high temperature area.By using the proposed TDC,temperature independent 80-Gb/s transmission is successfully demonstrated under a temperature range

  13. The Development of Recycling Agent for Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A type of recycling agent was developed and its use for modifying used asphalt is described.The results show that the viscosity and three main properties of the aged asphalt were remarkably improved.With 5%-7% content of recycling agent, the main properties of recycled asphalt comported with China GB asphalt standard AH-70 and the recycled asphalt concrete could be used as high-grade highway.Furthermore,the recycling mechanism of the aged asphalt is discussed.

  14. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal;

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined.......An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  15. Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Dobroslav; Videv, Stefan; Haas, Harald

    2015-01-26

    Potential visible light communication (VLC) data rates at over 10 Gb/s have been recently demonstrated using light emitting diodes (LEDs). The disadvantage is, LEDs have an inherent trade-off between optical efficiency and bandwidth. Consequently, laser diodes (LDs) can be considered as a very promising alternative for better utilization of the visible light spectrum for communication purposes. This work investigates the communication capabilities of off-the-shelf LDs in a number of scenarios with illumination constraints. The results indicate that optical wireless access data rates in the excess of 100 Gb/s are possible at standard indoor illumination levels. PMID:25835920

  16. Broadband Packaging of Photodetectors for 100 Gb/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, Heinz-Gunter;

    2013-01-01

    The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D electromagn......The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D...

  17. The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160 Gb/s demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Oxenlowe, L.K.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2006-01-01

    The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160Gb/s demultiplexer is investigated by using two pulse sources with different timing jitter properties. It is found that jitter in the range 20kHz-10MHz is essential to minimize. (C)2005 Optical Society of America.......The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160Gb/s demultiplexer is investigated by using two pulse sources with different timing jitter properties. It is found that jitter in the range 20kHz-10MHz is essential to minimize. (C)2005 Optical Society of America....

  18. Serial 100 Gb/s connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Katopodis, V.; Kouloumentas, C.; Konczykowska, A.; Jorge, F.; Groumas, P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Beretta, A; Dede, A.; Dupuy, J.Y.; Nodjiadjim, V.; Cangini, G.; Buren, G. von; Miller, E.; R. Dinu; Choi, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the first integrated transmitter for serial 100 Gb/s NRZ-OOK modulation in datacom and telecom applications. The transmitter relies on the use of an electro-optic polymer modulator and the hybrid integration of an InP laser diode and InP-DHBT electronics with the polymer board. Evaluation is made at 80 and 100 Gb/s through eye-diagrams and BER measurements using a receiver module that integrates a pin-photodiode and an electrical 1:2 demultiplexer. Error-free performance is con...

  19. Error-free 320 Gb/s simultaneous add-drop multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre.......We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre....

  20. GB/T 8363-2007铁素体钢落锤撕裂试验方法简介%Brief Introduction for Drop Weight Tear Test Method of GB/T 8363-2007 Acicular Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏

    2010-01-01

    介绍了新版落锤撕裂试验(DWTT)标准GB/T 8363-2007,并与以前的版本GB/T 8363-1987 以及API RP 5L3-1996进行了比较.对比表明,新版国家标准GB/T 8363-2007在GB/T 8363-1987的基础上进行了修改,并兼顾了API RP 5L3-1996,另外还增加了异常断口评定等新内容.

  1. Technology of upgrading optical network from 10Gb/s To 40/100Gb/s%10Gb/s光网络向40/100G b/s演进的扩容方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锋; 王婧

    2009-01-01

    With the development of requirement, service providers always have to face the pressure of enlarg-ing the capacity of the optical networks. Under the new technology conditions, the former methods have more and more limitations for fitting in with the needs of expanding bandwidth. This paper start with this limitation, introduces the advantages and shortages of the new technologis of expanding bandwidth, by analysing these technologies such as DP-QPSK.%随着需求的增长,业务提供商一直都面临着光网络带宽扩容的压力.在新的技术条件下,以往靠增加网络规模来进行扩容的常规方法已经受到越来越多的局限.文章从常规带宽扩容手段的局限性入手,介绍和分析了DP-QPSK等当前热门的带宽扩容技术在光通信网络由10Gb/s向40/100Gb/s演进过程中的广阔前景及存在的不足.

  2. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ling Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter.

  3. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yong-Ling; Shen, Yong-Bao; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Shui-Yuan; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter. PMID:26351628

  4. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a MADS-Box Gene (GbMADS2 from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of transcription factors gene family, MADS-box genes play an important role in plant development processes. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Ginkgo biloba, a MADS-box gene, designated as GbMADS2, was cloned from G. biloba based on EST sequences by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis results showed that the cDNA sequence of GbMADS2 contained a 663 bp length ORF encoding 221 amino acids protein, which displayed typical structure of plant MADS-box protein including MADS, I, and K domains and C terminus. The sequence of GbMADS2 protein was highly homologous to those of MADS-box proteins from other plant species with the highest homologous to AGAMOUS (CyAG from Cycas revoluta. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that GbMADS2 belonged to AGAMOUS clade genes. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression levels of GbMADS2 gene in female and male flower were significantly higher than those in root, stem, and leaves, and that GbMADS2 expression level increased along with time of flower development. The spatial and time-course expression profile of GbMADS2 implied that GbMADS2 might be involved in development of reproductive organs. The isolation and expression analysis of GbMADS2 provided basis for further studying the molecular mechanism of flower development in G. biloba.

  5. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sukun [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Du, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Chunfu [Soochow University, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yalan [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Qinxue, E-mail: qhu@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George' s University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry.

  6. 关于爱立信BSC Gb over IP改造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红军

    2011-01-01

    文章简单介绍7Gb over IP技术,然后详细分析了爱立信BSC设备Gb over IP改造技术,包括网络设计方案及相关原理、现网BSC进行Gb□ IP化改造的内容以及BSC部分数据定义等几方面,对Gb over IP方式下的统计优化进行了探讨,最后举例说明了Gb over IP在实际工作中出现的故障及其处理.

  7. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from Gossypium barbadense

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Liu; Kaijing Zuo; Fei Zhang; Ying Li; Jieting Xu; Lida Zhang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2009-12-01

    An AGAMOUS (AG)-like gene, GbAGL2, was isolated from Gossypium barbadense and characterized. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GbAGL2 shared high homology with AG-subfamily genes and belonged to a C-class gene family. DNA gel blot analysis showed that GbAGL2 belonged to a low-copy gene family. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed that GbAGL2 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues including ovules and carpels, but barely expressed in vegetative tissues. In addition, GbAGL2 expression in a cotton cultivar XuZhou142 (wt) (XZ142, G. hirsutum L.) and its fibreless mutant XZ142 (fl) was examined. RNA in situ hybridization analysis indicated that GbAGL2 transcripts were preferentially restricted to outer ovule integuments, carpels and fibres. These expression patterns implied that GbAGL2 might participate in the development of the carpel and ovule. Furthermore, Arabidopsis transformation was performed and modifications occurred in flowers, and the silique length of transgenic plants also increased slightly, suggesting that the GbAGL2 gene may have a positive effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. Our findings suggest that GbAGL2 might not only specify the identity of floral organs but also play a potential key role in ovary or fibre development in cotton.

  8. Analysis of GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys in Detail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Introduction GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys, which is a compulsory national standard and developed in accordance with the Standardization Law of P. R. China and the Product Quality Law ofP. R. China,has been officially issued on Oct. 9th, 2003.

  9. 10 Gb/s Real-Time All-VCSEL Low Complexity Coherent scheme for PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Cheng, Ning; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2012-01-01

    Real time demodulation of a 10 Gb/s all-VCSEL based coherent PON link with a simplified coherent receiver scheme is demonstrated. Receiver sensitivity of −33 dBm is achieved providing high splitting ratio and link reach....

  10. Flat-top pulse enabling 640 Gb/s OTDM demultiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    In ultra-high speed optical time division multiplexed systems (OTDM) with bit rates of 640 Gb/s at single wavelength and single polarisation, timing jitter is perhaps the most detrimental factor, limiting switching quality. Here, we report on using a novel flat-top pulse shaping technique, which ...

  11. Simultaneous Observation Data of GB-SAR/PiSAR to Detect Flooding in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed simultaneous observation data with ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR and airborne SAR (PiSAR over a flood test site at which a simple house was constructed in a field. The PiSAR σ∘ under flood condition was 0.9 to 3.4 dB higher than that under nonflood condition. GB-SAR gives high spatial resolution as we could identify a single scattering component and a double bounce component from the house. GB-SAR showed that the σ∘ difference between the flooding and nonflooding conditions came from the double bounce scattering. We also confirm that the entropy is a sensitive parameter in the eigenvalue decomposition parameters, if the scattering process is dominated by the double bounce scattering. We conclude that σ∘ and entropy are a good parameter to be used to detect flooding, not only in agricultural and forest regions, but also in urban areas. We also conclude that GB-SAR is a powerful tool to supplement satellite and airborne observation, which has a relatively low spatial resolution.

  12. Simultaneous Observation Data of GB-SAR/PiSAR to Detect Flooding in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Masanobu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed simultaneous observation data with ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR and airborne SAR (PiSAR over a flood test site at which a simple house was constructed in a field. The PiSAR under flood condition was 0.9 to 3.4 dB higher than that under nonflood condition. GB-SAR gives high spatial resolution as we could identify a single scattering component and a double bounce component from the house. GB-SAR showed that the difference between the flooding and nonflooding conditions came from the double bounce scattering. We also confirm that the entropy is a sensitive parameter in the eigenvalue decomposition parameters, if the scattering process is dominated by the double bounce scattering. We conclude that and entropy are a good parameter to be used to detect flooding, not only in agricultural and forest regions, but also in urban areas. We also conclude that GB-SAR is a powerful tool to supplement satellite and airborne observation, which has a relatively low spatial resolution.

  13. 8x40 Gb/s RZ all-optical broadcasting utilizing an electroabsorption modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Chi, Nan; Yvind, Kresten;

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical broadcasting through simultaneous 8 × 40 Gb/s wavelength conversion in the RZ format based on cross absorption modulation in an electroabsorption modulator. The original intensity-modulated information is successfully duplicated onto eight wavelengths that...

  14. All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Lei, Lei; Ding, Yunhong;

    2013-01-01

    An all-optical AND logic gate in a single silicon microring resonator is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s with 50% RZ-OOK signals. By setting the wavelengths of two intensity-modulated input pumps on the resonances of the microring resonator, field-enhanced four-wave mixing with a total input...

  15. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  16. Metal Inhibition of Growth and Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J.; Sposito, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (MnO2) are ubiquitous nanoparticulate minerals that contribute to the adsorption of nutrient and toxicant metals, the oxidative degradation of various organic compounds, and the respiration of metal-reducing bacteria in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The formation of these minerals is catalyzed by a diverse and widely-distributed group of bacteria and fungi, often through the enzymatic oxidation of aqueous Mn(II) to Mn(IV). In metal-impacted ecosystems, toxicant metals may alter the viability and metabolic activity of Mn-oxidizing organisms, thereby limiting the conditions under which biogenic MnO2 can form and diminishing their potential as adsorbent materials. Pseudomonas putida GB-1 (P. putida GB-1) is a model Mn-oxidizing laboratory culture representative of freshwater and soil biofilm-forming bacteria. Manganese oxidation in P. putida GB-1 occurs via two single-electron-transfer reactions, involving a multicopper oxidase enzyme found on the bacterial outer membrane surface. Near the onset of the stationary phase of growth, dark brown MnO2 particles are deposited in a matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, thus forming heterogeneous biomineral assemblages. In this study, we assessed the influence of various transition metals on microbial growth and manganese oxidation capacity in a P. putida GB-1 culture propagated in a nutrient-rich growth medium. The concentration-response behavior of actively growing P. putida GB-1 cells was investigated for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn at pH ≈ 6 in the presence and absence of 1 mM Mn. Toxicity parameters such as EC0, EC50 and Hillslope, and EC100 were obtained from the sigmoidal concentration-response curves. The extent of MnO2 formation in the presence of the various metal cations was documented 24, 50, 74 and 104 h after the metal-amended medium was inoculated. Toxicity values were compared to twelve physicochemical properties of the metals tested. Significant

  17. GB/T 17451-1998介绍%An Introduction of GB/T 17451-1998,Technical Drawing:Method for Draft View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强毅

    2000-01-01

    介绍了GB/T 17451-1998的适用范围、基本要求和视图种类及其选择原则;并结合实际,着重对基本视图、向视图、局部视图和斜视图四视图的标注方法、配置位置及其应用时应注意的问题作了说明.

  18. Effects of GJIC diminuendo agent 18α-GA on transdifferentiation from adipocytes to osteoblasts in rabbits%G JIC 渐弱剂18α-甘草次酸对兔脂肪细胞向成骨细胞横向分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉博; 曾旋; 彭浩; 王凤宇; 王兆杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is to explore the effects of transdifferentiation from adipocytes to osteoblasts and gap junction in-tercellular communication( GJIC) by gap junction Diminuendo agent 18α-GA.Methods Groin adipose tissue was taken from 3 months old New Zealand White Rabbit and collected mature adipocytes.Made the mature adipocytes dedifferentiate and ob-tained the dedifferentiated adipocytes.The 3rd generation of the dedifferentiated adipocytes were induced and differentiated in-to osteoblasts.There were two experimental groups that the diminuendo group with adding 18α-GA and the control group. The toxic action of 18α-GA in osteoblasts growth and proliferation were detected by MTT assay.Osteoblasts were qualitatively detected by alizarin red staining and collagen typeⅠimmunohistochemistry staining.The expressions of Cx43 were measured by western-blot and sorape-loading and dye transfet ( SLDT) method.Results The results of MTT assay showed that 18α-GA had no significant effect on cell proliferation.The results of Alizarin red staining showed that calcific nodules were dyed red in each group.Immunohistochemistry staining results showed that the expressions of collagen typeⅠwere weakened in the diminuendo group.The results of Western blot showed that the expressions of Cx43 were decreased in the diminuendo group. Conclusion 18α-GA diminuendo the capability of transdifferentiation from adipocytes to osteoblasts with enhancement of GJIC.%目的:探讨缝隙连接通讯渐弱剂18α-甘草次酸( GA)对脂肪细胞向成骨细胞横向分化及细胞间缝隙连接通讯的影响。方法选取3月龄新西兰大白兔腹股沟处脂肪组织,分离提取成熟脂肪细胞,使其去分化得到去分化脂肪细胞,取第三代去分化的脂肪细胞进行成骨诱导,加入GJIC渐弱剂18α-GA设为减弱组,并设立对照组, MTT法观察18α-GA对细胞倍增是否有影响,进行茜素红钙结节染色和I型胶原免疫组化染色

  19. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Fakhari; Amir Jalilian; Fariba Johari-daha; Mehdi Shafiee-Ardestani; Ali Khalaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga).Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies,...

  20. 28 Gb/s duobinary signal transmission over 40 km based on 10 GHz DML and PIN for 100 Gb/s PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxuan; Yi, Lilin; Wang, Xiaodong; Hu, Weisheng

    2015-08-10

    In this paper, we demonstrate the direct modulation and direct detection of 28-Gb/s duobinary signal for the future downstream capacity upgrade in next generation passive optical network (PON). Commercial 10-GHz directly modulated laser (DML) and PIN with a combined modulation bandwidth of ~7 GHz are used as transmitter and receiver respectively. In order to mitigate the chromatic dispersion induced signal distortion, an optical delay interferometer (DI) is employed to narrow down the signal spectrum, thereby realizing 40-km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission in C-band. Besides, the chirp-induced spectral broadening of the directly modulated signal enables a higher launch power than external modulation schemes, which increases the loss budget of the system. As a result, 31-dB loss budget is achieved, supporting 64 users with 40-km reach. Also, as the transceivers in both optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network unit (ONU) are commercial l0-GHz devices, the proposed scheme is compatible with 40-Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (TWDM-PON) systems, providing a cost-efficient alternative for the development of 100G PON.

  1. 2.5 Gb/s Optical Transponder技术与设计%The Technology and Design of 2.5 Gb/s Optical Transponder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏娜; 樊龙飞; 张金利; 胡永明

    2004-01-01

    网络容量增长的同时也促进了光纤通信技术的发展,使得宽带传输和接入方式处于越来越重要的地位,如何有效地解决光纤干线上和大部分基于电缆局域网的信号转换成为亟待解决的问题,光收发器(optical transponder)很好地解决了宽带传输和接入的这一"瓶颈"问题.2.5 Gb/s是目前最流行的传输速率,其相应transponder用于SDH/Sonet OC-48/STM-16的光/电接口.文章介绍了2.5 Gb/s optical transponder的功能、结构等技术和相应的设计方案.

  2. Experimental Investigation of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Molle, Lutz; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-10

    We experimentally generate 28-GBd 6-ary polarization-shift keying quadrature phase-shift keying (6PolSK-QPSK) signals by utilizing a high-speed 4-channel digital-to-analog converter and an integrated dual-polarization I/Q modulator. In WDM transmission experiments over up to 4800 km standard single-mode fiber, we compare the performance of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK and 112-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) QPSK signals. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of applying an inner Reed-Solomon RS(511,455) forward error correction code in order to correct burst errors due to the anti-Gray mapping of 6PolSK-QPSK. PMID:23262856

  3. All-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Boffi, P; Ferrario, M; Marazzi, L; Parolari, P; Siano, R; Pusino, V; Minzioni, P; Cristiani, I; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Martinelli, M; Degiorgio, V

    2009-09-28

    We present the results of an in-depth experimental investigation about all-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed (POLMUX) signal. Each polarization channel is modulated at 25 Gbaud by differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK). The conversion is realized exploiting the high nonlinear chi((2)) coefficient of a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, in a polarization-independent configuration. We find that slight non-idealities in the polarization independent setup of the wavelength converter can significantly impair the performance of POLMUX systems. We show that high-quality wavelength conversion can be nevertheless achieved for both the polarization channels, provided that an accurate optimization of the setup is performed. This is the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of the possibility to obtain penalty-free all-optical wavelength conversion in a 100-Gb/s POLMUX transmission system using direct-detection. PMID:19907562

  4. 2.5Gb/s 16:1MUX IC Design with CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-an; SONG Qi-feng; WANG Zhi-gong

    2004-01-01

    A low-power and high-speed 16:1 MUX IC designed for optical fiber communication based on TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS technology is presented. A tree-type architecture was utilized. The output data bit rate is 2.5 Gb/s at input clock rate of 1.25 GHz. The simulation results show that the output signal has peak-to-peak amplitude of 400 mV, the power dissipation is less than 200 mW and the power dissipation of core circuit is less than 20 mW at the 2.5 Gb/s standard bit rate and supply voltage of 2.5 V. The chip area is 1.8 mm2.

  5. Delivering 10 Gb/s optical data with picosecond timing uncertainty over 75 km distance

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulos, N; Nuijts, R; de Waardt, H; Koelemeij, J C J

    2014-01-01

    We report a method to determine propagation delays of optical 10 Gb/s data traveling through a 75 km long amplified fiber link with an uncertainty of 4 ps. The one-way propagation delay is determined by two-way exchange and cross correlation of short (< 1 ms) bursts of 10 Gb/s data, with a single-shot time resolution better than 2.5 ps. We thus achieve a novel optical communications link suited for both long-haul high-capacity data transfer and time transfer with picosecond-range uncertainty. This opens up the perspective of synchronized optical telecommunication networks allowing picosecond-range time distribution and millimeter-range positioning.

  6. GB ROW 2013:世界最难的划船比赛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧素

    2013-01-01

    环英划船比赛的世界纪录于2005年由William de Laszlo率领的四人男子船队首次创立,为26天21小时14分钟(William de Laszlo为GB Row 2013的主席)。2010年该比赛经过全面的可行性和可靠性评估。GB Row 2013为第一次正式的环英划船竞赛,于6月1日从Tower Bridge出发,之后再返回Tower Bridge。

  7. 40-to-10-Gb/s demultiplexing using an electro-absorption sampling window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tao-rong; YAN Feng-ping; LV Be; WANG Lin; LIU Peng; LI Tang-jun; JIAN Shui-sheng

    2009-01-01

    The demultiplexing experiment from a 40 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing signal is completed by using electro-absorption sampling window based on electronic phase-locked loop circuit for clock recovery. Error-free demultiplexing is achieved when the launched optical power into electro-absorption sampling window reaches 5.5 dBm without optical filter following the EDFA.

  8. Novel approach to reduce the pattern effect in 10-Gb/s clock recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Wang(王桐); Caiyun Lou(娄采云); Li Huo(霍力); Yizhi Gao(高以智)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A Fabry-Perot(F-P)etalon and a semiconductor optical amplifier(SOA)were combined to preprocess thedata signals before clock recovery.With this technology in the 10-Gb/s clock recovery utilizing injectionmode-locked laser(IMLL)based on SOA,the amplitude fluctuation and timing jitters caused by thepattern effect in recovered clock pulses were greatly reduced,experimentally.It also demonstrated thatclock could be recovered from the very degraded signals.

  9. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M;

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...... and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the tentatively named equine pegivirus (EPgV) represents a novel species within the Pegivirus genus. We also determined that EPgV causes persistent viremia whereas its clinical significance is undetermined....

  10. The Class of London 2012: Some Sociological Reflections on the Social Backgrounds of Team GB Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Smith; David Haycock; Nicola Hulme

    2013-01-01

    This rapid response article briefly examines one feature of the relationship between social class and elite sport: the social backgrounds of the Olympians who comprised Team GB (Great Britain) at the 2012 London Olympics Games, and especially their educational backgrounds, as a means of shedding sociological light on the relationship between elite sport and social class. It is claimed that, to a large degree, the class-related patterns evident in the social profiles of medal-winners are expre...

  11. Quantum key distribution on a 10Gb/s WDM-PON

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Iris; Young, Robert J; Townsend, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) on a multi-user wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) with simultaneous, bidirectional 10Gb/s classical channel transmission. The C-Band QKD system operates at a clock rate of 10GHz and employs differential phase shift keying (DPSK). A dual feeder fiber and band filtering scheme is used to suppress classical to quantum channel cross-talk generated by spontaneous Raman scattering, which would other...

  12. A new equalizer for 2 Gb/s short-reach SI-POF links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, C.; Guerrero, E.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Royo, G.; Aldea, C.; Celma, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new CMOS analog continuous-time equalizer that overcomes the limitations of the most widely used continuous-time equalizer, the degenerated differential pair. The equalizer has been proved for multi-gigabit short-range applications targeting up to 2 Gb/s through a 50-m SI-POF. The prototype consumes 2.7 mW for a 1-V supply voltage.

  13. Improving MM-GB/SA Scoring through the Application of the Variable Dielectric Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindranathan, Krishna; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L.; Guimarães, Cristiano R. W.

    2011-01-01

    A variable dielectric model based on residue types for better description of protein-ligand electrostatics in MM-GBSA scoring is reported. The variable dielectric approach provides better correlation with binding data and reduces the score dynamic range, typically observed in the standard MM-GB/SA method. The latter supports the view that exaggerated enthalpic separation between weak and potent compounds due to the lack of shielding effects in the model is greatly responsible for the wide sco...

  14. Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lin; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km span composed of superlarge effective area fiber and inverse dispersion fiber. For longest system reach, second-order pumping and backward pumping have larger pump power tolerance than bidirectional pu...

  15. Bioreactor performance parameters for an industrially-promising methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Alexey; Laurens, Lieve M.; Puri, Aaron W.; Chu, Frances; Philip T. Pienkos; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methane is a feedstock of interest for the future, both from natural gas and from renewable biogas sources. Methanotrophic bacteria have the potential to enable commercial methane bioconversion to value-added products such as fuels and chemicals. A strain of interest for such applications is Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1, due to its robust growth characteristics. However, to take advantage of the potential of this methanotroph, it is important to generate comprehensive bioreacto...

  16. End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jesse

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.

  17. 基于建立施工企业质量管理体系模式的研究——以GB/T50430与GB/T19001的要求为依据%Constructing Quality Management System for Construction Enterprise:Based on the Requirement of GB/T50430 and GB/T19001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋梅

    2012-01-01

    GB/T19001-2008《质量管理体系要求》与GB/T 50430-2007《工程建设施工企业质量管理规范》相结合应用于建立实施施工企业质量管理体系,能更加有效的提高规范施工企业质量管理活动、提高工作质量和工程质量、提高顾客满意度的有效性和效率.%Integrating GBf/T19001-2008 Requirements of Quality Management System and GB/T 50430-2007 Quality Management Standard for Engineering Construction Enterprise together and applying it to building and implementing quality management system of construction enterprise can effectively improve and regulate quality management of construction enterprise, improve working quality and engineering quality, and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of customer satisfaction.

  18. BCM57710:10GbE聚合网络界面控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Broadcom日前推出单芯片双端口10GbE聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC)--BCM57710,以迎合大批量服务器的设计.基于之前两代成熟的NetXtreme II千兆以太网C-NIC技术,Broodcom此次成功发布业界首款10Gbps(千兆比特/每秒)速率的全功能、单芯片聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC),这款产品不需要外部缓存的支持.BCM57710丰富及完善了Broadcom以其市场领先的C-NIC、企业路由器和物理层设备为主的10GbE端到端解决方案的业务组合,使其OEM合作伙伴能够借助其提供的完整的10GbE网络架构解决方案增强下一代服务器的性能.

  19. Pyoverdine synthesis by the Mn(II-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Lundquist Parker

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When iron-starved, the Mn(II-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida strains GB-1 and MnB1 produce pyoverdines (PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1, siderophores that both influence iron uptake and inhibit manganese(II oxidation by these strains. To explore the properties and genetics of a PVD that can affect manganese oxidation, LC-MS/MS and various siderotyping techniques were used to identify the peptides of PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1 as being (for both PVDs: chromophore-Asp-Lys-OHAsp-Ser-Gly-aThr-Lys-cOHOrn, resembling a structure previously reported for P. putida CFML 90-51, which does not oxidize Mn. All three strains also produced an azotobactin and a sulfonated PVD, each with the peptide sequence above, but with unknown regulatory or metabolic effects. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequenced genome of P. putida GB-1 suggested that a particular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, coded by the operon PputGB1_4083-4086, could produce the peptide backbone of PVDGB-1. To verify this prediction, plasmid integration disruption of PputGB1_4083 was performed and the resulting mutant failed to produce detectable PVD. In silico analysis of the modules in PputGB1_4083-4086 predicted a peptide sequence of Asp-Lys-Asp-Ser-Ala-Thr-Lsy-Orn, which closely matches the peptide determined by MS/MS. To extend these studies to other organisms, various Mn(II-oxidizing and non-oxidizing isolates of P. putida, P. fluorescens, P. marincola, P. fluorescens-syringae group, P. mendocina-resinovorans group and P. stutzerii group were screened for PVD synthesis. The PVD producers (12 out of 16 tested strains were siderotyped and placed into four sets of differing PVD structures, some corresponding to previously characterized PVDs and some to novel PVDs. These results combined with previous studies suggested that the presence of OHAsp or the flexibility of the pyoverdine polypeptide may enable efficient binding of Mn(III.

  20. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  1. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  2. GaAs/GaSb nanowire heterostructures grown by MOVPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, Mattias; Dick, Kimberly A.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2008-01-01

    We report Au-assisted growth of GaAs/GaSb nanowire heterostructures on GaAs(1 1 1)B-substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The growth is studied at various precursor molar fractions and temperatures, in order to optimize the growth conditions for the GaSb nanowire segment. In contrast to...... most other III–V nanowire systems, the GaSb nanowire growth is Group V-limited under most conditions. We found that depending on the TMSb molar fraction, the seed particle is either supersaturated AuGa or AuGa2 during GaSb growth. The high Ga content in the particle gives a characteristic diameter...

  3. Design and OAM&P aspects of a DWDM system equipped with a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent 10Gb/s channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijts, Roeland; Bjørn, Lars Lange; Petersen, Martin Nordal;

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental investigations of the interaction, in terms of BER performance, between a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent (50GHz spacing) 10Gb/s NRZ-OOK channels. Experiments were conducted on the Hamburg-Copenhagen section of the Amsterdam-Copenhagen CBF (Cross...... Border Fiber) connection between SURFnet and NORDUnet. Furthermore, we investigated the OAM&P (Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning) of an alien wavelength in CBF transmission systems....

  4. 40Gb/s all-optical binary-coded-decimal decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Yin; Dong, Jianji; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2011-12-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a 40Gb/s all-optical binary-coded-decimal (BCD) decoder for the first time, utilizing delay interferometers (DIs) and cascading semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) without any assisting light. Extinction ratios (ERs) of the intermediate results after the first SOA are all over 11dB which ensures the capability to cascade to the second one. The final results are in the form of return-to-zero (RZ) format with correct and clear temporal waveforms. The proposed scheme could be extended to 1-of-16 decoder, logic minterms and read only memory (ROM).

  5. 钰德获BDA官方50GB Duel layer Blu-ray Disc认证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>预录光盘大厂钰德科技宣布获得BDA官方50GB Duel layer Blu-ray Disc认证,成为日商以外,亚洲第一家获得此一技术认证的生产制造商。钰德自去年积极拓展布建新世代蓝光产线,除已投入生产接单的BD-25产能外,亦率先拓建高阶双层BD-ROM 50G生产线,更

  6. 12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongtao; Ding Jianfeng; Yang Lin

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a 12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator.Under a nonreturn-zero (NRZ) pre-emphasized electrical drive signal with voltage swing of 6.3 V and forward bias of 0.7 V,the eye is clearly opened with an extinction ratio of 8.4 dB.The device exhibits high modulation efficiency,with a figure of merit VπL of 0.036 V.mm.

  7. Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe;

    2004-01-01

    Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km...... span composed of superlarge effective area fiber and inverse dispersion fiber. For longest system reach, second-order pumping and backward pumping have larger pump power tolerance than bidirectional pumping, while the optimal span input signal power margin of second-order pumping is the largest...

  8. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist;

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier...... transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM signal with its characteristic sinc-shaped time-domain trace is converted into an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal with sinc-shaped spectra for each subcarrier...

  9. An all-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons operating at 10 Gb/s

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Jae K; Schröder, Jochen; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the operation of an all-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons stored in a nonlinear passive fiber ring resonator. Unwanted acoustic interactions between neighboring solitons are suppressed by modulating the phase of the external laser driving the cavity. A new locking scheme is presented that allows the buffer to operate with an arbitrarily large number of cavity solitons in the loop. Experimentally, we are able to demonstrate the storage of 4536 bits of data, written all-optically into the fiber ring at 10 Gb/s, for 1 minute.

  10. Cascaded all-optical operations in a hybrid integrated 80-Gb/s logic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrange, J D; Dinu, M; Sochor, T; Bollond, P; Kasper, A; Cabot, S; Johnson, G S; Kang, I; Grant, A; Kay, J; Jaques, J

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate logic functionalities in a high-speed all-optical logic circuit based on differential Mach-Zehnder interferometers with semiconductor optical amplifiers as the nonlinear optical elements. The circuit, implemented by hybrid integration of the semiconductor optical amplifiers on a planar lightwave circuit platform fabricated in silica glass, can be flexibly configured to realize a variety of Boolean logic gates. We present both simulations and experimental demonstrations of cascaded all-optical operations for 80-Gb/s on-off keyed data.

  11. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can...... the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF SOLITON TRANSMISSION AT 2.5 GB/S OVER 200 KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. S. AL-KHATEEB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soliton characteristics and soliton transmission have been simulated using a VPI simulator. Simulation was also used to construct and study a soliton communication system. Near soliton pulses emitted by an actively mode-locked laser is then compressed in a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF to produce solitons. The effects of non-linearity and active pre-chirping of mode-locked laser diode sources were also investigated. Assessment on a modeled system using real data shows that propagation over 250 km at 2.5 Gb/s in standard fibers with 20 ps pulse widths is possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  13. A Radiation Tolerant 4.8 Gb/s Serializer for the Giga-Bit Transceiver

    CERN Document Server

    Çobanoglu, Ö; Faccio, F

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a full-custom 120:1 data serializer for the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) which has been under development for the LHC upgrade (SLHC). The circuit operates at 4.8 Gb=s and is implemented in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology. The serializer occupies an area of 0.6 mm2 and its power consumption is 300 mW. The paper focuses on the techniques used to achieve radiation tolerance and on the simulation method used to estimate the sensitivity to single event transients

  14. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  15. A Cotton MYB Transcription Factor, GbMYB5, is Positively Involved in Plant Adaptive Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianzi; Li, Wenjuan; Hu, Xuehong; Guo, Jiaru; Liu, Aimin; Zhang, Baolong

    2015-05-01

    Drought stress negatively affects plant growth and limits plant productivity. Genes functioning in plant responses to drought stress are essential for the development of drought-tolerant crops. Here, we report that an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor gene in Gossypium barbadense, GbMYB5, confers drought tolerance in cotton and transgenic tobacco. Virus-induced gene silencing of GbMYB5 compromised the tolerance of cotton plantlets to drought stress and reduced the post-rewatering water recovery survival rate to 50% as compared with the 90% survival rate in the wild type (WT). Silencing GbMYB5 decreased proline content and antioxidant enzyme activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in cotton under drought stress. The expression levels of drought-inducible genes NCED3, RD22 and RD26 were not affected by the silencing of GbMYB5. However, GbMYB5-overexpressing tobacco lines displayed hypersensitivity to ABA and improved survival rates as well as reduced water loss rates under drought stress. Furthermore, stomatal size and the rate of opening of stomata were markedly decreased in transgenic tobacco. The overexpression of GbMYB5 enhanced the accumulation of proline and antioxidant enzymes while it reduced production of MDA in transgenic tobacco as compared with the WT under drought stress. The transcript levels of the antioxidant genes SOD, CAT and GST, polyamine biosynthesis genes ADC1 and SAMDC, the late embryogenesis abundant protein-encoding gene ERD10D and drought-responsive genes NCED3, BG and RD26 were generally higher in GbMYB5-overexpressing tobacco than in the WT under drought stress. Collectively, our data suggested that GbMYB5 was positively involved in the plant adaptive response to drought stress. PMID:25657343

  16. Simultaneous 160 Gb/s Add-Drop Multiplexing in a Non-Linear Optical Loop Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    We report on a demonstration of error-free simultaneous add-drop multiplexing of 160 Gb/s data in a non-linear optical loop mirror composed of 100 m highly non-linear fibre......We report on a demonstration of error-free simultaneous add-drop multiplexing of 160 Gb/s data in a non-linear optical loop mirror composed of 100 m highly non-linear fibre...

  17. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Su Cho; Chan Woong Park; Chun-Ki Kim; Hee Young Jeon; Wan Gi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Young-Myeong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED),and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng.Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus,we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study.As a comparative control,the results were compared to those obtained using KRG.In addition,possible mechanisms of action for GB0710 were investigated.While KRG and GB0710 both displayed dose-dependent relaxation effects on precontracted rabbit CCSM in vitro,GB0710 was shown to be more potent than KRG.The GB0710-induced relaxation could be partially reduced by removing the endothelium.In addition,pre-treatment with several nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors significantly inhibited the relaxation of muscle strips.Furthermore,administration of GB0710 increased intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in a rat in vivo model in both a dose-and duration-dependent manner.Intracellular NO production in human microvascular endothelial cells could be induced by GB0710 and inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.In conclusion,GB0710 had a greater relaxation effect on rabbit CCSM than did KRG extract,and increased ICP in a rat model in both a dose-and a duration-dependent manner.This relaxing effect might be mediated by NO production.

  18. Estimation of a 10 Gb/s 5G Receiver’s Performance and Power Evolution Towards 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 5G vision of 10 Gb/s leads to performance and power consumption challenges in the mobile terminal receiver because 10 Gb/s requires 400 MHz bandwidth, faster baseband processing, and an increased number of component carriers and MIMO streams. The contribution of this paper is to estimate the impact from these physical layer requirements to the power consumption of main receiver components, including LNA, ADC and baseband processor with Turbo decoding, in a Direct Conversion Architecture. ...

  19. Occurrence of bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides host strains (ARABA 84 and GB-124) in fecal samples of human and animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diston, David; Wicki, Melanie

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriophage-based microbial source-tracking studies are an economical and simple way of identifying fecal sources in polluted water systems. Recently isolated Bacteroides spp. strains ARABA 84, and GB-124 have been shown to detect bacteriophages exclusively in aquatic systems impacted by human fecal material. To date, limited examination of the occurrence or concentration of phages capable of infecting Bacteroides fragilis strain GB-124 or B. thetaiotaomicron strain ARABA 84 in human and animal feces has been carried out. This study reports the prevalence rates and concentrations of phages infecting ARABA 84 and GB-124 host strains in human and a range of animal feces. Discrete human fecal samples (n=55) and pooled animal samples (n=46, representing the feces of over 230 animals) were examined for phages infecting the host strains ARABA 84, GB-124, and E. coli strain WG5. Both human Bacteroides host strains were highly specific (95% and 100% for ARABA 84 and GB-124, respectively), challenging results from previous studies. This study supports the use of Bacteroides strains GB-124 and ARABA 84 in fecal source tracking studies for the detection of human fecal contamination.

  20. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  1. Preparation and evaluation of a radiogallium complex-conjugated bisphosphonate as a bone scintigraphy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuma, E-mail: kogawa@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Takai, Kenichiro; Kanbara, Hiroya; Kiwada, Tatsuto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro [Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Odani, Akira [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: {sup 68}Ga is a radionuclide of great interest as a positron emitter for positron emission tomography (PET). To develop a new bone-imaging agent with radiogallium, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was chosen as a chelating site and Ga-DOTA complex-conjugated bisphosphonate, which has a high affinity for bone, was prepared and evaluated. Although we are interested in developing {sup 68}Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, in these initial studies {sup 67}Ga was used because of its longer half-life. Methods: DOTA-conjugated bisphosphonate (DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP) was synthesized by conjugation of 2-(4-isothiocyanatebenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid to 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (alendronate). {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared by coordination with {sup 67}Ga, and its in vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. Results: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared with a radiochemical purity of over 95% without purification. {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP had great affinity for hydroxyapatite in binding assay. In biodistribution experiments, {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP accumulated in bone rapidly but was hardly observed in tissues other than bone. Pretreatment of an excess amount of alendronate inhibited the bone accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. Conclusions: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP showed ideal biodistribution characteristics as a bone-imaging agent. These findings should provide useful information on the drug design of bone imaging agents for PET with {sup 68}Ga.

  2. AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs composite MQW structures for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiravittaya, S.; Manmontri, U.; Sopitpan, S.; Ratanathammaphan, S.; Antarasen, C.; Sawadsaringkarn, M.; Panyakeow, S. [Semiconductor Device Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 10330 Bangkok (Thailand)

    2001-04-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs composite MQW structures were theoretically studied and simulated. The computer simulation indicated that an appropriate composite MQW, both with symmetrical and non-symmetrical structures, could keep |{psi}|{sup 2} of quantized carriers at proper locations in electric-field-tilted quantum wells, so the efficient transition by photon absorption would be possible and applicable for photovoltaic cells which have the composite MQW as the active region. The AlGaAs/GaAs MQW and GaAs/InGaAs (4x) SQW structures were separately prepared by MBE and were evaluated for their spectral responses. The AlGaAs/GaAs MQW has a high response at a short wavelengths (peak at 685nm) due to the quantized states in GaAs wells, while the GaAs/InGaAs SQW has a broader spectral response covering longer wavelengths (600-850nm) because of the strong absorption in the GaAs barrier and substrate. However, (4x) photoluminescence peaks at 900-1100nm that were found from GaAs/InGaAs strained quantum wells at room temperature are promising evidence for the longer wavelength spectral response. The AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs composite SQW and MQW samples were experimentally prepared by MBE techniques and tested for their optical properties. The broader photoluminescence peak was observed and reflected the nature of the composite structure. The study on the photospectral response of composite MQW structures has been conducted which provides the basic information for high performance solar cell design.

  3. Benefits of Demand Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eTeng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future GB electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from DSR. The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterised by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  4. Inactivation of bacteriophage infecting Bacteroides strain GB124 using UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diston, David; Ebdon, James E; Taylor, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (280-320 nm) has long been associated with the inactivation of microorganisms in the natural environment. Determination of the environmental inactivation kinetics of specific indicator organisms [used as tools in the field of microbial source tracking (MST)] is fundamental to their successful deployment, particularly in geographic regions subject to high levels of solar radiation. Phage infecting Bacteroides fragilis host strain GB124 (B124 phage) have been demonstrated to be highly specific indicators of human fecal contamination, but to date, little is known about their susceptibility to UV-B radiation. Therefore, B124 phage (n = 7) isolated from municipal wastewater effluent, were irradiated in a controlled laboratory environment using UV-B collimated beam experiments. All B124 phage suspensions possessed highly similar first order log-linear inactivation profiles and the mean fluence required to inactivate phage by 4 - log(10) was 320 mJ cm(-2). These findings suggest that phage infecting GB124 are likely to be inactivated when exposed to the levels of UV-B solar radiation experienced in a variety of environmental settings. As such, this may limit the utility of such methods for determining more remote inputs of fecal contamination in areas subject to high levels of solar radiation.

  5. The New Frontier of the DATA Acquisition Using 1 and 10 Gb/s Ethernet links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Filippo; Chapeland, S.; Denes, E.; Soós, C.; Carena, F.; W. Carena; Barroso, V. Chibante; Diviá, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Rabacal, B.; Simonetti, G.; Telesca, A.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Haller, B. Von; (For Alice Collaboration)

    ALICE [1] (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the detector system at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions. Its main aim is to study the behavior of strongly interacting matter and the quark gluon plasma. Currently all the information sent by the 18 sub-detectors composing ALICE are read out by DATE [2] (Data Acquisition and Test Environment), the ALICE data acquisition software, using several optical links called DDL[3] (Detector Data Link), each one with a maximum throughput of 200 MB/s. In the last year a commercial transmission link with a throughput of 10 Gb/s has become a reality, with a low price affordable for everyone. The DATE system has been upgraded to also support this technology in addition to the DDL. This contribution will describe the VHDL firmware of a detector readout board, sending data using the UDP protocol and the changes made to the readout [4] part of DATE software to receive information coming from the 1 or 10 Gb/s Ethernet link. It will also describe the relevant details of the test firmware and software and will conclude with the results of the performance tests done at CERN using the new setup.

  6. A monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Chi; Proesel, Jonathan E; Orcutt, Jason S; Haensch, Wilfried; Green, William M J

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics promises to address the challenges for next-generation short-reach optical interconnects. Growing bandwidth demand in hyper-scale data centers and high-performance computing motivates the development of faster and more-efficient silicon photonics links. While it is challenging to raise the serial line rate, further scaling of the data rate can be realized by, for example, increasing the number of parallel fibers, increasing the number of wavelengths per fiber, and using multi-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). Among these approaches, PAM has a unique advantage because it does not require extra lasers or a costly overhaul of optical fiber cablings within the existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate the first fully monolithically integrated silicon photonic four-level PAM (PAM-4) transmitter operating at 56 Gb/s and demonstrate error-free transmission (bit-error-rate < 10$^{-12}$) up to 50 Gb/s without forward error correction. The superior PAM-4 waveform is enabled by optimizatio...

  7. 45 Gb/s low complexity optical front-end for soft-decision LDPC decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Meer Nazmus; Moayedi, Monireh; Gross, Warren J; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2012-07-30

    In this paper a low complexity and energy efficient 45 Gb/s soft-decision optical front-end to be used with soft-decision low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders is demonstrated. The results show that the optical front-end exhibits a net coding gain of 7.06 and 9.62 dB for post forward error correction bit error rate of 10(-7) and 10(-12) for long block length LDPC(32768,26803) code. The performance over a hard decision front-end is 1.9 dB for this code. It is shown that the soft-decision circuit can also be used as a 2-bit flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), in conjunction with equalization schemes. At bit rate of 15 Gb/s using RS(255,239), LDPC(672,336), (672, 504), (672, 588), and (1440, 1344) used with a 6-tap finite impulse response (FIR) equalizer will result in optical power savings of 3, 5, 7, 9.5 and 10.5 dB, respectively. The 2-bit flash ADC consumes only 2.71 W at 32 GSamples/s. At 45 GSamples/s the power consumption is estimated to be 4.95 W. PMID:23038384

  8. Electronic compensator for 100-Gb//s PDM-CO-OFDM long-haul transmission systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Liu; Yaojun Qiao; Yuefeng Ji

    2011-01-01

    @@ We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation.EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments, respectively.Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD.Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.%We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation. EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments,respectively. Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD. Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.

  9. Dynamic PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangjun Li; Cao Diao; Xiangfeng Gong; Yongjun Fu; Zhongwei Tan; Yan Liu; Muguang Wang; Shuisheng Jian; Caiyun Lou; Li Huo; Hejun Yao; Tigang Ning; Jie Cui; Fangcheng Yang

    2005-01-01

    A 40-Gb/s optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) return-to-zero (RZ) transmission experiments in cluding a dynamic polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation was reported. The dynamic PMD compensator is made up of two-stage four degrees of freedom (DOF). The first stage adopts polarization controller and fixed time-delayed line. The second stage is variable differential group delay (DGD) element. The PMD monitoring technique is based on degree of polarization (DOP) as error signal. A novel practical adaptive optimization algorithm was introduced in dynamic adaptive PMD compensation. The experimental results show that the performance of the PMD compensator is excellent for 40-Gb/s RZ transmission systems with the large DGD. With this compensator, a significant improvement of system performance can be achieved in the eye pattern of a received signal. The first-order compensating ability of the compensator is greater than 30 ps. The second-order compensating ability is greater than 200 ps2.The first-order optimum compensating time is within 10 ms. The second-order optimum compensating time is within 24 ms.

  10. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  11. Numerical simulation of grain boundary effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taretto, K. [Departamento de Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Rau, U. [Institute of Physical Electronics, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe.rau@ipe.uni-stuttgart.de; Werner, J.H. [Institute of Physical Electronics, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells show that grain boundary (GB) recombination can deteriorate the photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of these devices by about 9% absolute with respect to a starting value of 21.7% that would hold for a material without GBs. The achieved record efficiencies of 19% are only possible if the recombination velocity S at GBs is kept below S=10{sup 3} cm s{sup -1}. Comparing devices that have all defects homogeneously distributed in the bulk to devices where the same number of defects is concentrated at GBs only unveils that the latter situation is more favorable because of kinetic restrictions. The efficiency difference between the homogeneous and the concentrated cases is, however, only 1% (absolute). We further model the possible effect of an additional hole barrier at the GB by assuming asymmetric capture cross-sections for electrons and holes. We find that the positive consequence of this feature is rather limited and much dependent on the specific properties of the GB defects. For example, the efficiency improves by 2% when introducing a hole barrier of 120 meV at a GB with midgap defects. The same improvement would result from a reduction of the GB defects by a factor of 2.5.

  12. Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry and Its Deformation Monitoring%GB-InSAR技术及其形变监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙四春; 陈鹏琦; 袁英; 蒋宗立; 伍梦清

    2015-01-01

    地基InSAR( GB-InSAR)是最近10年发展起来的一种相对较新的形变监测技术。本文阐述了GB-InSAR技术的国内外研究现状、基于GB-InSAR技术的IBIS-L系统,以及GB-InSAR的基本原理、数据处理流程和关键技术,提出了GB-InSAR技术存在的主要问题及今后的发展方向。

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Vanarsdall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16-50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB.

  14. (68) Ga-labeled Ciprofloxacin Conjugates as Radiotracers for Targeting Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Drishty; Arjun, Chanda; Krishnamohan, Repaka; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    With an aim of developing a bacteria-specific molecular imaging agent, ciprofloxacin has been modified with a propylamine spacer and linked to two common bifunctional chelators, p-SCN-Bz-DOTA and p-SCN-Bz-NOTA. The two ciprofloxacin conjugates, CP-PA-SCN-Bz-DOTA (1) and CP-PA-SCN-Bz-NOTA (2), were radiolabeled with (68) Ga in >90% radiochemical yield and were moderately stable in vitro for 4 h. The efficacy of (68) Ga-1 and (68) Ga-2 has been investigated in vitro in Staphylococcus aureus cells where bacterial binding of the radiotracers (0.9-1.0% for (68) Ga-1 and 1.6-2.3% for (68) Ga-2) could not be blocked in the presence of excess amount of unlabeled ciprofloxacin. However, uptake of radiotracers in live bacterial cells was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that in non-viable bacterial cells. Bacterial infection targeting efficacy of (68) Ga-1 and (68) Ga-2 was tested in vivo in rats where the infected muscle-to-inflamed muscle ((68) Ga-1: 2 ± 0.2, (68) Ga-2: 3 ± 0.5) and infected muscle-to-normal muscle ratios ((68) Ga-1: 3 ± 0.4, (68) Ga-2: 6.6 ± 0.8) were found to improve at 120 min p.i. Fast blood clearance and renal excretion was observed for both the radiotracers. The two (68) Ga-labeled infection targeting radiotracers could discriminate between bacterial infection and inflammation in vivo and are worthy of further detailed investigation as infection imaging agents at the clinical level. PMID:26647765

  15. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production...

  16. Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane down-converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J M M; Rajbhandari, S; Tsonev, D; Chun, H; Guilhabert, B; Krysa, A B; Kelly, A E; Haas, H; O'Brien, D C; Laurand, N; Dawson, M D

    2016-05-01

    We report free space visible light communication using InGaN sources, namely micro-LEDs and a laser diode, down-converted by a red-emitting AlInGaP multi-quantum-well nanomembrane. In the case of micro-LEDs, the AlInGaP nanomembrane is capillary-bonded between the sapphire window of a micro-LED array and a hemispherical sapphire lens to provide an integrated optical source. The sapphire lens improves the extraction efficiency of the color-converted light. For the case of the down-converted laser diode, one side of the nanomembrane is bonded to a sapphire lens and the other side optionally onto a dielectric mirror; this nanomembrane-lens structure is remotely excited by the laser diode. Data transmission up to 870 Mb/s using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) with fractionally spaced decision feedback equalizer is demonstrated for the micro-LED-integrated nanomembrane. A data rate of 1.2 Gb/s is achieved using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM) with the laser diode pumped sample. PMID:27137612

  17. Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane down-converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J M M; Rajbhandari, S; Tsonev, D; Chun, H; Guilhabert, B; Krysa, A B; Kelly, A E; Haas, H; O'Brien, D C; Laurand, N; Dawson, M D

    2016-05-01

    We report free space visible light communication using InGaN sources, namely micro-LEDs and a laser diode, down-converted by a red-emitting AlInGaP multi-quantum-well nanomembrane. In the case of micro-LEDs, the AlInGaP nanomembrane is capillary-bonded between the sapphire window of a micro-LED array and a hemispherical sapphire lens to provide an integrated optical source. The sapphire lens improves the extraction efficiency of the color-converted light. For the case of the down-converted laser diode, one side of the nanomembrane is bonded to a sapphire lens and the other side optionally onto a dielectric mirror; this nanomembrane-lens structure is remotely excited by the laser diode. Data transmission up to 870 Mb/s using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) with fractionally spaced decision feedback equalizer is demonstrated for the micro-LED-integrated nanomembrane. A data rate of 1.2 Gb/s is achieved using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM) with the laser diode pumped sample.

  18. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  19. GIBS Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TWMS specification is a custom extension to the OGS WMS standard developed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Similar to the OGC WMTS specification, TWMS...

  20. GIBS Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GDAL is an open source translator library for raster geospatial data formats that presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported...

  1. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  2. Manufacturability and reliability on 10-Gb/s transponder for ethernet-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Min-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chiu, Chia-Hung; Cheng, Shou-Chien; Shen, Kun-Yi; Huang, Min-Fa; Shaw, Cheng-Da; Lee, Shin-Ge

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, manufacturing issues include Optical Sub-Assembly (OSA), Electrical Sub-Assembly (ESA) and reliability considerations of 10 Gb/s Ethernet transponder were studied by using experiments and implementation. In the growing optical communication industry, one of the star products is the Z-axis pluggable optical transceiver module. Under the broad usage of Ethernet means high port density, low cost, high utilities, compact size and still require excellent performance. After standardizing of 10 Gb/s ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae), many transceiver companies, silicon vendors and system vendors reached the agreement and signed up diversity of MSA (Multi-Source Agreement). These MSAs still keep modifying with system demands, customer requirements, cost and performance issue. This paper presents how to achieve these functions description in the MSA and own a highly manufacturability and reliability module design. According to composed block of transponder, we split it into OSA, ESA, mechanical design and related reliability experimental result. In the OSA, traditional TO-CAN package and optical components be introduced. Because the mature manufacture experience, vendor can easy to meet low cost and manufacturability requirements and only need to slightly modifications. A simply solution be implemented to solve this problem and discuss the critical point of the design. Thermal issue on OSA will also be mentioned because of the sensitive of light source and how to calculate the effect to find effective solutions. By the way, some manufacturability criteria will be discussed for OSA characteristics in 10 Gb/s applications. In the ESA, PMD (Physical media dependant) driving methods, Multi-Source Agreement related digital optical monitor function implement and performance comparison will be presented. On the other hand, we will examine the crosstalk effect between transmitter and receiver circuit and impact to the module Optical to Electrical convert interface design. We

  3. Enhanced performance of 400 Gb/s DML-based CAP systems using optical filtering technique for short reach communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Wang, Yiguang; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chi, Nan

    2014-12-01

    A parallel transmission approach is more likely to realize 400 Gb/s and above short reach transmission as it helps to reduce the cost of both electrical and optical device largely. Directly modulated lasers (DML) are more attractive in 400 Gb/s approach, because it requires relatively small amount of driving power and has low insertion loss, thus lowering its cost. However, the intrinsic chirp will degrade the transmission performance. In this paper, an optical filtering technique is introduced for 400 Gb/s high-speed DML-based carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation short reach systems for the first time. Owing to the additional optical filter, 1 dB and 3.6 dB sensitivity improvement at BER of 3.8 x 10(-3) is obtained for the back-to-back and 15 km fiber link transmission for single lane at the bitrate of 28 Gb/s. Then a 16-lane CAP16 system with a total bit rate of 413 Gb/s is demonstrated experimentally using low-cost 10 GHz-class DML using optical filtering technique. PMID:25606867

  4. 200Gb/s 10-channel miniature optical interconnect transmitter module for high-performance computing (HPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Edris; Au, Hinmeng

    2010-02-01

    A major breakthrough to alleviating the interconnect bottleneck in intra cabinet system in HPC may happen by bringing optics directly to the processor package. In order to do so efficient and compact optical interconnect subassembly modules that utilize simple optical and electrical interfacing schemes are needed. In our current work the development of a novel 10-channel, miniature 7mm(W)x1.8mm(L)x3mm(H), optical interconnect transmitter subassembly module is described. The module consists of a high precision molded optical alignment unit with integrated microlens arrays, highspeed coplanar waveguide (CPW) electrical interfaces and a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array chip which is flip chip mounted. The module is designed to uniquely interface vertically with high-speed electrical I/O lines on a microprocessor style package or a motherboard to convert electrical signals to optical for transmission to other similar units using a standard (Multi-Terminal) MT style optical connector. We report on optical coupling efficiency, misalignment tolerance and high-speed electrical and optical measurements of the module. We have measured 40Gb/s electrical eye for the CPW interfaces on the module and 20Gb/s clear optical eyes for VCSEL assembled module from all the 10 channels to produce an aggregate transmitter bandwidth of 200Gb/s. We also measured 30Gb/s electrical and 20Gb/s optical eyes for the optical subassembly module that is bonded onto a microprocessor style package substrate.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at acupoint GB34 against CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Kyoung Yim; Hyun Lee; Kwon-Eui Hong; Young-Il Kim; Byung-Ryul Lee; Tae-Han Kim; Ji-Young Yi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB34) on CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats.METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated with manual acupuncture using reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34(Yanglingquan) 3 times a week for 10 wk. A nonacupoint in left gluteal area was selected as a sham point. To estimate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at GB34, measurement of liver index,biochemical assays including serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol, histological analysis and blood cell counts were conducted.RESULTS: Manual acupuncture at GB34 reduced the liver index, serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol levels as compared with the control group and the sham acupuncture group. It also increased and normalized the populations of WBC and lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: Manual acupuncture with reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34 reduces liver toxicity, protects liver function and liver tissue, and normalizes immune activity in CCl4-intoxicated rats.

  6. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up...... to 27 dB and 25 dB power budgets for 10 km and 20 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) upstream links using EDFA preamplifiers are achieved. For downstream links using booster EDFAs and APD receivers, power budgets of 26.5 dB and 24.5 dB are feasible for 10 km and 20 km SMFs, respectively. In...

  7. Some questions about the set pressure and relief area of safety valves in GB 150-1998%GB 150—1998中安全阀开启压力和排放面积疑义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志义; 王淑兰; 丁信伟

    2001-01-01

    The irrationality is analyzed of the design press ure of pressurevessels protected with safety valves, which is regulated in GB 1 50-1998 Steel Pressure Vessels. The error is pointed out relating to the calcul ation of the relief area of safety valves under subcritical flowing in GB 150-19 98. The importance correctly dealing with these two questions is stressed.%分析了GB150—1998《钢制压力容器》对装有安全阀的压力容器设计压力确定方法的不合理性,指出了其附录B中规定的亚临界条件下,安全阀排放面积计算式的错误,强调了正确处理这两个问题的重要性。

  8. Recombination among GB virus C (GBV-C) isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Jason T; Ma, Gang; Polen, Clarissa; DuBois, Juwen C; Gast, Jonathon; Radens, Caleb M; Sterling, Richard K; Sherman, Kenneth E

    2016-07-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a non-pathogenic flavivirus that may play a role in modulating HIV disease. Multiple genotypes of GBV-C that have been identified to date that may differentially regulate HIV; however, the number of complete GBV-C sequences published to date is very limited. We sequenced full-length GBV-C genomes from four individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection in the United States. Intergenotypic recombination was evident in two of these individuals. Evaluation of additional full-length GBV-C genomes would facilitate the creation of full-length, replication-competent molecular clones of GBV-C to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of GBV-C genotypes and provide important molecular data on this understudied virus. PMID:27072634

  9. 25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Zheng, Xuezhe; Yao, Jin; Thacker, Hiren; Shubin, Ivan; Luo, Ying; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2011-10-10

    We report a high-speed ring modulator that fits many of the ideal qualities for optical interconnect in future exascale supercomputers. The device was fabricated in a 130 nm SOI CMOS process, with 7.5 μm ring radius. Its high-speed section, employing PN junction that works at carrier-depletion mode, enables 25 Gb/s modulation and an extinction ratio >5 dB with only 1V peak-to-peak driving. Its thermal tuning section allows the device to work in broad wavelength range, with a tuning efficiency of 0.19 nm/mW. Based on microwave characterization and circuit modeling, the modulation energy is estimated ~7 fJ/bit. The whole device fits in a compact 400 μm2 footprint. PMID:21997052

  10. Dynamic PMD compensator for 40 Gb/s PM-DQPSK system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gai; ZHANG Yang-an; ZHANG Ming-lun; ZHOU Li-ming; ZHANG Jin-nan; YUAN Xue-guang; ZHANG Xiao-guang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The adaptive polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation in high-speed transmission system has become more and more necessary for the link PMD causing strong signal distortions.A dynamic adaptive PMD compensator in 40 Gb/s polar-multiplex differential quadrature phase shift keying (PM-DQPSK) system is reported.Experimental results show that the PMD compensator can track the average polarization state variation at 65 rad/s without any lost of the optimum tracking.The 1st-order PMD compensation is demonstrated experimentally, and the compensator can increase the maximal tolerable PMD value by 26 ps from 17 ps to 43 ps in an optical transmission system.

  11. GB/T 21085-2007 Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Background Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection (hereinafter referred to certificate) is a statutory certificate for automotive vehicle registration in China and also an important content of consistency management of vehicle manufacturers.In order to strengthen the management of automotive vehicle manufacturers and their products,prevent stealing,smuggling and illegal assembling,crack down the illegal acts of forging and reselling and improve the efficiency of automotive vehicle registration,National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and MPS jointly put forward a solution that is to standardize the certificate and its content and build up information management system of certificates.The development of GB/T 21085-2007 Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection was taken by the National Technical Committee of Auto Standardization (SAC/TC 114).

  12. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-12-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers; results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  13. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, Roberto; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers, results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  14. Electron beam welding of thick plates of steel A 533 GB Cl 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of weldability studies of low alloy Mn Mo Ni quenched tempered steel (A 533 GB Cl 1 and A 508 Cl 3) steel are presented. Heavy section material is single pass-welded by EB process in flat or horizontal position for 80mm thickness, in horizontal position for 120 and 150 mm thickness. A good soundness of welds is obtained up to 150mm. Relationship between welding conditions and mechanical properties is presented. After (PWHT) good toughness properties are obtained for 80mm thickness welded with the highest welding speed. A too slow cooling rate obtained for higher thickness: 120mm, is detrimental to notch toughness. The results are compared to the criterions of ASME and RCC-M codes

  15. High Performance Design of 100Gb/s DPSK Optical Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar;

    2016-01-01

    performance output simultaneously by maintaining actual parameters of device. In this work, high performance 100Gb/s optical DPSK transmitter design is realized in Field Programming Gate (FPGA) using time constraint technique. Before applying the proposed technique actual FPGA’s frequency was 0.2 GHz and......High performance communication systems require high performance devices for exchanging information at a faster rate. These devices are experiencing several challenges e.g. bandwidth limitations, power limitations, design limitations and etc. The existing techniques are lacking in providing high...... optical transmitter have taken plenty of time for transmitting signal. When proposed design is operated at 1 GHz, 5 GHz, 10 GHz and 20 GHz using time constraint technique, it is observed that among all these frequencies, at 10 GHz high performance output is achieved for designed optical transmitter. This...

  16. 160-Gb/s polarization-multiplexing optical NRZ-DQPSK transmission using differential detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wen; Jinxin Liao; Xiaoping Zheng; Hanyi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Using differential detection,we perform polarization-multiplexing 160-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over 100-km standard single mode fiber at a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10-9.The enabling technology includes clock recovery,fine dispersion compensation,and polarization tracking for de-multiplexing.Furthermore,a hybrid clock recovery scheme is proposed.The scheme is realized with ordinary devices using an optoelectrical modulator to down-convert the clock frequency and a phase-locked loop for filtering,which can provide an indication signal that simultaneouslv monitors residual disoersion and tracking polarization.Given the ever increasing bandwidth demands (e.g.,for imaging,demand of video,gaming,etc.),the capacity of optical transmission systems is being constantly raised through the application of several approaches that include the use of advanced modulation formats with higher spectral efficiency,increasing the symbol rate of each channel,and orthogonal polarization multiplexing with idcntical wavelengths;these approaches are enabled by coherent detection[1-3].%Using differential detection, we perform polarization-multiplexing 160-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over 100-km standard single mode fiber at a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10~9. The enabling technology includes clock recovery, fine dispersion compensation, and polarization tracking for de-multiplexing. Furthermore, a hybrid clock recovery scheme is proposed. The scheme is realized with ordinary devices using an optoclectrical modulator to down-convert the clock frequency and a phase-locked loop for filtering, which can provide an indication signal that simultaneously monitors residual dispersion and tracking polarization.

  17. Nucleotide sequence specifying the glycoprotein gene, gB, of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzik, D J; Fox, B A; DeLuca, N A; Person, S

    1984-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence thought to specify the glycoprotein gene, gB, of the KOS strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been determined. A 3.1-kilobase (kb), viral-specified RNA was mapped to the left half of the BamHI-G fragment (0.345 to 0.399 map units). TATA, CAT-box, and possible mRNA start sequences characteristic of HSV-1 genes are found near 0.368 map units. The first available ATG codon is at 0.366 and the first in-phase chain terminator at 0.348 map units. A polyA-addition signal (AATAAA) occurs 17 nucleotides past the chain terminator. Translation of these sequences would yield a 100.3-kilodalton (kDa) polypeptide characterized by a 5' signal sequence, nine N-linked saccharide addition sites, a strongly hydrophobic membrane-spanning sequence, and a highly charged 3' cytoplasmic anchor sequence. Two mutants of KOS, tsJ12 and tsJ20, that are temperature-sensitive for viral growth and for the production of gB, have been physically mapped to 0.357 to 0.360 and 0.360 to 0.364 map units, respectively (DeLuca et al., in preparation). The nucleotide sequence of the mutants was determined in these regions. In both cases a single amino acid replacement within the 100.3-kDa polypeptide is predicted from the sequence analysis. PMID:6324454

  18. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  19. A Brief Introduction of GB/T 17452-1998,Technical Drawing:Method for Draft Cut-away View and Sectional View%GB/T 17452-1998介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强毅

    2000-01-01

    介绍了GB/T 17452-1998的主要内容:剖视图和断面图的定义、基本表示法,剖切面的种类;重点说明了应用剖切面、剖视图和断面视图时应注意的问题;指出了GB/T 17452-1998与ISO/DIS 11947-2:1995的主要差异.

  20. 100-Gb/s InP DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Ogiso, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a compact InP-based DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers. The modulator achieves 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK modulation with a driving voltage of 6 Vppd. In addition, it provides 86-Gb/s DP-16 QAM signal generation and 240-km transmission with negligible degradation of BER performance. The halfwavelength voltage of our recent device is 1.9 V, and a high median extinction ratio of over 32 dB was achieved for more than 1,400 child MZ modulators. We have also proposed an athermal InP-based twin IQ modulator that enables us to use a modulator in a TEC-free operation. It contributes to lowering the power consumption of transceivers. Under a constant driving condition, there is little change in 56-Gb/s x 2 QPSK modulation characteristics in the range of 20 to 80°C.

  1. Demonstration of quantum dot SOA-based colorless ONU transmitter for symmetric 40 Gb/s TWDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Chang, Qingjiang; Gao, Zhensen; Ye, Chenhui; Xiao, Simiao; Huang, Xiaoan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Kaibin

    2016-02-01

    Detailed numerical investigation of self-seeded colorless ONU transmitter using quantum dot (QD) SOA as the intensity modulator for symmetric 40 Gb/s TWDM-PON has been developed. It is shown that the QD SOA-based intensity modulator is able to support 10 Gb/s OOK upstream signal transmission with an optical extinction ratio of over 10 dB. Chromatic dispersion compensation free of 20 km passive transmission has been achieved for error free reception. Moreover, the system performance and power budget have been analyzed and discussed for different transmission distance and split ratio.

  2. 41.6 Gb/s RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK Format Conversion in a Microring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Ozolins, Oskars; Ding, Yunhong;

    2012-01-01

    RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme........RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme.....

  3. Wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Pol-MUX signals in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2014-01-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time.......All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time....

  4. All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    This work assesses the prospects for high-speed all-optical wavelength conversion using the simple optical interaction with the gain in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) via the interband carrier recombination. Operation and design guidelines for conversion speeds above 10 Gb/s are described...... and the various tradeoffs are discussed. Experiments at bit rates up to 40 Gb/s are presented for both cross-gain modulation (XGM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) in SOAs demonstrating the high-speed capability of these techniques...

  5. Clock recovery for 320 Gb/s OTDM Data using filtering-assisted XPM in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Zibar, Darko; Galili, Michael;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel technique, which enables clock recovery at 320 Gb/s and relies on a filtering-assisted cross-phase modulation (f-a XPM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This technique is more spectrally efficient than four wave mixing (FWM) and can improve the effic......In this paper, we report on a novel technique, which enables clock recovery at 320 Gb/s and relies on a filtering-assisted cross-phase modulation (f-a XPM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This technique is more spectrally efficient than four wave mixing (FWM) and can improve...

  6. Estimation of a 10 Gb/s 5G Receiver’s Performance and Power Evolution Towards 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 5G vision of 10 Gb/s leads to performance and power consumption challenges in the mobile terminal receiver because 10 Gb/s requires 400 MHz bandwidth, faster baseband processing, and an increased number of component carriers and MIMO streams. The contribution of this paper is to estimate...... the impact from these physical layer requirements to the power consumption of main receiver components, including LNA, ADC and baseband processor with Turbo decoding, in a Direct Conversion Architecture. The estimate of power consumption results from a comprehensive survey of component performance evolution...

  7. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao;

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all......-optical packet switch. Error free performance (BER <1E-9) is achieved for the switched packet. The use of optical burst switching protocols could eliminate the need for optical buffering in silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  8. Enabling technologies and challenges for transmission of 400 Gb/s signals in 50 GHz channel grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the recent progress in transmission of 400Gb/s, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) channels for optical networks based on the standard 50GHz grid. modulation, coding, and line We discussed the enabling system technologies, as well as the existing challenges. It is shown that, 400 Gb/s per channel signal can be transmitted on the standard 50 GHz ITU-T grid at 8.4 b/ds/Hz net spectral efficiency (SE) over meaningful transmission reach for regional and metropolitan applications. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential for meeting the requirements of long-haul transmission applications.

  9. InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs DHBT structural materials grown by GSMBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Likun; XU Anhuai; SUN Hao; ZHU Fuying; QI Ming

    2006-01-01

    Heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is of great interest for the application to microwave power and analog circuits.As known, decreasing bandgap energy of the base layer in HBT can result in a smaller turn-on voltage.Using InGaAs as a base material in GaAs HBT is a possible approach to achieve the aim.In this work, a novel InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) structure with an InGaAs base was designed and grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE).High-quality InGaAs/GaAs hetero epi-layers and a good doping figure were obtained through optimizing the layer structure and the growth condition.The DHBT devices of a 120 μm×120 μm emitter area were fabricated by normal process and the good DC performance was obtained.A breakdown voltage of 10 V and an offset voltage of just 0.4 V were achieved.These results indicate that the InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs DHBT is suitable for low power-dissipation and high power applications.

  10. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: Development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U;

    2006-01-01

    substitutions of the -1 and/or -3 residues of the putative cleavage sites (amino acid 613/614 and 732/733) abolished processing in vitro and rendered an infectious GBV-B clone nonviable in tamarins. Internal cleavage was predicted at two sites (amino acid 669/670 and 681/682), and in vitro analysis indicated...... availability of a recombinant GBV-B virus containing a p7 protein with similarities to the HCV p7 will enhance the relevance of this model and will be of importance for identifying compounds that inhibit p7 function as additional therapeutic agents....

  11. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U;

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia andacute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity. The...... availability of a recombinant GBV-B virus containing a p7 protein with similarities to the HCV p7 will enhance the relevance of this model and will be of importance for identifying compounds that inhibit p7 function as additional therapeutic agents....

  12. Electrochemical preparation and structural characterization of CuGaSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredy, L.; Marquez, O. P.; Lopez-Rivera, S. A.; Marquez, J.; Martínez, Y.; Miranda, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    CuGaSe2 thin films have been synthesized by one-step electrodeposition on titanium and SnO2/glass substrates from aqueous solutions that contain thiocyanate ion as a complexing agent. According to composition, and morphology analysis at deposition potential of -0.55V vs SCE (Standard Calomel Electrode) for 20 minutes from aqueous solutions of 4.6mM CuCl, 25.0mM GaCl3 y 9.2mM SeO2 in 2.0M de KSCN at pH 2.5 was found the optimum condition for obtain the CuGaSe2 thin films with good morphology and good stoichiometric. The samples were annealed at temperature of 520°C in inert atmosphere for 30 minutes to improve their crystallinity. The obtained CuGaSe2 thin film has a direct band gap (Eg) of 1.65eV. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed in order to elucidate the electrodic processes that occur for the formation of semiconductor CuGaSe2. Therefore, the electrochemical behaviour for each ion (Cu+, Ga3+ and Se4+), for binary (Cu-Se, Ga-Se, and Cu- Ga) and for ternary (Cu-Ga-Se) systems are described. This material has potential application in solar cells.

  13. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Aghanejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (68Ga citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC, chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS, radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe, and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC, specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM, chemical purity (Sn, FeConclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country.

  14. Visible light communication using a blue GaN mu LED and fluorescent polymer color converter

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Hyunchae; Manousiadis, Pavlos; Rajbhandari, Sujan; Vithanage, D.A.; Faulkner, G.; Tsonev, Dobroslav; Mckendry, Jonathan J.D.; Videv, Stefan; Xie, Enyuan; Gu, Erdan; Martin D. Dawson; Haas, Harald; Turnbull, Graham; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; O'Brien, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a novel technique to achieve high-speed visible light communication (VLC) using white light generated by a blue GaN mu LED and a yellow fluorescent copolymer. We generated white light suitable for room illumination by optimizing the ratio between the blue electroluminescence of the mu LED and yellow photoluminescence of the copolymer color converter. Taking advantage of the components' high bandwidth, we demonstrated 1.68 Gb/s at a distance of 3 cm (at 240 lx illumination...

  15. Effect of Low Temperature Duration on Fertility Alteration of Japonica PTGMS GB028S%低温时长对粳型光温敏核不育系GB028S育性转换的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于亚辉; 唐亮; 刘郁; 阙补超; 夏明; 王莹; 郑英杰; 李振宇; 陈广红

    2012-01-01

    The fertility alteration of GB028S, a japonica photo-thermo-sensitive genie male sterile (PTGMS) line was studied at 20℃ low temperature for Id, 3d, 5d and 7d. Low temperature caused heading stage lag for 2-8d. Pollen sterility of 1d and 3d was more than 99.5%, so low temperature of 1d and 3d had no effect on fertility of GB028S. Pollen sterility of 5d and 7d was 98.33% and 94.33%, bagged seed set of them was 2.64% and 5.04%. The low temperature of 5d and 7d not only decreased remarkably pollen sterility but also induced some extent of self fertility. The critical temperature was nearly 20°C for GB028S. The most sensitive stage of temperature on fertility alteration was that rice was that rice was at -3-lcm of UPI(upmost pulvinus interval, i.e., the length from the pulvinus of the 2nd leaf from the top to that of flag leaf).%用20℃的低温对GB028S分别处理1,3,5,7d,研究不同低温时长对粳型光温敏核不育系育性转换的影响.结果表明:低温使各处理抽穗期滞后2~8d.1d和3d的低温处理下,GB028S花粉不育度大于99.5%,育性没有转换;5d和7d的低温处理下,GB028S的花粉不育度为98.33%和94.33%,自交结实率为2.64%和5.04%,育性恢复.GB028S的临界温度接近20℃,其低温敏感时期的辨别标准为剑叶叶枕距-3~1cm.

  16. GaN High Power Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHI,G.C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-07-17

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers, GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors, GaN heterostructure and metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  17. GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors detail the fabrication process of GaAs/GaAlAs ridge waveguide lasers and present their performance characteristics. Threshold currents as low as 8 mA and differential quantum efficiencies as high as 90 percent have been obtained for 250 μm long GRIN-SCH SQW lasers. High-speed short-cavity ridge waveguide lasers for which both the ridge stripe and one mirror facet were formed by Ar-ion beam etching have been achieved. The dependance of threshold current and lasing spectra on the cavity length have been theoretically and experimentally investigated. This process has been successfully used to monolithically integrate a laser diode (LD) with a photodiode (PD) or a field-effect transistor (FET)

  18. Overview and perspectives on automation strategies in (68)Ga radiopharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Stefano; Malizia, Claudio; Lodi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The renaissance of (68)Ga radiopharmacy has led to great advances in automation technology. The availability of a highly efficient, reliable, long-lived (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator system along with a well-established coordination chemistry based on bifunctional chelating agents have been the bases of this development in (68)Ga radiopharmacy. Syntheses of (68)Ga peptides were originally performed by manual or semiautomated systems, but increasing clinical demand, radioprotection, and regulatory issues have driven extensive automation of their production process. Several automated systems, based on different post-processing of the (68)Ga generator eluate, on different engineering, and on fixed tubing or disposable cassette approaches, have been developed and are discussed in this chapter. Since automatic systems for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals should comply with qualification and validation protocols established by regulations such as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and local regulations, some regulatory issues and the more relevant qualification protocols are also discussed.

  19. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time......-division multiplexed with four 10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) channels, thus constituting a 50-Gb/s OTDM serial signal. Error-free performances of the synchronized RZ packet and demultiplexed packet from the aggregated 50-Gb/s OTDM signal are achieved....

  20. InGaAlAs RW-based electro-absorption-modulated DFB-lasers for high-speed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Martin; Klein, Holger; Bornholdt, Carsten; Przyrembel, Georges; Sigmund, Ariane; Molzow, Wolf-Dietrich; Troppenz, Ute; Bach, Heinz-Gunter

    2014-05-01

    Electro-absorption modulated 10G and 25G DFB lasers (EML) are key components in transmission systems for long reach (up to 10 km) and extended reach (up to 80 km) applications. The next generation Ethernet will most likely be 400 Gb/s which will require components with even higher bandwidth. Commercially available EMLs are regarded as high-cost components due to their separate epitaxial butt-coupling growth process to separately optimize the DFB laser and the electro-absorption modulator (EAM). Alternatively the selective area growth (SAG) technique is used to achieve different MQW bandgaps in the DFB and EAM section of an EML. However for a lot of applications an emission wavelength within a narrow wavelength window is required enforcing a temperature controlled operation. All these applications can be covered with the developed EML devices that use a single InGaAlAs MQW waveguide for both the DFB and the EAM enabling a low-cost fabrication process similar to a conventional DFB laser diode. It will be shown that such devices can be used for 25Gb/s and 40Gb/s applications with excellent performance. By an additional monolithic integration of an impedance matching circuit the module fabrication costs can be reduced but also the modulation bandwidth of the devices can be further enhanced. Up to 70Gb/s modulation with excellent eye openings can be achieved. This novel approach opens the possibility for 100Gb/s NRZ EMLs and thus 4x100Gb/s NRZ EML-based transmitters in future. Also even higher bitrates seem feasible using more complex modulation formats such as e.g. DMT and PAM.

  1. Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 bacteriophages as novel human-associated faecal indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phages infecting human-associated Bacteroides fragilis (GB-124 phages) have been employed in the European Union (EU) to identify human fecal pollution, but their utility for U.S. was unclear. Primary sewage effluent samples were collected seasonally from seven wastewater treatme...

  2. High Spectrum Narrowing Tolerant 112 Gb/s Dual Polarization QPSK Optical Communication Systems Using Digital Adaptive Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich;

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate high spectrum narrowing tolerant 112-Gb/s QPSK polarization multiplex system based on digital adaptive channel estimation method. The proposed algorithm is able to detect severe spectrum-narrowed signal even with 20GHz 3dB bandwidth....

  3. Comparison of glycoprotein B (gB) variants of the elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) isolated from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickel, J; Lieckfeldt, D; Richman, L K; Streich, W J; Hildebrandt, T B; Pitra, C

    2003-01-01

    The recently described elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) have been associated with the deaths of numerous captive elephants. A proposed tool for the detection of EEHV infection in elephants is the PCR-based screening for EEHV-DNA in whole blood samples. Unfortunately, this detection method has only been successful in post-mortem analyses or in animals already displaying clinical signs of EEHV disease, thus rendering this method unsuitable for identification of carrier elephants. Here, we focus on glycoprotein B (gB) for serologic assay development, since gB is an envelope protein known to induce a neutralising antibody response in other herpesvirus infections. We sequenced the entire gB gene from five Asian elephants with EEHV, representing four different gB variants. Computer-aided methods were used to predict functionally important regions within EEHVgB. An extra-cytoplasmic region of 153 amino acids was predicted to be under positive selection and may potentially contain antigenic determinants that will be useful for future serologic assay development. PMID:12441228

  4. Modeling the green building (GB) investment decisions of developers and end-users with transaction costs (TCs) considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Q.K.; Chan, E.H.W.; Visscher , H.J.; Lehmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper, through a “regenerative” lens, has focused upon a new conceptual game system involving transaction costs (TCs) for creating a more accessible green buildings (GB) market. Individual stakeholders steadfastly guard their own interests in any investment decision, which seldom considers any p

  5. Optical wavelength conversion over 18 nm at 2.5 Gb/s by DBR-laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, T.; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Mikkelsen, B.;

    1993-01-01

    Wavelength conversion over 18 nm is demonstrated at 2.5 Gb/s without change in BER performance. The converting element is a three-section distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser operating by gain saturation. Both IM-to-IM and IM-to-FM conversion schemes are investigated. For the latter scheme...

  6. Detection of 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist;

    2013-01-01

    320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM is generated by rectangular filtering with a bandwidth of 320 GHz and received by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM is converted...

  7. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Rosa; Katzenstein, Terese L; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    Presumed apathogenic viruses have been suggested to play a role in HIV infection. In some cohorts of HIVpositive patients, GB virus C (GBVC) has been associated with prolonged survival and time to AIDS. We set out to address whether GBVC infection had any influence on survival in a cohort of 112 ...

  8. Effect of temperature on the mutual diffusion of Ge/GaAs and GaAs/Ge

    OpenAIRE

    Bosi, Matteo; Attolini, Giovanni; Ferrari, Claudio; Frigeri, Cesare; Calicchio, Marco; Rossi, Francesca; Vad, K.; Csik, Attila; Zolnai, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    GaAs/Ge heterostructures are commonly used in high efficiency solar cell: structures such as InGaP/GaAs/GaAs or GaAs/Ge and triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge, are continuously improving their efficiency. Sharp heterointerfaces and abrupt dopant profiles are essential in order to obtain a good control of the heteroepitaxy. One common problem in the Ge/GaAs, GaAs/Ge, Ge/GaAs/Ge, Ge/GaAs/GaAs, GaAs/Ge/GaAs and GaAs/Ge/Ge heterostructures is the interdiffusion of the elements in the different layers,...

  9. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  10. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Kong, D; Palushani, E; Galili, M; Mulvad, H C H; Oxenløwe, L K

    2014-01-13

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM signal with its characteristic sinc-shaped time-domain trace is converted into an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal with sinc-shaped spectra for each subcarrier. The subcarrier frequency spacing of the converted OFDM signal is designed to be larger than the transform-limited case, here 10 times greater than the symbol rate of each subcarrier. Therefore, only passive filtering is needed to extract the subcarriers of the converted OFDM signal. In addition, a polarization diversity scheme is used in the four-wave mixing (FWM) based TD-OFT, and less than 0.5 dB polarization sensitivity is demonstrated in the OTDM receiver.

  11. Discussion on National Standard GB 6167 "Methods for Testing the Performance of Airborne Particle Counter"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊杰; 朱能; 王君山

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particle counters are used widely to test the air cleanliness of cleanrooms. The current Chinese national standard of airborne particle counter calibration, GB6167-85, Methods for Testing the Performance of Dust Particle Counter, has kept the same for more than 10 years. It is necessary to be amended in time.This paper discusses the differences between Chinese airborne particle counter calibration procedure and other new calibration procedures in other countries, and points out the defects of current Chinese national standard.The draft of revised Chinese National Standard is also introduced. The new revised standard, Methods for Testing the Performance of Airborne Particle Counter, covers two level calibrations:primary and secondary. Primary calibration procedure includes testing 6 kinds of performances: sample airflow rate, false counting, particle size accuracy and resolution, particle counting stability, counting efficiency and particle concentration limit. Secondary calibration is a relative comparing test method to verify the counting accuracy of calibrated airborne particle counters. Finally, how to keep the calibration traceability is suggested.

  12. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  13. Association between active GB virus-C (hepatitis G) infection and HIV-1 disease in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirrell, D L; Wright, E; Shafer, L A; Campbell, E; Van der Paal, L; Kaleebu, P; Grosskurth, H; Whitworth, J A

    2007-04-01

    Although not linked to a disease, GB virus-C viraemia has been associated with an improved prognosis in HIV-1-co-infected individuals. Most studies have been conducted on men (men who have sex with men or injection drug users) infected with HIV-1 subtype B, whereas here we report on both male and female subjects from rural Uganda, predominantly infected via the heterosexual route with HIV-1 subtypes A and D. In a longitudinal study of 272 participants, 47 were GBV-C positive and 181 negative, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in both of two plasma samples taken a median of 5.0 years apart. The remainder either acquired (25) or cleared (19) infection. Multilevel regression analyses and Cox survival analyses revealed that participants chronically infected with GBV-C had a slower decline in CD4(+) T cells (P<0.001) and increased survival time (P=0.041) compared with GBV-C RNA-negative, HIV-positive adults. We show that the association between active GBV-C co-infection and improved survival of HIV-1-infected adults is not restricted to HIV subtype B, but is also observed in both males and females infected with HIV subtypes A and D. PMID:17509174

  14. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light. PMID:19550988

  15. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light.

  16. High breakdown voltage in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN quantum-well electron-blocking layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yao, Yung-Chi; Huang, Chun-Ying; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Lien; Liu, Ching-Yun; Wang, Mei-Tan; Hwang, Jung-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically study an enhancement of breakdown voltage in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) by using the AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN quantum-well (QW) electron-blocking layer (EBL) structure. This concept is based on the superior confinement of two-dimensional electron gases (2-DEGs) provided by the QW EBL, resulting in a significant improvement of breakdown voltage and a remarkable suppression of spilling electrons. The electron mobility of 2-DEG is hence enhanced as well. The dependence of thickness and composition of QW EBL on the device breakdown is also evaluated and discussed.

  17. t198gb.m77t and t198gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity T-1-98-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 08/21/1998 to 09/01/1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise T-1-98-GB. The cruise was conducted in...

  18. k190gb.m77t and k190gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-90-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 06/14/1990 to 06/24/1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with SINS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise K-1-90-GB. The cruise was conducted in...

  19. a194gb.m77t and a194gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity A-1-94-GB in Prince William Sound, Yakutat Bay, Glacier Bay and Icy Strait, Alaska from 08/08/1994 to 08/17/1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise A-1-94-GB. The cruise was conducted in Prince...

  20. In Vitro Susceptibility of Equine-Obtained Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to Gallium Maltolate and 20 Other Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, M.; Lawhon, S. D.; Zhang, S.; Kuskie, K. R.; Swinford, A. K.; Bernstein, L. R.; Cohen, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gallium maltolate (GaM) and 20 other antimicrobial agents against clinical equine isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The growth of cultured isolates was not inhibited by any concentration of GaM. MIC data revealed susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. PMID:24829243

  1. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  2. Antisites and anisotropic diffusion in GaAs and GaSb

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-10-02

    The significant diffusion of Ga under Ga-rich conditions in GaAs and GaSb is counter intuitive as the concentration of Ga vacancies should be depressed although Ga vacancies are necessary to interpret the experimental evidence for Ga transport. To reconcile the existence of Ga vacancies under Ga-rich conditions, transformation reactions have been proposed. Here, density functional theory is employed to calculate the formation energies of vacancies on both sublattices and the migration energy barriers to overcome the formation of the vacancy-antisite defect. Transformation reactions enhance the vacancy concentration in both materials and migration energy barriers indicate that Ga vacancies will dominate.

  3. Robust AlGaN/GaN MMIC Receiver Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Janssen, J.P.B.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Apart from delivering very high output powers, GaN can also be used to realize robust receiver components, such as Low Noise Amplifiersand Switches. This paper presents the designand measurement results of two GaN X-band switch and LNA MMICs, designed for integration in a radar front end. The switch

  4. Pre-clinical evaluation of [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 for imaging of insulinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Insulinoma is the most common form of pancreatic endocrine tumors responsible for hyperinsulinism in adults. These tumors overexpress glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, and biologically stable GLP-1 analogs have therefore been proposed as potential imaging agents. Here, we evaluate the potential of a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4, for imaging and quantification of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in insulinoma. Methods: [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 was evaluated for binding to GLP-1R by in vitro autoradiography binding studies in INS-1 tumor from xenografts. In vivo biodistribution was investigated in healthy control mice, INS-1 xenografted and PANC1 xenografted immunodeficient mice at two different doses of peptide: 2.5 μg/kg (baseline) and 100 μg/kg (block). In vivo imaging of [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 in xenografted mice was evaluated by small animal PET/CT using a direct comparison with the clinically established insulinoma marker [11C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([11C]5-HTP). Results: GLP-1 receptor density could be quantified in INS-1 tumor biopsies. [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 showed significant uptake (p ≤ 0.05) in GLP1-R positive tissues such as INS-1 tumor, lungs and pancreas upon comparison between baseline and blocking studies. In vivo imaging showed concordant results with higher tumor-to-muscle ratio in INS-1 xenografted mice compared with [11C]5-HTP. Conclusion: [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 has high affinity and specificity for GLP-1R expressed on insulinoma in vitro and in vivo

  5. Ga and Pt NMR Study of UPtGa5 and UNiGa5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Harukazu; Sakai, Hironori; Tokunaga, Yo; Tokiwa, Yoshihumi; Ikeda, Shugo; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Kambe, Shinsaku; Walstedt, Russell E.

    2003-09-01

    Ga and Pt NMR measurements have been carried out for two isomorphs compounds, UPtGa5 and UNiGa5, which exhibit different magnetic structures below TN. Knight shift K measurements in the paramagnetic region are reported here. The transferred hyperfine coupling constants at Ga and Pt sites are determined. The temperature independent part K0 of K, which probes the conduction electron polarization at the ligand site, has been successfully evaluated. A nearly identical conduction electron structure in the paramagnetic region is suggested for these two compounds. The origin of the different magnetic structures is discussed.

  6. Measurement of intraexcitonic transition signatures via THz time-domain spectroscopy: A GaAs/(AlGa)As-(GaIn)As/GaAs comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.; Koehler, D.; Koch, S.W.; Chatterjee, S. [Faculty of Physics, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg (Germany); Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H.M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Hey, R. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany); Grunwald, T.

    2009-02-15

    In this article we present our results on Thz-spectroscopy of intra-excitonic transitions. Especially, properties of different III-V multi quantum well systems are investigated. After an introduction to the methodology of THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy, results for both a GaAs/(AlGa)As and a (GaIn)As/GaAs multi quantum well structure are presented. We find good agreement with previous experiments for the GaAs/(AlGa)As structure, while the (GaIn)As/GaAs structure behaves significantly different. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. GaN Low-dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.F. Dyadenchuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The GaN low-dimensional structures obtained by nitridation of GaAs porous layers were investigated for the first time. The process of GaN quantum dots formation on the GaAs surface was considered. This process was a result of electrochemical etching of GaAs followed by treatment in atomic nitrogen environment. Nitrogen atoms, which were deposited on the GaAs surface, replace arsenic ones that lead to the formation of a thin GaN layer on the GaAs surface. The photoluminescence and surface morphology of the structures obtained were studied by scanning electron spectroscopy.

  8. Preclinical Comparative Study of (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA, NOTA, and HBED-CC Chelated Radiotracers for Targeting PSMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray Banerjee, Sangeeta; Chen, Zhengping; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala; Chen, Jian; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2016-06-15

    (68)Ga-labeled, low-molecular-weight imaging agents that target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are increasingly used clinically to detect prostate and other cancers with positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of three PSMA-targeted radiotracers: (68)Ga-1, using DOTA-monoamide as the chelating agent; (68)Ga-2, containing the macrocyclic chelating agent p-SCN-Bn-NOTA; and (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11, currently in clinical trials, which uses the acyclic chelating agent, HBED-CC. The PSMA-targeting scaffold for all three agents utilized a similar Glu-urea-Lys-linker construct. Each radiotracer enabled visualization of PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor, kidney, and urinary bladder as early as 15 min post-injection using small animal PET/computed tomography (PET/CT). (68)Ga-2 demonstrated the fastest rate of clearance from all tissues in this series and displayed higher uptake in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor compared to (68)Ga-1 at 1 h post-injection. There was no significant difference in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor uptake for the three agents at 2 and 3 h post-injection. (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 demonstrated the highest uptake and retention in normal tissues, including kidney, blood, spleen, and salivary glands and PSMA-negative PC3 flu tumors up to 3 h post-injection. In this preclinical evaluation (68)Ga-2 had the most advantageous characteristics for PSMA-targeted PET imaging. PMID:27076393

  9. Nucleoside triphosphatase and RNA helicase activities associated with GB virus B nonstructural protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, W; Ingravallo, P; Wright-Minogue, J; Skelton, A; Uss, A S; Chase, R; Yao, N; Lau, J Y; Hong, Z

    1999-09-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. This virus is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and causes acute hepatitis in tamarins (Saguinus species). Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of GBV-B contains sequence motifs predictive of three enzymatic activities: serine protease, nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase), and RNA helicase. The N-terminal serine protease has been characterized and shown to share similar substrate specificity with the HCV NS3 protease. In this report, a full-length GBV-B NS3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. This recombinant protein was shown to possess polynucleotide-stimulated NTPase and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) unwinding activities. Both activities were abolished by a single amino acid substitution, from the Lys (K) residue in the conserved walker motif A (or Ia) "AXXXXGK(210)S" to an Ala (A), confirming that they are intrinsic to GBV-B NS3. Kinetic parameters (K(m) and k(cat)) for hydrolysis of various NTPs or dNTPs were obtained. The dsRNA unwinding activity depends on the presence of divalent metal ions and ATP and requires an RNA duplex substrate with 3' unpaired regions (RNAs with 5' unpaired regions only or with blunt ends are not suitable substrates for this enzyme). This indicates that GBV-B NS3 RNA helicase unwinds dsRNA in the 3' to 5' direction. Direct interaction of the GBV-B NS3 protein with a single-stranded RNA was established using a gel-based RNA bandshift assay. Finally, a homology model of GBV-B NS3 RNA helicase domain based on the 3-dimensional structure of the HCV NS3 helicase that shows a great similarity in overall structure and surface charge distribution between the two proteins was proposed. PMID:10497107

  10. Integrated MEMS-based variable optical attenuator and 10Gb/s receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, James; Cusin, Pierre; Fettig, H.; Hickey, Ryan; Wylde, James

    2005-03-01

    MEMS devices can be successfully commercialized in favour of competing technologies only if they offer an advantage to the customer in terms of lower cost or increased functionality. There are limited markets where MEMS can be manufactured cheaper than similar technologies due to large volumes: automotive, printing technology, wireless communications, etc. However, success in the marketplace can also be realized by adding significant value to a system at minimal cost or leverging MEMS technology when other solutions simply will not work. This paper describes a thermally actuated, MEMS based, variable optical attenuator that is co-packaged with existing opto-electronic devices to develop an integrated 10Gb/s SONET/SDH receiver. The configuration of the receiver opto-electronics and relatively low voltage availability (12V max) in optical systems bar the use of LCD, EO, and electro-chromic style attenuators. The device was designed and fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting material. The design and performance of the device (displacement, power consumption, reliability, physical geometry) was defined by the receiver parameters geometry. This paper will describe how these design parameters (hence final device geometry) were determined in light of both the MEMS device fabrication process and the receiver performance. Reference will be made to the design tools used and the design flow which was a joint effort between the MEMS vendor and the end customer. The SOI technology offered a robust, manufacturable solution that gave the required performance in a cost-effective process. However, the singulation of the devices required the development of a new singulation technique that allowed large volumes of silicon to be removed during fabrication yet still offer high singulation yields.

  11. 42.8 Gb/s ASK homodyne receiver using standard DFB lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.; Mohr, D.; Datta, S.; Wree, C.; Bhandare, S.; Joshi, A.

    2009-05-01

    Optical synchronous coherent detection is attracting greater attention within the defense and security community because it allows linear recovery both of the amplitude and phase of optical signals. Fiber-based transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion can be compensated in the electrical domain. Additionally, synchronous detection offers the potential of improved receiver sensitivity and extended reach versus direct or interferometric detection schemes. 28 Gbaud/112 Gb/s and 42.8 Gbaud transmissions are now being considered in fiber networks worldwide. Due to the lack of broadband high frequency components centered at IF values of 56 GHz and 86 GHz, respectively, the coherent heterodyne approach is not viable for these baud rates. The homodyne approach remains one of the choices available to fully exploit the advantages of synchronous coherent detection at these transmission data rates. In order to implement the homodyne receiver, optical phase locking between the signal and local oscillator laser (LO) is required. Digital approaches for this task rely upon very complex, fast, and high power-consumption chips. A homodyne receiver using an analog approach for phase locking would allow for increased system simplicity at a lower cost. Use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) DFB lasers embedded within the receiver would also increase system feasibility for defense applications. We demonstrate synchronous demodulation of a 42.8 Gbaud signal using an analog optical phase-locked loop. The homodyne system was optimized to use COTS DFB lasers having an aggregate linewidth of ~2 MHz. We also analyze the impact of uncompensated phase noise on receiver performance.

  12. SOA-based clock recovery and demultiplexing in a lab trial of 640-Gb/s OTDM transmission over 50-km fibre link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangdiongga, E.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Waardt, H. de;

    2007-01-01

    We report for the first time SOA-based clock recovery and demultiplexing of 40-Gb/s channels from 640 Gb/s OTDM signals over 50-km link. The system operates at low power and has the potential to be integrated....

  13. Wavelength Conversion of a 9.35-Gb/s RZ OOK Signal in an InP Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel;

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s (9.35 Gb/s net rate) return-to-zero ON-OFF keying signal is demonstrated using a simple InP photonic crystal H0 nanocavity with Lorentzian line shape. The shifting of the resonance induced by the generation of free-carriers enables the pump intensity modulation...

  14. Experimental 2.5-Gb/s QPSK WDM phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;

    2010-01-01

    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) link, employing digital coherent detection, is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3$,times,$ 2.5 Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying modulated wavelength-division-multiplexed RoF channels is achieved after 79 km ...

  15. 16×10 Gb/s WDM bidirectional gating in a semiconductor optical amplifier for optical cross connects exploiting network connection symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Clausen, Anders;

    2000-01-01

    In order to further reduce the number of gating elements in space switches, the performance of 10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) bidirectional semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gating is investigated, We demonstrate for the first time that a conventional SOA can be used for bidir...... for bidirectional WDM gating operation at 10 Gb/s by the use of holding light injection...

  16. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  17. Discussion about the Issues of Standard GB/T21417.1-2008 for Infra-Red Ear Thermometers%红外耳温计标准GB/T21417.1-2008问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩溟; 唐振宏; 窦维波; 王亚棋

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了现行红外耳温计国家推荐标准GB/T21417.1-2008与欧标BS EN 12470-5:2003的主要区别,介绍了在执行标准时对部分条款的理解,为红外耳温计的生产制造、日常检测和标准修订提供参考。%The main distinctions between the National Standard GB/T21417.1-2008 for infra-red ear thermometers and the European Standard BS EN 12470-5:2003 were analyzed in this paper. The comprehension of some terms in the standard was given, which offered references for manufacturing and daily detection of the infra-red ear thermometers as well the revision of related standards.

  18. RTTOV-gb - adapting the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV for the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Hocking, James; Martinet, Pauline; Kneifel, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs) offer a new capability to provide continuous observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer. Thus, they are potential candidates to supplement radiosonde network and satellite data to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through a variational assimilation of their data. However in order to assimilate MWR observations, a fast radiative transfer model is required and such a model is not currently available. This is necessary for going from the model state vector space to the observation space at every observation point. The fast radiative transfer model RTTOV is well accepted in the NWP community, though it was developed to simulate satellite observations only. In this work, the RTTOV code has been modified to allow for simulations of ground-based upward-looking microwave sensors. In addition, the tangent linear, adjoint, and K-modules of RTTOV have been adapted to provide Jacobians (i.e., the sensitivity of observations to the atmospheric thermodynamical state) for ground-based geometry. These modules are necessary for the fast minimization of the cost function in a variational assimilation scheme. The proposed ground-based version of RTTOV, called RTTOV-gb, has been validated against accurate and less time-efficient line-by-line radiative transfer models. In the frequency range commonly used for temperature and humidity profiling (22-60 GHz), root-mean-square brightness temperature differences are smaller than typical MWR uncertainties (˜ 0.5 K) at all channels used in this analysis. Brightness temperatures (TBs) computed with RTTOV-gb from radiosonde profiles have been compared with nearly simultaneous and co-located ground-based MWR observations. Differences between simulated and measured TBs are below 0.5 K for all channels except for the water vapor band, where most of the uncertainty comes from instrumental errors. The Jacobians calculated with the K-module of RTTOV-gb

  19. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  20. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tyler@medbio.umu.se [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Johansson, Anders [Department of Odontology, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Karlsson, Terese [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  1. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapleton, Jack T; Foung, Steven; Muerhoff, A Scott;

    2011-01-01

    -D) was discovered in bats. Only GBV-B, a second species within the genus Hepacivirus (type species hepatitis C virus), has been shown to cause hepatitis; it causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. The other GB viruses have however not been assigned to a genus within the family Flaviviridae....... Based on phylogenetic relationships, genome organization and pathogenic features of the GB viruses, we propose to classify GBV-A-like viruses, GBV-C and GBV-D as members of a fourth genus in the family Flaviviridae, named Pegivirus (pe, persistent; g, GB or G). We also propose renaming 'GB' viruses......In 1967, it was reported that experimental inoculation of serum from a surgeon (G.B.) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis. In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae, named GBV-A and GBV-B, were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation...

  2. 棉花不同GbU6启动子截短克隆及功能鉴定%Cloning and Functional Analysis of Different Truncated GbU6 Promoters in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷建峰; 李月; 徐新霞; 阿尔祖古丽·塔什; 蒲艳; 张巨松; 刘晓东

    2016-01-01

    U6启动子是CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体系统中驱动sgRNA转录的重要元件,而使用较短序列的启动子也是构建CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体的基本要求之一.将已经克隆的海岛棉GbU6-5P启动子(长度为1166 bp),采用Transfer PCR方法成功地截出6个长度不同的U6启动子,其长度分别为672、468、358、280、202和105 bp,并分别构建了6个启动子驱动的GUS融合植物表达载体.将构建好的6个GbU6-5Ps::GUS-pCAMBIA1300与初始克隆的GbU6-5P::GUS-pCAMBIA1300植物表达载体一起利用农杆菌真空渗透转化法分别转染棉花花粉.GUS组织化学染色显示,克隆到的7个不同截短大小的GbU6-5P启动子均能驱动GUS基因在棉花花粉中转录,棉花花粉被染成蓝色但颜色深浅存在显著差异.结果显示启动子长度越短,其转录活性越高.而且另外两种棉花U6启动子GbU6-1P和GbU6-7P也表现出类似的结果.本研究克隆了3个短小的、在棉花花粉细胞中具有转录功能的GbU6启动子.结果显示更短的U6启动子具有更高的转录活性,而且这一特点在不同U6启动子上具有共性.这预示着使用更短U6启动子不仅符合构建CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体的要求,而且会提高sgRNA的转录水平,进而可能提高基因组编辑效率.%U6 promoter is an important element for the transcription of sgRNA in the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Using a short promoter is also one of the basic requirements for the construction of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing vector. According to the sequence of GbU6-5P promoter cloned, six different truncated U6 promoters were successfully cloned using Transfer PCR method and their length were 672, 468, 358, 280, 202, and 105 bp, respectively. Together with GbU6-5P::GUS-pCAMBIA1300, GUS fusion expression vectors driven by corresponding truncated promoter were constructed and transformed into cotton pollen by the vacuum in filtration transformation method. Results of GUS

  3. 关于GB4793.1-2007中可触及零部件的接触电流的探讨%Discussion on the Touch Current of the Accessible Parts in GB4793.1-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪

    2015-01-01

    在医疗器械产品检验领域,目前主要有两种电气安全通用标准,G B9706.1和G B4793.1, G B4793.1适用于测量、控制和实验室用电气设备,此标准中没有关于漏电流的要求,但相应的规定了接触电流的测试,本文旨在研究接触电流的测量方法。%In the ifeld of medical apparatus and instruments product inspection, at present there are mainly two kinds of electrical safety standard, GB9706.1 and GB4793.1, GB4793.1 for measurement, control and laboratory electrical equipment, no leakage current requirements in this standard, but the corresponding provisions of the contact current test,the purpose of this paper is to study contact current measurement method.

  4. Ultrafast optical studies on GaAs/AlGaAs/GaMnAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Korn, T.; Wurstbauer, U.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.

    2010-01-01

    GaMnAs is a highly interesting material system for future spintronic devices. We present a study of nonmagnetic GaAs quantum wells (QW) embedded in AlGaAs barriers, close to a ferromagnetic GaMnAs layer. The samples were grown on semi-insulating GaAs(001) and contain two QWs, where one QW is close to the GaMnAs layer and the other one is farther away (120 nm), and serves as a reference. We studied the influence of the barrier material, e.g. a short-period AlAs/GaAs superlattice. The photoluminescence (PL) of the upper QWs, close to the GaMnAs layer, show a significant broadening. Additionally, time-resolved Faraday rotation (TRFR) reveals that the spin lifetime in the upper QW is up to 30 times longer than that in the lower QW. We attribute these observations to backdiffusion of Mn into the QW during and after growth. Both, the PL and the TRFR, are highly sensitive to small quantities (below 0.05 %) of Mn and allow us to study the efficiency of barrier layers in suppressing Mn diffusion.

  5. All-optical clock recovery from 10-Gb/s NRZ data and NRZ to RZ format conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Yin; Yumei Yan; Yunfeng Zhou; Jian Wu; Jintong Lin

    2006-01-01

    A non-return-to-zero (NRZ) to pseudo-return-to-zero (PRZ) converter consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is proposed, by which the enhancement of clock frequency component and clock-to-data suppression ratio of the NRZ data are evidently achieved. Alloptical clock recovery from NRZ data at 10 Gb/s is successfully demonstrated with the proposed NRZ-to-PRZ converter and a mode-locked SOA fiber laser. Furthermore, NRZ-to-RZ format conversion of 10 Gb/s is realized by using the recovered clock as the control light of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer(TOAD), which further proves that the proposed clock recovery scheme is applicable.

  6. A cost-effective 100-Gb/s transmitter with low-speed optoelectronic devices and high spectral efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junming Gao; Qingjiang Chang; Tao Wang; Yikai Su

    2008-01-01

    A 100-Gb/s high-speed optical transmitter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on frequency-quadrupling technique, two sub-channels with a fixed 50-GHz spacing are obtained from one laser source. Using return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying (RZ-DQPSK) modulation format and polarization multiplexing (PolMux), only low-speed electronic devices of 12.5 GHz are needed for the 100-Gb/s transmitter. This eliminates the need of ultrahigh-speed optoelectronic devices and thus greatly reduces the cost. The experimental results show that this transmitter can achieve good performance in dispersion tolerance of a 25-km single mode fiber (SMF).

  7. 1.25-3.125 Gb/s per user PON with RSOA as phase modulator for statistical wavelength ONU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guang Yong; Polo, Victor; Lerín, Adolfo; Tabares, Jeison; Cano, Iván N.; Prat, Josep

    2015-12-01

    We report a new scheme to support, cost efficiently, ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) for optical access networks. As validating experiment, we apply phase modulation of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) at the ONU with a single DFB, and simplified coherent receiver at OLT for upstream. We extend the limited 3-dB modulation bandwidth of available uncooled To-can packaged RSOA (~400 MHz) and operate it at 3.125 Gb/s with the optimal performance for phase modulation using small and large signal measurement characteristics. The optimal condition is selected at input power of 0 dBm, with 70 mA bias condition. The sensitivities at 3.125 Gb/s (at BER=10-3) for heterodyne and intradyne detection reach -34.3 dBm and -38.8 dBm, respectively.

  8. 100 Gb/s optical discrete multi-tone transceivers for intra- and inter-datacenter networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Ryo; Tanaka, Toshiki; Nishihara, Masato; Kai, Yutaka; Takahara, Tomoo; Liu, Bo; Li, Lei; Tao, Zhenning; Rasmussen, Jens C.

    2016-03-01

    Discrete multi-tone (DMT) technology is an attractive modulation technology for short-reach application due to its high spectral efficiency and simple configuration. In this paper, we first explain the features of DMT technology then discuss the impact of fiber dispersion and chirp on the frequency responses of the DMT signal and the importance in the relationship between chirp and the optical transmission band. Next, we explain our experiments of 100-Gb/s DMT transmission of 10 km in the O-band using directly modulated lasers for low-cost application. In an inter-datacenter network of more than several tens of kilometers, fiber dispersion mainly limits system performance. We also discuss our experiment of 100-Gb/s DMT transmission up to 100 km in the C-band without a dispersion compensator by using vestigial sideband spectrum shaping and nonlinear compensation.

  9. GB/T 28001-2001标准中需商榷的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全

    2007-01-01

    @@ 我国于2001年12月正式颁布的GB/T28001-2001国家标准,基本上是基于OHSAS 18001:1999的内容制定的.标准结构沿用了ISO14001:1996标准的模式;标准的主体内容包含了管理科学的系统化方法和安全科学的系统安全工程方法.从系统安全工程方法原理及ISO 14001:2004标准修订内容等角度看,GB/T 28001-2001标准存在一些需商榷的问题或有待完善之处.

  10. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    OpenAIRE

    marzieh akbarzadeh; nasrin bahmani; marzieh moattari; Saeede PourAhmad

    2014-01-01

    objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group) pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based o...

  11. 4×100 Gb/s WDM DD-OFDM using EAM for next generation Ethernet transceivers over SMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ferrera, P.; Vázquez, S. O.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2016-04-01

    The technical feasibility (pre-FEC BERoperation is achieved by finding optimum values for bias voltage and electrical gain in the modulator, and by employing a simple, yet powerful, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)-reduction technique. A performance comparison with a Mach-Zehnder driven system is presented too. The architecture here put forward can be used to define next-generation 400 Gb/s Ethernet standard.

  12. Clock- and data-recovery IC with demultiplexer for a 2.5 Gb/s ATM physical layer controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Salama, C.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock-recovery is accom...

  13. Scaling single-wavelength optical interconnects to 180 Gb/s with PAM-M and pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dris, Stefanos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Faced with surging datacenter traffic demand, system designers are turning to multi-level optical modulation with direct detection as the means of reaching 100 Gb/s in a single optical lane; a further upgrade to 400 Gb/s is envisaged through wavelength-multiplexing of multiple 100 Gb/s strands. In terms of modulation formats, PAM-4 and PAM-8 are considered the front-runners, striking a good balance between bandwidth-efficiency and implementation complexity. In addition, the emergence of energy-efficient, high-speed CMOS digital-to-analog converters (DACs) opens up new possibilities: Spectral shaping through digital filtering will allow squeezing even more data through low-cost, low-bandwidth electro-optic components. In this work we demonstrate an optical interconnect based on an EAM that is driven directly with sub-volt electrical swing by a 65 GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Low-voltage drive is particularly attractive since it allows direct interfacing with the switch/server ASIC, eliminating the need for dedicated, power-hungry and expensive electrical drivers. Single-wavelength throughputs of 180 and 120 Gb/s are experimentally demonstrated with 60 Gbaud optical PAM-8 and PAM-4 respectively. Successful transmission over 1250 m SMF is achieved with direct-detection, using linear equalization via offline digital signal processing in order to overcome the strong bandwidth limitation of the overall link (~20 GHz). The suitability of Nyquist pulse shaping for optical interconnects is also investigated experimentally with PAM-4 and PAM-8, at a lower symbol rate of 40 Gbaud (limited by the sampling rate of the AWG). To the best of our knowledge, the rates achieved are the highest ever using optical PAM-M formats.

  14. 40-Gb/s star 16-QAM transmitter based on single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junming Gao; Xinyu Xu; Qingjiang Chang; Yikai Su

    2009-01-01

    We propose a 40-Gb/s star 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) transmitter using a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM). This transmitter is demonstrated through experiment and simulation and shows the advantage of simplicity for implementation. Simulation results indicate that error free performance could be achieved for the generated signal after 80-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission with coherent detection scheme.

  15. Comparison of seismic actions and structural design requirements in Chinese Code GB 50011 and International Standard ISO 3010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚勇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the Chinese Code GB50011-2001 and the International Standard ISO3010: 2001(E), emphasizing the similarities and differences related to design requirements, seismic actions and analytical approaches. Similarities include: earthquake return period, conceptual design, site classification, structural strength and ductility requirements, deformation limits, response spectra, seismic analysis procedures, isolation and energy dissipation,and nonstructural elements. Differences exist in the following areas: seismic levels, earthquake loading, mode damping factors and structural control.

  16. Genome locations of temperature-sensitive mutants in glycoprotein gB of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, N; Person, S; Bzik, D J; Snipes, W

    1984-09-01

    A plasmid containing a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) insert from strain KOS, prototypic coordinates 0.345 to 0.368 (3.45 kilobases) was mutagenized in vitro, and potential mutations were introduced into intact viral DNA by cotransfection. Functions normally associated with the glycoprotein gB are in the 1-9 complementation group, and the above coordinates include those that specify the gB glycoprotein gene. Following cotransfection, individual plaques were screened for temperature sensitivity (ts) of viral growth. A total of seven ts mutants was obtained, of which four were spurious mutations due to alterations outside the cloned sequences, presumably mediated by some aspect of the Ca-precipitation-cotransfection method. The remaining three did not complement known mutants of the 1-9 complementation group. These three mutants, along with tsJ12 (P.A. Schaffer, G.M. Aron, N. Biswal, and M. Benyesh-Melnick, 1973, Virology 52, 57-71) and tsJ33 (C.-T. Chu, D.S. Parris, R.A.F. Dixon, F.E. Farber, and P.A. Schaffer, 1979, Virology 98, 168-181), were physically located by marker-rescue experiments to three different restriction fragments between 0.345 to 0.368 map units. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the glycoproteins synthesized during continuous or pulse-chase labeling protocols. All five mutants were found to synthesize a precursor of gB but did not accumulate mature gB during a pulse, a chase, or continuous labeling at the nonpermissive temperature. PMID:6091335

  17. 粮食作物种子第1部分:禾谷类(GB 4404.1-2008)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 范围 GB 4404的本部分规定了稻(Oryza sativa)、玉米(Zea mays)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)、大麦(Hordeum vulgate)、高粱(Sorghum bicolor)、粟(Setaris italica)和黍(Panicum miliaceum)种子的质量要求、检验方法和检验规则.

  18. Nitrogen Adatom Diffusion on a Ga-Rich GaN (0001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xian-Qi; WU Hua-Sheng; XIE Mao-Hai; XU Shi-Hong; TONG Shuk-Yin

    2004-01-01

    @@ The diffusion of N adatoms on a Ga-rich GaN(0001) surface has been studied using density-functional theory. The configuration of Ga adatoms on a Ga-rich GaN surface has been identified. The first adlayer Ga adatoms are on top of the terminating substrate Ga atoms, and the outmost adlayer Ga adatoms exist randomly at the T4 or H3 sites. A very different diffusivity of N adatoms on a Ga-rich GaN(0001) surface has been found. The excess Ga adatoms on a GaN(0001) surface reduce the diffusion barrier by 0.75eV and influence the migration path. It seems that bilayer Ga adatoms are helpful for N atom diffusion.

  19. GaN/InGaN avalanche phototransistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yi-Che; Kim, Jeomoh; Ji, Mi-Hee; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2015-03-01

    We report on III-nitride (III-N) avalanche phototransistor (APT) action by illuminating ultraviolet (UV) photons onto a GaN/InGaN npn heterojunction bipolar transistor in an open-base configuration. A high responsivity of >1 A/W was measured for the device operating at a collector-to-emitter voltage (VCE) of 68 A/W at VCE = 95 V. The InGaN APT demonstrates the feasibility of using III-N bipolar transistor structures for high-sensitivity UV photodetection applications.

  20. GB-InSAR monitoring and observational method for landslide emergency management: the Montaguto earthflow (AV, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, F.; Gigli, G.; Fanti, R.; Casagli, N.

    2015-12-01

    On 10 March 2010, due to the heavy rainfall that occurred on the previous days, the Montaguto earthflow reactivated, involving the road SS 90 "Delle Puglie", as had happened previously in May 2005 and in September 2009, and reaching the Roma-Bari railway. This determined a special attention of the National Civil Protection Department and a widespread monitoring and analysis program was initiated. A monitoring activity using GB-InSAR (Ground Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) system began, in order to investigate the landslide kinematics, to plan urgent safety measures for risk mitigation and to design long term stabilization work. In this paper the GB-InSAR monitoring system results and its applications in the Observational Method (OM) approach are presented. The paper also highlights how the OM based on the GB-InSAR technique can produce savings in cost and time on engineering projects, without compromising safety, and how it can also benefit the geotechnical community by increasing scientific knowledge. This study focuses on the very much active role played by the monitoring activities, in both the design and plan modifications; with a special consideration for the emergency phase.

  1. Systematic identification of rhythmic genes reveals camk1gb as a new element in the circadian clockwork.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Tovin

    Full Text Available A wide variety of biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes are known to have daily rhythms driven by an endogenous circadian clock. While extensive research has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that constitute the circadian clock, the links between this clock and dependent processes have remained elusive. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and DNA microarrays to systematically identify clock-controlled genes in the zebrafish pineal gland. In addition to a comprehensive view of the expression pattern of known clock components within this master clock tissue, this approach has revealed novel potential elements of the circadian timing system. We have implicated one rhythmically expressed gene, camk1gb, in connecting the clock with downstream physiology of the pineal gland. Remarkably, knockdown of camk1gb disrupts locomotor activity in the whole larva, even though it is predominantly expressed within the pineal gland. Therefore, it appears that camk1gb plays a role in linking the pineal master clock with the periphery.

  2. Electroacupuncture at Qiuxu (GB 40) for Treatment of Migraine——A Clinical Multicentral Random Controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-sheng; MA Xiao-shun; SHI Jing; WANG Yao-min; LI Yong-fang; YUAN Jun; LI Mei; ZHENG Li-xing; ZHANG Xiang-jian; WANG Shao-jin; GAO Jian-ying; LI Xiao-feng; HUO Yong-li

    2009-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at Qiuxu (GB 40) for treatment of migraine so as to provide clinical evidence for compilation of the Acupoints' Dictionary of the People's Republic of China. Methods: 275 migraine patients admitted in 3 hospitals were randomly divided into a treatment group treated by EA at Qiuxu (GB 40),and a control group treated by EA at Tianshu (ST 25). The indexes of the migraine symptoms and the 5-HT level were observed in both the groups before and after treatment. Results: There was an significant difference in VAS score between the two groups of the 3 clinical centers (P<0.01). The therapeutic effects of a 4-week treatment were much better in the treatment group than that of the control group. The 3-month follow-up survey showed that the long-term effects were in favor of the treatment group of the first and third clinical centers,though no significant difference was found in the treatment group of the second clinical center as compared with the control group. The results from the 6-month follow-up survey showed better effects in the treatment group of all the 3 clinical centers.Conclusion: EA at Qiuxu (GB 40) may show effect for migraine.

  3. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  4. Development of Novel Radiogallium-Labeled Bone Imaging Agents Using Oligo-Aspartic Acid Peptides as Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuma Ogawa; Atsushi Ishizaki; Kenichiro Takai; Yoji Kitamura; Tatsuto Kiwada; Kazuhiro Shiba; Akira Odani

    2013-01-01

    (68)Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide) has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting (68)Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA...

  5. In vivo evaluation of a radiogallium-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical, Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the findings obtained by X-ray crystallography of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Ga-DOTA) chelates and the drug design concept of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals, we previously designed and synthesized a radiogallium-labeled DOTA chelate containing two metronidazole moieties, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging. As expected, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited high in vivo stability, although two carboxyl groups in the DOTA skeleton were conjugated with metronidazole moieties. In this study, we evaluated 67/68Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors. 67Ga-labeling of DOTA-MN2 with 67GaCl3 was achieved with high radiochemical yield (>85%) by 1-min of microwave irradiation (50 W). The pharmacokinetics of 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 were examined in mammary carcinoma (FM3A) tumor-bearing mice, and compared with those of 67Ga-DOTA-MN1 containing one metronidazole unit and '67Ga-DOTA. Upon administration, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited higher accumulation in the implanted tumors than '67Ga-DOTA. Tumor-to-blood ratios of 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 were about two-fold higher than those of 67Ga-DOTA-MN1. Autoradiographic analysis showed the heterogeneous localization of '67Ga-DOTA-MN2 in the tumors, which corresponds to hypoxic regions suggested by well-established hypoxia marker drug, pimonidazole. Furthermore, in positron emission tomography (PET) study, the tumors of mice administered '68Ga-labeled DOTA-MN2 were clearly imaged by small-animal PET at 1 h after administration. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of 67/68Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors and suggests that two functional moieties, such as metronidazole, can be conjugated to radiogallium-DOTA chelate without reducing the complex stability. The present findings provide useful information about the chemical design of radiogallium-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. (author)

  6. GaAs AlGaAs intersubband MIR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvozdara, Lubos; Gianordoli, Stefan; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl; Gornik, Erich

    1999-09-01

    We report on the design, growth and characterization of electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and LEDs, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. Intersubband and interminiband optical transitions within the conduction band of a heterostructure are used to achieve spontaneous emission and lasing action. Samples are grown using solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Transport measurements, IR photocurrent spectral response, transmission and emission measurements are performed. Laser wavelength above ten microns are achieved. Peak powers are in the 200 mW range. Laser operation up to 100K and threshold current densities below 15 kA/cm2 are recorded. Ridge lasers exhibit multimode spectra, typical for Fabry-Perot resonators. Room temperature spontaneous emission is recorded, showing the feasibility of a room temperature operating QCL on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system.

  7. Hydrogenation of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P. D., E-mail: pdhodgson@hotmail.co.uk; Hayne, M.; Zhuang, Q. D. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Ahmad Kamarudin, M. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Birindelli, S.; Capizzi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-08-25

    We present the results of photoluminescence measurements on hydrogenated type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot/ring (QD/QR) samples at temperatures ranging from 4.2 K to 400 K. Hydrogenation is found to suppress optically induced charge depletion (associated with the presence of carbon acceptors in this system). A redshift of the QD\\QR emission energy of a few tens of meV is observed at temperatures ≥300 K, consistent with a reduction in average occupancy by ∼1 hole. These effects are accompanied by a reduction in PL intensity post-hydrogenation. We conclude that although hydrogenation may have neutralized the carbon acceptors, multiple hole occupancy of type-II GaSb/GaAs QD/QRs is very likely a precondition for intense emission, which would make extending the wavelength significantly beyond 1300 nm at room temperature difficult.

  8. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive gene expression and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in transgenic tobacco

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jie Qin; Kaijing Zuo; Jingya Zhao; Hua Ling; Youfang Cao; Chengxiang Qiu; Fupeng Li; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2006-06-01

    GbERF belongs to the ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family of transcription factors and regulates the GCC-box containing pathogen-related (PR) genes in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To study the function of GbERF in the process of biotic stress, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GbERF were generated. Overexpression of GbERF did not change transgenic plant’s phenotype and endogenous ethylene level. However, the expression profile of some ethylene-inducible GCC-box and non-GCC-box containing genes was altered, such as PR1b, PR2, PR3, PR4, Osmotin, CHN50, ACC oxidase and ACC synthase genes. These data indicate that the cotton GbERF could act as a transcriptional activator or repressor to regulate the differential expression of ethylene-inducible genes via GCC and non-GCC cis-elements. Moreover, the constitutive expression of GbERF in transgenic tobacco enhanced the plant’s resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci infection. In conclusion, GbERF mediates the expression of a wide array of PR and ethylene-responsive genes and plays an important role in the plant’s response to biotic stress.

  9. Phase equilibria in Sm-Ga-S ternary system according to SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3, SmS-GaS, Sm-GaS cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase equilibria in ternary system Sm-Ga-S over cross sections SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, SmS-GaS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3, Sm-GaS have been studied for the first time using the methods of physicochemical analysis, their T-x projections were plotted. The cross sections SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3 and SmS-GaS are quasibinary, while Sm-GaS is nonquasibinary one. Formation of two ternary compounds of the composition Sm4GaS5 and Sm5Ga2S5 was ascertained by peritectic reactions

  10. Preparation and Biological Study of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ashraf; Jalilian, Amir R.; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga). Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats. Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320 GBq/mmol) after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a log P value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65%) was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (<1%) at 30 min after the injection. The data were also confirmed by sequential imaging at 30-90 min following the intravenous injection. Conclusion: The high solubility and anionic properties of the complex led to major renal excretion and low hydroxyapatite uptake; therefore, the complex failed to demonstrate bone imaging behaviors. PMID:27408898

  11. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  12. Design and performance of clock-recovery GaAs ICs for high-speed optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuhki; Sano, Eiichi; Nakamura, Makoto; Ishihara, Noboru; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Takashi

    1993-05-01

    Design and performance of clock-recovery GaAs ICs are presented. Four kinds of ICs were developed: a limiting amplifier, a tuning amplifier, a rectifier, and a differentiator. The cascaded limiting amplifier together with a tuning amplifier achieved a 58-dB gain and a 10-degree phase deviation with 20-dB input dynamic range at 10 GHz. A clock-recovery circuit successfully extracts a low-jitter 10-GHz clock signal of 1-dBm constant power from 10-Gb/s NRZ pseudorandom bit streams using a pulse pattern generator.

  13. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  14. GB 28050-2011标注及应用中的主要问题分析%Analysis ofmajor issues on implementation and application of GB 28050-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月盈; 鲁燕骅; 张锡云

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition labeling refers to a media used by foodstuff producers to illustrate food nutrition information and characteristics, and a significant reference for consumers to understand food nutrition information intuitively in order to select food more reasonably according to their health characteristics. Releasing of GB 28050-2011National Food Safety Standard-General standard for the nutrition labeling of prepackaged foods marks the constitutor of the government standard intends to be in agreement with advanced concepts of international foodstuff administration, extends to normalize scientific diet instead of previous laying emphasis on food safety and quality merely, thereby upgrades safety management to a higher level of promoting public cognition of nutrition and leading balance diet on the basis of food safety supervision and management. This article focuses on statement of the author’s summary of common problems in all kinds of indication and labels discovered during inspection of prepackaged food nutrition labeling since the implementation of GB 28050, and offers proposal related scientific access and standard method of indications and labels in regard of marking nutrient composition data in nutrition information, for the users’ reference related to food supervision, production and inspection. In addition, this article also organizes a few practical application problems which are easily disputed and still needed to discuss during the implementation process of GB 28050, and looks forward to get clear and definite answers by mutual discussion.%营养标签是食品制造者向消费者展示食品营养信息和特性说明的媒介,也是消费者直观了解食品营养信息以求准确地结合自身健康特点进而更加合理挑选食品的重要依据。GB 28050-2011《食品安全国家标准预包装食品营养标签通则》的出台,标志着国家标准制定者与国际食品管理先进理念接轨的意愿,从以往单纯注重食品

  15. Growth and Optical Properties of Double Heterostructure GaN/InGaN/GaN Films with Large Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周劲; 张国义

    2002-01-01

    The double heterostructure GaN/InGaN/GaN films with different thicknesses of the InGaN layer were grownat 780℃ or 800℃ by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. The samples were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering. The dependences of the samples on both the growth temperature and the thickness of the InGaN layer were studied. The comlp, osition of InGaN was determined by the results of XRD, and the bowing parameter of InGaN was calculated in terms of the PL spectra. When the thickness of the InGaN layer was reduced, the phase separation of InGaN was found in some samples. The Raman frequency of the A1 (LO) and E2 (low) modes in all the samples shifted and did not agree with Vegard's law.

  16. Photocurrent Properties of the AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN Multilayer Structure on Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江若琏; 赵作明; 陈鹏; 席冬娟; 沈波; 张荣; 郑有炓

    2001-01-01

    Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N multilayer structures and GaN monolayer structures with AIN as the buffer layers were grown on Si substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. The photocurrent responses of these structures were measured and analysed. The multilayer structures showed a high response in a narrow range of wavelengths. The peak wavelength is located at 365 nm at which the responsivity is as high as 24 A/W under 5.5 V bias; this is much higher than the GaN monolayer structure. This high responsivity results mainly from the high polarization electric field in the GaN layer of the Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N heterostructure.

  17. Energy dispersive X-ray investigation of silane coupling agent modified nickel-manganese-gallium particle surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Royale S., E-mail: royale.underhill@drdc-rddc.gc.ca [Defence R and D Canada - Atlantic, Dockyard Laboratory (Atlantic) Halifax, NS B3K 5X5 (Canada); Fisher, Gary C.; Farrell, Shannon P. [Defence R and D Canada - Atlantic, Dockyard Laboratory (Atlantic) Halifax, NS B3K 5X5 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of surfaces of NiMnGa with silane coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy dispersive X-ray emission used for elemental analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variable energy electron beams used for depth analysis on particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silane coupling agents promote silicon polymer attachment to NiMnGa particles. - Abstract: Nickel-manganese-gallium (NiMnGa) has been identified as a possible active material for kinetic energy harvesting. As monolithic crystals are susceptible to fracture, NiMnGa particle/polymer composites where the alloy remains the active material are proposed as an alternative. Optimum transfer of force requires good bonding between the alloy and the polymer matrix. The objectives of the current work were to develop a technique to examine the NiMnGa/polymer interface and the potential changes due to addition of silane coupling agents. To determine the presence of polymer/coupling agent at the alloy particle surface, an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used. Using this method, it was possible to determine that Dow Corning{sup Registered-Sign} z6020 had the greatest interaction with the NiMnGa surface, although the polysiloxane had sufficient adherence without the use of coupling agents. This article demonstrates the novel use of EDX spectroscopy to indirectly investigate silane modification of metallic surfaces.

  18. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  19. Behaviour Study of a Multi-Agent Mobile Robot System during Potential Field Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Nagy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-agent based mobile robot simulation system will bepresented where the behaviour of the system is studied with different number of agents (1,3,6 and also with different number of ultrasonic range sensors on agents (8 or 16 USsensors on individual agents. The task of the autonomous agents is to create the potentialfield (PF of an unknown environment. The classic problems of PF building, like oscillationand trapping, are not the focus of the article, but instead, the article is concerned with theagents’ self-organizing ability where self-organizing is controlled by a genetic algorithm(GA. The GA is equipped with two fitness functions where one “maintains” the distancesbetween certain agents (spat distr, while another “watches” the area coverage (areacover. In fact, the paper can be divided into three main parts. The first part describes theultrasonic sensing and range measuring with systematic errors, the potential field (PFbuilding and the moving strategies. The second part contains description of the GA, theoperation of the GA, the structure of the system, the fitness functions and a general systemerrordetermination. In the final third part, the obtained results are analyzed and presentedin the appendices.

  20. Some Aspects on Standard GB11032-2000:Metal Oxide Surge Arrester%关于金属氧化物避雷器标准GB11032-2000的几点讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤金; 卢振亚; 李政文

    2003-01-01

    测试避雷器或电阻片的直流参考电压在承受大电流或方波冲击试验前后的变化率比测试其残压变化率更能判断该避雷器或电阻片受冲击后的电性能退化程度;建议修改GB11032-2000中的直流参考电压、残压要求;建议提高和完善对低压避雷器的特性要求.

  1. GB650型花式纱钩编机振动和噪声分析%Analysis for the vibration and noise of the fancy yam crochet machine of Model GB650

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季林息

    2002-01-01

    @@ 一、问题的提出 GB650型花式纱钩编机(以下简称钩编机)可以使用各种天然纤维和化学纤维,编织带子纱、蜈蚣纱、羽毛纱、波纹纱等各种花式纱线,以供制作多姿多采的服装面料、装饰用布、帽子、手套等等.因此,钩编机得到了市场的广泛需求.

  2. My opinion on hyphen usage prescribed in national standard GB /T 15834-1995%关于GB/T 15834-1995中连接号应用问题之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小萍

    2005-01-01

    通过对GB/T15834-1995中关于连接号应用标准的制定及在实际应用中存在问题的分析,提出有关连接号应用的分类原则,进而对其应用类型和应用标准提出修改意见,以达到易学易用、表意明确、避免误用混用的目的.

  3. 新国标GB/T12606的制订说明%EXPLANATION OF THE WORKING-OUT OF NEW NATIONAL STANDARD GB/T 12606 "STEEL TUBES--THE TESTING METHOD OF MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复兴

    2000-01-01

    @@ 修订GB/T 12606-90是原冶金部1997年下达的任务,主要起草单位是天津钢管公司,参加单位是冶金部信息标准研究院、宝钢、衡阳钢管(集团)公司、成都无缝钢管有限责任公司、包钢和鞍钢.新国标按国家标准管理办法所规定的工作程序,于1998年底审定通过.

  4. Development of novel radiogallium-labeled bone imaging agents using oligo-aspartic acid peptides as carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Ogawa

    Full Text Available (68Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET. Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting (68Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA-(Aspn (n = 2, 5, 8, 11, or 14 with easy-to-handle (67Ga, with the previously described (67Ga-DOTA complex conjugated bisphosphonate, (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. After synthesizing DOTA-(Aspn by a Fmoc-based solid-phase method, complexes were formed with (67Ga, resulting in (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn with a radiochemical purity of over 95% after HPLC purification. In hydroxyapatite binding assays, the binding rate of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn increased with the increase in the length of the conjugated aspartate peptide. Moreover, in biodistribution experiments, (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp8, (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp11, and (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp14 showed high accumulation in bone (10.5 ± 1.5, 15.1 ± 2.6, and 12.8 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively but were barely observed in other tissues at 60 min after injection. Although bone accumulation of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn was lower than that of (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP, blood clearance of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn was more rapid. Accordingly, the bone/blood ratios of (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp11 and (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp14 were comparable with those of (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. In conclusion, these data provide useful insights into the drug design of (68Ga-PET tracers for the diagnosis of bone disorders, such as bone metastases.

  5. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  6. Characteristics of GaN/InGaN Double-Heterostructure Photovoltaic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hsien Wu; Sheng-Po Chang; Shoou-Jinn Chang; Ray-Hua Horng; Wen-Yih Liao; Ray-Ming Lin

    2012-01-01

    The p-GaN/i-InxGa1−xN/n-GaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic (PV) cells have been fabricated and the theoretical photovoltaic properties were also calculated in this work. From theoretical simulation, higher efficiency can be obtained in GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with higher In composition in i-InGaN intrinsic layer. GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14% were fabricated and characterized for demonstrating wit...

  7. Novel Preclinical and Radiopharmaceutical Aspects of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: A New PET Tracer for Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of prostate cancer lesions by PET imaging of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has gained highest clinical impact during the last years. 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC represents a successful novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has recently demonstrated its suitability in individual first-in-man studies. The radiometal chelator HBED-CC used in this molecule represents a rather rarely used acyclic complexing agent with chemical characteristics favourably influencing the biological functionality of the PSMA inhibitor. The simple replacement of HBED-CC by the prominent radiometal chelator DOTA was shown to dramatically reduce the in vivo imaging quality of the respective 68Ga-labelled PSMA-targeted tracer proving that HBED-CC contributes intrinsically to the PSMA binding of the Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx pharmacophore. Owing to the obvious growing clinical impact, this work aims to reflect the properties of HBED-CC as acyclic radiometal chelator and presents novel preclinical data and relevant aspects of the radiopharmaceutical production process of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.

  8. The Effects of a Low-Temperature GaN Interlayer on the Performance of InGaN/GaN Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An InGaN/GaN p—i—n solar cell inserted with a 5-nm low-temperature (LT) GaN interlayer between the p-GaN cap layer and the InGaN i-layer is grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The effects of the LT GaN interlayer on the performance of the InGaN/GaN solar cells are investigated. It is found that the LT-GaN interlayer prevents the extension of threading dislocations from the InGaN layer to the p-GaN layer and improves the crystal quality of both the p-GaN cap layer and the InGaN i-layer, ultimately leading to an increasing external quantum efficiency and photocurrent density of the InGaN/GaN solar cells

  9. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, E. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Barnier, V. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, MPI, CNRS UMR5146, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Paillard, P. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  10. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  11. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  12. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  13. Effects of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of protein GB1 studied by steered molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Regulation of the mechanical properties of proteins plays an important role in many biological processes, and sheds light on the design of biomaterials comprised of protein. At present, strategies to regulate protein mechanical stability focus mainly on direct modulation of the force-bearing region of the protein. Interestingly, the mechanical stability of GB1 can be significantly enhanced by the binding of Fc fragments of human IgG antibody, where the binding site is distant from the force-bearing region of the protein. The mechanism of this long-range allosteric control of protein mechanics is still elusive. In this work, the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of GB1 was investigated using steered molecular dynamics simulation, and a mechanism underlying the enhanced protein mechanical stability is proposed. We found that the external force causes deformation of both force-bearing region and ligand binding site. In other words, there is a long-range coupling between these two regions. The binding of ligand restricts the distortion of the binding site and reduces the deformation of the force-bearing region through a long-range allosteric communication, which thus improves the overall mechanical stability of the protein. The simulation results are very consistent with previous experimental observations. Our studies thus provide atomic-level insights into the mechanical unfolding process of GB1, and explain the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical properties of the protein through long-range allosteric regulation, which should facilitate effective modulation of protein mechanical properties. PMID:27444879

  14. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  15. Assessment and self-assessment of the pharmacists' competencies using the global competency framework (GbCF in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pharmacists' competence represents a dynamic framework of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out tasks, and it reflects on improving the quality of life and on patients’ health. One of the documents for the Evaluation and Competency Development of Pharmacists is the Global Competency Framework (GbCF. The aim of this study was to implement the GBCF document into Serbian pharmacies, to perform assessment and self assessment of the competencies. Methods. The assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists’ competencies were performed during the period 2012−13 year in eight community pharmacy chains, in seven cities in Serbia. For assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists competencies the GbCF model was applied, which was adjusted to pharmaceutical practice and legislation in Serbia. External assessment was conducted by teams of pharmacists using the structured observation of the work of pharmacists during regular working hours. Evaluated pharmacists filled out the questionnaire about demographic indicators about the pharmacist and the pharmacy where they work. Results. A total of 123 pharmacists were evaluated. Pharmacists’ Professional Competency Cluster (KK1 had the lowest score (average value 2.98, while the cluster Management and Organizational Competency (KK2 had the highest score (average value 3.15. The competence Recognition of the Diagnosis and Patient Counseling (K8, which belonged to the cluster KK1, had the lowest score (average value for assessment and self-assessment were 2.09, and 2.34, respectively among the all evaluated competencies. Conclusion. GbCF might be considered as an instrument for the competencies' evaluation/selfevaluation and their improvement, accordingly.

  16. Effects of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of protein GB1 studied by steered molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Regulation of the mechanical properties of proteins plays an important role in many biological processes, and sheds light on the design of biomaterials comprised of protein. At present, strategies to regulate protein mechanical stability focus mainly on direct modulation of the force-bearing region of the protein. Interestingly, the mechanical stability of GB1 can be significantly enhanced by the binding of Fc fragments of human IgG antibody, where the binding site is distant from the force-bearing region of the protein. The mechanism of this long-range allosteric control of protein mechanics is still elusive. In this work, the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of GB1 was investigated using steered molecular dynamics simulation, and a mechanism underlying the enhanced protein mechanical stability is proposed. We found that the external force causes deformation of both force-bearing region and ligand binding site. In other words, there is a long-range coupling between these two regions. The binding of ligand restricts the distortion of the binding site and reduces the deformation of the force-bearing region through a long-range allosteric communication, which thus improves the overall mechanical stability of the protein. The simulation results are very consistent with previous experimental observations. Our studies thus provide atomic-level insights into the mechanical unfolding process of GB1, and explain the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical properties of the protein through long-range allosteric regulation, which should facilitate effective modulation of protein mechanical properties.

  17. 4×10 Gb/s 800 km transmission system on G.652 fiber with dispersion compensation by chirped FBG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN; Shuisheng(简水生); YAN; Fengping(延凤平); LI; Tangjun; (李唐军); JIAN; Wei(简伟); PEI; Li(裴丽); NING; Tigang(宇提纲)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersion compensation of 4×10Gb/s 800km G.652 fiber by chirped optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was originally implemented. The characteristics of FBG are optimized, so that the ripple coefficient of reflectivity and time delay are less than 0.9dB and 30ps, respectively. When BER is 10?10, the power penalties of transmission are 1.36 dB, 0.89 dB, 1.67 dB and 1.32 dB.

  18. Study on the 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km dispersion compensation by chirped optical fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pei(裴丽); Tigang Ning(宁提纲); Wei Jian(简伟); Tangjun Li(李唐军); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersion compensation for 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km G.652 fiber by chirped optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is introduced. For the first time, we have measured and compensated the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of FBG, which in each channel is less than 1.1 ps. When the bit error rate (BER) is 10-10 and the bit error is zero, the transmission power penalty of each channel is less than 2 dB, and the best result is negative which means that the receiver sensitivity is increased after transmission.

  19. Transmission of 107-Gb/s mode and polarization multiplexed CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Al Amin, Abdullah; Chen, Xi; Shieh, William

    2011-04-25

    In addition to the dimensions of time, frequency, complex constellation, and polarization, spatial mode can be the fifth dimension to be explored for modulation and multiplexing in optical fiber communications. In this paper, we demonstrate successful transmission of 107-Gb/s dual-mode and dual-polarization coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) over a 4.5-km two-mode fiber. A mechanically-induced LP01/LP11 mode converter is used as the mode selective element in a spatial-mode multiplexed system. PMID:21643133

  20. Interferometric wavelength converter operating at 10 Gb/s based on a monolithic-integrated photonic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, C.; Coriasso, C.; Campi, D.; Stano, A.; Cacciatore, C.; Re, D.; Fornuto, G.; Soldani, D.; De Franceschi, R.; Ghiglieno, F.; Vallone, M.; Valenti, P.; Zucchelli, L.; Lupo, S.; Gambini, P.

    2000-02-01

    In this work we present a wavelength converter based on a Michelson interferometer. It is obtained by monolithic integration of two-semiconductor optical amplifiers with a passive waveguided X-coupler, incorporating turning mirrors. It operates in the 1.55 μm spectral window and allows the wavelength conversion of data streams up to 10 Gb/s, showing open-eye diagrams and extinction-ratio regeneration capabilities. Comparison of two structures with different active layers and their influence on the polarization sensitivity is also presented.

  1. Miniaturized volume holographic optical data storage and correlation system with a storage density of 10 Gb/cm3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Liangcai; HE Qingsheng; WEI Haoyun; LIU Guodong; OUYANG Chuan; ZHAO Jian; WU Minxian; JIN Guofan

    2004-01-01

    The general idea of holographic optical data storage (HODS) is briefly introduced. Based on the recent advances of HODS, the key techniques and the challenges of HODS are discussed. Some new techniques are proposed to improve the system. A miniaturized volume holographic data storage and correlation system is presented. It can achieve a density of 10 Gb/cm3 and a fast correlation recognition rate of more than 2000 images per second. It shows the attracting potential advantages over other conventional storage methods in the information storage as well as information processing.

  2. 极速风暴——金士顿Elite Pro 4GB CF卡和512MB SD卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢瑜

    2005-01-01

    金士顿4GB CompactFlash Elite Pro卡和512MB Elite Pro高速SD卡Elite Pro系列中最新也是最大容量的闪存卡。如此超大的存储容量再加上高速的读写速度,无疑为专业摄影师或是发烧级数码玩家们提供了有效的存储保障。

  3. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Rosa; Katzenstein, Terese L; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    Presumed apathogenic viruses have been suggested to play a role in HIV infection. In some cohorts of HIVpositive patients, GB virus C (GBVC) has been associated with prolonged survival and time to AIDS. We set out to address whether GBVC infection had any influence on survival in a cohort of 112...... homosexual white HIV-1 positive Danish men. Patients were enrolled between 1984 and 1987 and followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Follow-up was censored in May 1996 when the first patient in the cohort received HAART. Plasma samples were screened at baseline using polymerase chain reaction methods for GBVC...

  4. Experimental investigation and digital compensation of DGD for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK clock recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Olivera, Julio Cesar R. F.; Ribeiro, Vittor Bedotti;

    2011-01-01

    For asynchronous sampled systems such as Polarization Division Multiplexed Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, (PDM-QPSK), phase and frequency of the sampling clock is typically not synchronized to the data symbols. Therefore, timing adjustment, so called clock recovery and interpolation, must...... be performed in digital domain prior to signal demodulation in order to avoid cycle slips. For the first time, the impact of first order PMD, (DGD), is experimentally investigated and quantified for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal. We experimentally show that the combined effect of polarization mixing and first order...

  5. Automated synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA, and the synthesis and characterization of {sup nat}Ga-AMBA and [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnolini, Aldo; Chen Jianqing; Ramos, Kimberly; Marie Skedzielewski, Tina; Lantry, Laura E.; Nunn, Adrian D.; Swenson, Rolf E. [Ernst Felder Laboratories, Bracco Research USA Inc., 305 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Linder, Karen E., E-mail: karen.e.linder@gmail.co [Ernst Felder Laboratories, Bracco Research USA Inc., 305 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Ga-AMBA (Ga-DO3A-CH{sub 2}CO-G-[4-aminobenzoyl]-QWAVGHLM-NH{sub 2}) is a bombesin-like agonist with high affinity for gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRP-R). Syntheses for {sup nat}Ga-AMBA, [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA and [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA were developed. The preparation of HPLC-purified and Sep-Pak purified [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA were fully automated, using the built-in radiodetector of the Tracerlab FX F-N synthesizer to monitor fractionated {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator elution and purification. The total synthesis time, including the fractional elution of the generator, was 20 min for Sep-Pak purified material and 40 min for HPLC-purified [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA. Both [{sup 67}Ga]Ga-AMBA and [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-AMBA showed comparable high affinity for GRP-R in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vitro (k{sub D}=0.46{+-}0.07; 0.44{+-}0.08 nM), high internalization (78; 77%) and low efflux from cells at 2 h (2.4{+-}0.7; 2.9{+-}1.8%). Biodistribution results in PC-3 tumor-bearing male nude mice showed comparable uptake for [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-, [{sup 111}In]In-, [{sup 67}Ga]Ga- and [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-AMBA.

  6. Different temperature dependence of carrier transport properties between Alx Ga1-xN/InyGa1-yN/GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jie; Xu Fu-Jun; Huang Cheng-Cheng; Lin Fang; Wang Xin-Qiang; Yang Zhi-Jian; Shen Bo

    2011-01-01

    The temperature dependence of carrier transport properties of AlxGai-xN/InyGa1-yN/GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures has been investigated. It is shown that the Hall mobility in Al0.25Ga0.75N/In0.03Ga0.97N/GaN heterostructures is higher than that in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures at temperatures above 500 K, even the mobility in the former is much lower than that in the latter at 300 K. More importantly, the electron sheet density in Al0.25Ga0.75N/In0.03Ga0.97N/GaN heterostructures decreases slightly,whereas the electron sheet density in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures gradually increases with increasing temperature above 500 K. It is believed that an electron depletion layer is formed due to the negative polarization charges at the InyGa1-yN/GaN heterointerface induced by the compressive strain in the InyGa1-yN channel, which effectively suppresses the parallel conductivity originating from the thermal excitation in the underlying GaN layer at high temperatures.

  7. Membrane Requirement for Folding of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 gB Cytodomain Suggests a Unique Mechanism of Fusion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jessica L.; Greene, Neil G.; King, David S.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters cells by fusion of its envelope with a host cell membrane, which requires four viral glycoproteins and a cellular receptor. Viral fusion glycoprotein B (gB) mediates membrane fusion through the action of its ectodomain, while its cytoplasmic domain (cytodomain) regulates fusion from the opposite face of the membrane by an unknown mechanism. The gB cytodomain appears to restrict fusion, because point or truncation mutations within it increase the exte...

  8. Time-lens based synchronizer and retimer for 10 Gb/s Ethernet packets with up to ±1MHz frequency offset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results.......We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results....

  9. Amplitude Equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals using Saturation of Four-Wave Mixing in a Highly Nonlinear Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Yan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal......We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal...

  10. 基于GB9706.1的医用电气设备的设计要点分析%Analysis of the Key Points in Design of Medical Electrical Equipment Based on GB9706.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆雨

    2015-01-01

    In combination with the standard GB 9706.1-2007 Medical Electrical Equipment Part 1:General Safety Requirements, this paper summarized and analyzed the principle and key points in design of medical electrical equipment from the perspective of safety, including design of power supply, application, over-current protection devices, equipment structure and layouts, interfaces as well as the requirements of hazard prevention and bio-safety.%本文主要从安全角度出发,结合标准GB9706.1-2007《医用电气设备第1部分:安全通用要求》,总结并分析了医用电气设备应遵循的设计原则及产品设计阶段需要重点考虑的内容,包括电源部分设计、应用部分设计、过电流保护装置设计、设备结构和布局设计、接口设计、对危险的防护及生物安全性要求。

  11. Analysis of the Key Points in Design of Medical Electrical Equipment Based on GB9706.1%基于GB9706.1的医用电气设备的设计要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆雨

    2015-01-01

    In combination with the standard GB 9706.1-2007 Medical Electrical Equipment Part 1:General Safety Requirements, this paper summarized and analyzed the principle and key points in design of medical electrical equipment from the perspective of safety, including design of power supply, application, over-current protection devices, equipment structure and layouts, interfaces as well as the requirements of hazard prevention and bio-safety.%本文主要从安全角度出发,结合标准GB9706.1-2007《医用电气设备第1部分:安全通用要求》,总结并分析了医用电气设备应遵循的设计原则及产品设计阶段需要重点考虑的内容,包括电源部分设计、应用部分设计、过电流保护装置设计、设备结构和布局设计、接口设计、对危险的防护及生物安全性要求。

  12. GB/T36000-2015《社会责任指南》国家标准解读%Interpretation of GB/T36000-2015,Guidance on Social Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于帆; 陈元桥

    2015-01-01

    GB/T36000-2015, Guidance on social responsibility plays a pivotal role in the standardization and implementation of social responsibility activities in China. This paper introduces the development process of this national standard, interprets some of its main contents and key points and puts forward some useful suggestions, to help standard users obtain a correct understanding of the standard.%GB/T36000-2015《社会责任指南》国家标准在规范和实施我国社会责任活动方面具有重要作用。本文介绍了该国家标准的编制过程,对标准中的主要内容和关键点进行了解读并提出了建议,希望能够帮助标准使用者正确理解和认识该国家标准。

  13. GB/T36002-2015《社会责任绩效分类指引》国家标准解读%Interpretation of GB/T36002-2015,Guidance on Classifying Social Responsibility Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元桥

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility performance lays an important technical groundwork for an organization to understand, monitor and evaluate its progress and results in carrying out social responsibility activities. This paper introduces the development process of GB/T36002-2015, Guidance on classifying social responsibility performance, interprets its main contents and key points, and puts forward some suggestions, providing some guidance and reference during its implementation.%社会责任绩效是组织了解、监测和评价其社会责任活动进展及成果的重要技术基础。本文介绍了GB/T 36002-2015《社会责任绩效分类指引》国家标准的编制过程,对标准中的主要内容和关键点进行了解读并提出了建议,为标准具体实施提供了指导和参考。

  14. GB/T36001-2015《社会责任报告编写指南》国家标准解读%Interpretation of GB/T36001-2015,Guidance on Social Responsibility Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于帆

    2015-01-01

    To meet the needs of an organization for developing and publishing social responsibility report, improve its development quality and efficiency and gain a unified understanding, the paper presents some of the main contents of GB/T 36001-2015, Guidance on social responsibility reporting, aiming to provide guiding opinions and suggestions for organizations to develop a social responsibility report.%为了满足组织编写和发布社会责任报告的需求,提高组织社会责任报告的编写质量和效率,增进组织对社会责任报告的统一认识和理解,本文通过介绍GB/T 36001-2015《社会责任报告编写指南》国家标准的主要内容,旨在为组织开展社会责任报告编制工作提供基本的指导性意见和建议。

  15. The Requirements of Tests in 19.11.4 of GB 4706.1 and Relevant Strategies%GB 4706.1中19.11.4测试的要求及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯懿栒; 刘宇峰; 谭艳

    2013-01-01

    新版标准GB 4706.1《家用和类似用途电器的安全第1部分:通用要求》中,19.11.4对带有电子断开开关、待机等的家用电器产品有新的要求,引用了EMS的标准,测试项目较多,且不合格原因复杂,因此本文详细介绍了此类电器产品的试验及不合格对策,以供试验人员参考。%In the new version of GB 4706.1 Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety-Part 1: General requirements, new requirements are specified for appliances having a device with an off position obtained by electronic disconnection, or a device that can be placed in the stand-by mode in clause 19.11.4. It refer to EMS standards and have many testing items, the reason of nonconformity is complicated. Therefore, this paper introduces the test way of the above appliances, and the strategies for the nonconformity in detail for testers' reference.

  16. The Amendments of GB/T 1576-2008"Industrial Boiler Water Quality"%对GB/T 1576-2008《工业锅炉水质》的修改意见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居光

    2015-01-01

    针对GB/T 1576-2008《工业锅炉水质》实施五年多来存在的问题,提出修改意见。修改重点包括:检测项目根据重要性程度分类分级设置、提倡热力除氧、增加不锈钢灭菌器等特殊锅炉的水质指标。建议对热水锅炉指标、磷酸根、溶解固形物指标进行专项课题研究,从水处理方面进一步提升锅炉的节能减排。%Standard GB/T 1576-2008"industrial boiler water"is implemented for more than ifve years. This paper introduces its drawbacks and appropriate advices, which include classiifcation and grading settings of items according to the different importance, thermal deaeration of dissolved oxygen, adding water quality index of stainless steel boiler. It is suggested to studying on the hot water boiler index, phosphoric acid root and dissolved solids index for boiler energy conservation and emissions reduction with advanced water treatment.

  17. The Thioredoxin GbNRX1 Plays a Crucial Role in Homeostasis of Apoplastic Reactive Oxygen Species in Response to Verticillium dahliae Infection in Cotton1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Shu-Tao; Feng, De-Qin; Yang, Chun-Lin; Sun, Yong-Duo; Zhong, Nai-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Examining the proteins that plants secrete into the apoplast in response to pathogen attack provides crucial information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant innate immunity. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the root apoplast secretome of the Verticillium wilt-resistant island cotton cv Hai 7124 (Gossypium barbadense) upon infection with Verticillium dahliae. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis identified 68 significantly altered spots, corresponding to 49 different proteins. Gene ontology annotation indicated that most of these proteins function in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and defense response. Of the ROS-related proteins identified, we further characterized a thioredoxin, GbNRX1, which increased in abundance in response to V. dahliae challenge, finding that GbNRX1 functions in apoplastic ROS scavenging after the ROS burst that occurs upon recognition of V. dahliae. Silencing of GbNRX1 resulted in defective dissipation of apoplastic ROS, which led to higher ROS accumulation in protoplasts. As a result, the GbNRX1-silenced plants showed reduced wilt resistance, indicating that the initial defense response in the root apoplast requires the antioxidant activity of GbNRX1. Together, our results demonstrate that apoplastic ROS generation and scavenging occur in tandem in response to pathogen attack; also, the rapid balancing of redox to maintain homeostasis after the ROS burst, which involves GbNRX1, is critical for the apoplastic immune response. PMID:26869704

  18. Radiolabeling of NOTA and DOTA with Positron Emitting 68Ga and Investigation of In Vitro Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We established radiolabeling conditions of NOTA and DOTA with a generator-produced PET radionuclide 68Ga and studied in vitro characteristics such as stability, serum protein binding, octanol/water distribution, and interference with other metal ions. Various concentrations of NOTA·3HCl and DOTA·4HCl were labeled with 1 mL 68GaCl3 (0.18∼5.75 mCi in 0.1 M HCl) in various pH. NOTA·3HCl (0.373 mM) was labeled with 68GaCl3 (0.183∼0.232 mCi/0.1 M HCl 1.0 mL) in the presence of CuCl2, FeCl2, InCl3, FeCl3, GaCl3, MgCl2 or CaCl2 (0∼6.07 mM) at room temperature. The labeling efficiencies of 68Ga-NOTA and 68Ga-DOTA were checked by ITLC-SG using acetone or saline as mobile phase. Stabilities, protein bindings, and octanol distribution coefficients of the labeled compounds also were investigated. 68Ga-NOTA and 68Ga-DOTA were labeled optimally at pH 6.5 and pH 3.5, respectively, and the chelates were stable for 4 hr either in the reaction mixture at room temperature or in the human serum at 37 .deg. C. NOTA was labeled at room temperature while DOTA required heating for labeling. 68Ga-NOTA labeling efficiency was reduced by CuCl2, FeCl2, InCl2, FeCl3 or GaCl3, however, was not influenced by MgCl2 or CaCl2. The protein binding was low (2.04∼3.32%). Log P value of 68Ga-NOTA was -3.07 indicating high hydrophilicity. We found that NOTA is a better bifunctional chelating agent than DOTA for 68Ga labeling. Although, 68Ga-NOTA labeling is interfered by various metal ions, it shows high stability and low serum protein binding

  19. Preparation of Antimicrobial Agent Loaded Microcapsules For Medical Textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Güldemet Başal; Senem Karagönlü

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop microcapsules loaded with antimicrobial agent to apply medical textile products. For this purpose St. John's Wort oil (Hypericum perforatum) with antimicrobial activity was encapsulated by complex coacervation method using gelatin (GE) and gum arabic (GA) as wall material. The effect of various processing parameters, including the amount of oil, amount of surfactant and stirring rate at hardening stage on the encapsulation yield, particle size distribution a...

  20. Advantages of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with p-GaN grown under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with p-GaN grown under high pressures are studied. It is shown that the high growth pressure could lead to better electronic properties of p-GaN layers due to the eliminated compensation effect. The contact resistivity of p-GaN layers are decreased due to the reduced donor-like defects on the p-GaN surface. The leakage current is also reduced, which may be induced by the better filling of V-defects with p-GaN layers grown under high pressures. The LED efficiency thus could be enhanced with high pressure grown p-GaN layers. (semiconductor devices)

  1. N-Terminal Region of GbIspH1, Ginkgo biloba IspH Type 1, May Be Involved in the pH-Dependent Regulation of Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bok-Kyu Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GbIspH1, IspH type 1 in Ginkgo biloba chloroplast, is the Fe/S enzyme catalyzing the reductive dehydroxylation of HMBPP to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP at the final step of methylerythritol phosphate pathway in chloroplast. Compared to the bacterial IspH, plant IspH, including GbIspH1, has an additional polypeptide chain at the N-terminus. Here, biochemical function of the N-terminal region of GbIspH1 was investigated with the N-terminal truncated GbIspH1 (GbIspH1-truncated. Both wild type GbIspH1 (GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated were catalytically active and produced IPP and DMAPP in a ratio of 15 : 1. Kinetic parameters of KM (17.3 ± 1.9 and 14.9 ± 2.3 µM and kcat (369 ± 10 and 347 ± 12 min−1 at pH 8.0 were obtained for GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated, respectively. Interestingly, GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated showed significantly different pH-dependent activities, and the maximum enzyme activities were obtained at pH 8.0 and 7.5, respectively. However, catalytic activation energies (Ea of GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated were almost the same with 36.5 ± 1.6 and 35.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol, respectively. It was suggested that the N-terminal region of GbIspH1 is involved in the pH-dependent regulation of enzyme activity during photosynthesis.

  2. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh akbarzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure at GB21 point. The infants’ physical indicators were compared to the control group one and three months after birth. The study data were analyzed using repeated measurement test, paired sample T-Test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s test. finding: The results showed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding the infants’ weight and height one and three months after birth (p0.05. Also, no significant difference was observed among the three groups concerning the infants’ head and arm circumference (P>0.05. Conclusion: BASNEF model improved the infants’ height and weight. Application of acupressure also improved the infants’ height, weight, and head and arm circumference compared to the control group. Hence, learning and application of techniques and models by the medical team are highly essential.

  3. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh akbarzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators.Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure at GB21 point. The infants’ physical indicators were compared to the control group one and three months after birth. The study data were analyzed using repeated measurement test, paired sample T-Test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s test.finding: The results showed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding the infants’ weight and height one and three months after birth (p0.05. Also, no significant difference was observed among the three groups concerning the infants’ head and arm circumference (P>0.05.Conclusion: BASNEF model improved the infants’ height and weight. Application of acupressure also improved the infants’ height, weight, and head and arm circumference compared to the control group. Hence, learning and application of techniques and models by the medical team are highly essential.

  4. B-sub-modules of Lie(G)/Lie(B) and Smooth Schubert Varieties in G/B

    CERN Document Server

    Carrell, James B

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a complex semi-simple linear algebraic group without G_2 factors, B a Borel subgroup of G and T a maximal torus in B. The flag variety G/B is a projective G-homogeneous variety whose tangent space at the identity coset is isomorphic, as a B-module, to Lie(G)/Lie(B). Recall that if w is an element of the Weyl group W of the pair (G,T), the Schubert variety X(w) in G/B is by definition the closure of the Bruhat cell BwB. In this note we prove that X(w) is non-singular iff the following two conditions hold: 1) its Poincar\\'e polynomial is palindromic and 2) the tangent space TE(X(w)) to the set T-stable curves in X(w) through the identity is a $B$-submodule of Lie(G)/Lie(B). This gives two criteria in terms of the combinatorics of W which are necessary and sufficient for X(w) to be smooth: \\sum_{x\\le w} t^{\\ell(x)} is palindromic, and every root of (G,T) in the convex hull of the set of negative roots whose reflection is less than w (in the Bruhat order on W) has the property that its T-weight space (in...

  5. The characterization of the distant blazar GB6 J1239+0443 from flaring and low activity periods

    CERN Document Server

    Pacciani, L; Denney, K D; Assef, R J; Ikejiri, Y; Yamanaka, M; Uemura, M; Domingo, A; Giommi, P; Tarchi, A; Verrecchia, F; Longo, F; Rainó, S; Giusti, M; Vercellone, S; Chen, A W; Striani, E; Vittorini, V; Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Giuliani, A; Pucella, G; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Colafrancesco, S; Costa, E; De Paris, G; Del Monte, E; Di Cocco, G; Evangelista, Y; Ferrari, A; Feroci, M; Fiorini, M; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vallazza, E; Zanello, D; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Lucarelli, F; Salotti, L; Valentini, G

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 AGILE and Fermi detected gamma-ray flaring activity from the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1236+0457, recently associated with a flat spectrum radio quasar GB6 J1239+0443 at z=1.762. The optical counterpart of the gamma-ray source underwent a flux enhancement of a factor 15-30 in 6 years, and of ~10 in six months. We interpret this flare-up in terms of a transition from an accretion-disk dominated emission to a synchrotron-jet dominated one. We analysed a Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival optical spectrum taken during a period of low radio and optical activity of the source. We estimated the mass of the central black hole using the width of the CIV emission line. In our work, we have also investigated SDSS archival optical photometric data and UV GALEX observations to estimate the thermal-disk emission contribution of GB6 J1239+0443. Our analysis of the gamma-ray data taken during the flaring episodes indicates a flat gamma-ray spectrum, with an extension of up to 15 GeV, with no statistically...

  6. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  7. Comparison of short period InAs/GaSb superlattices on GaSb and GaAs substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Type II superlattices (SLs) short period InAs(4ML)/GaSb(8ML) were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on lattice-mismatched GaAs substrates and on GaSb substrates. A smooth GaSb epilayer was formed on GaAs substrates by inserting mulit-buffer layers including an interfacial misfit mode AlSb quantum dot layer and AlSb/GaSb superlattices smooth layer. SLs grown on GaAs substrates (GaAs-based SLs) showed well-resolved satellite peaks in XRD. GaSb-based SLs with better structural quality and smoother surface showed strong photoluminescence at 2.55 μm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 20 meV, narrower than 31 meV of GaAs-based SLs. Inferior optical absorption of GaAs-based SL was observed in the range of 2―3 μm. Photoresponse of GaSb-based SLs showed the cut-off wavelength at 2.6 μm.

  8. Characteristics of GaN/InGaN Double-Heterostructure Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The p-GaN/i-InxGa1−xN/n-GaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic (PV cells have been fabricated and the theoretical photovoltaic properties were also calculated in this work. From theoretical simulation, higher efficiency can be obtained in GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with higher In composition in i-InGaN intrinsic layer. GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14% were fabricated and characterized for demonstrating with the simulated results. The corresponding photoelectrical conversion efficiency of fabricated GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14% is 0.51%, 0.53%, and 0.32% under standard AM 1.5G measurement condition, respectively. GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells with In composition of 10% showed high open-circuit voltage (Voc of 2.07 V and fill factor (F.F. of 80.67%. The decrease of Voc and FF was observed as In composition increasing from 10% to 14%. For comparing with the fabricated GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells, theoretical conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14%, is 1.80%, 2.04%, and 2.27%, respectively. The difference of GaN/InGaN photovoltaic properties between theoretical simulation and experimental measurement could be attributed to the inferior quality of InGaN epilayer and GaN/InGaN interface generated as the increase of In composition.

  9. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  10. Electrical Characteristics of InGaN/AlGaN and InGaN/GaN MQW Near UV-LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Sen; YU Tong-Jun; HUANG Liu-Bing; JIA Chuan-Yu; PAN Yao-Bo; YANG Zhi-Jian; CHEN Zhi-Zhong; QIN Zhi-Xin; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Ino.05Gao.95N/AJo.07Gao.93N and Ino.05Gao.95N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) at 400 nm wavelength are measured. It is found that for In-GaN/AlGaN MQW LEDs, both ideality factor and parallel resistance are similar to those of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs, while series resistance is two times larger. It is suggested that the AJ0.07Ga0.93N barrier layer did not change crystal quality and electrical characteristic ofp-n junction either, but brought larger series resistance. As a result, InGaN/AlGaN MQW LEDs suffer more serious thermal dissipation problem although they show higher light output efficiency.

  11. Thermal diffusion of Mn through GaAs overlayers on (Ga, Mn)As.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, J; Ulfat, I; Ilver, L; Sadowski, J; Karlsson, K; Kanski, J

    2011-03-01

    Thermally stimulated diffusion of Mn through thin layers of GaAs has been studied by x-ray photoemission. (Ga, Mn)As samples with 5 at% Mn were capped with 4, 6 and 8 monolayer (ML) GaAs, and Mn diffusing through the GaAs was trapped on the surface by means of amorphous As. It was found that the out-diffusion is completely suppressed for an 8 ML thick GaAs film. The short diffusion length is attributed to an electrostatic barrier formed at the (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs interface.

  12. Thermal diffusion of Mn through GaAs overlayers on (Ga, Mn)As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, J; Ulfat, I; Ilver, L; Kanski, J [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sadowski, J [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Karlsson, K [Department of Life Sciences, University of Skoevde, SE-541 28 Skoevde (Sweden)

    2011-03-02

    Thermally stimulated diffusion of Mn through thin layers of GaAs has been studied by x-ray photoemission. (Ga, Mn)As samples with 5 at% Mn were capped with 4, 6 and 8 monolayer (ML) GaAs, and Mn diffusing through the GaAs was trapped on the surface by means of amorphous As. It was found that the out-diffusion is completely suppressed for an 8 ML thick GaAs film. The short diffusion length is attributed to an electrostatic barrier formed at the (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs interface.

  13. Chemisorption of Al and Ga on the GaAs (110) surface

    OpenAIRE

    Swarts, C. A.; Barton, J J; Goddard, W. A.; T. C. Mcgill

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the initial stages of the chemisorption of Al and Ga on the clean GaAs (110) surface by applying quantum chemical methods to small clusters representing Al or Ga on GaAs (110). These calculations suggest that at smallest coverages Al or Ga bind to a surface Ga atom; for higher coverages Al and the surface Ga interchange positions. We have obtained the binding energy, the chemical shifts of the Ga–3d, As–3d and Al–2p states, and the microscopic dipole associated with chemisorpt...

  14. Thermal Stability of Strained AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; XIAO Hong-Di; LIN Zhao-Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ The thermal stability of strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is characterized by comparing unannealed and 700℃ 30-min annealed Ni Schottky contacts prepared on strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Using photoemission, capacitance-voltage measurements, and the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger's and Poisson's equations, it is found that after 700℃ 30-min thermal annealing the Schottky barrier height of Ni Schottky contacts on strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is increased, and the sheet density of polarization charges and the sheet density of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) electrons for the strained AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are reduced. These results are closely related to the performance of AlGaN/GaN HFETs at high temperature.

  15. Ga NMR study on UNiGa5 and UPtGa_5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Walstedt, R. E.; Tokiwa, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Onuki, Y.

    2003-03-01

    Actinide compounds exhibit a variety of magnetic properties, reflecting the characteristic features of 5f electrons. Here, we focus on UNiGa5 and UPtGa_5, which are 5f-itinerant antiferromagnets with Néel temperatures TN = 86 K (Ni) and 26 K (Pt). Remarkably, recent neutron scattering experiments^1 have revealed that UNiGa5 and UPtGa_5, although nearly identical crystallographically, are quite different in their magnetic structure below T_N. To clarify the origin of these different magnetic structures, ^69,71Ga NMR measurements have been carried out for these two compounds. >From NMR spectra, the Knight shift K(T) has been evaluated. By the K-i plot, we have successfully separated the T-independent term K0 from the T-dependent term K_CW(T). Noting that K0 reflects the Van Vleck susceptibility of the f-electrons, we discuss the difference of the two compounds from a microscopic of view. 1) Y. Tokiwa et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71 (2002) 725

  16. A computational-intelligence-based optimization of agents' initial positions in land combat simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunguo; LIANG Yanchun; GE Hongwei; CAO Lijuan; LEE Heow Pueh

    2003-01-01

    The optimization of agents' initial properties enables agents to perform their assigned tasks more perfectly. This paper presents an optimizing method using the combination of radial basis function (RBF) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA). In the land combat simulation, the method can ensure that the agents optimized defeat the agents not optimized absolutely. Compared with the optimization based on support vector machines (SVM), the proposed method improves the efficiency more than twenty times, so it suits the cases where the speed as well as performance is required.

  17. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  18. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  19. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  20. DC~3 Gb/s LD/EA Drivers Using Discrete Double Polysilicon Bipolar Transistors%复合多晶硅双极晶体管DC~3 Gb/s LD/EA驱动器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子宇

    2002-01-01

    本文介绍了一种新型LD/EA驱动器.该驱动器采用四个塑封NPN多晶硅双极晶体管和一个常规硅双极晶体管作为有源器件,可以在25Ω负载上产生50mA的调制电流用于直接驱动激光器或在50Ω负载上产生2.5V的调制电压用于驱动EA调制器.该驱动器的工作速率为DC至3Gb/s,调制电流和偏置电流调节范围分别为5~50mA,上升、下降时间小于100ps.

  1. The suggestion to GB8239-1997 《Nonmal Concreto small hollow blak》%对GB 8239-1997《普通混凝土小型空心砌块》的一点建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百湛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 随着墙体材料改革的不断深入,烧结普通砖已在许多地方被禁止使用,替代产品也不断涌现,现在普通混凝土小型空心砌块已逐渐被人们接受.作为检测部门,我们接受的空心砌块检测越来越多,在按GB8239-1997检测过程中我们发现该标准简洁,实用.但对外观质量的技术要求中有一点不好理解.在此提出,与同行探讨.

  2. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Multi-MgxNy/GaN Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer. Compared with conventional HEMT devices with a low-temperature GaN buffer, smaller gate and source-drain leakage current could be achieved with this new buffer design. Consequently, the electron mobility was larger for the proposed device due to the reduction of defect density and the corresponding improvement of crystalline quality as result of using the multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer.

  3. Utilisation of GaN and InGaN/GaN with nanoporous structures for water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, J.; Bai, J.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We report a cost-effective approach to the fabrication of GaN based nanoporous structure for applications in renewable hydrogen production. Photoelectrochemical etching in a KOH solution has been employed to fabricate both GaN and InGaN/GaN nanoporous structures with pore sizes ranging from 25 to 60 nm, obtained by controlling both etchant concentration and applied voltage. Compared to as-grown planar devices the nanoporous structures have exhibited a significant increase of photocurrent with a factor of up to four times. An incident photon conversion efficiency of up to 46% around the band edge of GaN has been achieved.

  4. 基于GB/T 20274的信息系统的安全技术保障度量与评估模型%GB/T 20274-based security assurance metrics and evaluation model for information systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江常青; 安伟; 林家骏; 张雪芹; 袁文浩

    2012-01-01

    A security assurance measurement and evaluation model was developed to reduce information system security risks.The Chinese GB/T 20274 standard defines security assurance for information systems and specifies a security technical assurance metric with six capability maturity levels.This paper classifies the information assurance elements into three categories as the composite independent security assurance,composite complementary security assurance and composite correlated security assurance according to the relationships among system components.An access path and the dependence and correlation relationships among components are used in an evaluation model for information system security assurance.%为了实现现代信息系统的安全低风险运行,研究了信息系统的安全技术保障度量及评估模型。基于国家标准GB/T 20274定义了信息系统安全技术保障评估的安全技术保障要素集,并建议以能力成熟度等级作为信息系统的安全技术保障程度的度量。依据信息系统中组件组合后的相互关系将信息系统安全技术保障要素划分为组合独立性安全技术保障要素、组合互补性安全技术保障要素以及组合关联性安全技术保障要素,并且通过引入访问路径的定义和组件之间的依赖和关联关系,给出了信息系统安全技术保障的形式化评估模型及项目实现。

  5. Polarization-induced Zener tunnel diodes in GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Wenjun; Islam, S. M.; Pourang, Kasra; Fay, Patrick [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep, E-mail: djena@cornell.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Departments of ECE and MSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-10-19

    By the insertion of thin In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers into Nitrogen-polar GaN p-n junctions, polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions are studied. The reverse-bias interband Zener tunneling current is found to be weakly temperature dependent, as opposed to the strongly temperature-dependent forward bias current. This indicates tunneling as the primary reverse-bias current transport mechanism. The Indium composition in the InGaN layer is systematically varied to demonstrate the increase in the interband tunneling current. Comparing the experimentally measured tunneling currents to a model helps identify the specific challenges in potentially taking such junctions towards nitride-based polarization-induced tunneling field-effect transistors.

  6. Polarization-induced Zener tunnel diodes in GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the insertion of thin InxGa1−xN layers into Nitrogen-polar GaN p-n junctions, polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions are studied. The reverse-bias interband Zener tunneling current is found to be weakly temperature dependent, as opposed to the strongly temperature-dependent forward bias current. This indicates tunneling as the primary reverse-bias current transport mechanism. The Indium composition in the InGaN layer is systematically varied to demonstrate the increase in the interband tunneling current. Comparing the experimentally measured tunneling currents to a model helps identify the specific challenges in potentially taking such junctions towards nitride-based polarization-induced tunneling field-effect transistors

  7. Temperature coefficients for GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the temperature coefficients for MBE-grown GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb multijunction solar cells and the corresponding single junction sub-cells. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements were carried out using a solar simulator equipped with a 1000 W Xenon lamp and a three-band AM1.5D simulator. The triple-junction cell exhibited an efficiency of 31% at AM1.5G illumination and an efficiency of 37–39% at 70x real sun concentration. The external quantum efficiency was also measured at different temperatures. The temperature coefficients up to 80°C, for the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current density, and the conversion efficiency were determined to be −7.5 mV/°C, 0.040 mA/cm2/°C, and −0.09%/°C, respectively

  8. Temperature coefficients for GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, Arto; Isoaho, Riku; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Aho, Timo; Raappana, Marianna; Guina, Mircea [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-09-28

    We report the temperature coefficients for MBE-grown GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb multijunction solar cells and the corresponding single junction sub-cells. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements were carried out using a solar simulator equipped with a 1000 W Xenon lamp and a three-band AM1.5D simulator. The triple-junction cell exhibited an efficiency of 31% at AM1.5G illumination and an efficiency of 37–39% at 70x real sun concentration. The external quantum efficiency was also measured at different temperatures. The temperature coefficients up to 80°C, for the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current density, and the conversion efficiency were determined to be −7.5 mV/°C, 0.040 mA/cm{sup 2}/°C, and −0.09%/°C, respectively.

  9. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  10. 银杏 GbSAD 基因对非生物胁迫的响应及原核表达1)%Expression Analysis of GbSAD from Ginkgo biloba in Response to Abiotic Stress and Its Prokaryotic Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新亮; 蔡金峰; 王欢利; 曹福亮

    2015-01-01

    以悬浮培养的银杏愈伤组织为材料,采用荧光定量RT-PCR研究了GbSAD基因在高盐和不同外源激素处理条件下的表达模式。结果表明:外施100μmol· L-1水杨酸(SA)后,GbSAD表达量发生显著变化;外施100μmol· L-1脱落酸(ABA)、40μmol· L-1乙烯利(ETH)、100μmol· L-1茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA),GbSAD表达量未呈现显著变化;外施200 mmol· L-1氯化钠( NaCl),GbSAD表达量小幅度降低。 GbSAD组织表达分析表明基因在根、茎、叶、雄花和雌花中均有表达,在叶中表达量最高。 SAD氨基酸序列同源比对发现,GbSAD与其他被子植物的序列相似度较高,表明GbSAD在进化上较保守。将银杏GbSAD克隆到原核表达载体pET-32a(+)中,转化大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli) BL21(DE3)并诱导表达。结果表明,GbSAD蛋白在1 mmol· L-1IPTG的诱导下,培养2 h即能实现融合蛋白的高效表达,为进一步纯化目的蛋白及研究其功能奠定了基础。%We studied the expression pattern of GbSAD under abiotic stress , and cultured the callus of ginkgo in the MS liquid media supplied with NaCl and different exogenous hormones .The expression of GbSAD was induced by exogenous SA ( 100μmol· L-1), but not altered when exposed to exogenous ABA (100μmol· L-1), ETH (40μmol· L-1) or MeJA (100μmol· L-1 ) .The expression of GbSAD was slightly down-regulated by NaCl treatment .GbSAD expressed in various tis-sues, and had the highest expression level in leaves .The deduced amino acid sequence of GbSAD shared a higher identity with SAD from other angiosperms , which indicated that GbSAD was remarkably conservative throughout evolution .We cloned GbSAD into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+) , and then transformed the recombined plasmid into Esche-richia coliBL21 ( DE3) to induce its expression .The fusion protein was expressed to a high level at 1 mmol· L-1 IPTG in-duction for 2 h

  11. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  12. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  13. Promoter Analysis and Transcriptional Profiling of Ginkgo biloba 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (GbHMGR gene in Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongling LIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terpene trilactones (TTLs are believed to be important for the pharmacological properties of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR is a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of TTLs. In this study, an 1.2-kb fragment of 5’ flanking region of the HMGR gene (GbHMGR, was isolated from G. biloba by genome walking. Extensive sequence analysis revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements in light-regulated transcription,  hormone signaling (gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylic acid, elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses, and plant defense signaling (W-box/WRKY that are common to the promoter region of GbHMGR. EMSA analysis suggested possible functionality of W-box in GbHMGR promoter region. The behavior of gene transcripts in ginkgo callus upon light, low temperature, MeJA and SA treatments further verified the regulatory function of GbHMGR promoter. A significant positive relationship between gene expression level and total TTL contents suggested that GbHMGR might be one of key genes involved in TTL biosynthesis in G. biloba.

  14. Demonstration of 20Gb/s polarization-insensitive wavelength switching system for high-speed free-space optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Ye, Ya-lin; Wen, Yu; Duan, Tao; Feng, Huan

    2015-10-01

    A 20Gb/s polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength switching system for high-speed free-space optical communication (FSO) network is experimentally demonstrated All-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) is implemented using four-wave mixing (FWM) by highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF). In the experimental setup, a simple actively mode-locked fiber ring laser (AML-FRL) with repetition frequency from 1 to 15 GHz is used to generate eight 2.5Gb/s tributary signals, which are multiplexed into one 20Gb/s optical data stream. At the receiver, the 20 Gb/s OTDM data stream is demultiplexed down to 2.5 Gb/s via a polarization-insensitive FWM scheme. The whole space communication distance is over 10 meters in building hallway. The experimental results show that this system can stably run over 24 hours at 10-9 BER level, thus the proposed architecture can work at higher rate with wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and high order modulation schemes.

  15. MOVPE growth of InGaAs quantum dots on GaP for nanomemory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) are realized on GaP(001) substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. A prospective application of such QDs is the fabrication of nanomemory cells. These QD memory cells promise to combine the fast write and erase times of a DRAM with the non-volatility of a Flash memory. By replacing GaAs with GaP as matrix material, an extension of the storage time of holes in InAs QDs at room temperature from 0.5 ns to 1 s can be expected. Additionally, GaP offers the potential of integration with Si, since GaP and Si have almost the same lattice constant. The growth of coherent InGaAs QDs on GaP is found to depend critically on the deposition of a thin layer of GaAs prior to QD growth. On a bare GaP substrate the growth proceeds purely two-dimensional even for high indium concentrations of up to 83%. In contrast, Stranski-Krastanow growth of InGaAs QDs is observed already for indium concentrations as low as 25% when the surface of the GaP substrate is covered by 3 monolayers (ML) of GaAs. In0.25Ga0.75As/3 ML GaAs/GaP QDs exhibit luminescence around 1.9 eV. The storage time of holes in In0.25Ga0.75As/3 ML GaAs/GaP QDs is estimated to 3 μs at room temperature.

  16. A 20-Gb/s 1:2 demultiplexer in 0.18-μm CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Changchun; Wang Zhigong; Shi Si; Li Wei

    2009-01-01

    A 1:2 demultiplexer (DEMUX) has been designed and fabricated in SMIC's standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology, based on standard CML logic and current-density-centric design philosophy. For the integrity of the DEMUX and the reliability of the internal operations, a data input buffer and a static latch were adopted. At the same time, the static latch enables the IC to work in a broader data rate range than the dynamic latch. Measurement results show that under a 1.8-V supply voltage, the DEMUX can operate reliably at any data rate in the range of 5-20 Gb/s. The chip size is 875 × 640 μm2 and the power consumption is 144 mW, in which the core circuit has a share of less than 28%.

  17. Analyses of spectral efficiency and nonlinear tolerance of DPSK formats in 160-Gb/s Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jeppesen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    Five-channel 160-Gb/s wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems using ABA dispersion map and Raman amplification are investigated numerically. Transmission distance and system margin are evaluated for return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) and carrier-suppressed return......-to-zero (CSRZ)-DPSK formats. The results show that RZ-DPSK can offer 2300-km system reach at large WDM channel spacing, while CSRZ-DPSK is more robust against nonlinear effects in the fibers and offers a reach of 1900 km at a spectral efficiency of 0.53 b/s/Hz. CSRZ-DPSK can also provide twice the dispersion...

  18. Compiled data set of exact NOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings and scalar couplings for the protein GB3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Vögeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We compiled an NMR data set consisting of exact nuclear Overhauser enhancement (eNOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs and scalar (J couplings for GB3, which forms one of the largest and most diverse data set for structural characterization of a protein to date. All data have small experimental errors, which are carefully estimated. We use the data in the research article Vogeli et al., 2015, Complementarity and congruence between exact NOEs and traditional NMR probes for spatial decoding of protein dynamics, J. Struct. Biol., 191, 3, 306–317, doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.07.008 [1] for cross-validation in multiple-state structural ensemble calculation. We advocate this set to be an ideal test case for molecular dynamics simulations and structure calculations.

  19. Single and Multicasting Inverted-Wavelength Conversion at 80 Gb/s Based on a Single Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80 Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cross-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In all the cases, converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and large eye opening are obtained. For single-channel wavelength conversion, the ER of the output signal is as high as 30.10 dB. For three-channel wavelength multicasting, high quality converted signals could also be observed. The ERs with three channels are 21.54 dB, 18.58 dB and 17.72 dB, respectively. Thus, one- and three-channel wavelength conversion with high performance can be achieved by using a single quantum-well SOA. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  20. A CMOS 0.13 mu m, 5-Gb/s laser driver for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Soos, C; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2012-01-01

    The GigaBit Laser Driver (GBLD) is a radiation tolerant ASIC designed to drive both edge emitting lasers and VCSELs at data rates up to 5 Gb/s. It is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) and Versatile Link projects, which are designing a bi-directional optical data transmission system capable of operating in the radiation environment of a typical HEP experiment. The GBLD can provide laser diode modulation currents up to 24 mA and laser bias currents up to 43 mA. Pre- and de-emphasis functions are implemented to compensate for high external capacitive loads and asymmetric laser response. The chip, designed in a 0.13 $\\mu$m CMOS technology, is powered by a single 2.5 V power supply and can be programmed via an $I2C$ interface.

  1. Generation and transmission of 512-Gb/s quad-carrier digital super-Nyquist spectral shaped signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2013-12-16

    A novel digital super-Nyquist signal generation scheme is proposed to further suppress the Nyquist signal bandwidth and reduce the channel crosstalk without using optical pre-filtering. The spectrum of the generated super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is much more compact compared with regular Nyquist QPSK signal. Therefore, only optical couplers are needed for super-Nyquist WDM channel multiplexing. By using the 64-GSa/s high speed DAC, 32-GBaud super-Nyquist 9-QAM signal is generated within 25-GHz grid for quad-carrier 400G channels. We successfully generate and transmit 4 channels quad-carrier 512-Gb/s super-Nyquist 9-QAM-like signal within 100-GHz grid over 2975-km at a net SE of 4b/s/Hz (after excluding the 20% soft-decision FEC overhead).

  2. Optical Backplane Based on Ring-Resonators: Scalability and Performance Analysis for 10 Gb/s OOK-NRZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Rizzelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of architectures that implement optical switching without any need of optoelectronic conversion allows us to overcome the limits imposed by today’s electronic backplane, such as power consumption and dissipation, as well as power supply and footprint requirements. We propose a ring-resonator based optical backplane for router line-card interconnection. In particular we investigate how the scalability of the architecture is affected by the following parameters: number of line cards, switching-element round-trip losses, frequency drifting due to thermal variations, and waveguide-crossing effects. Moreover, to quantify the signal distortions introduced by filtering operations, the bit error rate for the different parameter conditions are shown in case of an on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ input signal at 10 Gb/s.

  3. 墨CM57710:10GbE聚合网络界面控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Broadcom日前推出单芯片双端口10GbE聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC)——BCM57710,以迎合大批量服务器的设计。基于之前两代成熟的NetXtreme II千兆以太网C-NIC技术,Broadcom此次成功发布业界首款10Gbps(千兆比特/每秒)速率的全功能、单芯片聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC),这款产品不需要外部缓存的支持。

  4. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  5. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  6. 112 Gb/s sub-cycle 16-QAM Nyquist-SCM for intra-datacenter connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Dris, Stefanos; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Datacenter traffic is exploding. Ongoing advancements in network infrastructure that ride on Moore's law are unable to keep up, necessitating the introduction of multiplexing and advanced modulation formats for optical interconnects in order to overcome bandwidth limitations, and scale lane speeds with energy- and cost-efficiency to 100 Gb/s and beyond. While the jury is still out as to how this will be achieved, schemes relying on intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) are regarded as particularly attractive, due to their inherent implementation simplicity. Moreover, the scaling-out of datacenters calls for longer transmission reach exceeding 300 m, requiring single-mode solutions. In this work we advocate using 16-QAM sub-cycle Nyquist-SCM as a simpler alternative to discrete multitone (DMT), but which is still more bandwidth-efficient than PAM-4. The proposed optical interconnect is demonstrated at 112 Gb/s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest rate achieved in a single-polarization implementation of SCM. Off-the-shelf components are used: A DFB laser, a 24.3 GHz electro-absorption modulator (EAM) and a limiting photoreceiver, combined with equalization through digital signal processing (DSP) at the receiver. The EAM is driven by a low-swing (<1 V) arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), which produces a 28 Gbaud 16-QAM electrical signal with carrier frequency at ~15 GHz. Tight spectral shaping is leveraged as a means of maintaining signal fidelity when using low-bandwidth electro-optic components; matched root-raised-cosine transmit and receive filters with 0.1 excess bandwidth are thus employed. Performance is assessed through transmission experiments over 1250 m and 2000 m of SMF.

  7. Good manufacturing practice production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use.

  8. Gate Leakage Current Reduction With Advancement of Graded Barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gate leakage current reduction solution of AlGaN/GaN HEMT device issue has been addressed in this paper with compositional grading of AlGaN barrier layer. This work is also conjugated with the critical thickness limitation of heterostructure material growth. Hence, critical thickness calculation of AlGaN over GaN has been kept in special view. 1D Schrodinger and Poisson solver was used to calculate the 2DEG concentration and effective location to use it in the ATLAS device simulator for the predictions. The proposed Al0.50Ga0.50N/Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.20Ga0.80N/GaN HEMT structure exhibits the leakage current of the order of around 15 nA/mm at gate voltage of 1 V.

  9. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X; Li, H; Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A; Sanchez-Garcia, M A; Calleja, E; Draxl, C; Trampert, A

    2016-02-12

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  10. Strain Field in GaAs/GaN Wafer-Bonding Interface and Its Microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; GUO Xia; GU Xiao-Ling; LI Yi-Bo; SHEN Guang-Di

    2007-01-01

    The strain fields in a wafer-bonded GaAs/GaN structure aFe measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).Image quality (IQ) of EBSD Kikuchi patterns and rotation angles of crystal lattices as strain sensirive parameters aFe employed to characterize the distortion and the rotation of crystal lattices in the GaAs-interface-GaN structure.as well as to display the strain fields.The results indicate that the influence region of the strains in the wafer-bonded GaAs/GaN structure is mainly located in GaAs side because the strength of GaAs is weaker than that of GaN.The cross-sectional image of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further reveals the distortion and the rotation of crystal lattices induced by strains systematically.

  11. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Li, H.; Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Draxl, C.; Trampert, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  12. Simulation of polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Na; ZHAO; Degang; YANG; Hui

    2004-01-01

    A method for introducing polarization effects in the simulation of GaN-based heterojunction devices is proposed. A δ doping layer is inserted at the interface of heterojunction and the ionized donors or acceptors act as polarization induced fixed charges. Thus polarization effects can be taken into account in a traditional device simulator. Ga-face and N-face single AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are simulated, and the simulation results show that carrier confinement takes place only in the former structure while not in the latter one. The sheet density of free electrons at the interface of Ga-face AlGaN/GaN increases with the Al composition and the thickness of AlGaN. The consistence of simulation results with the experiments and calculations reported elsewhere shows that this method can effectively introduce polarization effects in the simulation of GaN-based heterojunction devices.

  13. HCMV gB genotypes in cervical secretion and placenta tissues in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastearn Brazil Genótipos gB de citomegalovírus humano em secreção cervical e placenta no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV displays genetic variability in several regions, supposed to be related with strain-specific tissue tropism and immunopathogenesis. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes gB glycoprotein, HCMV strains can be assigned to one of four genotypes. Previous studies have addressed gB genotyping mostly by investigating strains derived from immunosuppressed patients, sometimes without previous knowledge about genotype distribution in a geographic area. The present study verified the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes of strains obtained from immunocompetent women at Vitória City, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern, Brazil. The HCMV genome was extracted from their cervical secretion, fetal and maternal placenta tissues (chorionic villous and decidua from abortion cases and from white blood cells (WBCs. HCMV genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of amplified product from the high variability site of the UL55 gene. All four genotypes were observed in both cervical secretion and placenta, whereas in WBCs a single gB1 genotype was detected. HCMV gB1 and gB2 genotypes were detected, respectively, in nine and in six of the 23 studied samples, while gB3 and gB4 were each found in four separate samples of the total. The differences in genotype frequency were not considered statistically significant. No mixed genotype infection was observed. The results indicated that the four gB HCMV genotypes had no particular tropism for placenta tissues and that all genotypes circulated within immunocompetent women at the time and in the region of study.O citomegalovírus humano (HCMV apresenta variabilidade em diversas regiões do genoma, supostamente relacionada ao tropismo tecidual e imunopatogênese viral. Baseando-se na variação de seqüência do gene UL55 que codifica a glicoproteína gB, o HCMV pode ser classificado em um dos quatro genótipos. Estudos prévios têm investigado a

  14. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  15. Shiga toxin receptor Gb3Cer/CD77: tumor-association and promising therapeutic target in pancreas and colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Distler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite progress in adjuvant chemotherapy in the recent decades, pancreatic and colon cancers remain common causes of death worldwide. Bacterial toxins, which specifically bind to cell surface-exposed glycosphingolipids, are a potential novel therapy. We determined the expression of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer/CD77, the Shiga toxin receptor, in human pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tissue lipid extracts of matched pairs of cancerous and adjacent normal tissue from 21 pancreatic and 16 colon cancer patients were investigated with thin-layer chromatography overlay assay combined with a novel mass spectrometry approach. Gb3Cer/CD77 was localized by immunofluorescence microscopy of cryosections from malignant and corresponding healthy tissue samples. 62% of pancreatic and 81% of colon adenocarcinomas showed increased Gb3Cer/CD77 expression, whereas 38% and 19% of malignant pancreas and colon tissue, respectively, did not, indicating an association of this marker with neoplastic transformation. Also, Gb3Cer/CD77 was associated with poor differentiation (G>2 in pancreatic cancer (P = 0.039. Mass spectrometric analysis evidenced enhanced expression of Gb3Cer/CD77 with long (C24 and short chain fatty acids (C16 in malignant tissues and pointed to the presence of hydroxylated fatty acid lipoforms, which are proposed to be important for receptor targeting. They could be detected in 86% of pancreatic and about 19% of colon adenocarcinomas. Immunohistology of tissue cryosections indicated tumor-association of these receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Enhanced expression of Gb3Cer/CD77 in most pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas prompts consideration of Shiga toxin, its B-subunit or B-subunit-derivatives as novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these challenging malignancies.

  16. 浅析GB 12021.2-2008《家用电冰箱耗电量限定值及能源效率等级》%Analysis of GB 12021.2-2008 The maximum allowable values of the energy consumption and energy ef ficiency grade f or household refrigerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李弢; 戴红

    2010-01-01

    GB 12021.2-2008为研究对象,分析家用电冰箱新老能效标准的差异,并对与GB/T 8059对耗电量测试的环境温度要求不同而引起的几个问题进行分析,探讨其解决方案.

  17. Suggestions for studying key points of GB/T 15834-2011 General Rules for Punctuations to editors of sci-tech books and periodicals%给科技书刊编辑关于GB/T 15834-2011《标点符号用法》学习重点的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴昌; 陈浩元

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,some suggestions for studying key points of GB/T 15834-2011 General Rules for Punctuations are presented to editors of sci-tech books and periodicals.%对科技书刊编辑提出了关于GB/T 15834-2011《标点符号用法》学习重点的若干建议.

  18. Strain gauges of GaSb-FeGa1.3 eutectic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyev, M.I.; Khalilova, A. A.; Arasly, D. H.; Rahimov, R. N.; Tanoğlu, Metin; ÖZYÜZER, Lütfi

    2004-01-01

    A needle-shaped metallic FeGa1.3 phase oriented in a specific direction and uniformly distributed within a GaSb matrix was grown by a vertical Bridgman method. Strain-gauge characteristics, such as strain-sensitivity coefficient (S), temperature coefficient of strain sensitivity (TCS) and temperature coefficient of resistance, of GaSb and GaSb-FeGa1.3 eutectic alloy have been investigated in the range of 200 to 400 K under deformation up to strains of 1.3 × 10-3. The value of S of the GaSb-Fe...

  19. Graphene induced remote surface scattering in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiwen; Li, Dan; Wang, Bobo; Liu, Bin; Chen, Famin; Jin, Guangri; Lu, Yanwu, E-mail: ywlu@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2014-10-20

    The mobilities of single-layer graphene combined with AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on two-dimensional electron gases in graphene/AlGaN/GaN double heterojunction are calculated. The impact of electron density in single-layer graphene is also studied. Remote surface roughness (RSR) and remote interfacial charge (RIC) scatterings are introduced into this heterostructure. The mobilities limited by RSR and RIC are an order of magnitude higher than that of interface roughness and misfit dislocation. This study contributes to designing structures for generation of higher electron mobility in graphene/AlGaN/GaN double heterojunction.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: AlGaN/GaN double-channel HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Quan; Yue, Hao; Xiaohua, Ma; Pengtian, Zheng; Yuanbin, Xie

    2010-04-01

    The fabrication of AlGaN/GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors on sapphire substrates is reported. Two carrier channels are formed in an AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN/GaN multilayer structure. The DC performance of the resulting double-channel HEMT shows a wider high transconductance region compared with single-channel HEMT. Simulations provide an explanation for the influence of the double-channel on the high transconductance region. The buffer trap is suggested to be related to the wide region of high transconductance. The RF characteristics are also studied.

  1. Ultraviolet Phototransistors on AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; JIANG Wen-Hai; REN Chun-Jiang; LI Zhong-Hui; JIAO Gang; DONG Xun; CHEN Tang-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of phototransistors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown over 6H-SiC substrates. The device has two functions: as a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and an ultraviolet photodetector at the same time. As an HEMT, its maximum transconductance is 170 mS/mm, while the minimum cutoff frequency fT and the maximum oscillation frequency fm axe 19 and 35 GHz, respectively.As a photodetector, the device is visible blind, with an ultraviolet/green contrast of three orders of magnitude,and a responsivity as high as 1700 A/W at the wavelength of 362nm.

  2. InGaN/GaN Nanowire LEDs and Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The large specific surface, and the associated high density of surface states was found to limit the light output power and quantum efficiency of nanowire-array devices, despite their potential for addressing the “green-gap” and efficiency-droop issues. The phonon and carrier confinement in nanowires also led to junction heating, and reduced heat dissipation. In this paper, we will present our studies on effective surface states passivation in InGaN/GaN quantum-disks (Qdisks)-in-nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers grown on silicon (Si), as well as our recent work on nanowires LEDs grown on bulk-metal, a non-conventional substrate.

  3. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  4. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  5. Access Path Planning of Mobile Agent in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyu Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the two-stage optimization model and hybrid optimized algorithm based on evolutionary computation, a new two-stage optimization model that more conforms to the actual demand is proposed on the basis of formal description of Mobile Agent access path planning. This new model divides the access path planning problem into two sub problems of integer linear programming --data integration sub paths and return sub paths, which can reduce search space and improve the efficiency of algorithm. Then a hybrid optimized method named GAPSO, combined with GA (Genetic Algorithm and PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization, is advanced to solve this model, which integrates discrete PSO into the interlace operation of GA to avoid infeasible solution and improve search quality. Meanwhile convergence can be accelerated by optimizing the GA population with PSO in search of return sub paths. By means of virtual connected topology graph, the high-quality to-be-accessed candidate node set is acquired, the number of to-be-selected nodes is reduced,and the complexity of solution space is decreased, making planning algorithm performance not rely on network scale directly any more. Simulation results show that the advantages of the optimization model is obvious as the node number increases, and GASPO has a better performance than GA and BPSO in the same model

  6. Determination of basic orange by improved GB/T 23496-2009%对GB/T23496-2009测定碱性橙方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海鸥; 胡佳薇; 王敏娟; 王辛

    2013-01-01

    目的:对国家标准《GB/T 23496-2009食品中禁用物质的检测碱性橙的检测高效液相色谱法》过程中遇到的回收率低、操作时间长等问题进行改进.方法:称取5 g样品,用25 ml无水乙醇超声提取两次,取10 ml提取液,氮气吹干,用无水乙醇(固体样品)或正己烷(含油样品)溶解定容至1.0ml.色谱条件:Waters Symmetry C18柱(4.6 min×250 mm,5μm),流速1.0 ml/min,流动相为乙腈:0.03%三氟乙酸(20∶80),进样量:10.0μl,检测波长480 nm.结果:该方法测定3种碱性橙的线性范围均为0.5μg/ml~50.0μg/ml,检出限为0.05 mg/kg,相关系数(r)均>0.9999,加标回收率为86%~100%.结论:改进后的检测方法在回收率、操作简便性均优于国标法.%Objective:To improve the low recovery and long operation time of the method in "Detection of prohibited substances in food,basic orange detection with HPLC" (GB/T 23496-2009).Methods:Sample was weighed and extracted by ultrasonic with 25 ml absolute alcohol twice.Then 10 ml extraction liquid was dried by nitrogen,dissolved with absolute alcohol(solid samples) or hexane (oily samples) for constant volume.The separation was performed on Waters Symmetry C18 column(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5 μm) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with photodiode-array detection at 480 nm,the mobile phase was acetonitrile and 0.03 % trifluorocetic acid (20:80).Results:The linear range of this method was 0.5 μg/ml-50.0 μg/ml,and the detection limit was 0.05 mg/kg,the averagerecovery was in the range of 86% ~ 100%.Conclusion:The improved method has better recovery and shorter operating time for determination of basic orange than the GB/T 23496-2009.

  7. Herpesvirus 6 Glycoproteins B (gB), gH, gL, and gQ Are Necessary and Sufficient for Cell-to-Cell Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Yuki; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa; Arase, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    The human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) envelope glycoprotein gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 complex associates with host cell CD46 as its cellular receptor. Although gB has been suggested to be involved in HHV-6 infection, its function in membrane fusion has remained unclear. Here, we have developed an HHV-6A (strain GS)and HHV-6B (strain Z29) virus-free cell-to-cell fusion assay and demonstrate that gB and the gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 complex are the minimum components required for membrane fusion by HHV-6.

  8. Comparing the Effect of Acupressure at Two GB-21 and SP-6 Points on the Pain Severity of Active Phase of Delivery among Primiparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    M Akbarzadeh; Moradi, Z.; Zare, N.; MJ Hadiyanfard; A Jokar

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Skeletal muscle contraction, secondary to pain and fear, may cause a reaction in the pelvic floor muscle contraction and may result in atypical labor progress, fetal descent and rotation of head. The object of this study was to compare the effect of acupressure at two GB-21 and SP-6 points on the severity of labor pain. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 150 primiparous women were randomly divided into three groups of 1-Acupressure at GB-21 point, 2-Acupressure a...

  9. Channel-reuse bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s/λ in long-reach DWDM-PON employing self wavelength managed tunable laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Jiahe; Jiang, Xu; Chen, Xue; Wang, Liqian

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a channel-reuse, bidirectional, 10 Gb/s/λ, long-reach dense wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (DWDM-PON) and an optical beat noise-based automatic wavelength control method for a tunable laser used in a colorless optical network unit (ONU). A 42 km reach, channel-reuse, full-duplex, 10 Gb/s transmission on a 50 GHz DWDM grid is achieved. Transmission performance is also measured with different optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-backscattering-noise ratios (OSRBNRs) and different central wavelength shifts (WSs) between upstream signal and downstream signal in the channel-reuse system.

  10. 40 Gb/s Wavelength Conversion in a Cascade of an SOA and a NOLM and Demonstration of Extinction Ratio Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that ER can be improved when a NOLM is used as a wavelength conversion media. At 40 Gb/s, and ER of 7 dB for a converted signal generated by XGM in an SOA is improved to an ER of 10 dB after wavelength conversion in a NOLM.......We demonstrate that ER can be improved when a NOLM is used as a wavelength conversion media. At 40 Gb/s, and ER of 7 dB for a converted signal generated by XGM in an SOA is improved to an ER of 10 dB after wavelength conversion in a NOLM....

  11. Error-free Dispersion-uncompensated Transmission at 20 Gb/s over SSMF using a Hybrid III-V/SOI DML with MRR Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong;

    2016-01-01

    Error-free 20-Gb/s directly-modulated transmission is achieved by enhancing the dispersion tolerance of a III-V/SOI DFB laser with a silicon micro-ring resonator. Low (∼0.4 dB) penalty compared to back-to-back without ring is demonstrated after 5-km SSMF.......Error-free 20-Gb/s directly-modulated transmission is achieved by enhancing the dispersion tolerance of a III-V/SOI DFB laser with a silicon micro-ring resonator. Low (∼0.4 dB) penalty compared to back-to-back without ring is demonstrated after 5-km SSMF....

  12. Early detection of interstitial pneumonia by 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report our recent experience indicating usefulness of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy in 4 cases with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. These cases showed abnormal pulmonary 67Ga uptake with normal chest radiographs. The first case with malignant lymphoma and the second one with lung cancer suffered from pulmonary infection following secondary immuno-insufficiency due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Pneumocystis carinii was suspected as causative agent in the first case, and gram negative bacilli in the second case. The third case with lung cancer developed radiation pneumonia after radiotherapy. The fourth case with acute bronchitis developed drug induced interstitial pneumonia presumably due to minocycline administration. It is concluded that 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy is more sensitive for early detection of interstitial pneumonia than routine chest radiography. (author)

  13. Engineering of electric field distribution in GaN(cap)/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures: theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Janicki, L.; Misiewicz, J.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2016-09-01

    Polarization engineering of GaN-based heterostructures opens a way to develop advanced transistor heterostructures, although measurement of the electric field in such heterostructures is not a simple task. In this work, contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectroscopy has been applied to measure the electric field in GaN-based heterostructures. For a set of GaN(d  =  0, 5, 15, and 30 nm)/AlGaN(20 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of electric field in the GaN(cap) layer from 0.66 MV cm‑1 to 0.27 MV cm‑1 and an increase of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 0.57 MV cm‑1 to 0.99 MV cm‑1 have been observed with the increase in the GaN(cap) thickness from 5–30 nm. For a set of GaN(20 nm)/AlGaN(d  =  10, 20, 30, and 40 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 1.77 MV cm‑1 to 0.64 MV cm‑1 and an increase of the electric field in the GaN layer from 0.57 MV cm‑1 to 0.99 MV cm‑1 were observed with the increase in the AlGaN thickness from 10–40 nm. To determine the distribution of the electric field in these heterostructures the Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved in a self-consistent manner and matched with experimental data. It is shown that the built-in electric field in the GaN(cap) and AlGaN layers obtained from measurements does not reach values of electric field resulting only from polarization effects. The measured electric fields are smaller due to a screening of polarization effects by free carriers, which are inhomogeneously distributed across the heterostructure and accumulate at interfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that CER measurements supported by theoretical calculations are able to determine the electric field distribution in GaN-based heterostructures quantitatively, which is very important for polarization engineering in this material system.

  14. Engineering of electric field distribution in GaN(cap)/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures: theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Janicki, L.; Misiewicz, J.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2016-09-01

    Polarization engineering of GaN-based heterostructures opens a way to develop advanced transistor heterostructures, although measurement of the electric field in such heterostructures is not a simple task. In this work, contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectroscopy has been applied to measure the electric field in GaN-based heterostructures. For a set of GaN(d  =  0, 5, 15, and 30 nm)/AlGaN(20 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of electric field in the GaN(cap) layer from 0.66 MV cm-1 to 0.27 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 have been observed with the increase in the GaN(cap) thickness from 5-30 nm. For a set of GaN(20 nm)/AlGaN(d  =  10, 20, 30, and 40 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 1.77 MV cm-1 to 0.64 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the GaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 were observed with the increase in the AlGaN thickness from 10-40 nm. To determine the distribution of the electric field in these heterostructures the Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved in a self-consistent manner and matched with experimental data. It is shown that the built-in electric field in the GaN(cap) and AlGaN layers obtained from measurements does not reach values of electric field resulting only from polarization effects. The measured electric fields are smaller due to a screening of polarization effects by free carriers, which are inhomogeneously distributed across the heterostructure and accumulate at interfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that CER measurements supported by theoretical calculations are able to determine the electric field distribution in GaN-based heterostructures quantitatively, which is very important for polarization engineering in this material system.

  15. Development of new folate-based PET radiotracers: preclinical evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-folate conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); University Hospital Freiburg, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Wang, Xuejuan [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Nicolas, Guillaume [University Hospital Basel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Medina, Christelle; Raynal, Isabelle; Port, Marc [Guerbet, Research Department, Aulnay-sous-Bois (France)

    2011-01-15

    A number of {sup 111}In- and {sup 99m}Tc-folate-based tracers have been evaluated as diagnostic agents for imaging folate receptor (FR)-positive tumours. A {sup 68}Ga-folate-based radiopharmaceutical would be of great interest, combining the advantages of PET technology and the availability of {sup 68}Ga from a generator. The aim of the study was to develop a new {sup 68}Ga-folate-based PET radiotracer. Two new DOTA-folate conjugates, named P3026 and P1254, were synthesized using the 1,2-diaminoethane and 3-{l_brace}2-[2-(3-amino-propoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy{r_brace}-propylamine as a spacer, respectively. Both conjugates were labelled with {sup 67/68}Ga. Binding affinity, internalization and externalization studies were performed using the FR-positive KB cell line. Biodistribution and PET/CT imaging studies were performed in nude mice, on a folate-deficient diet, bearing KB and HT1080 (FR-negative) tumours, concurrently. The new radiotracers were evaluated comparatively to the reference molecule {sup 111}In-DTPA-folate ({sup 111}In-P3139). The K{sub d} values of {sup 67/68}Ga-P3026 (4.65 {+-} 0.82 nM) and {sup 67/68}Ga-P1254 (4.27 {+-} 0.42 nM) showed high affinity for the FR. The internalization rate followed the order {sup 67/68}Ga-P3026 >{sup 67/68}Ga-P1254 >{sup 111}In-P3139, while almost double cellular retention was found for {sup 67/68}Ga-P3026 and {sup 67/68}Ga-P1254, compared to {sup 111}In-P3139. The biodistribution data of {sup 67/68}Ga-DOTA-folates showed high and receptor-mediated uptake on the FR-positive tumours and kidneys, with no significant differences compared to {sup 111}In-P3139. PET/CT images, performed with {sup 68}Ga-P3026, showed high uptake in the kidneys and clear visualization of the FR-positive tumours. The DOTA-folate conjugates can be efficiently labelled with {sup 68}Ga in labelling yields and specific activities which allow clinical application. The characteristics of the {sup 67/68}Ga-DOTA-folates are comparable to {sup 111}In

  16. 《预制组合立管技术规范》GB50682-2011编制与介绍%Compilation and Introduction of Technical Code for Pre.fabricated United Pipe Risers GB50682-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 叶永杨; 尹奎; 蒋隆

    2011-01-01

    高层建筑高度高,管井管道密集,传统管井技术已不能满足管线布置要求.住房和城乡建设部建标[ 2009]88号文件将《预制组合立管技术规范》GB50682-2011列入国家规范编制计划,由中建三局第一建设工程有限责任公司、同济大学等单位编制,将于2012年1月1日实施.介绍了规范编制思路与主要内容,指出预制组合立管技术的适用条件、预制组合立管的设计原则与方法、预制组合立管设计的荷载计算、预制组合立管管道与其支架的制作和安装工艺,以及预制立管试验与验收方法等.该规范独创了密集立管与主体结构同步安装的施工体系,可加快施工速度、降低管井作业风险、提高工程质量.%The traditional pipe riser technology can not meet requirements of pipelines arrangement of tall buildings because of the large height and dense pipelines. According to the file of No. [2009] 88 from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development, the National Code of Technical Code for Pre-fabricated ?United Pipe Risers GB50682-2011 is compiled by the First Construction Limited Company of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau, Tongji University and some other related companies. It will implement on January 1, 2012. The compiling thinking and main contents of the code are introduced such as applicable conditions, design principle, loads calculation of pre-fabricated united pipe risers, fabrication and assembly of the pipe and support frame, as well as test and acceptance of pre-fabricated unit pipes. The code originally created synchronizing assembly of dense pipes and main structure to shorten the construction time, lower work risks and improve project quality.

  17. The statistical analysis on executing the standard of GB1499-1998 in GZIS%广钢实施GB1499-1998标准的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志洪; 方伟江; 赖陆明

    2001-01-01

    The good result has been obtained, the quality of the products has been improved steadily and the defective products failed to meet the requirement of mechanical property have not been produced so far since the standard of GB1499-1998 has been executed at the EAF Plant in GIS. The alloy addition per ton liquid steel has been reduced (Mn content is reduced by 0.235 percent on an average) before execution. The amount of raw-material steel, which is returned to electric arc furnace as raw material because of the element Cu too high has been decreased gradually, and that is beneficial to the reduction of the power consumption. At the Converter Plant of GZIS, some defective rolling products that steel composition was near the lower limit, yield strength and tensile strength were not enough appeared during the initial stage. The quality has been steadied gradually and the desired result has been achieved after adjustment in time (adjusted by raising the content of C and Mn in the liquid steel and by enhancing the uniformity of the liquid steel).%广州钢铁股份有限责任公司实施标准GB1499-1998以来,电炉厂质量稳定,至今未出现力学性能的废品;比实施前减少了吨钢合金的加入量(其中Mn含量平均降低0.235%),因Cu超标而产生的原料钢炉数也逐步下降,有利于冶炼成本降低;而转炉厂初期出现多炉成分偏低,屈服、抗拉强度不足的钢材废品,经过及时的调整(提高钢水的C、 Mn成分,加强钢水的均匀性),质量逐步稳定,基本达到预期的效果.

  18. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    With decreasing transistor size, increasing chip speed, and larger numbers of processors in a system, the performance of a module/system is being limited by the off-chip and off-module bandwidth-distance products. Optical links have moved from fiber-based long distance communications to the cabinet level of 1m--100m, and recently to the backplane-level (10cm--1m). Board-level inter-chip parallel optical interconnects have been demonstrated recently by researchers from Intel, IBM, Fujitsu, NTT and a few research groups in universities. However, the board-level signal/clock distribution function using optical interconnects, the lightwave circuits, the system design, a practically convenient integration scheme committed to the implementation of a system prototype have not been explored or carefully investigated. In this dissertation, the development of a board-level 1 x 4 optical-to-electrical signal distribution at 10Gb/s is presented. In contrast to other prototypes demonstrating board-level parallel optical interconnects that have been drawing much attention for the past decade, the optical link design for the high-speed signal broadcasting is even more complicated and the pitch between receivers could be varying as opposed to fixed-pitch design that has been widely-used in the parallel optical interconnects. New challenges for the board-level high-speed signal broadcasting include, but are not limited to, a new optical link design, a lightwave circuit as a distribution network, and a novel integration scheme that can be a complete radical departure from the traditional assembly method. One of the key building blocks in the lightwave circuit is the distribution network in which a 1 x 4 multimode interference (MMI) splitter is employed. MMI devices operating at high data rates are important in board-level optical interconnects and need to be characterized in the application of board-level signal broadcasting. To determine the speed limitations of MMI devices, the

  19. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  20. Internal quantum efficiency in yellow-amber light emitting AlGaN-InGaN-GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Thi Huong; Gil, Bernard; Valvin, Pierre [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb – UMR 5221, CNRS and University Montpellier, Case courier 074, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Damilano, Benjamin; Lekhal, Kaddour; De Mierry, Philippe [CRHEA-CNRS Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2015-09-21

    We determine the internal quantum efficiency of strain-balanced AlGaN-InGaN-GaN hetero-structures designed for yellow-amber light emission, by using a recent model based on the kinetics of the photoluminescence decay initiated by Iwata et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015)]. Our results indicate that low temperature internal quantum efficiencies sit in the 50% range and we measure that adding an AlGaN layer increases the internal quantum efficiency from 50% up to 57% with respect to the GaN-InGaN case. More dramatic, it almost doubles from 2.5% up to 4.3% at room temperature.

  1. Capacitance properties and simulation of the AlGaN/GaN Schottky heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmatha, Ladislav, E-mail: ladislav.harmatha@stuba.sk; Ľubica, Stuchlíková; Juraj, Racko; Juraj, Marek; Juraj, Pecháček; Peter, Benko; Michal, Nemec; Juraj, Breza

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Dependences of CV characteristics of the AlGaN/GaN structure on frequency and temperature variations. • Identification of electrical activity of defects by capacitance DLTS. • Simulating the properties of the GaN/Al{sub 0.2}GaN{sub 0.8}/GaN Schottky heterostructure. - Abstract: The paper presents the results of capacitance measurements on GaN/AlGaN/GaN Schottky heterostructures grown on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate by Low-Pressure Metal–Organic Vapour-Phase Epitaxy (LP-MOVPE). Dependences of the capacitance–voltage (CV) characteristics on the frequency of the measuring signal allow analysing the properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction. Exact location of the hetero-interface below the surface (20 nm) was determined from the concentration profile. Temperature variations of the CV curves reveal the influence of bulk defects in GaN and of the traps at the AlGaN/GaN interface. Electrical activity of these defects was characterized by capacitance Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy (DLTFS). Experimental results of CV measurements were supported by simulating the properties of the GaN/Al{sub 0.2}GaN{sub 0.8}/GaN Schottky heterostructure in dependence on the influence of the concentration of donor-like traps in GaN and of the temperature upon the CV curves.

  2. Improved heteroepitaxial MBE GaN growth with a Ga metal buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yihwan; Subramanya, Sudhir G.; Krueger, Joachim; Siegle, Henrik; Shapiro, Noad; Armitage, Robert; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kisielowski, Christian; Yang, Yi; Cerrina, Franco

    2000-05-15

    We demonstrate that the use of pure gallium (Ga) as a buffer layer results in improved crystal quality of GaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire. The resulting epilayers show electron Hall mobilities as high as 400 cm 2 /Vs at a background carrier concentration of 4 x 10 17 cm -3 , an outstanding value for an MBE-grown GaN layer on sapphire. Structural properties are also improved; the asymmetric (101) X-ray rocking curve width is drastically reduced with respect to that of the reference GaN epilayer grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Nitrided Ga metal layers were investigated for different Ga deposition time. These layers can be regarded as templates for the subsequent Ga main layer growth. It was found that there is an optimum Ga metal layer deposition time for improving the electron mobility in the epilayer. Heating of the Ga metal layer to the epilayer growth temperature under nitrogen plasma is found to be sufficient to produce highly oriented GaN crystals. However, nonuniform surface morphology and incomplete surface coverage were observed after nitridation of comparatively thick Ga metal layers. This is shown to be the reason for the decreasing electron mobility of the epilayers as the Ga metal layer thickness exceeds the optimum value.

  3. Improved heteroepitaxial MBE GaN growth with a Ga metal buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that the use of pure gallium (Ga) as a buffer layer results in improved crystal quality of GaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire. The resulting epilayers show electron Hall mobilities as high as 400 cm 2 /Vs at a background carrier concentration of 4 x 10 17 cm -3 , an outstanding value for an MBE-grown GaN layer on sapphire. Structural properties are also improved; the asymmetric (101) X-ray rocking curve width is drastically reduced with respect to that of the reference GaN epilayer grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Nitrided Ga metal layers were investigated for different Ga deposition time. These layers can be regarded as templates for the subsequent Ga main layer growth. It was found that there is an optimum Ga metal layer deposition time for improving the electron mobility in the epilayer. Heating of the Ga metal layer to the epilayer growth temperature under nitrogen plasma is found to be sufficient to produce highly oriented GaN crystals. However, nonuniform surface morphology and incomplete surface coverage were observed after nitridation of comparatively thick Ga metal layers. This is shown to be the reason for the decreasing electron mobility of the epilayers as the Ga metal layer thickness exceeds the optimum value

  4. High-temperature characteristics of AixGa1-xN/GaN Schottky diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoling; Li Fei; Lv Changzhi; Xie Xuesong; Li Ying; Mohammad S N

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature characteristics of the metal/AlxGa1_xN/GaN M/S/S (M/S/S) diodes have been studied with current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements at high temperatures. Due to the presence of the piezoelectric polarization field and a quantum well at the AIxGa1_xN/GaN interface, the AIxGa1_xN/GaNdiodes show properties distinctly different from those of the AIxGa1_xN diodes. For the AIxGa1_xN/GaN diodes, an increase in temperature accompanies an increase in barrier height and a decrease in ideality factor, while the AIxGa1_xN diodes are opposite. Furthermore, at room temperature, both reverse leakage current and reverse break-down voltage are superior for the AIxGa1_xN/GaN diodes to those for the AIxGa1_xN diodes.

  5. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  6. GaN Electronics For High Power, High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-06-12

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers. GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  7. GB1103.1-2012锯齿加工细绒棉的解析与建议%Analysis and Recommendation of GB 1103.1-2012 Saw Ginned Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张录灵; 王志鸿; 李小兰; 雒凯

    2013-01-01

    解析GB 1103.1-2012《棉花第1部分:锯齿加工细绒棉》.介绍了该标准的质量指标项目和内容、检验方法、检验规则及质量标志.分析了该标准下的棉花贸易结算体系.论述了该标准下企业应注意的问题.指出:选择合适的结算方式、检验验收中把握好颜色级和做好新标准实施后的配棉工作是三个关键环节.认为准确运用该标准做好原料采购结算、检验验收、原料合理使用等项工作,利于该标准在纺织企业中的顺利实施.

  8. Ultra-Thin, Triple-Bandgap GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs Monolithic Tandem Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Emery, K.; Geisz, J. F.; Jones, K.; Kurtz, Sarah; Moriarty, T.; Romero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of state-of-the-art, series-connected, lattice-matched (LM), triple-junction (TJ), III-V tandem solar cells could be improved substantially (10-12%) by replacing the Ge bottom subcell with a subcell having a bandgap of approx.1 eV. For the last several years, research has been conducted by a number of organizations to develop approx.1-eV, LM GaInAsN to provide such a subcell, but, so far, the approach has proven unsuccessful. Thus, the need for a high-performance, monolithically integrable, 1-eV subcell for TJ tandems has remained. In this paper, we present a new TJ tandem cell design that addresses the above-mentioned problem. Our approach involves inverted epitaxial growth to allow the monolithic integration of a lattice-mismatched (LMM) approx.1- eV GaInAs/GaInP double-heterostructure (DH) bottom subcell with LM GaAs (middle) and GaInP (top) upper subcells. A transparent GaInP compositionally graded layer facilitates the integration of the LM and LMM components. Handle-mounted, ultra-thin device fabrication is a natural consequence of the inverted-structure approach, which results in a number of advantages, including robustness, potential low cost, improved thermal management, incorporation of back-surface reflectors, and possible reclamation/reuse of the parent crystalline substrate for further cost reduction. Our initial work has concerned GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs tandem cells grown on GaAs substrates. In this case, the 1- eV GaInAs experiences 2.2% compressive LMM with respect to the substrate. Specially designed GaInP graded layers are used to produce 1-eV subcells with performance parameters nearly equaling those of LM devices with the same bandgap (e.g., LM, 1-eV GaInAsP grown on InP). Previously, we reported preliminary ultra-thin tandem devices (0.237 cm2) with NREL-confirmed efficiencies of 31.3% (global spectrum, one sun) (1), 29.7% (AM0 spectrum, one sun) (2), and 37.9% (low-AOD direct spectrum, 10.1 suns) (3), all at 25 C. Here, we include

  9. Tuning emission in violet, blue, green and red in cubic GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Hinostroza, I. E.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Compeán García, V. D.; Zamora, C. Cuellar; Rodríguez, A. G.; López Luna, E.; Vidal, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Light emission in the three primary colors was achieved in cubic GaN/InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO substrates in a single growth process. A heterostructure with four quantum wells with a width of 10 nm was grown; this quantum wells width decrease the segregation effect of In. Photoluminescence emission produced four different emission signals: violet, blue, green-yellow and red. Thus, we were able to tune energy transitions in the visible spectrum modifying the In concentration in cubic InxGa1-xN ternary alloy.

  10. InGaN lattice constant engineering via growth on (In,Ga)N/GaN nanostripe arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar (In,Ga)N layers were grown on nanostripe arrays composed of InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells (MQWs) by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The MQW nanostripe arrays with height to width aspect ratios of about 0.5 and 1 were fabricated from planar coherently strained InGaN/GaN MQW samples. Independent of their aspect ratio, the nanostripes exhibited elastic relaxation perpendicular to the stripe direction after pattern fabrication, resulting in an a⊥ lattice constant perpendicular to the stripe direction larger than that of the GaN base layer. In a subsequent step, (In,Ga)N layers were grown on top of the nanostripe arrays, leading to the formation of planar films with a similar a⊥ lattice constant as the MQW stripes beneath. Bright luminescence was recorded from the planar, partially relaxed re-grown (In,Ga)N layers grown on the stripe arrays with an aspect ratio of 1. Plastic relaxation of the MQW stripes was observed after (In,Ga)N regrowth for samples with a stripe aspect ratio of 0.5, leading to luminescence quenching. (paper)

  11. Ga and Pt NMR study of UPtGa sub 5 and UNiGa sub 5

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, H; Tokunaga, Y; Tokiwa, Y; Ikeda, S; Onuki, Y; Kambe, S; Walstedt, R E

    2003-01-01

    Ga and Pt NMR measurements have been carried out for two isomorphs compounds, UPtGa sub 5 and UNiGa sub 5 , which exhibit different magnetic structures below T sub N. Knight shift K measurements in the paramagnetic region are reported here. The transferred hyperfine coupling constants at Ga and Pt sites are determined. The temperature independent part K sub 0 of K, which probes the conduction electron polarization at the ligand site, has been successfully evaluated. A nearly identical conduction electron structure in the paramagnetic region is suggested for these two compounds. The origin of the different magnetic structures is discussed.

  12. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a GaAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, David

    2014-01-01

    Designs for PnP GaAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) are proposed and simulated with the aid of commercial software. Band diagrams, Gummel plots and common emitter characteristics are shown for the specific case of x=1, x=0.7, and x linearly graded from 0.75 to 0.7. Of the three designs, it is found that the linearly graded case has the lowest leakage current and the highest current gain. IV curves for all four possible classes of InAs/GaAs heterojunction (nN, nP...

  13. Single and Multicasting Inverted-Wavelength Conversion at 80 Gb/s Based on a Single Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xi; QIN Cui; YU Yu; ZHANG Xin-Liang

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cross-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA).In all the cases,converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and large eye opening are obtained.For singlechannel wavelength conversion,the ER of the output signal is as high as 30.10dB.For three-channel wavelength multicasting,high quality converted signals could also be observed.The ERs with three channels are 21.54 dB,18.58dB and 17.72dB,respectively.Thus,one- and three-channel wavelength conversion with high performance can be achieved by using a single quantum-well SOA.All-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC).[1-4] is a key technology in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks.AOWC based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is widely used due to its potential integration and power efficieney.Many SOAbased AOWCs have been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated.[5,6] Furthermore,wavelength multicasting is very important in all optical signal processing systems.Wavelength multicasting is a signal processing function that can be used to transfer the information carried by a channel at a certain input wavelength on different output wavelengths.Recently,many methods have been proposed for single wavelength conversion and wavelength multieasting.High nonlinear fibers,electro-absorption modulators and SOAs[7] have been used as nonlinear media.How ever,most of the schemes suffer from drawbacks such as complex architecture,a fairly high optical input power requirement,polarization dependence and so on.%We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cros-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In all the cases, converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and largo eye opening are obtained. For single-channel wavelength

  14. A novel oxidation-based wet etching method for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jinbao; Wang Jinyan; Liu Yang; Xu Zhe; Wang Maojun; Yu Min; Xie Bing

    2013-01-01

    A novel wet etching method for AlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures is proposed using thermal oxidation followed by wet etching in KOH solution.It is found that an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure after high temperature oxidation above 700 ℃ could be etched off in a homothermal (70 ℃) KOH solution while the KOH solution had no etching effects on the region of the A1GaN/GaN heterostructure protected by a SiO2 layer during the oxidation process.A groove structure with 150 nm step depth on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was formed after 8 h thermal oxidation at 900 ℃ followed by 30 min treatment in 70 ℃ KOH solution.As the oxidation time increases,the etching depth approaches saturation and the roughness of the etched surface becomes much better.The physical mechanism of this phenomenon is also discussed.

  15. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data. PMID:19265212

  16. GaAsP solar cells on GaP/Si with low threading dislocation density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaung, Kevin Nay; Vaisman, Michelle; Lang, Jordan; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2016-07-01

    GaAsP on Si tandem cells represent a promising path towards achieving high efficiency while leveraging the Si solar knowledge base and low-cost infrastructure. However, dislocation densities exceeding 108 cm-2 in GaAsP cells on Si have historically hampered the efficiency of such approaches. Here, we report the achievement of low threading dislocation density values of 4.0-4.6 × 106 cm-2 in GaAsP solar cells on GaP/Si, comparable with more established metamorphic solar cells on GaAs. Our GaAsP solar cells on GaP/Si exhibit high open-circuit voltage and quantum efficiency, allowing them to significantly surpass the power conversion efficiency of previous devices. The results in this work show a realistic path towards dual-junction GaAsP on Si cells with efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  17. Effect of Nonradiative Recombination on Carrier Dynamics in GaInNAs/GaAs Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zheng; WANG Bao-Rui; XU Zhong-Ying; SUN Bao-Quan; JI Yang; NI Hai-Qiao; NIU Zhi-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    @@ The nonradiative recombination effect on carrier dynamics in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells is studied by timeresolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and polarization-dependent TRPL at various excitation intensities.

  18. Formation of GaP nanostructures on GaAs (100) by droplet molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prongjit, P.; Pankaow, N.; Thainoi, S.; Panyakeow, S.; Ratanathammaphan, S. [Semiconductor Device Research Laboratory (NanoTec Center of Excellence), Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2012-07-15

    In this contribution, we have demonstrated the fabrication of tensile strained GaP nanostructures on GaAs (100) substrates by droplet epitaxy using molecular beam epitaxy. The GaP nanostructures are ring-like structure due to crystallization with low P{sub 2} pressure. The density of GaP ring-like nanostructures varies between 8.92 x 10{sup 8}-2.17 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} and the average of diameter varies between 88.4-133 nm with increasing the Ga amount deposition in the range of 2.4-4.8 ML. The photoluminescence result shows the tensile strain-modified band gap effect of GaP nanostructure in GaAs matrix and it also confirms the high-quality of GaP nanocrystal (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. GaN Bulk Growth and Epitaxy from Ca-Ga-N Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal addresses the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of gallium nitride (GaN) films using nitrogen-enriched metal solutions. Growth of GaN from solutions...

  20. Theoretical and experimental studies of electric field distribution in N-polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, M., E-mail: marta.gladysiewicz@pwr.edu.pl; Janicki, L.; Kudrawiec, R. [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Siekacz, M.; Cywinski, G. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Skierbiszewski, C. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-28

    Electric field distribution in N-polar GaN(channel)/AlGaN/GaN(buffer) heterostructures was studied theoretically by solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations in a self-consistent manner for various boundary conditions and comparing results of these calculations with experimental data, i.e., measurements of electric field in GaN(channel) and AlGaN layers by electromodulation spectroscopy. A very good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental data has been found for the Fermi-level located at ∼0.3 eV below the conduction band at N-polar GaN surface. With this surface boundary condition, the electric field distribution and two dimensional electron gas concentration are determined for GaN(channel)/AlGaN/GaN(buffer) heterostructures of various thicknesses of GaN(channel) and AlGaN layers.

  1. NpN-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor on free-standing GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Zachary; Jin Kim, Hee; Lee, Yi-Che; Zhang, Yun; Choi, Suk; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Doug Yoder, P.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2011-11-01

    Data and analysis are presented for NpN-GaN/InGaN/GaN double-heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) grown and fabricated on a free-standing GaN (FS-GaN) substrate in comparison to that on a sapphire substrate to investigate the effect of dislocations in III-nitride HBT epitaxial structures. The performance characteristics of HBTs on FS-GaN exhibit a maximum collector current density of ˜12.3 kA/cm2, dc current gain of ˜90, and maximum differential gain of ˜120 without surface passivation, representing a substantial improvement over similar devices grown on sapphire. This is attributed to the reduction in threading dislocation density afforded by using a homoepitaxial growth on a high-crystalline-quality substrate. The minority carrier diffusion length increases significantly owing to not only a mitigated carrier trap effect via fewer dislocations, but also possibly reduced microscopic localized states.

  2. Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanopillar light-emitting diode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Haiyan

    Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction.......Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction....

  3. 4x10Gb/s WDM Bi-directional Gating in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier by Using Polarization Multiplexing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Bi-directional SOA gating can further reduce the number of gating elements in the space switch, we demonstrate that a conventional SOA employing polarization multiplexing technique (PMT) can be used for bi-directional WDM gating operation at 10Gb/s....

  4. CMOS Transmitter using Pulse-Width Modulation Pre-Emphasis achieving 33dB Loss Compensation at 5-Gb/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A digital transmitter pre-emphasis technique is presented that is based on pulse-width modulation, instead of finite impulse response (FIR) filtering. The technique fits well to future high-speed low-voltage CMOS processes. A 0.13 μm CMOS transmitter achieves more than 5 Gb/s (2-PAM) over 25 m of st

  5. CMOS Transmitter using Pulse-Width Modulation Pre-Emphasis achieving 33dB Loss Compensation at 5-Gb/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A digital transmitter pre-emphasis technique is presented that is based on pulse-width modulation, instead of finite impulse response (FIR) filtering. The technique fits well to future high-speed low-voltage CMOS processes. A 0.13 /spl mu/m CMOS transmitter achieves more than 5 Gb/s (2-PAM) over 25

  6. High Time-Resolution 640-Gb/s Clock Recovery Using Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation and Narrowband Optical Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, P.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Kasai, K.;

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for subharmonic clock recovery from an optical time-division-multiplexing signal using time-domain optical Fourier transformation and a narrowband optical filter. High-resolution 640-Gb/s clock recovery is successfully demonstrated with no pattern dependence. The clock...

  7. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Youn, J.S.; Park, K.Y.; Choi, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche ph

  8. Experimental demonstration of all-optical 2R regeneration at 10 Gb/s In a novel MMI-SOA based device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup

    2002-01-01

    We have shown the first demonstration of 2R pass-through regeneration of a 10 Gb/s data signal in an MMI-SOA. The measurements show extinction ratio improvement as well as sensitivity improvement. The latter is predominately due to noise suppression. The good high-speed performance, along...

  9. 40-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Kloch, Allan; Fjelde, Tina;

    2000-01-01

    All-optical 2R and 3R regeneration techniques are investigated at 40 Gb/s, It is shown that an all-active SOA-based Mach-Zehnder device, employed as a,wavelength converter, is capable of improving the OSNR by more than 20 dB at this bit rate, thereby resulting in penalty reduction. Furthermore...

  10. Experimental investigation at 10 Gb/s of the noise suppression capabilities in a pass-through configuration in SOA-based interferometric structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan;

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigate a pass-through scheme for all-optical noise suppression in a SOA-based interferometric structure at 10 Gb/s. An input power dynamic range of ~8 dB as well as a noise suppression capability of ~4.5 dB has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the transmission properties have...

  11. 10Gb/s transmission over 100 km of standard single-mode fiber with a dispersion tunable chirped fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦子雄; 杜卫冲; 曾庆科; 刘宁; 郭旗; 廖常俊; 刘颂豪; 孙健; 陈雪; 蔡连峰; 余重秀

    1999-01-01

    A simple strain method is used to change uniform gratings into chirped gratings. The correspondent theory is presented. It is deduced that the product of the maximum bandwidth and the corresponding dispersion is nearly equal to a constant. The dispersion compensation distance for standard single-mode fiber G. 652, 10 Gb/s systems over 100 km is realized by using this method.

  12. The effect of UV-C radiation (254 nm) on candidate microbial source tracking phages infecting a human-specific strain of Bacteroides fragilis (GB-124).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diston, D; Ebdon, J E; Taylor, H D

    2012-06-01

    The enumeration of phages infecting host-specific strains of Bacteroides has been widely recognised as an effective and low-cost method of microbial source tracking (MST). A recently described human-specific Bacteroides host strain (GB-124) has been shown to detect bacteriophages exclusively in human-impacted waters and is emerging as a useful MST tool. However, a better understanding of the morphology and ecological behaviour of the phages, especially in wastewater disinfection processes, is now required in order to validate their role as MST markers. Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 (n = 21) were isolated from wastewater effluent and irradiated using laboratory-based UV-C (254 nm) collimated beam experiments. Bacteriophages were found to be both a morphologically and ecologically homogeneous group, with all specimens showing highly similar first order log-linear inactivation profiles (mean fluence required to inactivate phages by 4-log(10) was 36 mJ/cm(2)). These findings present the first evidence that phages infecting GB-124 are inactivated by the levels of UV-C radiation routinely delivered during tertiary wastewater treatment processes. More importantly, comparison with previously published inactivation data suggests that their response to UV-C radiation makes GB-124 phages more suitable surrogates for selected enteric viruses in UV disinfection processes than traditional faecal indicator bacteria or human-specific molecular markers.

  13. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution Over a 50 km Fiber With Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo;

    2010-01-01

    A 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio ultra-wideband signal is created using the incoherent optical field summation resulting from the cross gain modulation of an uncooled distributed feedback laser injected with an external cavity laser. After 50 km of fiber and wireless transmission over 2.9-3.3-m...

  14. 640 Gb/s timing jitter-tolerant data processing using a long-period fiber-grating-based flat-top pulse shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of a novel all-fiber flat-top pulse shaping technique for improving performance and timing jitter tolerance of a switch made for 640–10 Gb/s signal demultiplexing. The jitter tolerance is increased to almost 30% of the one-bit time window, and an increase of the receiver sens...

  15. Using a newly developed long-period grating filter to improve the timing tolerance of a 320 Gb/s demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2007-01-01

    A 0.8 ps flat top pulse is generated using a long-period fibre grating and used as control pulse for the first time in a 320 Gb/s demultiplexer. The effect is an increased error-free timing tolerance...

  16. Economics and Performance of 10 Gb/s Metro Transport Over Mixed Fiber Plant of G.655 NZDF and G.652.C Zero Water-Peak Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans-J(o)rg Thiele; Santanu Das; Raymond Boncek; Lynn E. Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Using lower-cost lasers, 30% savings are possible for 10-Gb/s uncompensated metro transmission over NZDF, compared to G.652 fiber. We present WDM transmission results for a mixed plant of NZDF rings interconnected to G.652.C-fiber access laterals.

  17. Element specific investigation of ultrathin Co2MnGa/GaAs heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claydon, Jill S.; Hassan, Sameh; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad;

    2007-01-01

    We have used x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to study the element specific magnetic properties of ultrathin films of the Heusler alloy Co2MnGa at room temperature. Nine films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and engineered to vary in stoichiometry as Co1.86Mn0.99Ga1, Co1....

  18. Tetrabromidobis(dicyclohexylphosphane-κPdigallium(Ga—Ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H. Mayo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, a GaII dimer, [Ga2Br4(C12H23P2], was synthesized by reaction of GaBr(THFn (THF is tetrahydrofuran with dicyclohexylphosphine in toluene. At 150 K the crystallographically centrosymmetric molecule exhibits disorder in which one of the two independent cyclohexyl groups is modelled over two sites in a 62 (1:38 (1 ratio. In d6-benzene solution, the compound exhibits virtual C2h symmetry as determined by 1H NMR. The coordination environment of the GaII atom is distorted tetrahedral.

  19. The role of large scale storage in a GB low carbon energy future: Issues and policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale storage offers the prospect of capturing and using excess electricity within a low carbon energy system, which otherwise might have to be wasted. Incorporating the role of storage into current scenario tools is challenging, because it requires high temporal resolution to reflect the effects of intermittent sources on system balancing. This study draws on results from a model with such resolution. It concludes that large scale storage could become economically viable for scenarios with high penetration of renewables. As the proportion of intermittent sources increases, the optimal type of storage shifts towards solutions with low energy related costs, even at the expense of efficiency. However, a range of uncertainties have been identified, concerning storage technology development, the regulatory environment, alternatives to storage and the stochastic uncertainty of year-on-year revenues. All of these negatively affect the cost of finance and the chances of successful market uptake. We argue, therefore, that, if the possible wider system and social benefits from the presence of storage are to be achieved, stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary. More work on the social and system benefits of storage is needed to gauge the appropriate extent of support measures. - Highlights: → Time resolved modelling shows future potential for large scale power storage in GB. → The value of storage is highly sensitive to a range of parameters. → Uncertainty over the revenue from storage could pose a barrier to investment. → To realise wider system benefits stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary.

  20. Accomplishment of Blu-ray disc ROM by electron beam recording: dual layer with 50-GB capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Masahiko; Ito, Eiichi; Tomiyama, Morio; Abe, Shinya; Ohno, Eiji; David, Stephane; Dubs, Martin; Bayliss, Chris; Dix, Colin; Ogilvie, Nick; Proffitt, Simon; Scott-Maxwell, David; Fantin, Bernard; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    A BD-ROM production-capable Electron Beam Recorder (EBR) has been developed, resulting from an optimization program conducted on a prior prototype. The key technical improvements are a comprehensive upgrade of the mechanical master driving system to reduce the track pitch deviations and the implementation of a dynamic focus system, including an axial run-out checker to obtain a uniform jitter. And the multi-pulse write strategy was adopted to control the pit shapes. The resulting masters show a typical radial track pitch variation comprised in the range +/-6.6nm across the entire recorded area. The corresponding push-pull signal deviation is found to be less than 18% on the whole disc and less than 14% in one revolution. The signal jitter of dual layered BD-ROM disc less than 6.1% on layer 0, and less than 6.7% on layer 1 with large enough push-pull amplitude through the whole radius. These results are fully compliant with the requirements for the dual layered BD-ROM disc of 50GB capacity.

  1. Two active states of the narrow-line gamma-ray-loud AGN GB 1310+487

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovsky, K V; Tanaka, Y T; Abolmasov, P K; Angelakis, E; Bulgarelli, A; Carrasco, L; Cenko, S B; Cheung, C C; Clubb, K I; Fegan, S J; Filippenko, A V; Finke, J D; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Ikejiri, Y; Itoh, R; Kawabata, K S; Komatsu, T; Kovalev, Yu A; Kovalev, Y Y; Krichbaum, T P; Larsson, S; Lister, M L; Lott, B; Max-Moerbeck, W; Nestoras, I; Pittori, C; Pursimo, T; Pushkarev, A B; Readhead, A C S; Recillas, E; Richards, J L; Riquelme, D; Romani, R W; Sakimoto, K; Sasada, M; Schmidt, R; Shaw, M S; Sievers, A; Thompson, D J; Uemura, M; Ungerechts, H; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Yamanaka, M; Yoshida, M; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB 1310+487 showed a gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of ~10^-6 photons/cm^2/s at energies E>100 MeV and becoming one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum is not typical for a blazar, instead, it resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. We investigate changes of the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent GeV flare with the aim to determine the nature of the object and constrain the origin of the variable high-energy emission. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies, Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet, Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical, OAGH and WISE at infrared, and IRAM 30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio, are analysed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. The gamma-ray/radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z=0.6...

  2. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  3. Process dependency on threshold voltage of GaN MOSFET on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingpeng; Jiang, Ying; Miyashita, Takahiro; Motoyama, Shin-ichi; Li, Liuan; Wang, Dejun; Ohno, Yasuo; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2014-09-01

    GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with recessed gate on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure are reported in which the drain and source ohmic contacts were fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure and the electron channel was formed on the GaN buffer layer by removing the AlGaN barrier layer. Negative threshold voltages were commonly observed in all devices. To investigate the reasons of the negative threshold voltages, different oxide thickness, etching gas and bias power of inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) system were utilized in the fabrication process of the GaN MOSFETs. It is found that positive charges of around 1 × 1012 q/cm2 exist near the interface at the just threshold condition in both silane- and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS)-based devices. It is also found that the threshold voltages do not obviously change with the different etching gas (SiCl4, BCl3 and two-step etching of SiCl4/Cl2) at the same ICP bias power level (20-25 W) and will become deeper when higher bias power is used in the dry recess process which may be related to the much serious ion bombardment damage. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments were done to investigate the surface conditions. It is found that N 1s peaks become lower with higher bias power of the dry etching process. Also, silicon contamination was found and could be removed by HNO3/HF solution. It indicates that the nitrogen vacancies are mainly responsible for the negative threshold voltages rather than the silicon contamination. It demonstrates that optimization of the ICP recess conditions and improvement of the surface condition are still necessary to realize enhancement-mode GaN MOSFETs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure.

  4. Asymmetric quantum-well structures for AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin'an; Li, Yue; Wang, Ying; Xu, Shengrui; Hao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric quantum-well (QW) structures including the asymmetric potential-barrier and the asymmetric potential-well are proposed for AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). Theoretical investigation gives that an appropriate decrease in Al composition and thickness for emitter barrier as well as an appropriate increase of both for collector barrier can evidently improve the negative-differential-resistance characteristic of RTD. Numerical simulation shows that RTD with a 1.5-nm-thick GaN well sandwiched by a 1.3-nm-thick Al0.15Ga0.85N emitter barrier and a 1.7-nm-thick Al0.25Ga0.75N collector barrier can yield the I-V characteristic having the peak current (Ip) and the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 0.39 A and 3.6, respectively, about double that of RTD with a 1.5-nm-thick Al0.2Ga0.8N for both barriers. It is also found that an introduction of InGaN sub-QW into the diode can change the tunneling mode and achieve higher transmission coefficient of electron. The simulation demonstrates that RTD with a 2.8-nm-thick In0.03Ga0.97N sub-well in front of a 2.0-nm-thick GaN main-well can exhibit the I-V characteristic having Ip and PVCR of 0.07 A and 11.6, about 7 times and double the value of RTD without sub-QW, respectively. The purpose of improving the structure of GaN-based QW is to solve apparent contradiction between the device structure and the device manufacturability of new generation RTDs for sub-millimeter and terahertz applications.

  5. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang;

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that promote a wide range of developmental processes. While GA signalling is well understood, little is known about how GA is transported or how GA distribution is regulated. Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants...... deficient in GA transport. We show that the NPF3 transporter efficiently transports GA across cell membranes in vitro and GA-Fl in vivo. NPF3 is expressed in root endodermis and repressed by GA. NPF3 is targeted to the plasma membrane and subject to rapid BFA-dependent recycling. We show that abscisic acid...... (ABA), an antagonist of GA, is also transported by NPF3 in vitro. ABA promotes NPF3 expression and GA-Fl uptake in plants. On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting as an influx carrier and that GA-ABA interaction may...

  6. Threshold Voltage of AlGaN/GaN HFET%AlGaN/GaN异质结场效应晶体管的阈值电压

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兆军; 赵建芝; 张敏

    2007-01-01

    利用AlGaN/GaN异质结场效应晶体管(AlGaN/GaN HFET)栅结构的电容-电压(C-V)特性确定AlGaN/GaN HFET的阈值电压.通过对模拟计算得到的AlGaN/GaN HFET电流-电压(I-V)特性曲线与测试得到的AlGaN/GaN HFET曲线比较分析,证实了依据AlGaN/GaN HFET栅结构的C-V特性曲线的微分极值点确定阈值电压是一种切实可行的方法.

  7. Preparation of [66Ga]bleomycin complex as a possible PET radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several radiolabeled bleomycin derivatives have been developed for imaging and/or therapy of neoplastic tissues. The most important imaging compounds contain indium-111, cobalt- 57, and rhodium-105. In our previous studies we have prepared radiolabeled bleomycin complexes such as gallium-67 as therapeutic and/or imaging agents. Our recent studies on the preparation and tumour imaging properties of [67Ga]bleomycin in normal and tumour-bearing mice showed a good tumour/blood and tumour/muscle ratio suggesting that it is an appropriate diagnostic agent. Due to the interesting properties and increasing importance of positron emission tomography, we investigated the possibility of incorporating 66Ga as a positron emitter with an antineoplastic compound, bleomycin, for use in tumour imaging. We optimized 66Ga complex formation conditions with bleomycin, to develop [66Ga]BLM. We hereby report the production of 66Ga, preparation, optimization, stability, and formulation studies of [66Ga]-bleomycin complex. Targetry: An electroplated 66Zn target on a copper backing plate was irradiated at an angle of 6 degrees toward the proton beam in order to achieve higher production yield. The target was cooled by a flow of 18 deg. C distilled water with a rate of 50 Lit/min. Chemical Separation: The irradiated target was dissolved by 10 N HCl (15 ml, H2O2 added) and the solution was passed through a cation exchange resin (Dowex 50 Wx8, H+ form) (h:10 cm, diameter:1 cm). The resulting high-purity [66Ga]GaCl3 solution was used directly in the labeling step. Labeling of bleomycin with [66Ga]GaCl3: [66Ga]GaCl3 (0.25-2.5 mCi) dissolved in acidic medium obtained above (0.5-2 ml) was transferred to a 2 ml-vial and pH was adjusted to various pHs (1-7) using 1M HCl and/or 1M NaOH. The mixture was evaporated by slight warming under a nitrogen flow. A mixture of BLM (0.25-2.5 mg) in normal saline (0.1 ml) was then added and was heated at different temperatures (25, 50, 80, and 100 deg. C) and was

  8. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  9. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise......Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... that have to be avoided in the endeavor. This chapter presents some of the pitfalls for enculturating interactive systems and presents strategies on how to avoid these pitfalls in relation to the standard development process of Embodied Conversational Agents....

  10. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  11. Isotype InGaN/GaN heterobarrier diodes by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fireman, Micha N.; Browne, David A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    The design of isotype InGaN/GaN heterobarrier diode structures grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy is presented. On the (0001) Ga-polar plane, a structure consisting of a surface n{sup +} GaN contact layer, followed by a thin InGaN layer, followed by a thick unintentionally doped (UID) GaN layer, and atop a buried n{sup +} GaN contact layer induces a large conduction band barrier via a depleted UID GaN layer. Suppression of reverse and subthreshold current in such isotype barrier devices under applied bias depends on the quality of this composite layer polarization. Sample series were grown under fixed InGaN growth conditions that varied either the UID GaN NH{sub 3} flow rate or the UID GaN thickness, and under fixed UID GaN growth conditions that varied InGaN growth conditions. Decreases in subthreshold current and reverse bias current were measured for thicker UID GaN layers and increasing InGaN growth rates. Temperature-dependent analysis indicated that although extracted barrier heights were lower than those predicted by 1D Schrödinger Poisson simulations (0.9 eV–1.4 eV for In compositions from 10% to 15%), optimized growth conditions increased the extracted barrier height from ∼11% to nearly 85% of the simulated values. Potential subthreshold mechanisms are discussed, along with those growth factors which might affect their prevalence.

  12. AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Detector with Dual Band Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; LIU Hong-Xia; WANG Shu-Long

    2011-01-01

    @@ The AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet detector with dual band response is investigated by a self-consistent solution of the Poisson-Schr(o)dinger equation.Because of the polarization effect,the AlGaN/GaN UV detector with dual band response can be realized by varying the external voltage.At a low external voltage,the detector is mainly sensitive to the short wavelength.When the increasing external voltage is larger than the critical voltage,the detector has an obvious dual band response characteristic and the critical voltage is calculated.This characteristic makes nitride-based UV detector a larger potential application to develop multi band response by adjusting the Aluminum mole fraction in the AlGaN layer or even by using the AIGaN/GaN/InGaN heterostructure.%The AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet detector with dual band response is investigated by a self-consistent solution of the Poisson-Schr()dinger equation. Because of the polarization effect, the AlGaN/GaN UV detector with dual band response can be realized by varying the external voltage. At a low external voltage, the detector is mainly sensitive to the short wavelength. When the increasing external voltage is larger than the critical voltage, the detector has an obvious dual band response characteristic and the critical voltage is calculated. This characteristic makes nitride-based UV detector a larger potential application to develop multi band response by adjusting the Aluminum mole fraction in the AlGaN layer or even by using the AlGaN/GaN/InGaN heterostructure.

  13. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  14. InGaN light-emitting diodes with embedded nanoporous GaN distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Bing-Cheng; Jhang, Yuan-Chang; Huang, Kun-Pin; Huang, Wan-Chun; Dai, Jing-Jie; Lai, Chun-Feng; Lin, Chia-Feng

    2015-08-01

    InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with embedded conductive nanoporous GaN/undoped GaN (NP-GaN/u-GaN) distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) were demonstrated. Nanoporous GaN DBR structures were fabricated by pulsed 355 nm laser scribing and electrochemical etching processes. Heavily Si-doped n-type GaN:Si layers (n+-GaN) in an eight-period n+-GaN/u-GaN stack structure were transformed into a low-refractive-index, conductive nanoporous GaN structure. The measured center wavelength, peak reflectivity, and bandwidth of the nanoporous GaN DBR structure were 417 nm, 96.7%, and 34 nm, respectively. Resonance cavity modes of the photoluminescence spectra were observed in the treated LED structure with the nanoporous DBR structure.

  15. Structures and Phase Transition of GaAs under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hong-Ling; CHEN Xiang-Rong; JI Guang-Fu; WEI Dong-Qing

    2008-01-01

    A first-principles plane wave method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the density functional theory (DFT) is performed to calculate the lattice parameters a and c, the bulk modulus B0 and its pressure derivative B'0 of the zinc-blende GaAs (ZB-GaAs), rocksalt GaAs (RS-GaAs), CsCl-GaAs, NiAs-GaAs and wurtzite GaAs (WZ-GaAs). Our results are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. We also calculate the phase transition pressures among these different phases. The results are satisfactory.

  16. Mn-doped Ga(As,P) and (Al,Ga)As ferromagnetic semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    J. Masek; Kudrnovsky, J.; Maca, F.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, A. H.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B.L.; Jungwirth, T.

    2006-01-01

    A remarkable progress towards functional ferromagnetic semiconductor materials for spintronics has been achieved in p-type (Ga,Mn)As. Robust hole-mediated ferromagnetism has, however, been observed also in other III-V hosts such as antimonides, GaP or (Al,Ga)As which opens a wide area of possibilities for optimizing the host composition towards higher ferromagnetic Curie temperatures. Here we explore theoretically ferromagnetism and Mn incorporation in Ga(As,P) and (Al,Ga)As ternary hosts. Wh...

  17. InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dots yellow-green light-emitting diode with optimized GaN barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Wenbin; Wang, Lai; Wang, Jiaxing; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi

    2012-01-01

    InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dot (QD) structure is a potential type of active regions for yellow-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The surface morphologies and crystalline quality of GaN barriers are critical to the uniformity of InGaN QD layers. While GaN barriers were grown in multi-QD layers, we used improved growth parameters by increasing the growth temperature and switching the carrier gas from N2 to H2 in the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. As a result, a 10-layer InGaN/GaN QD LED...

  18. Photoreflectance spectroscopy of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudrawiec, R.; Andrzejewski, J.; Misiewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Gollub, D.; Forchel, A. [Institute of Physics, Wuerzburg University, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy has been applied to study of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. PR features related to optical transitions in the active part of the step-like QW structure, i.e. GaInNAs/GaInNAs QW, as well as PR features related to transitions above the step-like barrier (SLB) have been clearly observed and analysed in this paper. The analysis of the QW transitions gives information about the number of confined states in the active part of the step-like QW structure. In addition, the analysis of the second portion of PR signal gives information about the band gap energy of the SLB and optical transitions between hole and electron levels confined above the SLB. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Photoreflectance spectroscopy of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrawiec, R.; Andrzejewski, J.; Misiewicz, J.; Gollub, D.; Forchel, A.

    2005-05-01

    Photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy has been applied to study of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. PR features related to optical transitions in the active part of the step-like QW structure, i.e. GaInNAs/GaInNAs QW, as well as PR features related to transitions above the step-like barrier (SLB) have been clearly observed and analysed in this paper. The analysis of the QW transitions gives information about the number of confined states in the active part of the step-like QW structure. In addition, the analysis of the second portion of PR signal gives information about the band gap energy of the SLB and optical transitions between hole and electron levels confined above the SLB.

  20. Carrier concentration profiling in magnetic GaMnSb/GaSb investigated by electrochemistry capacitance-voltage profiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Depth profiles of carrier concentrations in Ga- MnSb/GaSb are investigated by electrochemistry capacitance-voltage profiler and electrolyte of Tiron. The carrier concentration in GaMnSb/GaSb measured by this method is coincident with the results of Hall and X-ray diffraction measurements. It is indicated that most of the Mn atoms in GaMnSb take the site of Ga, play a role of acceptors, and provide shallow acceptor level(s).