WorldWideScience

Sample records for agents ga gb

  1. "Maiden Flight" for LHC Computing grid breaks gigabyte-per-secnd barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "UK physicists have successfully taken part in a challenge to test an internationl scientific computing Grid under working conditions. During the week-long challenge, the LHC computing grid sustained transfer rates of a gigabyte per second. a world first for a permanent, international grid using scientific data" (2 pages)

  2. The ASCI Network for SC 2000: Gigabyte Per Second Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document highlights the Discom's Distance computing and communication team activities at the 2000 Supercomputing conference in Dallas Texas. This conference is sponsored by the IEEE and ACM. Sandia's participation in the conference has now spanned a decade, for the last five years Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab have come together at the conference under the DOE's ASCI, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiatives, Program rubric to demonstrate ASCI's emerging capabilities in computational science and our combined expertise in high performance computer science and communication networking developments within the program. At SC 2000, DISCOM demonstrated an infrastructure. DISCOM2 uses this forum to demonstrate and focus communication and pre-standard implementation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the first gigabyte per second data IP network transfer application, and VPN technology that enabled a remote Distributed Resource Management tools demonstration. Additionally a national OC48 POS network was constructed to support applications running between the show floor and home facilities. This network created the opportunity to test PSE's Parallel File Transfer Protocol (PFTP) across a network that had similar speed and distances as the then proposed DISCOM WAN. The SCINET SC2000 showcased wireless networking and the networking team had the opportunity to explore this emerging technology while on the booth. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their convention exhibit floor. We also supported the production networking needs of the implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports DISCOM overall strategies in high performance computing networking

  3. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  4. 2.5 Gb/s laser-driver GaAS IC

    OpenAIRE

    Riishøj, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    A laser-diode driver GaAs IC incorporating an optional NRZ/RZ (non-return-to-zero/return-to-zero) conversion facility, having ECL (emitter-coupled logic) and SCFL (source-coupled FET logic)-compatible inputs and providing a 0-60-mA adjustable output current into a 50-Ω/5-V termination at bit rates up to 2 Gb/s NRZ and maintaining a clear eye opening of 50 mA at 2.5 Gb/s NRZ bit rate has been designed, using a commercial 1-μm gate-length (Fτ=12 GHz) GaAs MESFET foundry service. The high maximu...

  5. 2.5 Gb/s laser-driver GaAS IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    A laser-diode driver GaAs IC incorporating an optional NRZ/RZ (non-return-to-zero/return-to-zero) conversion facility, having ECL (emitter-coupled logic) and SCFL (source-coupled FET logic)-compatible inputs and providing a 0-60-mA adjustable output current into a 50-Ω/5-V termination at bit rates...... up to 2 Gb/s NRZ and maintaining a clear eye opening of 50 mA at 2.5 Gb/s NRZ bit rate has been designed, using a commercial 1-μm gate-length (Fτ=12 GHz) GaAs MESFET foundry service. The high maximum output current is obtained by implementing the output driver as a cascode differential amplifier...

  6. A 2.5 gb/s GaAs ATM Mux Demux ASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Lassen, Peter Stuhr

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high speed GaAs ATM Mux Demur ASIC (AMDA) which is the key element in a high speed ATM Add-Drop unit. This unit is used in a new distributed ATM multiplexing-demultiplexing architecture for broadband switching systems. The Add-Drop unit...... provides a cell based interface between networks/systems operating at different data rates, the high speed interface being 2.5 Gb/s and the low speed interface being 155/622 Mb/s. Self-timed FIFOs are used for handling the speed gaps between domains operating at different clock rates, and a Self-Timed At...... Receiver's Input (STARI) interface is used at all high speed chip-to-chip links to eliminate timing skews The AMDA demonstrated operation above 4 Gb/s (500 MHz clock frequency) with an associated power dissipation of 5 W...

  7. A monolithic GaAs clock and data recovery circuit for 2.5 Gb/s NRZ data stream

    OpenAIRE

    Pallotta, Andrea; Centurelli, F.; Trifiletti, Alessandro

    1997-01-01

    A GaAs monolithic clock and data recovery circuit for 2.5 Gb/s NRZ data stream has been designed and fabricated by using 0.3 mm HEMT technology from IAF FhG foundry. The main functions carried out by the IC are: signal amplification (25 dB), clock recovery and decision. The design is intended to achieve a complete 2.5 Gb/s receiver by using the IC and a LN preamplifier (transimpedance stage and limiting amplifier stage) placed in a DIL package. The overall scheme comprises about 200 active de...

  8. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  9. A 10 Gb/s Directly-Modulated 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate 10 Gb/s directly-modulated 1.3 μm InAs quantum-dot (QD) lasers grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The active region of the QD lasers consists of five-stacked InAs QD layers. Ridge-waveguide lasers with a ridge width of 4 μm and a cavity length of 600 μm are fabricated with standard lithography and wet etching techniques. It is found that the lasers emit at 1293 nm with a very low threshold current of 5 mA at room temperature. Furthermore, clear eye-opening patterns under 10 Gb/s modulation rate at temperatures of up to 50° C are achieved by the QD lasers. The results presented here have important implications for realizing low-cost, low-power-consumption, and high-speed light sources for next-generation communication systems. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  10. Uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation of 1.3 μm GaInNAs DQW lasers over a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongqiang; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Sadeghi, Mahdad; Wang, Shumin; Larsson, Anders; Savolainen, Pekka; Melanen, Petri; Sipilä, Pekko

    2006-04-01

    Ridge waveguide 1.3 μm GaInNAs lasers were fabricated from high quality double quantum well material grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Short cavity (250 μm) lasers have low threshold currents and small temperature dependencies of threshold current and slope efficiency, with a characteristic temperature of the threshold current as high as 200 K. The temperature stability allows for uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation up to temperatures as high as 110°C with a constant modulation voltage and only the bias current adjusted for constant average output power. Under these conditions, an extinction ratio larger than 6 dB and a spectral rms-width smaller than 2 nm are obtained.

  11. Uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation of 1.3 mum GaInNAs DQW lasers over a wide temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongqiang; Gustavsson, Johan S; Sadeghi, Mahdad; Wang, Shumin; Larsson, Anders; Savolainen, Pekka; Melanen, Petri; Sipilä, Pekko

    2006-04-01

    Ridge waveguide 1.3 mum GaInNAs lasers were fabricated from high quality double quantum well material grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Short cavity (250 mum) lasers have low threshold currents and small temperature dependencies of threshold current and slope efficiency, with a characteristic temperature of the threshold current as high as 200 K. The temperature stability allows for uncooled 2.5 Gb/s operation up to temperatures as high as 110 degrees C with a constant modulation voltage and only the bias current adjusted for constant average output power. Under these conditions, an extinction ratio larger than 6 dB and a spectral rms-width smaller than 2 nm are obtained. PMID:19516408

  12. Preparation of Ga-68-NOTA as a renal PET agent and feasibility tests in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) may provide more accurate quantification of kidney function such as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than gamma imaging. The purpose of these experiments was to prepare and evaluate Ga-68 complexes as potential PET agents for measurement of GFR. Methods: We labeled EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, and NOTA with Ga-68 obtained from a Ge-68/Ga-68-generator and measured the binding to serum and red blood cells. Biodistribution study was performed in male BALB/c mice after intravenous injection together with Cr-51-EDTA as the standard for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Animal-PET study was performed using BALB/c mice. Results: All the tested chelating agents except DTPA showed quantitative labeling yields (> 99%). Among them, Ga-68-NOTA showed consistently low binding to both human and mouse RBC and serum protein. Biodistribution study showed no significant difference between Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the GFR values obtained by Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA were almost same (0.26 ± 0.04 and 0.25 ± 0.04 mL/min, respectively). Animal-PET study showed almost the same GFR (0.25 mL/min) with the values obtained by biodistribution study. Conclusion: We proved that an easy-to-prepare agent Ga-68-NOTA is ideal for renal PET as well as for GFR measurement

  13. FeGA: A feedback-generating agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Mioch, T.

    2008-01-01

    In current simulation-based training of knowledgeintensive tasks, human instructors are needed to evaluate a student's task performance. This paper reports a study into the development of a multi-agent-based training system that evaluates student behavior at the result-level (quality of performance)

  14. ALICE breaks through the one Gigabyte/sec barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The test phases of the ALICE data acquisition system, known as the Data Challenges, are celebrating their fourth anniversary. The fruit of collaboration between several of the experiment's groups and IT Division, the 2002 tests concentrated on the system's performance and stability.

  15. Holografie: Speicherscheibe für 300 Gigabyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenmayr, Roland

    2006-09-01

    Die optisch-digitalen Datenspeicher CD und DVD haben unsere Lebensgewohnheiten stark verändert. Schon sind die Nachfolgesysteme Blue Ray Disk und HD-DVD in einigen Ländern auf dem Markt. In den USA wird noch in diesem Jahr das Unternehmen InPhase Technologies in Longmond, Colorado, das erste holografische Datenspeichersystem herausbringen.

  16. Tumor imaging with novel radiogallium (67/68Ga) labeled agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P. V.; Antich, P. P.; Constantinescu, A.; Ranney, D. F.; Fernando, J. L.; Xiong, R.; Oz, O.; Parkey, R. W.

    1997-02-01

    Gallium-67 (t1/2: 78 h) has played an important role in tumor imaging. It is produced in a cyclotron and is commercially available for routine clinical use. 68Ga (t1/2: 68 min), a positron emitter, suitable for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, is obtained from a generator with long lived parent 68Ge (t1/2: 288 d). Radiogallium has been used mostly, as gallium citrate in imaging studies. Recently, receptor specific agents labeled with gallium have been developed. These include, agents to image somatostatin and folate receptors. We have shown that a new class of agents based on glycosaminoglycoans (GLYCOS) target a variety of tumors. Gallium labeled deferroxamine (DF) bound to sulfated glycosaminoglycans has the ability to rapidly target and permeate a wide variety of solid animal tumors and also undergo rapid blood clearance almost exclusively by the renal route. We have been able to image (within 5 min to 1 hr), prostate adenocarcinoma (AT-1 tumor) grown in surgically prepared pedicles of Copenhagen male rats and breast tumor in pedicles of Fisher female rats. 67Ga labeled agent was used in single photon imaging mode and 68Ga labeled agent was used in PET mode with a small animal PET imaging device built in our laboratory with plastic scintillating optical fibers.

  17. Measurements of some basic constants of 68Ga(BAT-TECH) as an imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic properties of a new myocardial imaging agent 68Ga(BAT-TECH) are investigated and its thermodynamic constants are measured. The results are as follows: Citrate→BAT-TECH exchange reaction order is second-order; reaction rate k = 0.50 l/mol·s; activation energy Ea = 56.6 kJ/mol; the stability constant of 68Ga(BAT-TECH) lgβ = 14.9; the acid dissociation constants of BAT-TECH pK1 = 4.62, pK2 = 7.68, pK-3 = 8.68, pK4 = 11.2

  18. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 68Ga-NOTA-IF7 as a tumor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing a new tumor imaging agent, the IFLLWQR (Ile-Phe-Leu-Leu-Trp-Glu-Arg, IF7) was conjugated with 1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N'-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with 68Ga. In the optimal conditions, the whole radio-synthesis was accomplished within 20 min. The decay-corrected radiochemical yield was more than 92 %. The radiochemical purity of 68Ga-NOTA-IF7 was more than 95 %. MicroPET studies showed a high tumor uptake at 15 min post-injection with 7.52 ± 0.16 %ID/g. The ratios of tumor to muscle uptake were 20.61 ± 0.31, 13.14 ± 0.21, 2.39 ± 0.12 at 15 min, 30 min and 60 min post-injection, respectively. 68Ga-NOTA-IF7 is a promising radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging. (author)

  19. GIBS block speller: toward a gaze-independent P300-based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel; Nunes, Urbano; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) opens a new communication channel for individuals with severe motor disorders. In P300-based BCIs, gazing the target event plays an important role in the BCI performance. Individuals who have their eye movements affected may lose the ability to gaze targets that are in the visual periphery. This paper presents a novel P300-based paradigm called gaze independent block speller (GIBS), and compares its performance with that of the standard row-column (RC) speller. GIBS paradigm requires extra selections of blocks of letters. The online experiments made with able-bodied participants show that the users can effectively control GIBS without moving the eyes (covert attention), while this task is not possible with RC speller. Furthermore, with overt attention, the results show that the improved classification accuracy of GIBS over RC speller compensates the extra selections, thereby achieving similar practical bit rates. PMID:22255793

  20. Preparation and evaluation of 68Ga-ECC as a PET renal imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop 68Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine (68Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based 68GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). 68Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; −1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10–20 min. The SUVmax ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous 99mTc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time

  1. Preparation and evaluation of {sup 68}Ga-ECC as a PET renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaei, Alireza; Jaililan, Amir Reza; Mazidi, Mohammad; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shabani, Gholamli; Ardaneh, Khosro [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geramifar, Patham; Beiki, Davood [Research Center for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop {sup 68}Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 68}Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based {sup 68}GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). {sup 68}Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; −1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10–20 min. The SUV{sub max} ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous {sup 99m}Tc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time.

  2. Pharmacognostic standardization of stems of Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chumbhale DS; Upasani CD

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas ) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out for qualitative phytochemical evaluation of various extracts of stems of T. lampas. Results: Chemo-microscopy revealed the presence of lignin, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Physico-chemical evaluation used to determine numerical standards showed a result with total ash (9.03 ± 0.05) % w/w, acid insoluble ash (1.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, water soluble ash (2.51 ± 0.02) % w/w, sulphated ash (7.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, ethanol soluble extractive (0.24 ± 0.02) % w/w, water soluble extractive (0.08 ± 0.01) % w/w, moisture content (6.03 ± 0.05) % w/w and total crude fibre content of stem powder (47.36 ± 0.32) % w/w. Behavior characteristics of the stem powder showed presence of steroids, starch, alkaloid, flavonoids and proteins. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids such as dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, n- hexadecanoic acid, 9-tetradecenal and HPTLC fingerprinting revealed the presence of β– sitosterol and quercetin in stems of T. lampas. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic standardization of T. lampas is useful towards establishing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  3. Gibs: A Rich Visual Interface to NASA's Earth Science Data Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Huang, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plesea, L.; Ilavajhala, S.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) are being developed to promote and widen the use of NASA's vast archive of Earth science data across the research, education, governmental, and general public user communities. GIBS provides access to a large and growing image archive consisting of historical and frequently-updated near real time image (NRT) products representing geophysical parameters and themes from across an array of NASA-supported satellite instruments. All imagery is global in extent, available up to its full spatial resolution with near zero access latency, and is pedigreed with provenance information linking the source science data products as well as interpretive information such as a color legend and units. Currently, GIBS contains over 100 individual image layers that are available to everyone, including surface temperature, ozone, fires, sea ice, snow cover, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and true color surface reflectance. In this presentation, we highlight the use and incorporation of GIBS as a contextual visualization component into web tools, interfaces, and displays targeting different audiences and purposes. We will also discuss GIBS' open source software status, facilitating the deployment of a complementary set of similar services for non-NASA imagery.

  4. The Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET): An API for Matching Natural Events to GIBS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hidden within the terabytes of imagery in NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) collection are hundreds of daily natural events. Some events are newsworthy, devastating, and visibly obvious at a global scale, others are merely regional curiosities. Regardless of the scope and significance of any one event, it is likely that multiple GIBS layers can be viewed to provide a multispectral, dataset-based view of the event. To facilitate linking between the discrete event and the representative dataset imagery, NASA's Earth Observatory Group has developed a prototype application programming interface (API): the Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET). EONET supports an API model that allows users to retrieve event-specific metadata--date/time, location, and type (wildfire, storm, etc.)--and web service layer-specific metadata which can be used to link to event-relevant dataset imagery in GIBS. GIBS' ability to ingest many near real time datasets, combined with its growing archive of past imagery, means that API users will be able to develop client applications that not only show ongoing events but can also look at imagery from before and after. In our poster, we will present the API and show examples of its use.

  5. Comparison of 131I-tetracycline and 67Ga-citrate as abscess localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that radiolabeled tetracyclines tend to accumulate in infarcts and necrotic tumors. These results suggested that radiolabeled tetracyclines might also accumulate in necrotic abscesses or areas of inflammation. In order to develop a better abscess scanning agent, we compared the efficiency of 131I-tetracycline with 67Ga-citrate in labeling experimentally induced staphylococcal aureus abscesses in rats 24 and 72 hours after injection. In addition to evaluating 131I-tetracycline as an abscess scanning agent, we hoped to obtain data which might clarify the controversy regarding early versus late gallium scanning in suspected infection. 131I-tetracycline was chosen over sup(99m)Tc-tetracycline because the longer half-life of 131I would allow 72 hour imaging. Absolute concentrations of gallium in the abscess contents and in the surrounding areas of inflammation were significantly greater than the concentration of 131I-tetracycline at both 24 and 72 hours. With the exception of blood, muscle, and bone, the abscess-to-tissue activity ratios for gallium and 131I-tetracycline were similar; however, the ratio of gallium activity in the inflammed tissue to other tissues was greater than that of 131I-tetracycline for every tissue examined at both time periods. The data suggest that 131I-tetracycline has little potential as a general abscess scanning agent. The gallium tissue concentrations and tissue ratios suggest that abscesses which can be imaged at 72 hours can probably be imaged at 24 hours, thus allowing earlier initiation of appropriate therapy. Because of the higher lesion-to-blood ratio at 72 hours, a 72-hour scan would appear to be indicated before a scan is interpreted as normal. (orig.)

  6. Potential use of 68Ga-apo-transferrin as a PET imaging agent for detecting Staphylococcus aureus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: 67Ga citrate has been extensively used to detect infection and inflammation since 1971. However, its clinical utility is compromised due to several limitations. The present project explored whether 68Ga-apo-transferrin (68Ga-TF), when prepared in vitro, is a useful agent for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of bacterial infection. Methods: An infection was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 5x105 CFU units of Staphyococcus aureus in the right thigh muscle. 68Ga-TF was synthesized by mixing 68GaCl3 with apo-transferrin (TF, 2 mg) in sodium carbonate (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and incubating at 40oC for 1 h. Animals were injected with 10-15 MBq of 68Ga-TF containing approximately 0.2 mg TF and imaged at different time intervals using Siemens Biograph PET-CT. Results: When 68Ga-TF were injected in the infected rats, the infection lesion was detectable within 20 min post injection. The biodistribution showed the uptake at the lesion increased with time as shown by significantly increased standard uptake values for up to 4 h post injection. There was a considerable decrease in the background activity during the same period of study, giving higher target-to-muscle ratios. Blood pool activity at 3 h post injection was insignificant. 68GaCl3 (when not conjugated to TF) did not localize at the infection lesion up to 120 min post injection. Conclusion: The preliminary results suggest that 68Ga-TF is capable of detecting S. aureus infection in the rat model, within an hour after intravenous injection.

  7. Using GIBS and Worldview to Connect Global Processes to Local Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Worldview client and undelrying Global Image Browse Service (GIBS) are powerful tools for visualizing dynamic global processes in a clear and understandable manner. Currently viewable data layers, such as sea surface temperature, cloud and aersol parameters, snow cover and sea ice, and fires can be observed over time to gain a better understanding of the interrleationship between land, ocean and atmospheric processes, and how these relationships evolve over time. This presentation demonstrates the use of these tools to visualize (for example) relationships between fire and air quality over North America, the evolution of the recent El Nino, and changes in sea ice extent, using Worldview directly, and GIBS through both open source and commercial applications. The presentation also discusses visualizations that will be possible with anticipated new data layers.

  8. Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) - Rapidly Serving NASA Imagery for Applications and Science Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Plesea, L.; Hall, J. R.; Boller, R. A.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Thompson, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Expedited processing of imagery from NASA satellites for near-real time use by non-science applications users has a long history, especially since the beginning of the Terra and Aqua missions. Several years ago, the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) was created to greatly expand the range of near-real time data products from a variety of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) began exploring methods to distribute these data as imagery in an intuitive, geo-referenced format, which would be available within three hours of acquisition. Toward this end, EOSDIS has developed the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS, http://earthdata.nasa.gov/gibs) to provide highly responsive, scalable, and expandable imagery services. The baseline technology chosen for GIBS was a Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using this, global images and mosaics are divided into tiles with fixed bounding boxes for a pyramid of fixed resolutions. Initially, the satellite imagery is created at the existing data systems for each sensor, ensuring the oversight of those most knowledgeable about the science. There, the satellite data is geolocated and converted to an image format such as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG. The GIBS ingest server retrieves imagery from the various data systems and converts them into image tiles, which are stored in a highly-optimized raster format named Meta Raster Format (MRF). The image tiles are then served to users via HTTP by means of an Apache module. Services are available for the entire globe (lat-long projection) and for both polar regions (polar stereographic projection). Requests to the services can be made with the non-standard, but widely known, TWMS format or via the well-known OGC Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) standard format. Standard OGC Web Map Service (WMS) access to the GIBS server is also available. In addition, users may request a

  9. Tetrafluorophenolate of HBED-CC: a versatile conjugation agent for {sup 68}Ga-labeled small recombinant antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Matthias; Waengler, Bjoern; Eisenhut, Michael [German Cancer Research Center, Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Knackmuss, Stefan; LeGall, Fabrice; Little, Melvyn [Affimed Therapeutics, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter [University of Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The success of {sup 68}Ga-labeled peptides for positron emission tomography of neuroendocrine tumors is mainly depending on the complex chemistry of this radioisotope. 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), the chelator of choice has however limitations if its application is expanded to heat-sensitive proteins. Recombinant antibodies like single chain Fv or diabodies belong to this class of proteins. They are suited to provide imaging contrast despite the short-lived {sup 68}Ga because of their rapid blood clearances and nanomolar affinities. The heterobifunctional agent N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) was chosen as an alternative ligand because this agent is complexing [{sup 68}Ga]Ga{sup 3+} much faster than DOTA at ambient temperatures. A versatile technology for HBED-CC conjugation of proteins and {sup 68}Ga-labeling has been developed. This included HBED-CC-tetrafluorophenol (TFP) ester synthesis, coupling to the antibody at various pH and complexation reactions performed in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer under different conditions. The synthesis of the monoreactive 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenolate of HBED-CC at a carboxyl group not participating in complex formation used [Fe(HBED-CC)]{sup -} for ester formation. The removal of Fe{sup 3+} from purified (HBED-CC)TFP ester was achieved with RP{sub 18} cartridge technology. The conjugation chemistry was performed with mAb425 which binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This protein was used for optimizing purposes only. The influence of complexation parameters like temperature, pH, reaction time, and HBED-CC/antibody ratio on the biological activity of this model antibody was investigated. Furthermore, the outcome of this labeling procedure on the biological activity of a recombinant diabody (50 kDa) was studied. It is known that small HBED-CC/antibody ratios are prerequisites

  10. Tetrafluorophenolate of HBED-CC: a versatile conjugation agent for 68Ga-labeled small recombinant antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of 68Ga-labeled peptides for positron emission tomography of neuroendocrine tumors is mainly depending on the complex chemistry of this radioisotope. 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), the chelator of choice has however limitations if its application is expanded to heat-sensitive proteins. Recombinant antibodies like single chain Fv or diabodies belong to this class of proteins. They are suited to provide imaging contrast despite the short-lived 68Ga because of their rapid blood clearances and nanomolar affinities. The heterobifunctional agent N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) was chosen as an alternative ligand because this agent is complexing [68Ga]Ga3+ much faster than DOTA at ambient temperatures. A versatile technology for HBED-CC conjugation of proteins and 68Ga-labeling has been developed. This included HBED-CC-tetrafluorophenol (TFP) ester synthesis, coupling to the antibody at various pH and complexation reactions performed in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer under different conditions. The synthesis of the monoreactive 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenolate of HBED-CC at a carboxyl group not participating in complex formation used [Fe(HBED-CC)]- for ester formation. The removal of Fe3+ from purified (HBED-CC)TFP ester was achieved with RP18 cartridge technology. The conjugation chemistry was performed with mAb425 which binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This protein was used for optimizing purposes only. The influence of complexation parameters like temperature, pH, reaction time, and HBED-CC/antibody ratio on the biological activity of this model antibody was investigated. Furthermore, the outcome of this labeling procedure on the biological activity of a recombinant diabody (50 kDa) was studied. It is known that small HBED-CC/antibody ratios are prerequisites for minimal interference of labels with antigen

  11. Studies in rats on octreotide labelled with Ga-67: A potential radiopharmaceutical agent for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the preparation, biodistribution and analysis of elimination mechanisms of 67Ga-[DFO]-octreotide in rats. For labelling of the ligand with 67Ga, desferrioxamine B (DFO) coupled to octreotide via the succinyl linker has been shown to form a stable chelating agent for binding of 67Ga. The radiopharmaceutical was prepared by direct chelating of 67Ga3+ with [DFO]-octreotide in a slightly acidic reaction medium with high radiochemical purity. Pharmacokinetics of 67Ga-[DFO]-octreotide of radioactivity in rats has shown relatively rapid elimination of the compound from the body with a long-term retention in the kidney and organs with high somatostatin receptor density. The agent was eliminated mostly by urine predominantly by the mechanism of glomerular filtration. (author)

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel {sup 68}Ga-chelate-conjugated bisphosphonate as a bone-seeking agent for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kentaro, E-mail: skentarou@ffri.co.jp; Satake, Miho; Suwada, Jun; Oshikiri, Shinobu; Ashino, Hiroki; Dozono, Hiroyuki; Hino, Akihiro; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Minamizawa, Takao

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 68}Ga is a positron-emitting nuclide that has significant imaging potential given that, unlike cyclotron-produced {sup 18}F, the isotope can be produced on-site utilizing a {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator. We recently synthesized a novel bone-seeking agent by coupling a bisphosphonate with the {sup 68}Ga chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). This study presents a first report on the potential of this {sup 68}Ga bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical in the detection of bone metastases. Methods: 4-Amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate was conjugated with 2-[4,7-di(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl]pentanedioic acid, yielding 2-[4,7-di(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl] -5-[(4-hydroxy-4,4-diphosphonobutyl)amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid (NOTA-BP). {sup 68}Ga-labeled NOTA-BP ([{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP) was prepared by complexation of NOTA-BP with [{sup 68}Ga] gallium chloride and evaluated in in vitro experiments, biodistribution experiments and micro-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging experiments. Results: The labeling of NOTA-BP with {sup 68}Ga was completed by heating for 10 min. [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP was determined to have a radiochemical purity of over 95%, a high affinity for hydroxyapatite and a high stability in plasma. In in vivo biodistribution experiments, [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP demonstrated high bone uptake potential. Compared with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled methylene diphosphonate ([{sup 99m}Tc]MDP) and [{sup 18}F]fluoride, [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP exhibited faster blood clearance and a higher bone-to-blood ratio. In addition, mouse model bone metastasis was detected by micro-PET imaging at 1 h postinjection of [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP. Conclusion: We have developed a novel {sup 68}Ga-radiolabeled bone-seeking agent. This [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP complex was found to have a high bone affinity and rapid blood clearance, and may thus prove to be useful as a bone-seeking agent for clinical PET.

  13. 技嘉主板四年质保%GIGABYTE Motherboard Warranting 4 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    技嘉科技自2006年开始率先导人全固态电容主板之后,便掀起主板业新一波的浪潮,至今全固态电容主板已成为主板业界的标准。技嘉科技大量导入全固态电容主板,目前已成为业界机型最齐全、销售比重最高的主板厂商。

  14. Parallel photonic information processing at gigabyte per second data rates using transient states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.; Mirasso, Claudio R.; Fischer, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demands on information processing require novel computational concepts and true parallelism. Nevertheless, hardware realizations of unconventional computing approaches never exceeded a marginal existence. While the application of optics in super-computing receives reawakened interest, new concepts, partly neuro-inspired, are being considered and developed. Here we experimentally demonstrate the potential of a simple photonic architecture to process information at unprecedented data rates, implementing a learning-based approach. A semiconductor laser subject to delayed self-feedback and optical data injection is employed to solve computationally hard tasks. We demonstrate simultaneous spoken digit and speaker recognition and chaotic time-series prediction at data rates beyond 1Gbyte/s. We identify all digits with very low classification errors and perform chaotic time-series prediction with 10% error. Our approach bridges the areas of photonic information processing, cognitive and information science.

  15. Synthesis, {sup 68}Ga labeling and preliminary evaluation of DOTA peptide binding vascular adhesion protein-1: a potential PET imaging agent for diagnosing osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujula, Tiina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Salomaeki, Satu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Virsu, Pauliina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Lankinen, Petteri; Maekinen, Tatu J. [Orthopedic Research Unit, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Autio, Anu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Yegutkin, Gennady G. [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jalkanen, Sirpa [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); National Public Health Institute, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku, Turku (Finland)], E-mail: anne.roivainen@utu.fi

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an infection/inflammation-inducible endothelial glycoprotein. Based on our previous studies, the most VAP-1-selective peptide (VAP-P1) was 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N',N'',N''',N,,,,-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated, {sup 68}gallium ({sup 68}Ga)-labeled (named [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1) and evaluated preliminarily. Methods: Targeting was evaluated by using VAP-1-transfected cells. Biodistribution of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 was studied by positron emission tomography imaging of healthy rats and rats with bone inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Uptake of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 in osteomyelitis was compared with negative control peptide and competition with an excess of unlabeled DOTAVAP-P1. Results: [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 bound more efficiently to VAP-1-transfected cells than to controls. In rats, [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 cleared rapidly from blood circulation, excreted quickly in urine and showed an in vivo half-life of 26{+-}2.3 min. Imaging of osteomyelitis demonstrated modest target-to-background ratio. Studies with the negative control peptide and competitors revealed a significantly lower uptake at the infection site compared to [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1. Conclusions: The results represent a proof-of-concept that infection-induced VAP-1 can be targeted by [{sup 68}Ga]DOTA peptide. [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 is just the first candidate peptide and an essential opening for developing VAP-1-specific imaging agents.

  16. Synthesis, 68Ga labeling and preliminary evaluation of DOTA peptide binding vascular adhesion protein-1: a potential PET imaging agent for diagnosing osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an infection/inflammation-inducible endothelial glycoprotein. Based on our previous studies, the most VAP-1-selective peptide (VAP-P1) was 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N',N'',N''',N,,,,-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated, 68gallium (68Ga)-labeled (named [68Ga]DOTAVAP-P1) and evaluated preliminarily. Methods: Targeting was evaluated by using VAP-1-transfected cells. Biodistribution of [68Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 was studied by positron emission tomography imaging of healthy rats and rats with bone inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Uptake of [68Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 in osteomyelitis was compared with negative control peptide and competition with an excess of unlabeled DOTAVAP-P1. Results: [68Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 bound more efficiently to VAP-1-transfected cells than to controls. In rats, [68Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 cleared rapidly from blood circulation, excreted quickly in urine and showed an in vivo half-life of 26±2.3 min. Imaging of osteomyelitis demonstrated modest target-to-background ratio. Studies with the negative control peptide and competitors revealed a significantly lower uptake at the infection site compared to [68Ga]DOTAVAP-P1. Conclusions: The results represent a proof-of-concept that infection-induced VAP-1 can be targeted by [68Ga]DOTA peptide. [68Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 is just the first candidate peptide and an essential opening for developing VAP-1-specific imaging agents.

  17. UBVRI photometry of bright GB/GB2 radio galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectric UBVRI observations of 25 radio galaxies brighter than V ∼ 17 mag, and 14 quasars and other stellar objects brighter than V ∼ 18 mag are presented and discussed. These objects coincide with the GB/GB2 radio sources, extensively observed with the VLA at 1465 MHz. Galaxy broad-band colours confirm that most of these galaxies are giant ellipticals. (author)

  18. Can 100Gb/s wavelengths be deployed using 10Gb/s engineering rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ross; Nicholl, Gary; Wollenweber, Kevin; Schmidt, Ted

    2007-09-01

    A key challenge set by carriers for 40Gb/s deployments was that the 40Gb/s wavelengths should be deployable over existing 10Gb/s DWDM systems, using 10Gb/s link engineering design rules. Typical 10Gb/s link engineering rules are: 1. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) tolerance of 10ps (mean); 2. Chromatic Dispersion (CD) tolerance of +/-700ps/nm 3. Operation at 50GHz channel spacing, including transit through multiple cascaded [R]OADMs; 4. Optical reach up to 2,000km. By using a combination of advanced modulation formats and adaptive dispersion compensation (technologies rarely seen at 10Gb/s outside of the submarine systems space), vendors did respond to the challenge and broadly met this requirement. As we now start to explore feasible technologies for 100Gb/s optical transport, driven by 100GE port availability on core IP routers, the carrier challenge remains the same. 100Gb/s links should be deployable over existing 10Gb/s DWDM systems using 10Gb/s link engineering rules (as listed above). To meet this challenge, optical transport technology must evolve to yet another level of complexity/maturity in both modulation formats and adaptive compensation techniques. Many clues as to how this might be achieved can be gained by first studying sister telecommunications industries, e.g. satellite (QPSK, QAM, LDCP FEC codes), wireless (advanced DSP, MSK), HDTV (TCM), etc. The optical industry is not a pioneer of new ideas in modulation schemes and coding theory, we will always be followers. However, we do have the responsibility of developing the highest capacity "modems" on the planet to carry the core backbone traffic of the Internet. As such, the key to our success will be to analyze the pros and cons of advanced modulation/coding techniques and balance this with the practical limitations of high speed electronics processing speed and the challenges of real world optical layer impairments. This invited paper will present a view on what advanced technologies are likely

  19. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    traditional Non Return to Zero (NRZ) or use of Tunable chromatic Dispersion Compensators (TDC). Two single channel TDCs are experimentally evaluated. The first one, based on temperature changes in a chirped fiber Bragg grating, allows to reduce significantly chromatic dispersion induced penalty in a series of...... application (maximum distance of 40 km) the maximum PMD coeficient allowed in the transmission fiber, 0.4 ps=pkm, is below the values defined by actual standards, 0.5 ps=pkm. The most promising PMD compensation methods are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A PMD compensator based...... on a single fixed birefringent element is evaluated at 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s. It provides an improvement of at least a factor of two in the total PMD allowed in a link. However even when using the PMD compensator it is estimated that the maximum PMD coeficient in the fibers used in a five span link...

  20. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, You-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is...

  1. {sup 68}Ga-labelled exendin-3, a new agent for the detection of insulinomas with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brom, Maarten; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Joosten, Lieke; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Insulinomas are neuroendocrine tumours derived from pancreatic {beta}-cells. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed with a high incidence (>90%) and high density in insulinomas. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), the natural ligand of GLP-1R, is rapidly degraded in vivo. A more stable agonist of GLP-1R is exendin-3. We investigated imaging of insulinomas with DOTA-conjugated exendin-3 labelled with {sup 68}Ga. Targeting of insulinomas with [Lys{sup 40}(DOTA)]exendin-3 labelled with either {sup 111}In or {sup 68}Ga was investigated in vitro using insulinoma tumour cells (INS-1). [Lys{sup 40}({sup 111}In-DTPA)]Exendin-3 was used as a reference in this study. In vivo targeting was investigated in BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous INS-1 tumours. PET imaging was performed using a preclinical PET/CT scanner. In vitro exendin-3 specifically bound and was internalized by GLP-1R-positive cells. In BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous INS-1 tumours a high uptake of [Lys{sup 40}({sup 111}In-DTPA)]exendin-3 in the tumour was observed (33.5 {+-} 11.6%ID/g at 4 h after injection). Uptake was specific, as determined by coinjection of an excess of unlabelled [Lys{sup 40}]exendin-3 (1.8 {+-} 0.1%ID/g). The pancreas also exhibited high and specific uptake (11.3 {+-} 1.0%ID/g). High uptake was also found in the kidneys (144 {+-} 24%ID/g) and this uptake was not receptor-mediated. In this murine tumour model optimal targeting of the GLP-1R expressing tumour was obtained at exendin doses {<=}0.1 {mu}g. Remarkably, tumour uptake of {sup 68}Ga-labelled [Lys{sup 40}(DOTA)]exendin-3 was lower (8.9 {+-} 3.1%ID/g) than tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled [Lys{sup 40}(DTPA)]exendin-3 (25.4 {+-} 7.2%ID/g). The subcutaneous tumours were clearly visualized by small-animal PET imaging after injection of 3 MBq of [Lys{sup 40}({sup 68}Ga-DOTA)]exendin-3. [Lys{sup 40}({sup 68}Ga-DOTA)]Exendin-3 specifically accumulates in insulinomas, although the uptake is lower than that of [Lys

  2. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo characterization of two novel 68Ga-labelled 5-nitroimidazole derivatives as potential agents for imaging hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Hypoxia imaging is an important field in radiopharmaceutical research since hypoxic cells are very resistant to radiation treatment and diffusional limitations restrict the efficacy of chemotherapy. Gallium-68 is a widely used radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) due to the availability of the 68Ge/68Ga-generator. With the aim to develop new potential [68Ga]-radiopharmaceuticals for imaging hypoxia, we have synthesized and evaluated two novel 68Ga-labelled 5-nitroimidazole derivatives. Methods: Two 5-nitroimidazole derivatives, 10-[2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1 H-imidazole-1-yl)ethylaminocarbonylmethyl]-1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (Nit1) and 10-{[N-methyl-1-[1-(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1 H-imidazole-1-yl)ethyl)-1 H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl] methylaminocarbonylmethyl}-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (Nit2) were synthesized. Preparation of [68Ga]complexes [68Ga]- and [68Ga]- was performed at pH 4.5 and 95 °C during 15 minutes and radiochemical purity (RP) was evaluated by reverse phase HPLC. Stability, lipophilicity and plasma protein binding were studied. Biological behaviour in HCT-15 cells both in normoxia and hypoxia has been assessed. Biodistribution in animals bearing induced 3LL Lewis murine lung carcinoma was studied. Comparison with [18F]FMISO is also presented. Results: and have been successfully synthesized. Labelling in high radiochemical purity was achieved for both ligands. Complexes are stable in labelling milieu for at least four hours and in human plasma or in the presence of an excess of DTPA for at least two hours. Both compounds showed high uptake in hypoxic cells in vitro and a very favourable biodistribution profile in mice bearing induced tumours. Results are comparable to those obtained for [18F]FMISO. Conclusions: Selective uptake and retention in tumour together with favourable tumour/muscle ratio make these compounds promising candidates for further evaluation as potential hypoxia

  3. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-06-06

    Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.

  4. HCMV gB shares structural and functional properties with gB proteins from other herpesviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycoprotein B (gB) facilitates HCMV entry into cells by binding receptors and mediating membrane fusion. The crystal structures of gB ectodomains from HSV-1 and EBV are available, but little is known about the HCMV gB structure. Using multiangle light scattering and electron microscopy, we show here that HCMV gB ectodomain is a trimer with the overall shape similar to HSV-1 and EBV gB ectodomains. HCMV gB ectodomain forms rosettes similar to rosettes formed by EBV gB and the postfusion forms of other viral fusogens. Substitution of several bulky hydrophobic residues within the putative fusion loops with more hydrophilic residues reduced rosette formation and abolished cell fusion. We propose that like gB proteins from HSV-1 and EBV, HCMV gB has two internal hydrophobic fusion loops that likely interact with target membranes. Our work establishes structural and functional similarities between gB proteins from three subfamilies of herpesviruses.

  5. 10 Gb/s OEIC optical receiver front-end and 3.125 Gb/s PHEMT limiting amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Chao; Chen Tangsheng; Yang Lijie; Feng Ou; Jiao Shilong; Wu Yunfeng; Ye Yutang

    2009-01-01

    A 10 Gb/s OEIC (optoelectronic integrated circuit) optical receiver front-end has been studied and fab ricated based on the φ-76 mm GaAs PHEMT process; this is the first time that a limiting amplifier (LA) has been designed and realized using depletion mode PHEMT. An OEIC optical receiver front-end mode composed of an MSM photodiode and a current mode transimpedance amplifier (TIA) has been established and optimized by simu lation software ATLAS. The photodiode has a bandwidth of 10 GHz, a capacitance of 3 fF/μm and a photosensitive area of 50×50 μm~2. The whole chip has an area of 1511×666 μm~2. The LA bandwidth is expanded by spiral inductance which has been simulated by software HFSS. The chip area is 1950×1910μm~2 and the measured results demonstrate an input dynamic range of 34 dB (10-500 mVpp) with constant output swing of 500 tnVpp.

  6. The Giraffe Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) II. Metallicity distributions and alpha element abundances at fixed Galactic latitude

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O A; Vasquez, S; Hill, V; Rejkuba, M; Valenti, E; Rojas-Arriagada, A; Renzini, A; Babusiaux, C; Minniti, D; Brown, T M

    2015-01-01

    High resolution (R$\\sim$22,500) spectra for 400 red clump giants, in four fields within $\\rm -4.8^{\\circ} \\lesssim b \\lesssim -3.4^{\\circ}$ and $\\rm -10^{\\circ} \\lesssim l \\lesssim +10^{\\circ}$, were obtained within the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) project. To this sample we added another $\\sim$ 400 stars in Baade's Window, observed with the identical instrumental configuration. We constructed the metallicity distributions for the entire sample, as well as for each field individually, in order to investigate the presence of gradients or field-to-field variations in the shape of the distributions. The metallicity distributions in the five fields are consistent with being drawn from a single parent population, indicating the absence of a gradient along the major axis of the Galactic bar. The global metallicity distribution is well fitted by two Gaussians. The metal poor component is rather broad, with a mean at $\\rm =-0.31$ dex and $\\sigma=0.31$ dex. The metal-rich one is narrower, with mean $\\rm =+0.26$ a...

  7. WiGig and IEEE 802.11ad for Multi-Gigabyte- Per-Second WPAN and WLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai Shankar N; Debashis Dash; Hassan EI Madi; Guru Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) and I EEE 802.11 ad are developing a multigigabit wireless personal and local area network (WPAN/ WLAN) specification in the 60 GHz millimeter wave band. Chipset manufacturers, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and telecom companies are also assisting in this development. 60 GHz millimeter wave transmission will scale the speed of WLANs and WPANs to 6.75 Gbit/s over distances less than 10 meters. This technology is the first of its kind and will eliminate the need for cable around personal computers, docking stations, and other consumer electronic devices. High-definition multimedia interface (HDMI), display port, USB 3.0, and peripheral component interconnect express (PCle) 3.0 cables will all be eliminated. Fast downloads and uploads, wireless sync, and multi-gigabit-per-second WLANs will be possible over shorter distances. 60 GHz millimeter wave supports fast session transfer (FST) protocol, which makes it backward compatible with 5 GHz or 2.4 GHz WLAN so that end users experience the same range as in today' s WLANs. IEEE 802.1 lad specifies the physical (PHY) sublayer and medium access control (MAC) sublayer of the protocol stack. The MAC protocol is based on time-division multiple access (TDMA), and the PHY layer uses single carrier (SC) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to simultaneously enable low-power, high-performance applications.

  8. WiGig and IEEE 802.11ad - For multi-gigabyte-per-second WPAN and WLAN

    OpenAIRE

    N., Sai Shankar; Dash, Debashis; Madi, Hassan El; Gopalakrishnan, Guru

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) and IEEE 802.11ad are developing a multigigabit wireless personal and local area network (WPAN/WLAN) specification in the 60 GHz millimeter wave band. Chipset manufacturers, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and telecom companies are also assisting in this development. 60 GHz millimeter wave transmission will scale the speed of WLANs and WPANs to 6.75 Gbit/s over distances less than 10 meters. This technology is the first of its kind and will elimi...

  9. Gastric Adenocarcinomas Express the Glycosphingolipid Gb3/CD77: Targeting of Gastric Cancer Cells with Shiga Toxin B-Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Philipp Emanuel; Maak, Matthias; Nitsche, Ulrich; Perl, Markus; Novotny, Alexander; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Dransart, Estelle; Holtorf, Anne; Johannes, Ludger; Janssen, Klaus-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The B-subunit of the bacterial Shiga toxin (STxB), which is nontoxic and has low immunogenicity, can be used for tumor targeting of breast, colon, and pancreatic cancer. Here, we tested whether human gastric cancers, which are among the most aggressive tumor entities, express the cellular receptor of Shiga toxin, the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77). The majority of cases showed an extensive staining for Gb3 (36/50 cases, 72%), as evidenced on tissue sections of surgically resected specimen. Gb3 expression was detected independent of type (diffuse/intestinal), and was negatively correlated to increasing tumor-node-metastasis stages (P = 0.0385), as well as with markers for senescence. Gb3 expression in nondiseased gastric mucosa was restricted to chief and parietal cells at the bottom of the gastric glands, and was not elevated in endoscopic samples of gastritis (n = 10). Gb3 expression in established cell lines of gastric carcinoma was heterogeneous, with 6 of 10 lines being positive, evidenced by flow cytometry. STxB was taken up rapidly by live Gb3-positive gastric cancer cells, following the intracellular retrograde transport route, avoiding lysosomes and rapidly reaching the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Treatment of the Gb3-expressing gastric carcinoma cell line St3051 with STxB coupled to SN38, the active metabolite of the topoisomerase type I inhibitor irinotecan, resulted in >100-fold increased cytotoxicity, as compared with irinotecan alone. No cytotoxicity was observed on gastric cancer cell lines lacking Gb3 expression, demonstrating receptor specificity of the STxB-SN38 compound. Thus, STxB is a highly specific transport vehicle for cytotoxic agents in gastric carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 1008-17. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26826119

  10. 100 Gb/s single VCSEL data transmission link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Li, Bomin;

    2012-01-01

    100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation.......100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation....

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of GbMECT and GbMECP gene promoters from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S Y; Li, L L; Yuan, H H; Xu, F; Cheng, H

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolides are key pharmaceutical components in Ginkgo biloba. Using the cDNA sequence of the MECP and MECT genes to design primers, we obtained the promoters of these genes from Ginkgo genomic DNA using the genome walking method. The two promoters were 744 and 982 bp in length, respectively. The cis-elements of the GbMECPs and GbMECT promoters were predicted and analyzed using the plant cis-acting regulatory element database. We found major cis-elements in the sequence of the GbMECT and GbMECPs promoters. The GbMECP promoter contains six TATA boxes and eight CAAT boxes. The GbMECT contains five TATA boxes and seven CAAT boxes. Furthermore, some cis-elements in the promoters of GbMECPs and GbMECT included hormone and light-regulated elements, UB-B-induced elements, and stress-related dehydration-responsive elements. Expression analysis results showed that the MECP gene is mainly involved in responses to CCC (cycocel) and UV-B, and that MECT is mainly involved in responses to wounding treatment. These results also showed that the expression model was consistent with the cis-elements present. During the annual growth cycle, the level of GbMECPs was significantly correlated with terpene lactones accumulation in leaves. A fitted quadratic curve showed the best model for correlating GbMECPs with terpene lactones in leaves. These results will help us to understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved in key gene expression and ginkgolide accumulation in G. biloba. PMID:26634474

  12. Exploring Intra-Urban Accessibility and Impacts of Pollution Policies with an Agent-Based Simulation Platform: GaMiroD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Fosset

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we address the issue of sustainable cities by focusing on one of their very central components: daily mobility. Indeed, if cities can be interpreted as spatial organizations allowing social interactions, the number of daily movements needed to reach this goal is continuously increasing. Therefore, improving urban accessibility merely results in increasing traffic and its negative externalities (congestion, accidents, pollution, noise, etc., while eventually reducing the quality of life of people in the city. This is why several urban-transport policies are implemented in order to reduce individual mobility impacts while maintaining equitable access to the city. This challenge is however non-trivial and therefore we propose to investigate this issue from the complex systems point of view. The real spatial-temporal urban accessibility of citizens cannot be approximated just by focusing on space and implies taking into account the space-time activity patterns of individuals, in a more dynamic way. Thus, given the importance of local interactions in such a perspective, an agent based approach seems to be a relevant solution. This kind of individual based and “interactionist” approach allows us to explore the possible impact of individual behaviors on the overall dynamics of the city but also the possible impact of global measures on individual behaviors. In this paper, we give an overview of the Miro Project and then focus on the GaMiroD model design from real data analysis to model exploration tuned by transportation-oriented scenarios. Among them, we start with the the impact of a LEZ (Low Emission Zone in the city center.

  13. Towards Soft Computing Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel; Petrová, Zuzana

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2000), s. 859-868. ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2000 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 27.11.2000-28.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489; GA ČR GA201/99/P057 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : hybrid systems * intelligent agents Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Experience in the Clinical Application of Naokong (GB19)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汎

    2005-01-01

    @@ Naokong (GB19) is located 1.5 cun above Fengchi (GB20) and at the level with Naohu (GV17) in the depression of the lateral side of the external occipital protuberance. It belongs to the Gallbladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang, and is a crossing point of the Foot Shaoyang Channel and the Yangwei Channel. As is said in A Collection of Gems in Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Naokong (GB19) is indicated for emaciation due to over strain and stress, fever, neck rigidity, unbearable pain in the head, heavy eyes and palpitation as well as xenophthalmia and rhinalgia caused by epileptic seizure in severe cases. In clinical practice, the author has adopted Naokong (GB 19) as the main point in treating some obstinate diseases and obtained quite good therapeutic effects.

  15. a Rail Central Displacement Method about Gb-Sar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Cai, J.; Yang, H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new method to correct rail errors of Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-SAR) in the discontinue mode. Generally, "light positioning" is performed to mark the GB-SAR position in the dis-continuous observation mode. Usually we assume there is no difference between the marked position and the real installation position. But in fact, it is hard to keep the GB-SAR positions of two campaigns the same, so repositioning errors can't be neglected. In order to solve this problem, we propose an algorithm to correct the rail error after analyzing the GB-SAR rail error geometry. Results of the simulation experiment and the real experiment of a landslide in Lvliang, Shanxi, China, show the proposed method achieves an mm-level precision, enabling the D-GBSAR mode to be used in engineering projects.

  16. GB4706.1-1998与GB4706.1-92标准差异%The Discrepancies Between the GB4706.11998 GB4706.192 Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王攀

    2005-01-01

    GB4706.1-1998 《The first part of safety regulation household appliances and similar products:Universal Requirements》 is one of the standards of 3C certification, it has much differences from the former version GB4706.1-92. The paper dwells on the main differences between these two standards from the definition - symbol- safety regulation, mechanical intensity, etc so as to facilitate the inspecting staff to grasp them better.

  17. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is...

  18. Transformation of GbSGT1 gene into banana by an Agrobacterium-mediated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 is a homologue of the yeast ubiquitin ligase-associated protein. It controls some protein degradation and activates defense pathway in plants. Cotton GbSGT1 gene (Gossypium barbadense) has been isolated and characterized in previous work. In this study, the plant expression vector pBSGT1 with bar gene as a selection agent was constructed and transgenic banana was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the assistance of particle bombardment and screened with PCR and Basta spreading on banana plant leaves. Estimating of transgenic banana plants for resistance to Panama wilt is in progress.

  19. Ga-66 labeled somatostatin analogue DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide as a potential agent for positron emission tomography imaging and receptor mediated internal radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide labeled somatostatin analogues selectively target somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing tumors as a basis for diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. Recently, a DOTA-functionalized somatostatin analogue, DOTATOC (DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide) has been developed. This compound has been shown to be superior to the other somatostatin analogues as indicated by its uniquely high tumor-to-non-target tissue ratio. DOTATOC can be labeled with a variety of radiometals including gallium radioisotopes. Gallium-66 is a positron emitting radionuclide (T1/2 =9.5 hr; β+=56%), that can be produced in carrier free form by a low-beam energy cyclotron. In this study we investigated SSTR targeting characteristics of 66Ga-DOTATOC in AR42J rat pancreas tumor implanted nude mice as a potential agent for diagnosis and receptor-mediated internal radiotherapy of SSTR-expressing tumors. We compared our results with 67Ga- and 68Ga- labeled DOTATOC. The radiolabeling procedure gave labeling yield ranged from 85-95% and radiochemical and chemical purity was >95%. In-vitro competitive binding curves and in-vivo competitive displacement studies with an excess of unlabeled peptide indicates that there is specific binding of the radioligand to SSTR. Animal biodistribution data and serial microPETTM images demonstrated rapid tumor uptake and rapid clearance from the blood and all tissues except kidney. Maximum % ID/g values for tumor were 10.0±0.7, 13.2±2.1 and 9.8±1.5 for 66Ga-, 67Ga-, and 68Ga-DOTATOC, respectively. Calculated tumor, kidney and bone marrow doses for 66Ga-DOTATOC based on biodistribution data were 178, 109 and 1.2 cGy/MBq, respectively. We conclude that 66Ga labeled DOTATOC can be used for PET diagnosis and quantitative imaging-based dosimetry of SSTR positive tumors. 66Ga-DOTATOC may also be used in higher doses for ablation of these tumors. However, kidney is the critical organ for toxicity (tumor/kidney ratio 1.64), and high kidney uptake must be eliminated

  20. [Study on force feedback of acupuncture at Fengchi (GB 20)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Fu-Bo; Guo, Hai-Dong; Shao, Shui-Jin; Miao, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Guo, Chun-Xia; Mou, Fang-Fang; Yan, Zhen-Guo

    2013-10-01

    Acupuncture manipulations on Fengchi (GB 20) of famous doctors were taken through force feedback device, then the data was input into a digitized virtual human. Virtual Fengchi (GB 20) acupuncture force feedback simulation system was built through the virtual reality technology to achieve one-to-one high simulative manipulation effect for acupuncture students. The interaction force of the needle body and human tissues was analyzed during the acupuncture process on the 3D digital human integrated with information of Fengchi (GB 20) according to the physical characteristics of the tissues under this point. The mechanical model which is used to imitate the stress received by the body of the needle was established, and transmitted truly to the operator by the force feedback device. Thus, Fengchi (GB 20) virtual acupuncture force feedback simulation was preliminary established, and the sense of touch could be reproduced lively on the visualized virtual acupuncture human. It is held that Fengchi (GB 20) acupuncture force feedback research is a preliminary exploration for virtual acupuncture that integrated with the information of visual, tactile and force feedback. And it also provided a dynamic one-to-one simulation approach for acupuncture teaching. PMID:24377234

  1. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap. - Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 is unlikely to harm bobwhite embryos when applied according to product label guidance, but could pose a potential risk to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap

  2. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Miles, A.K

    2004-02-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD{sub 50} of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap. - Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 is unlikely to harm bobwhite embryos when applied according to product label guidance, but could pose a potential risk to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  3. Mesura de deformacions mitjançant GB-SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Monfort Codinach, Marta

    2014-01-01

    El present treball es centra en l’ús d’una tècnica de teledetecció terrestre basada en tecnologia Radar (GB-SAR) per la mesura de desplaçaments del terreny. El treball consta de dues parts principals: principis bàsics de la tècnica GB-SAR, descripció de dos procediments diferents per explotar les seves dades per la mesura de deformacions i, finalment, processat de les dades obtingudes sobre tres casos d’aplicació diferents. En aquest context, el treball ha estat enfocat a la co...

  4. A 25 Gb/s Silicon Photonics Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Baehr-Jones, Tom; Ding, Ran; Ayazi, Ali; Pinguet, Thierry; Streshinsky, Matt; Harris, Nick; Li, Jing; He, Li; Gould, Mike; Zhang, Yi; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Teo, Selin Hwee-Gee; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Hochberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Silicon has attracted attention as an inexpensive and scalable material system for photonic-electronic, system-on-chip development. For this, a platform with both photodetectors and modulators working at high speeds, with excellent cross-wafer uniformity, is needed. We demonstrate an optical-lithography, wafer-scale photonics platform with 25 Gb/s operation. We also demonstrate modulation with an ultra-low drive voltage of 1 Vpp at 25 Gb/s. We demonstrate attractive cross-wafer uniformity, an...

  5. Towards sequencing the 1 Gb wheat chromosome 3B

    OpenAIRE

    Choulet, Frédéric; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Sourdille, Pierre; Schlub, Stéphane; Brunel, Dominique; Barbe, Valérie; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    * BACKGROUND: Wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide but so far, the access to its genome sequence has been hampered by its size (17 Gb) and highly repetitive structure. We plan to sequence and annotate the largest bread wheat chromosome, 3B (1 Gb i.e. 2.5x the rice genome) using a hybrid approach combining Roche454 Titanium sequencing of BACs and Whole Chromosome Shotgun (WCS) with Illumina/Solexa GAII PE reads. In a pilot project, we sequenced and annotated 13 large contigs (18 Mb) ...

  6. A 5 Gb/s Radiation Tolerant Laser Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, L; Da Silva, S; Mazza, G; Meroli, S; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2009-01-01

    A laser driver for data transmission at 5 Gb/s has been developed as a part of the Giga Bit Transceiver (GBT) project. The Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) targets High Energy Physics (HEP) applications for which radiation tolerance is mandatory. The GBLD ASIC can drive both VCSELs and some types of edge emitting lasers. It is essentially composed of two drivers capable of sinking up to 12 mA each from the load at a maximum data rate of 5 Gb/s, and of a current sink for the laser bias current. The laser driver include also pre-emphasis and duty cycle control capabilities.

  7. Anisotropic magnetoresistance components in (Ga,Mn)As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rushforth, A.W.; Výborný, Karel; King, C.S.; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Wunderlich, J.; Irvine, A.C.; Vašek, Petr; Novák, Vít; Olejník, Kamil; Sinova, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Gallagher, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 14 (2007), 147207/1-147207/4. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA ČR GA202/04/1519; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002; GA MŠk LC510 Grant ostatní: UK(GB) GR/S81407/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * anisotropic magnetoresistence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.944, year: 2007

  8. Impact of GB transmission charging on renewable electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government is committed to meeting its objective of producing 10% of UK electricity supplies from renewable sources by 2010, subject to the cost to the consumer being acceptable. It is generally believed that northern Scotland - and the Highlands and Islands in particular - will be a significant source of renewable energy in future, mostly in the form of wind power; wave and tidal energy may also be important. The National Grid Company (NGC) is responsible for formulating a cost-reflective and. non-discriminatory electricity transmission charging methodology for Great Britain (GB). This determines Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs, which are paid by transmission-connected generators and suppliers for the use of the high voltage transmission network. Following the publication of National Grid Company's 'GB Transmission Charging: Initial Thoughts' document on 16 December 2003, there was particular concern that the level of future Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs in northern Scotland might impede the achievement of the Government's 2010 target for renewable electricity supplies. That document and subsequent revisions indicate that generation TNUoS charges in northern Scotland were likely to be significantly higher than anywhere else in GB. The study attempts to quantify the effect of the proposed GB-wide TNUoS charging methodology on the future growth of renewable electricity so as to ascertain the impact on the likelihood of meeting the Government's 2010 target. (UK)

  9. A Rapid and Sensitive Strip-Based Quick Test for Nerve Agents Tabun, Sarin, and Soman Using BODIPY-Modified Silica Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Estela; Biyikal, Mustafa; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Dropa, Tomáš; Urban, Martin; Costero, Ana M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Rurack, Knut

    2016-08-01

    Test strips that in combination with a portable fluorescence reader or digital camera can rapidly and selectively detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), and Soman (GD) and their simulants in the gas phase have been developed. The strips contain spots of a hybrid indicator material consisting of a fluorescent BODIPY indicator covalently anchored into the channels of mesoporous SBA silica microparticles. The fluorescence quenching response allows the sensitive detection of CWAs in the μg m(-3) range in a few seconds. PMID:27124609

  10. Bioactivity of pyridine-2-thiolato-1-oxide metal complexes: Bi(III), Fe(III) and Ga(III) complexes as potent anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis prospective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ignacio; Marino, Leonardo Biancolino; Demoro, Bruno; Echeverría, Gustavo A; Piro, Oscar E; Leite, Clarice Q F; Pavan, Fernando R; Gambino, Dinorah

    2014-11-24

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against tuberculosis and to further address the therapeutic potential of pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide (Hmpo) metal complexes, two new octahedral [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes, with M = Ga or Bi, were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. Attempts to crystallize [Ga(III)(mpo)3] in CH2Cl2 led to single crystals of the reaction product [GaCl(mpo)2], where the gallium(III) ion is in a square basis pyramidal environment, trans-coordinated at the basis to two pyridine-2-thiolato 1-oxide anions acting as bidentate ligands through their oxygen and sulfur atoms. The biological activity of the new [M(III)(mpo)3] complexes together with that of the previously reported Fe(III) analogous compound and the pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide sodium salt (Na mpo) was evaluated on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds showed excellent activity, both in the standard strain H37Rv ATCC 27294 (pan-susceptible) and in five clinical isolates that are resistant to the standard first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin. These pyridine-2-thiol 1-oxide derivatives are promising compounds for the treatment of resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25261824

  11. Combined immunotherapy of experimental murine T-lymphoma with antibody-targeted cytostatics and immunomodulating agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Miroslava; Šrogl, J.; Rossmann, P.; Novák, M.; Ulbrich, Karel; Strohalm, Jiří; Rozprimová, L.; Říhová, Blanka

    London: School of Pharmacy , University of London, 1995, s. 51. [International Symposium on Polymer Therapeutics: From Laboratory to Clinical Practice /1./. London (GB), 10.01.1996-12.01.1996] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 720407; GA ČR GA307/93/0057

  12. Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C A; Rodriguez, M; Greenbaum, E

    2001-09-01

    Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable after 40 days, storage and they can be launched or dropped into suspected danger zones. Commercially available hand-held fluorometric detector systems were used to measure Photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency of green algae and cyanobacteria entrapped on filter paper disks. Toxic agents flowing in the gas stream through the sensors can alter the characteristic fluorescence induction curves with resultant changes in photochemical yields. Tabun (GA), sarin (GB), mustard agent, tributylamine (TBA) (a sarin stabilizer), and dibutyl sulfide (DBS) (a mustard agent analog) were tested. Upper threshold limits of detectability for GA, TBA, and DBS are reported. With additional research and development, these biosensors may find application in stand-off detection of chemical and perhaps biological warfare agents under real-world conditions. PMID:11544038

  13. Coherent 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an Optimal Supercomputer Optical Switch Fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Roudas, Ioannis; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates.......We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates....

  14. Strengthening of poor lime mortar with consolidation agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Frankeová, Dita; Drdácký, Miloš

    Glasgow: University of the West of Scotland, 2013 - (Hughes, J.) ISBN 978-1-903978-44-3. [Historic mortars conference /3./. Glasgow (GB), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : mortar * consolidation * strengthening * treatment * consolidant Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  15. Flexible demand in the GB domestic electricity sector in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Annual domestic demand by category and daily flexible load profiles are shown to 2030. • Valuable flexible demand requires loads to be identifiable, accessible, and useful. • The extent of flexible demand varies significantly on a diurnal and seasonal basis. • Barriers to accessing domestic demand include multiple low value loads and apathy. • Existing market structure a barrier to fully rewarding individual load flexibility. - Abstract: In order to meet greenhouse gas emissions targets the Great Britain (GB) future electricity supply will include a higher fraction of non-dispatchable generation, increasing opportunities for demand side management to maintain a supply/demand balance. This paper examines the extent of flexible domestic demand (FDD) in GB, its usefulness in system balancing and appropriate incentives to encourage consumers to participate. FDD, classified as electric space and water heating (ESWH), and cold and wet appliances, amounts to 59 TW h in 2012 (113 TW h total domestic demand) and is calculated to increase to 67 TW h in 2030. Summer and winter daily load profiles for flexible loads show significant seasonal and diurnal variations in the total flexible load and between load categories. Low levels of reflective consumer engagement with electricity consumption and a resistance to automation present barriers to effective access to FDD. A value of £1.97/household/year has been calculated for cold appliance loads used for frequency response in 2030, using 2013 market rates. The introduction of smart meters in GB by 2020 will allow access to FDD for system balancing. The low commercial value of individual domestic loads increases the attractiveness of non-financial incentives to fully exploit FDD. It was shown that appliance loads have different characteristics which can contribute to an efficient power system in different ways

  16. Kostant polynomials and the cohomology ring for G/B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billey, S C

    1997-01-01

    The Schubert calculus for G/B can be completely determined by a certain matrix related to the Kostant polynomials introduced in section 5 of Bernstein, Gelfand, and Gelfand [Bernstein, I., Gelfand, I. & Gelfand, S. (1973) Russ. Math. Surv. 28, 1-26]. The polynomials are defined by vanishing properties on the orbit of a regular point under the action of the Weyl group. For each element w in the Weyl group the polynomials also have nonzero values on the orbit points corresponding to elements which are larger in the Bruhat order than w. The main theorem given here is an explicit formula for these values. The matrix of orbit values can be used to determine the cup product for the cohomology ring for G/B, using only linear algebra or as described by Lascoux and Schützenberger [Lascoux, A. & Schützenberger, M.-P. (1982) C. R. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. A 294, 447-450]. Complete proofs of all the theorems will appear in a forthcoming paper. PMID:11038536

  17. GB 19865 & GB 6675 ANNEX A.A —— SAFETY OF ELECTRICAL TOYS Differences Between the new and old Chinese National Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ganghua; He Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    This article anlayzes the different requirements for electrical toys safety between GB 6675-2003 and GB 19865-2005. This information is summed up in table form to make it easy for toy designers and manufacturers to grasp the new standard.

  18. Nanoheteroestructuras de GaAs/AlGaAs. Simulación y aplicación en transistores de alta movilidad GaAs/AlGaAs nanoheterostructures: simulation and application on high mobility transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Eduardo Martín

    2011-05-01

    ="es-CO"> 

     

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB">This work analyses the features of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, highlighting semiconductor junction properties. Charge confinement was produced when two materials having different band-gap were fixed; such high electron concentration is called two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG.

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB"> GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB">Device simulation for smart integrated systems (DESSIS is simulation software which uses physical models and robust numerical methods for simulating semiconductor devices and 3-5 element heterostructures. Results for different heterostructure doping profiles and voltages are presented in this work.

    GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB;" lang="en-GB"> GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs are one of the most important applications for heterostructures; they work on 30 to 300 GHz frequency ranges. These transistors are simulated in this work; a 1 A/mmGB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">2 GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-bidi-language: ar-SA;" lang="en-GB">high current density was obtained in the channel, such value being comparable to other values reported for similar transistors.GB; mso-ansi-language: en-GB; mso-default-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-latin-font-family: 'Times New Roman

  19. Prospects of high temperature ferromagnetism in (Ga, Mn)As semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Wang, K. Y.; Mašek, Jan; Edmonds, K. W.; König, J.; Sinova, J.; Polini, M.; Goncharuk, Natalya; MacDonald, A. H.; Sawicki, M.; Campion, R. P.; Zhao, L.X.; Foxon, C. T.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 16 (2005), 165204/1-165204/13. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0575; GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 Grant ostatní: EU FENIKS(XE) EC:G5RD-CT-2001-00535; EPSRC(GB) GR/S81407/01; Welch Foundation(GB) DE-FG03-02ER45958; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 491 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  20. CompaGB: An open framework for genome browsers comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiapello Hélène

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools to visualize and explore genomes hold a central place in genomics and the diversity of genome browsers has increased dramatically over the last few years. It often turns out to be a daunting task to compare and choose a well-adapted genome browser, as multidisciplinary knowledge is required to carry out this task and the number of tools, functionalities and features are overwhelming. Findings To assist in this task, we propose a community-based framework based on two cornerstones: (i the implementation of industry promoted software qualification method (QSOS adapted for genome browser evaluations, and (ii a web resource providing numerous facilities either for visualizing comparisons or performing new evaluations. We formulated 60 criteria specifically for genome browsers, and incorporated another 65 directly from QSOS's generic section. Those criteria aim to answer versatile needs, ranging from a biologist whose interest primarily lies into user-friendly and informative functionalities, a bioinformatician who wants to integrate the genome browser into a wider framework, or a computer scientist who might choose a software according to more technical features. We developed a dedicated web application to enrich the existing QSOS functionalities (weighting of criteria, user profile with features of interest to a community-based framework: easy management of evolving data, user comments... Conclusions The framework is available at http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/CompaGB. It is open to anyone who wishes to participate in the evaluations. It helps the scientific community to (1 choose a genome browser that would better fit their particular project, (2 visualize features comparatively with easily accessible formats, such as tables or radar plots and (3 perform their own evaluation against the defined criteria. To illustrate the CompaGB functionalities, we have evaluated seven genome browsers according to the implemented methodology

  1. Comparison of micromagnetic parameters of ferromagnetic semiconductors (Ga,Mn)(As,P) and (Ga,Mn)As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesařová, N.; Butkovičová, D.; Campion, R. P.; Rushforth, A.W.; Edmonds, K. W.; Wadley, P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Schmoranzerová, E.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P.; Motloch, P.; Novák, Vít; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Němec, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 15 (2014), , "155203-1"-"155203-12". ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * magneto -optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  2. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine: Remote access and distribution of a multi-gigabyte data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the 1986 Long-Range Plan for the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the Planning Panel on Medical Education wrote that NLM should '...thoroughly and systematically investigate the technical requirements for and feasibility of instituting a biomedical images library.' The panel noted the increasing use of images in clinical practice and biomedical research. An image library would complement NLM's existing bibliographic and factual database services and would ideally be available through the same computer networks as are these current NLM services. Early in 1989, NLM's Board of Regents convened an ad hoc planning panel to explore possible roles for the NLM in the area of electronic image libraries. In its report to the Board of Regents, the NLM Planning Panel on Electronic Image Libraries recommended that 'NLM should undertake a first project building a digital image library of volumetric data representing a complete, normal adult male and female. This Visible Human Project will include digitized photographic images for cryosectioning, digital images derived from computerized tomography, and digital magnetic resonance images of cadavers.' The technologies needed to support digital high resolution image libraries, including rapid development; and that NLM encourage investigator-initiated research into methods for representing and linking spatial and textual information, structural informatics. The first part of the Visible Human Project is the acquisition of cross-sectional CT and MRI digital images and cross-sectional cryosectional photographic images of a representative male and female cadaver at an average of one millimeter intervals. The corresponding cross-sections in each of the three modalities are to be registerable with one another.

  3. GIGABYTE^TM技嘉金牌主板 中国之队决战釜山——LOL:输在心态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奕

    2012-01-01

    如果单纯论实力,中国的《英雄联盟》爱好者对中国LOL代表队充满了信心,而他们自己也充满信心。在赛前LOL代表队并没有把美国队和加拿大队归为自己最大的对手,他们认为最难对付的是主场作战韩国代表队。

  4. Towards Building Computational Agent Schemes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beuster, Gerd; Krušina, Pavel; Neruda, Roman; Rydvan, Pavel

    Wien : SpringerVerlag, 2003 - (Pearson, D.; Steele, N.; Albrecht, R.), s. 210-215 ISBN 3-211-00743-1. [ICANNGA'2003 /6./. Roanne (FR), 23.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0428 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : multi agent system s * intelligent agent s * hybrid models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. 160 Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Data Modulator based on Cross Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Jeppesen, Palle; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated 160 Gb/s all-optical data modulation with an extinction ratio of 18.5 dB based on XPM in a silicon nanowire. Error free performance is achieved for the optically modulated 160 Gb/s signal.......We have demonstrated 160 Gb/s all-optical data modulation with an extinction ratio of 18.5 dB based on XPM in a silicon nanowire. Error free performance is achieved for the optically modulated 160 Gb/s signal....

  6. Coulomb Blockade Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect in a (Ga,Mn)As Single-Electron Transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Kaestner, B.; Irvine, A.C.; Shick, Alexander; Stone, N.; Wang, K. Y.; Rana, U.; Giddings, A.D.; Foxon, C. T.; Campion, R. P.; Williams, D.A.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2006), 077201/1-077201/4. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA MŠk LC510 Grant ostatní: EPSRC(GB) GR/S81407/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anisotropic magnetoresistance * Coulomb blockade * single electron transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.072, year: 2006

  7. GIBS Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The KML documentation standard provides a solution for imagery integration into mapping tools that utilize support the KML standard, specifically Google Earth....

  8. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico

    2014-09-12

    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  9. GABAB receptor subunit GB1 at the cell surface independently activates ERK1/2 through IGF-1R transactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Baloucoune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional GABA(B receptor is believed to require hetero-dimerization between GABA(B1 (GB1 and GABA(B2 (GB2 subunits. The GB1 extracellular domain is required for ligand binding, and the GB2 trans-membrane domain is responsible for coupling to G proteins. Atypical GABA(B receptor responses observed in GB2-deficient mice suggested that GB1 may have activity in the absence of GB2. However the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by using cells overexpressing a GB1 mutant (GB1asa with the ability to translocate to the cell surface in the absence of GB2, we show that GABA(B receptor agonists, such as GABA and Baclofen, can induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the absence of GB2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GB1asa induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation through Gi/o proteins and PLC dependent IGF-1R transactivation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that GB1 may form a functional receptor at the cell surface in the absence of GB2.

  10. Optimization algorithm in adaptive PMD compensation in 10Gb/s optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Cao; Li, Tangjun; Wang, Muguang; Gong, Xiangfeng

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, the optimization algorithms are introduced in adaptive PMD compensation in 10Gb/s optical communication system. The PMD monitoring technique based on degree of polarization (DOP) is adopted. DOP can be a good indicator of PMD with monotonically deceasing of DOP as differential group delay (DGD) increasing. In order to use DOP as PMD monitoring feedback signal, it is required to emulate the state of DGD in the transmission circuitry. A PMD emulator is designed. A polarization controller (PC) is used in fiber multiplexer to adjust the polarization state of optical signal, and at the output of the fiber multiplexer a polarizer is used. After the feedback signal reach the control computer, the optimization program run to search the global optimization spot and through the PC to control the PMD. Several popular modern nonlinear optimization algorithms (Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Networks, Ant Colony Optimization etc.) are discussed and the comparisons among them are made to choose the best optimization algorithm. Every algorithm has its advantage and disadvantage, but in this circs the Genetic Algorithm (GA) may be the best. It eliminates the worsen spots constantly and lets them have no chance to enter the circulation. So it has the quicker convergence velocity and less time. The PMD can be compensated in very few steps by using this algorithm. As a result, the maximum compensation ability of the one-stage PMD and two-stage PMD can be made in very short time, and the dynamic compensation time is no more than 10ms.

  11. Probing of spin wave resonances in (Ga,Mn)As by time-resolved magneto-optical technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmoranzerová, E.; Tesařová, N.; Janda, T.; Butkovičová, D.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P.; Novák, Vít; Olejník, Kamil; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Němec, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 11 (2014), s. 2401604. ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * magneto -optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  12. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar Hameed Bloh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup’s Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06 were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity. Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  13. Study on a Multiplexer a 40 Gb/s OTDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In a 4×10Gb/s OTDM system (optical time-division-multiplication) system, multiplexing devices are key devices. The time interval of four channels of the 40Gb/s OTDM system is 25ps respectively. If the time intervals are no accurate, will induce the system performance to degeneration. In order to make out OTDM device and carry out a transmission experiment in a 40Gb/s OTDM system, a kind of OTDM device is researched. This scheme be used to fabricate multiplex device. Also the device have been used to a 4...

  14. Study on the Similarities and Differences of Body Measurement Terminology between ASTM and China GB Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方方; 张渭源; 张文斌

    2003-01-01

    The similarities and differences of ASTM and China GB standard are studied in three aspects:measure instrument,terminology and applicable field.They are similar on the measuring apparatus and GB has less measurements,such as girth,length and width measurements than ASTM and it lack across chest width,back width,total crotch length and shoulder slope which are important measurements in pattern making.ASTM classifies its standards according to the customers' size,gender and age.So we think GB standard could make some modifications from these fields to satisfy the users.

  15. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Wig, Faith Virginia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Erickson, Kari Natania [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  16. Can 100-Gb/s QPSK Signal Locate Adjacent to Legacy 10-Gb/s OOK Signal without Guard-Band?

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2010-01-01

    For 100-Gb/s quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) signal with on-off keying (OOK) signal in neighboring wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) channel, the smoothing filter in the feedforward phase estimation scheme must be optimized to minimize the phase error. With optimal Wiener filter, typical 0-dBm launched power 10-Gb/s OOK signals give a SNR penalty of 0.66 and 0.30 dB for standard single-mode and nonzero dispersion-shifted fibers, respectively.

  17. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Buscemi, D.M.; Melancon, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-111 I; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  18. Evaluation of modulation formats for 160 Gb/s transmission systems using Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jeppesen, Palle

    We evaluate 160 Gb/s systems with different modulation formats. RZ-DPSK gives best performance for a single channel system with 40% reach improvement compared to RZ, CSRZ-DPSK is more robust in a WDM system....

  19. Enzymatic activities of the GB virus-B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GB virus-B (GBV-B) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with greater than 50% sequence similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B. Recombinant GBV-B NS5B was reported to possess RdRp activity (W. Zhong et al., 2000, J. Viral Hepat. 7, 335-342). In this study, the GBV-B RdRp was examined more thoroughly for different RNA synthesis activities, including primer-extension, de novo initiation, template switch, terminal nucleotide addition, and template specificity. The results can be compared with previous characterizations of the HCV RdRp. The two RdRps share similarities in terms of metal ion and template preference, the abilities to add nontemplated nucleotides, perform both de novo initiation and extension from a primer, and switch templates. However, several differences in RNA synthesis between the GBV-B and HCV RdRps were observed, including (i) optimal temperatures for activity, (ii) ranges of Mn2+ concentration tolerated for activity, and (iii) cation requirements for de novo RNA synthesis and terminal transferase activity. To assess whether the recombinant GBV-B RdRp may represent a relevant surrogate system for testing HCV antiviral agents, two compounds demonstrated to be active at nanomolar concentrations against HCV NS5B were tested on the GBV RdRp. A chain terminating nucleotide analog could prevent RNA synthesis, while a nonnucleoside HCV inhibitor was unable to affect RNA synthesis by the GBV RdRp

  20. Specialty fibers for 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Berg, Kim Skaalum; Clausen, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated.......Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated....

  1. Phase Modulation for postcompensation of dispersion in 160-Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Clausen, A. T.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Seoane, Jorge; Berg, Kim Skaalum; Xu, Zhenbo; Zeng, Jianming; Jeppesen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end.......Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end....

  2. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle;

    2006-01-01

    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  3. A sequential Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed to determine the reliability of the energy infrastructure. The model integrates the gas and electricity network into a single sequential Monte Carlo simulation. The model minimises the combined costs of the gas and electricity network, these include gas supplies, gas storage operation and electricity generation. The Monte Carlo model calculates reliability indices such as loss of load probability and expected energy unserved for the combined gas and electricity network. The intention of this tool is to facilitate reliability analysis of integrated energy systems. Applications of this tool are demonstrated through a case study that quantifies the impact on the reliability of the GB gas and electricity network given uncertainties such as wind variability, gas supply availability and outages to energy infrastructure assets. Analysis is performed over a typical midwinter week on a hypothesised GB gas and electricity network in 2020 that meets European renewable energy targets. The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on the reliability of the energy system is assessed. The results highlight the value of greater gas storage facilities in enhancing the reliability of the GB energy system given various energy uncertainties. -- Highlights: •A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed. •Reliability indices are calculated for the combined GB gas and electricity system. •The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on reliability of the energy system is assessed. •Integrated reliability indices could be used to assess the impact of investment in energy assets

  4. 160 Gb/s Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM wavelength conversion and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2007-01-01

    In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown.......In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown....

  5. Targeting Gb3 and apoptosis-related proteins to overcome cisplatin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cisplatin is used for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but treatment with cisplatin often leads to acquired resistance to cisplatin, resulting in poor patient survival. Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) have been associated with cisplatin resistance. Gb3 serves as a receptor for verotoxin-1 (VT-1), which induces apoptosis, and has been shown to have a functional dependency to MDR1 and heat s...

  6. Manganese (Mn oxidation increases intracellular Mn in Pseudomonas putida GB-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Banh

    Full Text Available Bacterial manganese (Mn oxidation plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other compounds, and the diversity and prevalence of Mn oxidizers have been well established. Despite many hypotheses of why these bacteria may oxidize Mn, the physiological reasons remain elusive. Intracellular Mn levels were determined for Pseudomonas putida GB-1 grown in the presence or absence of Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Mn oxidizing wild type P. putida GB-1 had higher intracellular Mn than non Mn oxidizing mutants grown under the same conditions. P. putida GB-1 had a 5 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to the non Mn oxidizing mutant P. putida GB-1-007 and a 59 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to P. putida GB-1 ∆2665 ∆2447. The intracellular Mn is primarily associated with the less than 3 kDa fraction, suggesting it is not bound to protein. Protein oxidation levels in Mn oxidizing and non oxidizing cultures were relatively similar, yet Mn oxidation did increase survival of P. putida GB-1 when oxidatively stressed. This study is the first to link Mn oxidation to Mn homeostasis and oxidative stress protection.

  7. Magnetic domains and twin microstructure of single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga exhibiting magnetic shape memory effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Oleg; Kopecký, Vít; Fekete, Ladislav; Jurek, Karel; Kopeček, Jaromír; Straka, L.; Seiner, Hanuš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 11 (2015), s. 7150406. ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LO1409 Grant ostatní: FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : magnetic domain * magnetic shape memory * NiMnGa Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  8. Spin-dependent phenomena and device concepts explored in (Ga,Mn)As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Wunderlich, Joerg; Novák, Vít; Olejník, Kamil; Gallagher, B. L.; Campion, R. P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Rushforth, A.W.; Ferguson, A.J.; Němec, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2014), s. 855-896. ISSN 0034-6861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 29.604, year: 2014

  9. Effect of compressive load on magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richterová, Kristina; Drahokoupil, J.; Kopecký, Vít; Dragounová, K.; Landa, Michal; Heczko, Oleg

    Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences, 2015, s. 704-708. ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials /13./. Praha (CZ), 31.08.2014-04.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : MSM * Ni-Mn-Ga * magnetic stress * alloy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Low-temperature magnetization of (Ga,Mn)As semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Mašek, Jan; Wang, K. Y.; Edmonds, K. W.; Sawicki, M.; Polini, M.; Sinova, J.; MacDonald, A. H.; Campion, R. P.; Zhao, L.X.; Farley, N.R.S.; Johal, T.K.; van der Laan, G.; Foxon, C. T.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 16 (2006), 165205/1-165205/11. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575 Grant ostatní: EPSRC(GB) GR/S81407/01; FENIKS(XE) EC:G5RD-CT-2001-00535; US Department of Energy(US) DE-FG03-02ER45958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * magnetization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2006

  11. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrando, P.; Pisani, A.; Serieys, N.; Ortonne, J.P. (UER Medecine, Nice (France)); Hsi, Baeli; Yeh, Changjing (INSERM U210, Nice (France))

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida.

  12. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Buscemi, D.M.; Melancon, M.J

    2003-10-01

    Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 poses a minimal risk to red-winged blackbird embryos when applied according to product label guidance. - Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  13. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on mallard and bobwhite embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil or GB-1111 is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae. The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB-1111 but the product label warns that ?GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on days 4 or 11 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3, or 10 times the maximum rate (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos/ hatchlings, lower body and liver weights of hatchlings and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal P450-associated monooxygenase activity (EROD) in hatchlings. Recommended rates of field application of GB-1111 are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos.

  14. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida

  15. Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Yeh, C H

    2011-03-14

    Long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) is considered as a promising technology towards higher capacity and extended coverage optical system. We propose and demonstrate a LR-PON with the capability of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation. By using the upstream signal wavelength-transition generated by a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) based colorless optical networking unit (ONU), the spectral overlap among the upstream signal and the RB noises can be minimized. Hence, due to the achievement of effective RB mitigation, a 100 km LR-PON with a high split-ratio of 512 is demonstrated using 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) downstream and 2.5 Gb/s NRZ upstream signals. Detail analysis of the wavelength-transition generation is presented. PMID:21445132

  16. Cooperation of Computational Intelligence Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2006 - (Smari, W.; McQuay, W.), s. 256-263 ISBN 0-9785699-0-3. [International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and System s. Las Vegas (US), 14.05.2006-17.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi - agent system s * cooperative agent s * computational intelligence * ontologies Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  17. Wavelet Applications to Heterogeneous Agents Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vošvrda, Miloslav; Vácha, Lukáš

    Plzeň : University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, 2006 - (Lukáš, L.), s. 497-502 ISBN 978-80-7043-480-2. [Mathematical Methods in Economics 2006. Plzeň (CZ), 13.09.2006-15.09. 2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1294 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : agent's trading strategies * heterogeneous agent model with stochastic memory * Worst out Algorithm * wavelets Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  18. Serial 100 Gb/s connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopodis, Vasilis; Kouloumentas, Christos; Konczykowska, Agnieszka; Jorge, Filipe; Groumas, Panos; Zhang, Ziyang; Beretta, Antonio; Dede, Alberto; Dupuy, Jean-Yves; Nodjiadjim, Virginie; Cangini, Giulio; Von Büren, George; Miller, Eric; Dinu, Raluca; Choi, Jung Han; Pech, Detlef; Keil, Norbert; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Grote, Norbert; Vannucci, Antonello; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2012-12-17

    We demonstrate the first integrated transmitter for serial 100 Gb/s NRZ-OOK modulation in datacom and telecom applications. The transmitter relies on the use of an electro-optic polymer modulator and the hybrid integration of an InP laser diode and InP-DHBT electronics with the polymer board. Evaluation is made at 80 and 100 Gb/s through eye-diagrams and BER measurements using a receiver module that integrates a pin-photodiode and an electrical 1:2 demultiplexer. Error-free performance is confirmed both at 80 and 100 Gb/s revealing the viability of the approach and the potential of the technology. PMID:23263091

  19. Elucidation of GB1 Protein Unfolding Mechanism via a Long-timescale Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaryada, T.; Hati, J.; Wahyudi, S. T.; Malau, N. D.; Sawitri, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the unfolding mechanism of 1GB1 protein at various simulation temperatures using a long-timescale molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of structural parameters of molecular dynamics simulation have indicated that the unfolding process of GB1 protein has started at 95 ns for 475 K simulation, and at 745 ps for 500 K simulation. The unfolding process in this simulation exhibit the feature of hydrophobic core collapse model, in which the beta-hairpin destruction precedes the a-helix to coil transition. The unfolding was started with the increasing flexibility of the beta-sheets and hydrophobic core region, continued with beta-hairpins destruction, and ended with a-helix to coil and turn transition. The final structures of GB1 protein after unfolding, suggest an unfinished denaturation of protein as seen from the small remains of α-helix structure.

  20. [Using Guangming (GB37) acupoint to treat eye diseases: from historical suspense to modern clinical experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T; Wu, M Z

    2016-05-01

    Guangming (GB37) gained its name before the writing of Huang di Ming Tang Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Mingtang Classic), the earliest work of the art of acupuncture point. However, in acupuncture and moxibustion works before the Song Dynasty, this acupoint was not used to treat eye diseases. In Dou Hanqing's Zhen jiu biao you fu (Song to Elucidate Mysteries in Acupuncture Moxibustion), Guangming was used to treat oculopathy as an alias of Cuanzhu (BL2). Influenced by this, the alias "Guangming" was mistaken as Guangming (GB37) of the Gallbladder Meridian in the Bian que shen ying zhen jiu yu long jing (Bian Que Acupuncture and Moxibustion Jade Dragon Classic) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the symptom of eye itch was added to the indications of Guangming (GB37). This was wrongly informed in the later acupuncture and moxibustion works, and the modern scholars also accepted it and confirmed its effect by the clinical and experimental research. PMID:27485868

  1. A negative allosteric modulator modulates GABAB-receptor signalling through GB2 subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Chen, Linhai; Liu, Lei; Xia, Zhixiong; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Nan, Fajun; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-15

    An γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB)-receptor mediates slow and prolonged synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system, which represents an interesting target for the treatment of various diseases and disorders of the central nervous system. To date, only one activator of the GABAB-receptor, baclofen, is on the market for the treatment of spasticity. Inhibitors of the GABAB-receptor, such as antagonists, show anti-absence seizure activity and pro-cognitive properties. In a search for allosteric compounds of the GABAB-receptor, although several positive allosteric modulators have been developed, it is only recently that the first negative allosteric modulator (NAM), CLH304a (also named Compound 14), has been reported. In the present study, we provide further information on the mechanism of action of CLH304a, and also show the possibility of designing more NAMs, such as CLH391 and CLH393, based on the structure of CLH304a. First we show that CLH304a inhibits native GABAB-receptor activity in cultured cerebellar granular neurons. We then show that CLH304a has inverse agonist properties and non-competitively inhibits the effect of agonists, indicating that it binds at a different site to GABA. The GABAB-receptor is a mandatory heterodimer made of GB1 subunits, in which agonists bind, and GB2 subunits, which activate G-proteins. By using various combinations made up of wild-type and/or mutated GB1 and GB2 subunits, we show that CLH304a acts on the heptahelical domain of GB2 subunits. These data revealed the possibility of designing innovative NAMs acting in the heptahelical domain of the GB2 subunits, offering novel possibilities for therapeutic intervention based on GABAB-receptor inhibition. PMID:26772870

  2. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal;

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined.......An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  3. Serial 100 Gb/s connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Katopodis, V.; Kouloumentas, C.; Konczykowska, A.; Jorge, F.; Groumas, P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Beretta, A; Dede, A.; Dupuy, J.Y.; Nodjiadjim, V.; Cangini, G.; Buren, G. von; Miller, E.; R. Dinu; Choi, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the first integrated transmitter for serial 100 Gb/s NRZ-OOK modulation in datacom and telecom applications. The transmitter relies on the use of an electro-optic polymer modulator and the hybrid integration of an InP laser diode and InP-DHBT electronics with the polymer board. Evaluation is made at 80 and 100 Gb/s through eye-diagrams and BER measurements using a receiver module that integrates a pin-photodiode and an electrical 1:2 demultiplexer. Error-free performance is con...

  4. Error-free 320 Gb/s simultaneous add-drop multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre.......We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre....

  5. GB/T 8363-2007铁素体钢落锤撕裂试验方法简介%Brief Introduction for Drop Weight Tear Test Method of GB/T 8363-2007 Acicular Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏

    2010-01-01

    介绍了新版落锤撕裂试验(DWTT)标准GB/T 8363-2007,并与以前的版本GB/T 8363-1987 以及API RP 5L3-1996进行了比较.对比表明,新版国家标准GB/T 8363-2007在GB/T 8363-1987的基础上进行了修改,并兼顾了API RP 5L3-1996,另外还增加了异常断口评定等新内容.

  6. The Development of Recycling Agent for Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A type of recycling agent was developed and its use for modifying used asphalt is described.The results show that the viscosity and three main properties of the aged asphalt were remarkably improved.With 5%-7% content of recycling agent, the main properties of recycled asphalt comported with China GB asphalt standard AH-70 and the recycled asphalt concrete could be used as high-grade highway.Furthermore,the recycling mechanism of the aged asphalt is discussed.

  7. Assessing protection against OP pesticides and nerve agents provided by wild-type HuPON1 purified from Trichoplusia ni larvae or induced via adenoviral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Sean M; Kasten, Shane A; Harrison, Joshua; Otto, Tamara C; Oliver, Zeke P; Rezk, Peter; Reeves, Tony E; Chilukuri, Nageswararao; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2013-03-25

    Human paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) has been proposed as a catalytic bioscavenger of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents. We assessed the potential of this enzyme to protect against OP poisoning using two different paradigms. First, recombinant HuPON1 purified from cabbage loopers (iPON1; Trichoplusia ni) was administered to guinea pigs, followed by exposure to at least 2 times the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the OP nerve agents tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and cyclosarin (GF), or chlorpyrifos oxon, the toxic metabolite of the OP pesticide chlorpyrifos. In the second model, mice were infected with an adenovirus that induced expression of HuPON1 and then exposed to sequential doses of GD, VX, or (as reported previously) diazoxon, the toxic metabolite of the OP pesticide diazinon. In both animal models, the exogenously added HuPON1 protected animals against otherwise lethal doses of the OP pesticides but not against the nerve agents. Together, the results support prior modeling and in vitro activity data which suggest that wild-type HuPON1 does not have sufficient catalytic activity to provide in vivo protection against nerve agents. PMID:23123254

  8. Heterogeneous Agents Model with the Worst Out Algorithm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vošvrda, Miloslav; Vácha, Lukáš

    I, č. 1 (2007), s. 54-66. ISSN 1802-4696 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06075; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/0990 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 454/2004/A-EK/FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Efficient Market s Hypothesis * Fractal Market Hypothesis * agents' investment horizons * agents' trading strategies * technical trading rules * heterogeneous agent model with stochastic memory * Worst out Algorithm Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. Wavelets and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agents Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 25 (2008), s. 41-56. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR GA402/07/1113; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/0990 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : heterogeneous agents model * market sentiment * Hurst exponent * wavelets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/E/vacha-wavelets and sentiment in the heterogeneous agents model.pdf

  10. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ling Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter.

  11. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yong-Ling; Shen, Yong-Bao; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Shui-Yuan; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter. PMID:26351628

  12. Low polarization dependent loss of InP-based waveguide photodetector integrated with spot-size converter for 100Gb/s coherent receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Ho; Choe, Joong-Seon; Han, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Kwon, Yong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated the waveguide photodetector (WG PD) integrated with spot-size converter (SSC) for coherent receiver of 100Gb/s operation. The WG PD integrated with SSC was designed as diluted WG, dual lateral taper structure, and PIN-photodiode. The epitaxial layers of InxGa1-xAsyP1-y/InP, InxGa1-xAsyP1-y, and InGaAs were adopted as the diluted WG, dual tapers, and absorber of PD, respectively. The shape and thickness of each structure were determined through the simulation of 3D finite-difference beam propagation method. Although the evanescent coupling was highly sensitive, we optimized the structures with simulated responsivity and polarization dependent loss (PDL) as 0.70 A/W and 0.1 dB, respectively. We successfully obtained the SSC-integrated WG PD through numerous fabrication process including photolithography. The electrical and optical properties were characterized with laser launching. Fabricated PDs had almost similar responsivity and PDL with the simulation results. The responsivity and PDL were measured as 0.7 A/W and less than 0.3 dB respectively. The 3 dB-bandwidth was measured as 34 GHz. We successfully realized low PDL and high responsivity by adopting the lateral taper structure for SSC-integrated WG PD.

  13. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from Gossypium barbadense

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Liu; Kaijing Zuo; Fei Zhang; Ying Li; Jieting Xu; Lida Zhang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2009-12-01

    An AGAMOUS (AG)-like gene, GbAGL2, was isolated from Gossypium barbadense and characterized. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GbAGL2 shared high homology with AG-subfamily genes and belonged to a C-class gene family. DNA gel blot analysis showed that GbAGL2 belonged to a low-copy gene family. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed that GbAGL2 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues including ovules and carpels, but barely expressed in vegetative tissues. In addition, GbAGL2 expression in a cotton cultivar XuZhou142 (wt) (XZ142, G. hirsutum L.) and its fibreless mutant XZ142 (fl) was examined. RNA in situ hybridization analysis indicated that GbAGL2 transcripts were preferentially restricted to outer ovule integuments, carpels and fibres. These expression patterns implied that GbAGL2 might participate in the development of the carpel and ovule. Furthermore, Arabidopsis transformation was performed and modifications occurred in flowers, and the silique length of transgenic plants also increased slightly, suggesting that the GbAGL2 gene may have a positive effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. Our findings suggest that GbAGL2 might not only specify the identity of floral organs but also play a potential key role in ovary or fibre development in cotton.

  14. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sukun [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Du, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Chunfu [Soochow University, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yalan [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Qinxue, E-mail: qhu@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George' s University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a MADS-Box Gene (GbMADS2 from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of transcription factors gene family, MADS-box genes play an important role in plant development processes. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Ginkgo biloba, a MADS-box gene, designated as GbMADS2, was cloned from G. biloba based on EST sequences by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis results showed that the cDNA sequence of GbMADS2 contained a 663 bp length ORF encoding 221 amino acids protein, which displayed typical structure of plant MADS-box protein including MADS, I, and K domains and C terminus. The sequence of GbMADS2 protein was highly homologous to those of MADS-box proteins from other plant species with the highest homologous to AGAMOUS (CyAG from Cycas revoluta. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that GbMADS2 belonged to AGAMOUS clade genes. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression levels of GbMADS2 gene in female and male flower were significantly higher than those in root, stem, and leaves, and that GbMADS2 expression level increased along with time of flower development. The spatial and time-course expression profile of GbMADS2 implied that GbMADS2 might be involved in development of reproductive organs. The isolation and expression analysis of GbMADS2 provided basis for further studying the molecular mechanism of flower development in G. biloba.

  16. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry

  17. Agent engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  18. All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Lei, Lei; Ding, Yunhong;

    2013-01-01

    An all-optical AND logic gate in a single silicon microring resonator is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s with 50% RZ-OOK signals. By setting the wavelengths of two intensity-modulated input pumps on the resonances of the microring resonator, field-enhanced four-wave mixing with a total input...

  19. Analysis of GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys in Detail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Introduction GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys, which is a compulsory national standard and developed in accordance with the Standardization Law of P. R. China and the Product Quality Law ofP. R. China,has been officially issued on Oct. 9th, 2003.

  20. Simultaneous Observation Data of GB-SAR/PiSAR to Detect Flooding in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed simultaneous observation data with ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR and airborne SAR (PiSAR over a flood test site at which a simple house was constructed in a field. The PiSAR σ∘ under flood condition was 0.9 to 3.4 dB higher than that under nonflood condition. GB-SAR gives high spatial resolution as we could identify a single scattering component and a double bounce component from the house. GB-SAR showed that the σ∘ difference between the flooding and nonflooding conditions came from the double bounce scattering. We also confirm that the entropy is a sensitive parameter in the eigenvalue decomposition parameters, if the scattering process is dominated by the double bounce scattering. We conclude that σ∘ and entropy are a good parameter to be used to detect flooding, not only in agricultural and forest regions, but also in urban areas. We also conclude that GB-SAR is a powerful tool to supplement satellite and airborne observation, which has a relatively low spatial resolution.

  1. Simultaneous Observation Data of GB-SAR/PiSAR to Detect Flooding in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Masanobu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed simultaneous observation data with ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR and airborne SAR (PiSAR over a flood test site at which a simple house was constructed in a field. The PiSAR under flood condition was 0.9 to 3.4 dB higher than that under nonflood condition. GB-SAR gives high spatial resolution as we could identify a single scattering component and a double bounce component from the house. GB-SAR showed that the difference between the flooding and nonflooding conditions came from the double bounce scattering. We also confirm that the entropy is a sensitive parameter in the eigenvalue decomposition parameters, if the scattering process is dominated by the double bounce scattering. We conclude that and entropy are a good parameter to be used to detect flooding, not only in agricultural and forest regions, but also in urban areas. We also conclude that GB-SAR is a powerful tool to supplement satellite and airborne observation, which has a relatively low spatial resolution.

  2. 8x40 Gb/s RZ all-optical broadcasting utilizing an electroabsorption modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Chi, Nan; Yvind, Kresten;

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical broadcasting through simultaneous 8 × 40 Gb/s wavelength conversion in the RZ format based on cross absorption modulation in an electroabsorption modulator. The original intensity-modulated information is successfully duplicated onto eight wavelengths that...

  3. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M;

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...

  4. Dispersion and nonlinearity tolerance of modulation formats for 160 Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Peucheret, Christophe; Siahlo, Andrei; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jeppesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    We compare the RZ-DQPSK modulation format in 160 Gb/s single channel systems with RZ, CSRZ, RZ-DPSK and CSRZ-DPSK for the first time. We find that RZ-DQPSK offers nearly three time better dispersion tolerance than CSRZ-DPSK....

  5. Detection of hepatitis G virus (GB virus C) RNA in human saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, M.; Sönnerborg, A; Johansson, B.; Sällberg, M

    1997-01-01

    Using PCR and genomic sequencing, we confirmed the presence of and homology between hepatitis G virus (HGV) (also called GB virus C) RNA in six serum samples and that in two saliva samples obtained from 34 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infections. Thus, HGV may be found outside the circulatory system.

  6. Flat-top pulse enabling 640 Gb/s OTDM demultiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    In ultra-high speed optical time division multiplexed systems (OTDM) with bit rates of 640 Gb/s at single wavelength and single polarisation, timing jitter is perhaps the most detrimental factor, limiting switching quality. Here, we report on using a novel flat-top pulse shaping technique, which ...

  7. Fine genetic mapping of greenbug aphid resistance gene Gb3 in Aegilops tauschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greenbug is a serious aphid pest of wheat and sorghum in the southern High Plains of the US. The greenbug resistant gene Gb3 originated from the goatgrass has shown consistent and durable resistance against prevailing greenbug biotypes in wheat fields for moer than 30 years. Our goal is to clone...

  8. Metal Inhibition of Growth and Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J.; Sposito, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (MnO2) are ubiquitous nanoparticulate minerals that contribute to the adsorption of nutrient and toxicant metals, the oxidative degradation of various organic compounds, and the respiration of metal-reducing bacteria in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The formation of these minerals is catalyzed by a diverse and widely-distributed group of bacteria and fungi, often through the enzymatic oxidation of aqueous Mn(II) to Mn(IV). In metal-impacted ecosystems, toxicant metals may alter the viability and metabolic activity of Mn-oxidizing organisms, thereby limiting the conditions under which biogenic MnO2 can form and diminishing their potential as adsorbent materials. Pseudomonas putida GB-1 (P. putida GB-1) is a model Mn-oxidizing laboratory culture representative of freshwater and soil biofilm-forming bacteria. Manganese oxidation in P. putida GB-1 occurs via two single-electron-transfer reactions, involving a multicopper oxidase enzyme found on the bacterial outer membrane surface. Near the onset of the stationary phase of growth, dark brown MnO2 particles are deposited in a matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, thus forming heterogeneous biomineral assemblages. In this study, we assessed the influence of various transition metals on microbial growth and manganese oxidation capacity in a P. putida GB-1 culture propagated in a nutrient-rich growth medium. The concentration-response behavior of actively growing P. putida GB-1 cells was investigated for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn at pH ≈ 6 in the presence and absence of 1 mM Mn. Toxicity parameters such as EC0, EC50 and Hillslope, and EC100 were obtained from the sigmoidal concentration-response curves. The extent of MnO2 formation in the presence of the various metal cations was documented 24, 50, 74 and 104 h after the metal-amended medium was inoculated. Toxicity values were compared to twelve physicochemical properties of the metals tested. Significant

  9. Computational Intelligence Agent-Oriented Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2006), s. 430-433. ISSN 1109-2777 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi - agent system s * adaptive agent s * computational intelligence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Configuring Computational Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beuster, G.; Neruda, Roman

    Halifax : Saint Mary's University, 2004 - (Zhuge, H.; Cheung, W.; Liu, J.), s. 57-62 ISBN 0-9734039-8-5. [International Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence /2./. Beijing (CN), 20.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Grant ostatní: CZ-DE project(XX) CZE-03/023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Bang 3 * multi-agent systems * computational intelligence models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Využití technologie GB InSAR k určování deformací betonové přehradní hráze Orlík

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talich, Milan; Glöckner, M.

    Bratislava: Slovenská technická univerzita v Bratislave, 2014 - (Lukáč, Š.; Lipták, I.), s. 1-9 ISBN 978-80-227-4245-0. [Meranie, monitorovanie a vyhodnocovanie posunov na vodných stavbách. Bratislava (SK), 16.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/436 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : GB InSAR * deformation monitoring * deformation analysis * Orlík Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/talich-0442950.pdf

  12. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  13. Relevant Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal; Restall, G.

    London: College Publications, 2010 - (Beklemishev, L.; Goranko, V.; Shehtman, V.), s. 22-38. (8). ISBN 978-1-84890-013-4. [Advances in Modal Logic. Moscow (RU), 24.08.2010-27.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018; GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : modal logic * epistemic logic * relevant logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Simulation of a 3 Gb/s SAC-OCDMA Based on Multi-Diagonal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Tiwari, Dharmendra Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we've modelled and simulated a 3Gb/s (3×1Gb/s optical system supported spectral amplitude coding writing for the optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA theme. So as to cut back the result of multiple-access interference, we've utilized a replacement family of SAC-OCDMA codes known as a multi-diagonal (MD code. The new code family supported the MD code reveals properties of zero cross-correlation code, flexibility in choosing the code parameters and support of a large no of users, combined with high rate. each the numerical and simulation results have to make clear that our optical system supported the MD code will accommodate most numbers of co-occurring users with higher rate transmission and lower bit error rates, compared to the previous SAC-OCDMA codes.

  15. Experimental Investigation of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Molle, Lutz; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-10

    We experimentally generate 28-GBd 6-ary polarization-shift keying quadrature phase-shift keying (6PolSK-QPSK) signals by utilizing a high-speed 4-channel digital-to-analog converter and an integrated dual-polarization I/Q modulator. In WDM transmission experiments over up to 4800 km standard single-mode fiber, we compare the performance of 126-Gb/s 6PolSK-QPSK and 112-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) QPSK signals. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of applying an inner Reed-Solomon RS(511,455) forward error correction code in order to correct burst errors due to the anti-Gray mapping of 6PolSK-QPSK. PMID:23262856

  16. All-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Boffi, P; Ferrario, M; Marazzi, L; Parolari, P; Siano, R; Pusino, V; Minzioni, P; Cristiani, I; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Martinelli, M; Degiorgio, V

    2009-09-28

    We present the results of an in-depth experimental investigation about all-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed (POLMUX) signal. Each polarization channel is modulated at 25 Gbaud by differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK). The conversion is realized exploiting the high nonlinear chi((2)) coefficient of a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, in a polarization-independent configuration. We find that slight non-idealities in the polarization independent setup of the wavelength converter can significantly impair the performance of POLMUX systems. We show that high-quality wavelength conversion can be nevertheless achieved for both the polarization channels, provided that an accurate optimization of the setup is performed. This is the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of the possibility to obtain penalty-free all-optical wavelength conversion in a 100-Gb/s POLMUX transmission system using direct-detection. PMID:19907562

  17. GB ROW 2013:世界最难的划船比赛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧素

    2013-01-01

    环英划船比赛的世界纪录于2005年由William de Laszlo率领的四人男子船队首次创立,为26天21小时14分钟(William de Laszlo为GB Row 2013的主席)。2010年该比赛经过全面的可行性和可靠性评估。GB Row 2013为第一次正式的环英划船竞赛,于6月1日从Tower Bridge出发,之后再返回Tower Bridge。

  18. Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lin; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km span composed of superlarge effective area fiber and inverse dispersion fiber. For longest system reach, second-order pumping and backward pumping have larger pump power tolerance than bidirectional pu...

  19. Quantum key distribution on a 10Gb/s WDM-PON

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Iris; Young, Robert J; Townsend, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) on a multi-user wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) with simultaneous, bidirectional 10Gb/s classical channel transmission. The C-Band QKD system operates at a clock rate of 10GHz and employs differential phase shift keying (DPSK). A dual feeder fiber and band filtering scheme is used to suppress classical to quantum channel cross-talk generated by spontaneous Raman scattering, which would other...

  20. Secondary School Choice of Ismailis from Gilgit Baltistan (GB) in Karachi

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khurshid Sana

    2012-01-01

    My study aimed to explore the secondary school choice of the internally migrant Ismailisi from Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) in Karachi, Pakistanii. I became interested in the topic for several reasons. Firstly, there was a scarcity of research on the topic. An initial review of the literature indicated that though the education of migratory groups had been discussed in relation to refugee or diaspora education, there was scope to examine school choice in internally migrant populations...

  1. Bioreactor performance parameters for an industrially-promising methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Alexey; Laurens, Lieve M.; Puri, Aaron W.; Chu, Frances; Philip T. Pienkos; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methane is a feedstock of interest for the future, both from natural gas and from renewable biogas sources. Methanotrophic bacteria have the potential to enable commercial methane bioconversion to value-added products such as fuels and chemicals. A strain of interest for such applications is Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1, due to its robust growth characteristics. However, to take advantage of the potential of this methanotroph, it is important to generate comprehensive bioreacto...

  2. Evaluation of patients with gall bladder (GB) cancer using FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even with advanced diagnostic imaging, difficulties have been encountered in correct evaluation of GB malignancy. This study was undertaken to assess the role of FDG PET in patients with GB cancer. Twenty-seven pts (13 F, 14 M, a mean age of 60 yr.) were included in this study. Fourteen pts were evaluated for staging and 13 pts were for suspected recurrent or residual tumors. All pts underwent FDG PET and other conventional imaging such as radiography, US, CT, MRI, or bone scintigraphy within a month of period. Of the 14 pts at staging, FDG PET was concordant with conventional imaging in 9 pts. In the rest of 5 pts with discordant results, PET identified extra-abdominal metastasis in 4 pts whereas conventional imaging detected peritoneal carcinomatosis in 1 pt. Of the 13 pts with suspected recurrent or residual tumors, findings on PET were concordant with those on conventional imaging in 6 pts (4 concordant positive, 1 concordant negative, 1 concordant false positive). Discordant results were found in 7 of the 13 pts. FDG PET was superior to conventional imaging in detecting local and distant diseases in 6 of 7 pts. FDG PET has an advantage of detecting unsuspected distant metastasis at staging. During follow-up, FDG PET is useful in identifying both local and distant residual and/or recurrent diseases. The use of FDG PET appears to have significant diagnostic and therapeutic implication in the evaluation of this aggressive malignancy in the GB

  3. End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jesse

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.

  4. Architectural Design Study for a 10Gb/s Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    The demand for 10Gb/s switches at this early stage in the market is primarily for modular solutions that can grow as do the bandwidth requirements. This indicates a requirement for chassis based solutions where individual line cards can be added to a chassis infrastructure and have to communicate across a 10Gb/s switching backplane. The present study is provides an architectural design solution for a passive copper backplane used for moving data between the line cards of a 10Gb/s Ethernet switch system. The ability to pass multi-gigabit data rates through a backplane system requires great attention to details previously thought to be irrelevant at lower frequencies. The trace dimensions, the via holes diameters, the backplane materials and choice of connectors, all play a crucial role in determining the success of the system. At high-speed even a subtle change in any of these elements can drastically affect the end-to-end system performance. In this context, the study presents the modeling and simulation work...

  5. Receiver Architecture for 12.5 Gb/s 16-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Gagliardi, R M; Hernandez, V J; Bennett, C V

    2008-07-11

    PPM is a signaling scheme that enables the transmission of multiple bits per symbol [1]. It has found favor in the regime of free space optical communications ('FSO' or 'Lasercom'); however, PPM has yet to be widely applied to fiber optic-based communications. Its limitation in fiber results from the exceedingly high bandwidth requirements needed to electronically process a directly detected pulse, especially as the symbol rate increases and the pulse width correspondingly decreases. As a solution, we introduced the concept of a virtual quadrant receiver for receiving 1.25 Gb/s 4-ary PPM, where photonic processing reduced the number of required electronic components [2]. In this paper, we extend these photonic process techniques to a 16-ary, 12.5 Gb/s (10 Gb/s plus 8B/10B line coding) PPM communications system for fiber optic avionics, wherein much of the receiver processing is enabled by techniques based on planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). The architecture is applicable to higher input data rates and M-ary PPM. In the following, we present the PPM encoding and decoding architectures and numerically simulated results.

  6. Long term real-time GB_InSAR monitoring of a large rock slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G. B.; Agliardi, F.; Sosio, R.; Rivolta, C.; Mannucci, G.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze a long term monitoring dataset collected for a deep-seated rockslide (Ruinon, Lombardy, Italy). The rockslide has been actively monitored since 1997 by means of an in situ monitoring network (topographic benchmarks, GPS, wire extensometers) and since 2006 by a ground based radar. Monitoring data have been used to set-up and update the geological model, to identify rockslide extent and geometry, to analyse the sensitivity to seasonal changes and their impact on the reliability and early warning potential of monitoring data. GB-InSAR data allowed us to identify sectors characterized by different behaviours and associated to outcropping bedrock, thick debris cover, major structures. GB-Insar data have been used to set-up a "virtual monitoring network" by a posteriori selection of critical locations. Displacement time series extracted from GB-InSAR data provide a large amount of information even in debris-covered areas, when ground-based instrumentation fails. Such spatially-distributed, improved information, validated by selected ground-based measurements, allowed to establish new velocity and displacement thresholds for early warning purposes. The data are analysed to verify the dependency of the observed displacements on the line of sight orientation as well as on that of the framed resolution cell. Relationships with rainfall and morphological slope characteristics have been analysed to verify the sensitivity to rain intensity and amount and to distinguish among the different possible mechanisms.

  7. Pyoverdine synthesis by the Mn(II-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-WooLee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When iron-starved, the Mn(II-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida strains GB-1 and MnB1 produce pyoverdines (PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1, siderophores that both influence iron uptake and inhibit manganese(II oxidation by these strains. To explore the properties and genetics of a PVD that can affect manganese oxidation, LC-MS/MS and various siderotyping techniques were used to identify the peptides of PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1 as being (for both PVDs: chromophore-Asp-Lys-OHAsp-Ser-Gly-aThr-Lys-cOHOrn, resembling a structure previously reported for P. putida CFML 90-51, which does not oxidize Mn. All three strains also produced an azotobactin and a sulfonated PVD, each with the peptide sequence above, but with unknown regulatory or metabolic effects. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequenced genome of P. putida GB-1 suggested that a particular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, coded by the operon PputGB1_4083-4086, could produce the peptide backbone of PVDGB-1. To verify this prediction, plasmid integration disruption of PputGB1_4083 was performed and the resulting mutant failed to produce detectable PVD. In silico analysis of the modules in PputGB1_4083-4086 predicted a peptide sequence of Asp-Lys-Asp-Ser-Ala-Thr-Lsy-Orn, which closely matches the peptide determined by MS/MS. To extend these studies to other organisms, various Mn(II-oxidizing and non-oxidizing isolates of P. putida, P. fluorescens, P. marincola, P. fluorescens-syringae group, P. mendocina-resinovorans group and P. stutzerii group were screened for PVD synthesis. The PVD producers (12 out of 16 tested strains were siderotyped and placed into four sets of differing PVD structures, some corresponding to previously characterized PVDs and some to novel PVDs. These results combined with previous studies suggested that the presence of OHAsp or the flexibility of the pyoverdine polypeptide may enable efficient binding of Mn(III.

  8. Safety of exogenous (CCK-8) and endogenous (fatty meal) cholecystokinin (CCK) induced gallbladder (GB) dynamics in patients with cholelithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitation of biliary dynamics in patients requires induction of GB contraction and emptying the CCK. However, it is not clear how safe it is to induce GB emptying in a patient with known gallstones. This study was undertaken to document the safety of induction of GB emptying in 50 patients with gallstones and the results are compared with 55 normal subjects. After 4-6 hours of fast, each subject was given 3-5 mCi of Tc-99m-IDA. Sixty minutes later, the subject was positioned under a gamma camera and the data were acquired at 1 frame/min. for 30 min. (CCK-8) or 60 minutes (fatty meal). Saline placebo was given at 5 minutes and CCK-8 or fatty meal at 10 minutes. Onset of symptoms was recorded and correlated with GB ejection period. GB ejection fraction (EF) was calculated for 3 doses (5, 10 and 40 ng/kg) of CCK-8 and fatty meal (8 oz/70 kg). Compared to normals, GB emptying in general was lower in patients with cholelithiasis for all 3 doses of CCK-8 and fatty meal. Five patients (10%) with choleithiasis experienced a mild to moderate degree of nausea and intermittent abdominal pain during GB ejection and the symptoms were similar to their previous experience during an attack of cholecystitis. All symptoms abated within 10 minutes without therapy. No incidence of impaction of GB stone in the common bile duct was seen. It is concluded that the GB emptying required for quantitative biliary dynamics can be induced safely with either exogenous or endongenous CCK in patients with known cholelithiasis

  9. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions

    OpenAIRE

    Vanarsdall, Adam L; Howard, Paul W.; Wisner, Todd W.; Johnson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion) is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a s...

  10. Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

  11. Building Hybrid Soft Computing Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Anheim : ACTA Press, 2003 - (Castillo, O.), s. 7-11 ISBN 0-88986-347-4. [IASTED International Conference on Neural Networks and Computational Intelligence. Cancun (MX), 19.05.2003-21.05.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/03/P163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * multi - agent system s * hybrid methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Autonomous Behavior of Computational Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculín, Roman; Neruda, Roman

    Wien : Springer-Verlag, 2005 - (Ribiero, B.; Albrecht, R.; Dobnikar, A.; Pearson, D.; Steele, N.), s. 514-517 ISBN 3-211-24934-6. [ICANNGA'2005 /7./. Coimbra (PT), 21.03.2005-23.03.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computational agents * autonomous behavior * reasoning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Design and OAM&P aspects of a DWDM system equipped with a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent 10Gb/s channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijts, Roeland; Bjørn, Lars Lange; Petersen, Martin Nordal;

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental investigations of the interaction, in terms of BER performance, between a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent (50GHz spacing) 10Gb/s NRZ-OOK channels. Experiments were conducted on the Hamburg-Copenhagen section of the Amsterdam-Copenhagen CBF (Cross...... Border Fiber) connection between SURFnet and NORDUnet. Furthermore, we investigated the OAM&P (Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning) of an alien wavelength in CBF transmission systems....

  14. A Cotton MYB Transcription Factor, GbMYB5, is Positively Involved in Plant Adaptive Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianzi; Li, Wenjuan; Hu, Xuehong; Guo, Jiaru; Liu, Aimin; Zhang, Baolong

    2015-05-01

    Drought stress negatively affects plant growth and limits plant productivity. Genes functioning in plant responses to drought stress are essential for the development of drought-tolerant crops. Here, we report that an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor gene in Gossypium barbadense, GbMYB5, confers drought tolerance in cotton and transgenic tobacco. Virus-induced gene silencing of GbMYB5 compromised the tolerance of cotton plantlets to drought stress and reduced the post-rewatering water recovery survival rate to 50% as compared with the 90% survival rate in the wild type (WT). Silencing GbMYB5 decreased proline content and antioxidant enzyme activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in cotton under drought stress. The expression levels of drought-inducible genes NCED3, RD22 and RD26 were not affected by the silencing of GbMYB5. However, GbMYB5-overexpressing tobacco lines displayed hypersensitivity to ABA and improved survival rates as well as reduced water loss rates under drought stress. Furthermore, stomatal size and the rate of opening of stomata were markedly decreased in transgenic tobacco. The overexpression of GbMYB5 enhanced the accumulation of proline and antioxidant enzymes while it reduced production of MDA in transgenic tobacco as compared with the WT under drought stress. The transcript levels of the antioxidant genes SOD, CAT and GST, polyamine biosynthesis genes ADC1 and SAMDC, the late embryogenesis abundant protein-encoding gene ERD10D and drought-responsive genes NCED3, BG and RD26 were generally higher in GbMYB5-overexpressing tobacco than in the WT under drought stress. Collectively, our data suggested that GbMYB5 was positively involved in the plant adaptive response to drought stress. PMID:25657343

  15. Experimental Investigation of Digital Compensation of DGD for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK Clock Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Oliviera, Julio Cesar R.; Ribeiro, Vitor B.; Paradisi, Alberto; Diniz, Julio C.; Larsen, Knud J.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, the impact of DGD on clock recovery for 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK is experimentally investigated and quantified. We propose and experimentally demonstrate novel digital adaptive timing error detector which is robust to DGD.......For the first time, the impact of DGD on clock recovery for 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK is experimentally investigated and quantified. We propose and experimentally demonstrate novel digital adaptive timing error detector which is robust to DGD....

  16. Up to 40 Gb/s wireless signal generation and demodulation in 75-110 GHz band using photonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Herrera, J,; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Walber, A.; Westergren, U.; Marti, J.

    Record wireless signal capacity of up to 40 Gb/s is demonstrated in the 75-110 GHz band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and digital coherent detection for demodulation.......Record wireless signal capacity of up to 40 Gb/s is demonstrated in the 75-110 GHz band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and digital coherent detection for demodulation....

  17. Estimation of a 10 Gb/s 5G Receiver’s Performance and Power Evolution Towards 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 5G vision of 10 Gb/s leads to performance and power consumption challenges in the mobile terminal receiver because 10 Gb/s requires 400 MHz bandwidth, faster baseband processing, and an increased number of component carriers and MIMO streams. The contribution of this paper is to estimate the impact from these physical layer requirements to the power consumption of main receiver components, including LNA, ADC and baseband processor with Turbo decoding, in a Direct Conversion Architecture. ...

  18. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  19. 68Ga-Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Production and Application Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Velikyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of 68Ga to the promotion and expansion of clinical research and routine positron emission tomography (PET for earlier better diagnostics and individualized medicine is considerable. The potential applications of 68Ga-comprising imaging agents include targeted, pre-targeted and non-targeted imaging. This review discusses the key aspects of the production of 68Ga and 68Ga-based radiopharmaceuticals in the light of the impact of regulatory requirements and endpoint pre-clinical and clinical applications.

  20. Analysis of canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, X; Kojima, A; Murata, T; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1997-01-01

    The genes encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein B (gB), gC and gD homologues have been reported already. However, products of these genes have not been identified yet. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp 145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gB, gC or gD, the putative genes of gB, gC, and gD of CHV were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus LC16mO strain under the control of the early-late promoter for the vaccinia virus 7.5-kilodalton polypeptide. We demonstrated here that gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 were the translation products of the CHV gB, gC and gD genes, respectively. The antigenic authenticity of recombinant gB, gC and gD were confirmed by a panel of MAbs specific for each glycoprotein produced in CHV-infected cells. Immunization of mice with these recombinants produced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against CHV. These results suggest that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing CHV gB, gC and gD may be useful to develop a vaccine to control CHV infection. PMID:9191864

  1. An all-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons operating at 10 Gb/s

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Jae K; Schröder, Jochen; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the operation of an all-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons stored in a nonlinear passive fiber ring resonator. Unwanted acoustic interactions between neighboring solitons are suppressed by modulating the phase of the external laser driving the cavity. A new locking scheme is presented that allows the buffer to operate with an arbitrarily large number of cavity solitons in the loop. Experimentally, we are able to demonstrate the storage of 4536 bits of data, written all-optically into the fiber ring at 10 Gb/s, for 1 minute.

  2. 钰德获BDA官方50GB Duel layer Blu-ray Disc认证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>预录光盘大厂钰德科技宣布获得BDA官方50GB Duel layer Blu-ray Disc认证,成为日商以外,亚洲第一家获得此一技术认证的生产制造商。钰德自去年积极拓展布建新世代蓝光产线,除已投入生产接单的BD-25产能外,亦率先拓建高阶双层BD-ROM 50G生产线,更

  3. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be...... treated as generic switching elements and, when efficiently interconnected, can form larger and more functional network subsystems. Specifically, this paper reports on all-optical subsystems capable of performing on-the-fly packet clock recovery, 3R regeneration, label/ payload separation, and packet...

  4. 12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongtao; Ding Jianfeng; Yang Lin

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a 12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator.Under a nonreturn-zero (NRZ) pre-emphasized electrical drive signal with voltage swing of 6.3 V and forward bias of 0.7 V,the eye is clearly opened with an extinction ratio of 8.4 dB.The device exhibits high modulation efficiency,with a figure of merit VπL of 0.036 V.mm.

  5. Exposure to radon in above ground workplaces: the experience in Great Britain (GB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations regarding exposure of employees and others to ionising radiation including exposure to radon were introduced in GB in 1985. Research by HSE over a number of years has identified the type and location of workplaces most affected by radon. Exposures in excess of the action levels in the regulations have been identified and appropriate action taken. Further research is underway to identify other affected areas and compare methods of measurement. Liaison has taken place between government departments to produce advisory material for employers and employees. (author)

  6. GB Virus C Proteins interfere with the Replication of HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Susan

    2010-01-01

    GB Virus C (GBV-C) was discovered in 1995 within the search for new hepatitis viruses. The human apathogenic enveloped RNA virus belongs to the family of the Flaviviridae and replicates primarily in lymphocytes. Transmission occurs mainly by sexual or parenteral exposure. In developed countries up to 6% of the healthy population and up to 40% of multiply exposed individuals, such as HIV patients, are viremic for GBV-C. Since the late 1990s, GBV-C has been investigated in the context of HIV. U...

  7. Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate quantum key distribution (QKD) with bidirectional 10 Gb/s classical data channels in a single fiber using dense wavelength division multiplexing. Record secure key rates of 2.38 Mbps and fiber distances up to 70 km are achieved. Data channels are simultaneously monitored for error-free operation. The robustness of QKD is further demonstrated with a secure key rate of 445 kbps over 25 km, obtained in the presence of data lasers launching conventional 0 dBm power. We discuss the fundamental limit for the QKD performance in the multiplexing environment

  8. Cyclotron resonant scattering in gamma-ray bursts: Further analysis of GB880205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have extended our previous work by exploring several plane-parallel slab geometries to model the formation of cyclotron line features. We calculated the Compton temperature TC as a function of column density Ne for each of the new geometries. We then fit the resulting spectra to GB880205 exactly as described in Wang et al. The results show that the addition of column depth below the photon source plane leads to a modest improvement in χ2 which, although not statistically significant, is pleasing because these geometries are more physically realistic

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF SOLITON TRANSMISSION AT 2.5 GB/S OVER 200 KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. S. AL-KHATEEB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soliton characteristics and soliton transmission have been simulated using a VPI simulator. Simulation was also used to construct and study a soliton communication system. Near soliton pulses emitted by an actively mode-locked laser is then compressed in a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF to produce solitons. The effects of non-linearity and active pre-chirping of mode-locked laser diode sources were also investigated. Assessment on a modeled system using real data shows that propagation over 250 km at 2.5 Gb/s in standard fibers with 20 ps pulse widths is possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  10. A Radiation Tolerant 4.8 Gb/s Serializer for the Giga-Bit Transceiver

    CERN Document Server

    Çobanoglu, Ö; Faccio, F

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a full-custom 120:1 data serializer for the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) which has been under development for the LHC upgrade (SLHC). The circuit operates at 4.8 Gb=s and is implemented in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology. The serializer occupies an area of 0.6 mm2 and its power consumption is 300 mW. The paper focuses on the techniques used to achieve radiation tolerance and on the simulation method used to estimate the sensitivity to single event transients

  11. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Vanarsdall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16-50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB.

  13. Assessment of the SPACE Code Using the ATLAS SLB-GB-01 Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Nuclear Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) has developed a safety analysis code, called the Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants (SPACE) by collaborative works with other Korean nuclear industries. The SPACE is a general-purpose best-estimated two-phase three-field thermal-hydraulic analysis code to analyze the safety and performance of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SPACE code has sufficient functions and capabilities to replace outdated vendor supplied codes and to be used for the safety analysis of operating PWRs and the design of advanced reactors. As a result of the second phase of the SPACE code development project, the 2.14 version of the code was released through the successive various V and V works using integral loop test data or plant operating data. In this study, the ATLAS main steam-line break (MSLB) test, SLB-GB-01, was simulated as a V and V work. The results were compared with the measured data. The ATALS MSLB test, SLB-GB-01, was simulated using the SPACE code. The results were compared with experimental data. Through the simulation, it was concluded that the SPACE code can effectively simulate MSLB accidents

  14. Benefits of Demand Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eTeng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future GB electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from DSR. The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterised by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  15. The New Frontier of the DATA Acquisition Using 1 and 10 Gb/s Ethernet links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Filippo; Chapeland, S.; Denes, E.; Soós, C.; Carena, F.; W. Carena; Barroso, V. Chibante; Diviá, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Rabacal, B.; Simonetti, G.; Telesca, A.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Haller, B. Von; (For Alice Collaboration)

    ALICE [1] (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the detector system at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions. Its main aim is to study the behavior of strongly interacting matter and the quark gluon plasma. Currently all the information sent by the 18 sub-detectors composing ALICE are read out by DATE [2] (Data Acquisition and Test Environment), the ALICE data acquisition software, using several optical links called DDL[3] (Detector Data Link), each one with a maximum throughput of 200 MB/s. In the last year a commercial transmission link with a throughput of 10 Gb/s has become a reality, with a low price affordable for everyone. The DATE system has been upgraded to also support this technology in addition to the DDL. This contribution will describe the VHDL firmware of a detector readout board, sending data using the UDP protocol and the changes made to the readout [4] part of DATE software to receive information coming from the 1 or 10 Gb/s Ethernet link. It will also describe the relevant details of the test firmware and software and will conclude with the results of the performance tests done at CERN using the new setup.

  16. A monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Chi; Proesel, Jonathan E; Orcutt, Jason S; Haensch, Wilfried; Green, William M J

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics promises to address the challenges for next-generation short-reach optical interconnects. Growing bandwidth demand in hyper-scale data centers and high-performance computing motivates the development of faster and more-efficient silicon photonics links. While it is challenging to raise the serial line rate, further scaling of the data rate can be realized by, for example, increasing the number of parallel fibers, increasing the number of wavelengths per fiber, and using multi-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). Among these approaches, PAM has a unique advantage because it does not require extra lasers or a costly overhaul of optical fiber cablings within the existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate the first fully monolithically integrated silicon photonic four-level PAM (PAM-4) transmitter operating at 56 Gb/s and demonstrate error-free transmission (bit-error-rate < 10$^{-12}$) up to 50 Gb/s without forward error correction. The superior PAM-4 waveform is enabled by optimizatio...

  17. 45 Gb/s low complexity optical front-end for soft-decision LDPC decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Meer Nazmus; Moayedi, Monireh; Gross, Warren J; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2012-07-30

    In this paper a low complexity and energy efficient 45 Gb/s soft-decision optical front-end to be used with soft-decision low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders is demonstrated. The results show that the optical front-end exhibits a net coding gain of 7.06 and 9.62 dB for post forward error correction bit error rate of 10(-7) and 10(-12) for long block length LDPC(32768,26803) code. The performance over a hard decision front-end is 1.9 dB for this code. It is shown that the soft-decision circuit can also be used as a 2-bit flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), in conjunction with equalization schemes. At bit rate of 15 Gb/s using RS(255,239), LDPC(672,336), (672, 504), (672, 588), and (1440, 1344) used with a 6-tap finite impulse response (FIR) equalizer will result in optical power savings of 3, 5, 7, 9.5 and 10.5 dB, respectively. The 2-bit flash ADC consumes only 2.71 W at 32 GSamples/s. At 45 GSamples/s the power consumption is estimated to be 4.95 W. PMID:23038384

  18. Flexible Design of Computational Agent Societies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Liverpool: World Academic Union, 2011 - (Kachitvichyanukul, V.; Jiang, J.), s. 28-33. (Modelling and Simulation). ISBN 978-1-84626-069-8. [ICMS 2011. International Conference on Modelling and Simulation /4./. Phuket Island (TH), 25.04.2011-26.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : agent societies * computational intelligence * multi-agent sytems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Experimental Syringe Mixing Pump for Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondra, Vlastimil; Orban, M.; Kališ, Jiří

    Brno : University of Technology , 2006, s. 119-121. ISBN 80-214-3152-0. ISSN 1211-412X. [BIOSIGNAL 2006 /18./. Brno (CZ), 28.06.2006-30.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : contrast agents * sonography Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  20. From Bayesian decision-markers to Beyesian agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Přikryl, Jan

    Vol. 1. Amsterdam : IOS, 2005 - (Czap, H.; Unland, R.; Branki, C.), s. 62-76 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET100750401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian decision making * multi agent system s * fully probabilistic design Subject RIV: BC - Control System s Theory

  1. Disorder and localization effects on the local spectroscopic and infrared-optical properties of Ga.sub.1-x./sub.Mn.sub.x./sub.As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gao, H.; Cernov, C.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, Jairo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 24 (2015), , "245201-1"-"245201-7". ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  2. GIBS Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TWMS specification is a custom extension to the OGS WMS standard developed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Similar to the OGC WMTS specification, TWMS...

  3. GIBS Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GDAL is an open source translator library for raster geospatial data formats that presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported...

  4. Japanoloog räägib puudest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Viljandi pärimusmuusika aidas "Omakultuuriakadeemia" loengul Tallinna Ülikooli japanoloog Alari Allik kõneles teemal "Mitu elu on ühel puul: shinto ja pärandihoid" ning otsib vastust küsimusele, milline võiks olla pärandihoid, mis hoiab elus ka rituaalid ja kohaliku elukeskkonna

  5. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  6. 1.3-μm InGaAsN VCSELs for telecom and datacom applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew W.; Naone, Ryan L.; Chirovsky, Leo M. F.; Feld, Stewart A.; Galt, David; Dalberth, Mark J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Thompson, Lance R.; Lange, Michael D.; Kisker, David W.

    2001-11-01

    VCSELs operating at 1.3 microns are the ideal laser source for meeting the exploding demand for bandwidth in local area and metro area networks. NCSELs will eventually replace the vast majority of 1.3 micron FP and DFB edge emitting lasers currently used in these applications, since they offer lower manufacturing cost, on wafer testability, extremely narrow linewidth, a circular output beam, high speed direct modulation, and the ability to be integrated into arrays. The primary challenge in 1.3 micron VCSELs has been to find an active region material that can be grown directly on high thermal conductivity and high reflectivity GaAs/AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors DBRs. In this work, we have developed MBE grown InGaAsN quantum wells that can be grown directly on GaAs substrates and integrated directly into high performance oxide VCSEL structures. We have demonstrated record room temperature CW single mode output powers in excess of 1 mW at an emission wavelength of 1287 nm. CW lasing has been observed as high as 125 degree(s)C, illustrating the excellent thermal performance of both the InGaAsN quantum wells and the GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs. Open eye diagrams were observed at 10 Gb/s, paving the way for OC-192 SONET and 10 Gb/s Ethernet applications.

  7. Manufacturability and reliability on 10-Gb/s transponder for ethernet-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Min-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chiu, Chia-Hung; Cheng, Shou-Chien; Shen, Kun-Yi; Huang, Min-Fa; Shaw, Cheng-Da; Lee, Shin-Ge

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, manufacturing issues include Optical Sub-Assembly (OSA), Electrical Sub-Assembly (ESA) and reliability considerations of 10 Gb/s Ethernet transponder were studied by using experiments and implementation. In the growing optical communication industry, one of the star products is the Z-axis pluggable optical transceiver module. Under the broad usage of Ethernet means high port density, low cost, high utilities, compact size and still require excellent performance. After standardizing of 10 Gb/s ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae), many transceiver companies, silicon vendors and system vendors reached the agreement and signed up diversity of MSA (Multi-Source Agreement). These MSAs still keep modifying with system demands, customer requirements, cost and performance issue. This paper presents how to achieve these functions description in the MSA and own a highly manufacturability and reliability module design. According to composed block of transponder, we split it into OSA, ESA, mechanical design and related reliability experimental result. In the OSA, traditional TO-CAN package and optical components be introduced. Because the mature manufacture experience, vendor can easy to meet low cost and manufacturability requirements and only need to slightly modifications. A simply solution be implemented to solve this problem and discuss the critical point of the design. Thermal issue on OSA will also be mentioned because of the sensitive of light source and how to calculate the effect to find effective solutions. By the way, some manufacturability criteria will be discussed for OSA characteristics in 10 Gb/s applications. In the ESA, PMD (Physical media dependant) driving methods, Multi-Source Agreement related digital optical monitor function implement and performance comparison will be presented. On the other hand, we will examine the crosstalk effect between transmitter and receiver circuit and impact to the module Optical to Electrical convert interface design. We

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at acupoint GB34 against CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Kyoung Yim; Hyun Lee; Kwon-Eui Hong; Young-Il Kim; Byung-Ryul Lee; Tae-Han Kim; Ji-Young Yi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB34) on CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in rats.METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated with manual acupuncture using reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34(Yanglingquan) 3 times a week for 10 wk. A nonacupoint in left gluteal area was selected as a sham point. To estimate the hepatoprotective effect of manual acupuncture at GB34, measurement of liver index,biochemical assays including serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol, histological analysis and blood cell counts were conducted.RESULTS: Manual acupuncture at GB34 reduced the liver index, serum ALT, AST, ALP and total cholesterol levels as compared with the control group and the sham acupuncture group. It also increased and normalized the populations of WBC and lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: Manual acupuncture with reinforcing manipulation techniques at left GB34 reduces liver toxicity, protects liver function and liver tissue, and normalizes immune activity in CCl4-intoxicated rats.

  9. 200Gb/s 10-channel miniature optical interconnect transmitter module for high-performance computing (HPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Edris; Au, Hinmeng

    2010-02-01

    A major breakthrough to alleviating the interconnect bottleneck in intra cabinet system in HPC may happen by bringing optics directly to the processor package. In order to do so efficient and compact optical interconnect subassembly modules that utilize simple optical and electrical interfacing schemes are needed. In our current work the development of a novel 10-channel, miniature 7mm(W)x1.8mm(L)x3mm(H), optical interconnect transmitter subassembly module is described. The module consists of a high precision molded optical alignment unit with integrated microlens arrays, highspeed coplanar waveguide (CPW) electrical interfaces and a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array chip which is flip chip mounted. The module is designed to uniquely interface vertically with high-speed electrical I/O lines on a microprocessor style package or a motherboard to convert electrical signals to optical for transmission to other similar units using a standard (Multi-Terminal) MT style optical connector. We report on optical coupling efficiency, misalignment tolerance and high-speed electrical and optical measurements of the module. We have measured 40Gb/s electrical eye for the CPW interfaces on the module and 20Gb/s clear optical eyes for VCSEL assembled module from all the 10 channels to produce an aggregate transmitter bandwidth of 200Gb/s. We also measured 30Gb/s electrical and 20Gb/s optical eyes for the optical subassembly module that is bonded onto a microprocessor style package substrate.

  10. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up...... to 27 dB and 25 dB power budgets for 10 km and 20 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) upstream links using EDFA preamplifiers are achieved. For downstream links using booster EDFAs and APD receivers, power budgets of 26.5 dB and 24.5 dB are feasible for 10 km and 20 km SMFs, respectively. In...

  11. Improved InGaN/GaN quantum wells on treated GaN template with a Ga-rich GaN interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhilai; Shen, Xiyang; Wu, Zhengyuan [Department of Physics, Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Zhang, Tong-Yi [College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-10-15

    Treated GaN template was achieved by in situ droplet epitaxy of a Ga-rich GaN interlayer on the conventional GaN template. InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) were grown on the conventional and treated GaN templates under the same growth conditions and then comprehensively characterized. The indium homogeneity in the InGaN layers and the interface sharpness between InGaN and GaN layers of the InGaN/GaN QWs on the treated GaN template were significantly improved. The emission intensity from the InGaN/GaN QWs on the treated GaN template was enhanced by 20% than that on the conventional GaN template, which was attributed to the strain reduction and the improvement in crystalline quality. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Mesoporous manganese oxide for warfare agents degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Králová, Daniela; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 156, JULY (2012), s. 224-232. ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA MPO FI-IM5/231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : homogeneous hydrolysis * chloroacetamide * manganese(IV) oxide * warfare agents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.365, year: 2012

  13. Implementation of Ontology Mapping for Computational Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2006), s. 58-63. ISSN 1991-8755 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi - agent system s * ontology * computational intelligence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Models of Multi-Agent Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krušina, Pavel

    Praha : MATFYZPRESS, 2004 - (Hakl, F.), s. 58 ISBN 80-86732-30-4. [Doktorandský den '04. Paseky nad Jizerou (CZ), 29.09.2004-01.10.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : adaptive agent * parallel computation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  16. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  17. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-12-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers; results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  18. 25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Zheng, Xuezhe; Yao, Jin; Thacker, Hiren; Shubin, Ivan; Luo, Ying; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2011-10-10

    We report a high-speed ring modulator that fits many of the ideal qualities for optical interconnect in future exascale supercomputers. The device was fabricated in a 130 nm SOI CMOS process, with 7.5 μm ring radius. Its high-speed section, employing PN junction that works at carrier-depletion mode, enables 25 Gb/s modulation and an extinction ratio >5 dB with only 1V peak-to-peak driving. Its thermal tuning section allows the device to work in broad wavelength range, with a tuning efficiency of 0.19 nm/mW. Based on microwave characterization and circuit modeling, the modulation energy is estimated ~7 fJ/bit. The whole device fits in a compact 400 μm2 footprint. PMID:21997052

  19. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, Roberto; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers, results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  20. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist;

    2014-01-01

    subcarrier frequency spacing of the converted OFDM signal is designed to be larger than the transform-limited case, here 10 times greater than the symbol rate of each subcarrier. Therefore, only passive filtering is needed to extract the subcarriers of the converted OFDM signal. In addition, a polarization......We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier...... transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM signal with its characteristic sinc-shaped time-domain trace is converted into an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal with sinc-shaped spectra for each subcarrier. The...

  1. Electron beam welding of thick plates of steel A 533 GB Cl 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of weldability studies of low alloy Mn Mo Ni quenched tempered steel (A 533 GB Cl 1 and A 508 Cl 3) steel are presented. Heavy section material is single pass-welded by EB process in flat or horizontal position for 80mm thickness, in horizontal position for 120 and 150 mm thickness. A good soundness of welds is obtained up to 150mm. Relationship between welding conditions and mechanical properties is presented. After (PWHT) good toughness properties are obtained for 80mm thickness welded with the highest welding speed. A too slow cooling rate obtained for higher thickness: 120mm, is detrimental to notch toughness. The results are compared to the criterions of ASME and RCC-M codes

  2. High Performance Design of 100Gb/s DPSK Optical Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar;

    2016-01-01

    performance output simultaneously by maintaining actual parameters of device. In this work, high performance 100Gb/s optical DPSK transmitter design is realized in Field Programming Gate (FPGA) using time constraint technique. Before applying the proposed technique actual FPGA’s frequency was 0.2 GHz and......High performance communication systems require high performance devices for exchanging information at a faster rate. These devices are experiencing several challenges e.g. bandwidth limitations, power limitations, design limitations and etc. The existing techniques are lacking in providing high...... optical transmitter have taken plenty of time for transmitting signal. When proposed design is operated at 1 GHz, 5 GHz, 10 GHz and 20 GHz using time constraint technique, it is observed that among all these frequencies, at 10 GHz high performance output is achieved for designed optical transmitter. This...

  3. Broadband Packaging of Photodetectors for 100 Gb/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, Heinz-Gunter;

    2013-01-01

    of limiting the bandwidth of PD modules. After eliminating the mode mismatch effect by improving the chip-conductor-backed coplanar waveguide transition, a final optimal packaging structure is implemented for the PD module with reduced attenuation up to 100 GHz and a broader 3-dB bandwidth of more than 90 GHz......The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D...... electromagnetic (EM) simulations. A simplified model of the PD module is first used to analyze and optimize packaging structures and propose an optimal packaging design based on the simplified model. Although a PD module with improved performance proved the success of the optimal packaging design, the simplified...

  4. Recombination among GB virus C (GBV-C) isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Jason T; Ma, Gang; Polen, Clarissa; DuBois, Juwen C; Gast, Jonathon; Radens, Caleb M; Sterling, Richard K; Sherman, Kenneth E

    2016-07-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a non-pathogenic flavivirus that may play a role in modulating HIV disease. Multiple genotypes of GBV-C that have been identified to date that may differentially regulate HIV; however, the number of complete GBV-C sequences published to date is very limited. We sequenced full-length GBV-C genomes from four individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection in the United States. Intergenotypic recombination was evident in two of these individuals. Evaluation of additional full-length GBV-C genomes would facilitate the creation of full-length, replication-competent molecular clones of GBV-C to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of GBV-C genotypes and provide important molecular data on this understudied virus. PMID:27072634

  5. Nucleotide sequence specifying the glycoprotein gene, gB, of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzik, D J; Fox, B A; DeLuca, N A; Person, S

    1984-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence thought to specify the glycoprotein gene, gB, of the KOS strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been determined. A 3.1-kilobase (kb), viral-specified RNA was mapped to the left half of the BamHI-G fragment (0.345 to 0.399 map units). TATA, CAT-box, and possible mRNA start sequences characteristic of HSV-1 genes are found near 0.368 map units. The first available ATG codon is at 0.366 and the first in-phase chain terminator at 0.348 map units. A polyA-addition signal (AATAAA) occurs 17 nucleotides past the chain terminator. Translation of these sequences would yield a 100.3-kilodalton (kDa) polypeptide characterized by a 5' signal sequence, nine N-linked saccharide addition sites, a strongly hydrophobic membrane-spanning sequence, and a highly charged 3' cytoplasmic anchor sequence. Two mutants of KOS, tsJ12 and tsJ20, that are temperature-sensitive for viral growth and for the production of gB, have been physically mapped to 0.357 to 0.360 and 0.360 to 0.364 map units, respectively (DeLuca et al., in preparation). The nucleotide sequence of the mutants was determined in these regions. In both cases a single amino acid replacement within the 100.3-kDa polypeptide is predicted from the sequence analysis. PMID:6324454

  6. 160-Gb/s polarization-multiplexing optical NRZ-DQPSK transmission using differential detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wen; Jinxin Liao; Xiaoping Zheng; Hanyi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Using differential detection,we perform polarization-multiplexing 160-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over 100-km standard single mode fiber at a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10-9.The enabling technology includes clock recovery,fine dispersion compensation,and polarization tracking for de-multiplexing.Furthermore,a hybrid clock recovery scheme is proposed.The scheme is realized with ordinary devices using an optoelectrical modulator to down-convert the clock frequency and a phase-locked loop for filtering,which can provide an indication signal that simultaneouslv monitors residual disoersion and tracking polarization.Given the ever increasing bandwidth demands (e.g.,for imaging,demand of video,gaming,etc.),the capacity of optical transmission systems is being constantly raised through the application of several approaches that include the use of advanced modulation formats with higher spectral efficiency,increasing the symbol rate of each channel,and orthogonal polarization multiplexing with idcntical wavelengths;these approaches are enabled by coherent detection[1-3].%Using differential detection, we perform polarization-multiplexing 160-Gb/s optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over 100-km standard single mode fiber at a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10~9. The enabling technology includes clock recovery, fine dispersion compensation, and polarization tracking for de-multiplexing. Furthermore, a hybrid clock recovery scheme is proposed. The scheme is realized with ordinary devices using an optoclectrical modulator to down-convert the clock frequency and a phase-locked loop for filtering, which can provide an indication signal that simultaneously monitors residual dispersion and tracking polarization.

  7. Simple laboratory methods for quantitative IR measurements of CW agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Lavoie, Hugo; Dubé, Denis; Lepage, Carmela J.; Petryk, Michael

    2005-11-01

    A simple method is presented for quantitatively measuring the absorbance of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their simulants in the vapour phase. The technique is based on a standard lab-bench FTIR spectrometer, 10-cm gas cell, a high accuracy Baratron pressure manometer, vacuum pump and simple stainless-steel hardware components. The results of this measurement technique are demonstrated for sarin (GB) and soman (GD). A second technique is also introduced for the passive IR detection of CW agents in an open- air path located in a fumehood. Using a modified open-cell with a pathlength of 45 cm, open-air passive infrared measurements have been obtained for simulants and several classical CW agents. Detection, identification and quantification results based on passive infrared measurements are presented for GB and the CW agent simulant, DMMP, using the CATSI sensor which has been developed by DRDC Valcartier. The open-cell technique represents a relatively simple and feasible method for examining the detection capability of passive sensors, such as CATSI, for CW agents.

  8. 100-Gb/s InP DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Ogiso, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a compact InP-based DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers. The modulator achieves 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK modulation with a driving voltage of 6 Vppd. In addition, it provides 86-Gb/s DP-16 QAM signal generation and 240-km transmission with negligible degradation of BER performance. The halfwavelength voltage of our recent device is 1.9 V, and a high median extinction ratio of over 32 dB was achieved for more than 1,400 child MZ modulators. We have also proposed an athermal InP-based twin IQ modulator that enables us to use a modulator in a TEC-free operation. It contributes to lowering the power consumption of transceivers. Under a constant driving condition, there is little change in 56-Gb/s x 2 QPSK modulation characteristics in the range of 20 to 80°C.

  9. Epitaxial synthesis of GaN/Ga2O3 core/shell nanocable heterostructures by atmosphere control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional nanoheterostructures consisting of single crystalline hexagonal GaN nanowire cores and single crystalline monoclinic Ga2O3 shells were synthesized epitaxially using NH3 and O2 gases as the reaction agents in sequence during the thermal evaporation of GaN powders. It was possible to obtain a coaxial nanocable structure with a sharp interface and a uniform smooth surface which was formed by the heteroepitaxial overgrowth of a tubular Ga2O3 layer in the radial direction over the GaN nanowire core. The thickness of the Ga2O3 shell could be controlled by changing the flow rate of the oxidizing agent O2. The novel method introduced in this study enabled the epitaxial synthesis of coaxial GaN/Ga2O3 nanoheterostructures potentially suitable for the application to nanoscaled electronic device, demonstrating the advantages over conventional thermal oxidation process in terms of simplicity, morphological and geometrical controllability, and crystalline quality.

  10. Wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Pol-MUX signals in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2014-01-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time.......All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time....

  11. Combining DPSK and duobinary for the downstream in 40-Gb/s long-reach WDM-PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Bo; An, Yi; Chi, Nan;

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate combining differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) and duobinary transmission for the downstream in 40-Gb/s long-reach wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) in order to provide robust transmission performance in the backhaul section and simple...... DPSK to duobinary is realized in the local exchange in a single delay interferometer to reduce system cost. Single and multi-channel 80-km long-reach DPSK transmission and up to 5-km duobinary access transmission are experimentally demonstrated at 40Gb/s. The proposed approach shows great potential for...

  12. Expression of verotoxin-1 receptor Gb3 in breast cancer tissue and verotoxin-1 signal transduction to apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prerequisite for the potential use of the bacterial toxin verotoxin-1 in the treatment of breast cancer was investigated by first determining the expression of its receptor Gb3 (CD77) in clinical breast cancer tissue specimens. We then examined the cytotoxicity and mechanism of apoptosis induction of Escherichia coli verotoxin-1 (VT-1) in two human breast cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry for Gb3 expression was performed on cryostat section from 25 breast cancer specimens. The human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MCF-7 were screened for Gb3 expression by flow cytometry. Fluorescein diacetate and LDH release was used to determine cell viability after VT-1 exposure. Apoptosis was studied by measuring caspase activity and DNA-fragmentation. Signal transduction studies were performed on T47D cells with immunoblotting. Gb3 expression was detected in the vascular endothelial cells of all tumours specimens, and in tumour cells in 17 of the specimens. We found no associations between tumour cell Gb3-expression and age, tumour size, TNM-classification, histological type, hormone receptor expression, or survival time. T47D cells strongly expressed Gb3 and were sensitive to the cytotoxicity, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation by VT-1, whereas MCF-7 cells with faint Gb3-expression were insensitive to VT-1. VT-1 (0.01 – 5 μg/L) exposure for 72 h resulted in a small percentage of viable T47D cells whereas the cytotoxicity of cells pre-treated with 2 μmol/L D, L-treo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP, an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthesis) was eliminated (≤ 0.1 μg/L VT-1) or reduced (0.5 – 5 μg/L VT-1). VT-1 did not cause cellular LDH-release or cell cycle arrest. VT-1 induction of caspase-3 (0.1, 1, and 5 μg/L VT-1), -8, and -9 (1 and 5 μg/L VT-1) activity and DNA fragmentation of T47D cells was blocked by PPMP. Key components of MAP kinase signalling pathways that control mitochondrial function were investigated. VT-1 0

  13. All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian; Schilling, M.; Daub, K.; Doussiere, P.; Pommerau, F.; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Kloch, Allan; Vaa, Michael; Mikkelsen, Benny; Lach, E.; Laube, G.; Idler, W.; Wunstel, K.

    1997-01-01

    This work assesses the prospects for high-speed all-optical wavelength conversion using the simple optical interaction with the gain in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) via the interband carrier recombination. Operation and design guidelines for conversion speeds above 10 Gb/s are describe...... and the various tradeoffs are discussed. Experiments at bit rates up to 40 Gb/s are presented for both cross-gain modulation (XGM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) in SOAs demonstrating the high-speed capability of these techniques...

  14. Estimation of a 10 Gb/s 5G Receiver’s Performance and Power Evolution Towards 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 5G vision of 10 Gb/s leads to performance and power consumption challenges in the mobile terminal receiver because 10 Gb/s requires 400 MHz bandwidth, faster baseband processing, and an increased number of component carriers and MIMO streams. The contribution of this paper is to estimate the......, and extrapolation hereof to estimate trends, and main challenges, towards 2030. According to our results, in 2020 the receiver power consumption exceeds 3 W, and is thus a challenge to be addressed. Assuming the performance evolution continues as observed in this work, the 5G receiver will be on par...

  15. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao;

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all......-optical packet switch. Error free performance (BER <1E-9) is achieved for the switched packet. The use of optical burst switching protocols could eliminate the need for optical buffering in silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  16. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel...... out of 40-Gb/s OTDM data and perfect clearing of the corresponding time slot in the remaining 3 x 10 Gb/s data stream is demonstrated. Bit-error-rate measurements show a low penalty of 2 dB for each 10 Gb/s channel. No extra penalty was observed introducing a 10-Gb/s add channel through the device...

  17. Multi-Agent Environment for Hybrid AI Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel; Petrová, Zuzana

    Wien : Springer, 2001 - (Kůrková, V.; Steele, N.; Neruda, R.; Kárný, M.), s. 359-362 ISBN 3-211-83651-9. [ICANNGA'2001 /5./. Praha (CZ), 22.04.2001-25.04.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489; GA ČR GA201/99/P057 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : hybrid computational models * autonomous software agent s * artificial intelligence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  19. Effect of Low Temperature Duration on Fertility Alteration of Japonica PTGMS GB028S%低温时长对粳型光温敏核不育系GB028S育性转换的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于亚辉; 唐亮; 刘郁; 阙补超; 夏明; 王莹; 郑英杰; 李振宇; 陈广红

    2012-01-01

    The fertility alteration of GB028S, a japonica photo-thermo-sensitive genie male sterile (PTGMS) line was studied at 20℃ low temperature for Id, 3d, 5d and 7d. Low temperature caused heading stage lag for 2-8d. Pollen sterility of 1d and 3d was more than 99.5%, so low temperature of 1d and 3d had no effect on fertility of GB028S. Pollen sterility of 5d and 7d was 98.33% and 94.33%, bagged seed set of them was 2.64% and 5.04%. The low temperature of 5d and 7d not only decreased remarkably pollen sterility but also induced some extent of self fertility. The critical temperature was nearly 20°C for GB028S. The most sensitive stage of temperature on fertility alteration was that rice was that rice was at -3-lcm of UPI(upmost pulvinus interval, i.e., the length from the pulvinus of the 2nd leaf from the top to that of flag leaf).%用20℃的低温对GB028S分别处理1,3,5,7d,研究不同低温时长对粳型光温敏核不育系育性转换的影响.结果表明:低温使各处理抽穗期滞后2~8d.1d和3d的低温处理下,GB028S花粉不育度大于99.5%,育性没有转换;5d和7d的低温处理下,GB028S的花粉不育度为98.33%和94.33%,自交结实率为2.64%和5.04%,育性恢复.GB028S的临界温度接近20℃,其低温敏感时期的辨别标准为剑叶叶枕距-3~1cm.

  20. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: Development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U;

    2006-01-01

    substitutions of the -1 and/or -3 residues of the putative cleavage sites (amino acid 613/614 and 732/733) abolished processing in vitro and rendered an infectious GBV-B clone nonviable in tamarins. Internal cleavage was predicted at two sites (amino acid 669/670 and 681/682), and in vitro analysis indicated...... availability of a recombinant GBV-B virus containing a p7 protein with similarities to the HCV p7 will enhance the relevance of this model and will be of importance for identifying compounds that inhibit p7 function as additional therapeutic agents....

  1. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U;

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia andacute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity. The...... availability of a recombinant GBV-B virus containing a p7 protein with similarities to the HCV p7 will enhance the relevance of this model and will be of importance for identifying compounds that inhibit p7 function as additional therapeutic agents....

  2. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  3. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  4. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Fakhari; Amir Jalilian; Fariba Johari-daha; Mehdi Shafiee-Ardestani; Ali Khalaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga).Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies,...

  5. Clock recovery for 320 Gb/s OTDM Data using filtering-assisted XPM in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Zibar, Darko; Galili, Michael;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel technique, which enables clock recovery at 320 Gb/s and relies on a filtering-assisted cross-phase modulation (f-a XPM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This technique is more spectrally efficient than four wave mixing (FWM) and can improve the...

  6. Detection of 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist;

    2013-01-01

    320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM is generated by rectangular filtering with a bandwidth of 320 GHz and received by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM is converted into a...

  7. Role of GB chemistry of silicon nitride based ceramics with respect to the mechanical properties - experimental and theoretical approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šajgalík, P.; Hnatko, M.; Gall, M.; Dusza, J.; Tatarko, P.; Chlup, Zdeněk

    Toledo: ECERS, 2015. ISBN 978-84-606-9257-7. [ECERS 14 - International Conference of the European Ceramic Society /14./. 21.06.2015-25.06.2015, Toledo] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : silicon nitride * mechanical properties * GB chemistry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  8. Comparison of glycoprotein B (gB) variants of the elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) isolated from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickel, J; Lieckfeldt, D; Richman, L K; Streich, W J; Hildebrandt, T B; Pitra, C

    2003-01-01

    The recently described elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) have been associated with the deaths of numerous captive elephants. A proposed tool for the detection of EEHV infection in elephants is the PCR-based screening for EEHV-DNA in whole blood samples. Unfortunately, this detection method has only been successful in post-mortem analyses or in animals already displaying clinical signs of EEHV disease, thus rendering this method unsuitable for identification of carrier elephants. Here, we focus on glycoprotein B (gB) for serologic assay development, since gB is an envelope protein known to induce a neutralising antibody response in other herpesvirus infections. We sequenced the entire gB gene from five Asian elephants with EEHV, representing four different gB variants. Computer-aided methods were used to predict functionally important regions within EEHVgB. An extra-cytoplasmic region of 153 amino acids was predicted to be under positive selection and may potentially contain antigenic determinants that will be useful for future serologic assay development. PMID:12441228

  9. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light. PMID:19550988

  10. Investigation on the bit error rate performance of 40Gb/s space optical communication system based on BPSK scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Li, Bowen; Zhang, Xuping; Song, Yuejiang; Liu, Jia; Tu, Guojie

    2015-08-01

    Space optical communication technique is attracting increasingly more attention because it owns advantages such as high security and great communication quality compared with microwave communication. As the space optical communication develops, people have already achieved the communication at data rate of Gb/s currently. The next generation for space optical system have goal of the higher data rate of 40Gb/s. However, the traditional optical communication system cannot satisfy it when the data rate of system is at such high extent. This paper will introduce ground optical communication system of 40Gb/s data rate as to achieve the space optical communication at high data rate. Speaking of the data rate of 40Gb/s, we must apply waveguide modulator to modulate the optical signal and magnify this signal by laser amplifier. Moreover, the more sensitive avalanche photodiode (APD) will be as the detector to increase the communication quality. Based on communication system above, we analyze character of communication quality in downlink of space optical communication system when data rate is at the level of 40Gb/s. The bit error rate (BER) performance, an important factor to justify communication quality, versus some parameter ratios is discussed. From results, there exists optimum ratio of gain factor and divergence angle, which shows the best BER performance. We can also increase ratio of receiving diameter and divergence angle for better communication quality. These results can be helpful to comprehend the character of optical communication system at high data rate and contribute to the system design.

  11. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  12. Discussion on National Standard GB 6167 "Methods for Testing the Performance of Airborne Particle Counter"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊杰; 朱能; 王君山

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particle counters are used widely to test the air cleanliness of cleanrooms. The current Chinese national standard of airborne particle counter calibration, GB6167-85, Methods for Testing the Performance of Dust Particle Counter, has kept the same for more than 10 years. It is necessary to be amended in time.This paper discusses the differences between Chinese airborne particle counter calibration procedure and other new calibration procedures in other countries, and points out the defects of current Chinese national standard.The draft of revised Chinese National Standard is also introduced. The new revised standard, Methods for Testing the Performance of Airborne Particle Counter, covers two level calibrations:primary and secondary. Primary calibration procedure includes testing 6 kinds of performances: sample airflow rate, false counting, particle size accuracy and resolution, particle counting stability, counting efficiency and particle concentration limit. Secondary calibration is a relative comparing test method to verify the counting accuracy of calibrated airborne particle counters. Finally, how to keep the calibration traceability is suggested.

  13. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli found in GB turkey flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E M; Snow, L C; Carrique-Mas, J J; Gosling, R J; Clouting, C; Davies, R H

    2013-11-01

    Four models are presented investigating risks present on Great Britain (GB) turkey farms in breeding and fattening flocks for ciprofloxacin and cephalosporin resistance. Risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in fattening flocks were sourcing of feed from national compounders, antimicrobial use in the flock and evidence of mice. Disinfection of floors and walls at depopulation, older flocks and division of the flock with partitions reduced the risk. In breeding farms holding over 10,000 birds, administration of fluoroquinolones within the last year and horses on the neighbouring farm all increased the risk, whereas replenishing foot dips more than once a week reduced the risk. For cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli on fattening farms, being an independent farm, having a watercourse near the poultry houses, dividing the flock with partitions and providing staff with gloves reduced the risk. Factors that increased the risk included if staff worked with other livestock and if there were pigs on neighbouring farms. This work suggests that good hygiene and biosecurity, rodent control and responsible use of antimicrobials on turkey farms might help minimise the prevalence of fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin resistance in E coli, and restrict the spread of resistance genes to other organisms. PMID:24097819

  14. Association between active GB virus-C (hepatitis G) infection and HIV-1 disease in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirrell, D L; Wright, E; Shafer, L A; Campbell, E; Van der Paal, L; Kaleebu, P; Grosskurth, H; Whitworth, J A

    2007-04-01

    Although not linked to a disease, GB virus-C viraemia has been associated with an improved prognosis in HIV-1-co-infected individuals. Most studies have been conducted on men (men who have sex with men or injection drug users) infected with HIV-1 subtype B, whereas here we report on both male and female subjects from rural Uganda, predominantly infected via the heterosexual route with HIV-1 subtypes A and D. In a longitudinal study of 272 participants, 47 were GBV-C positive and 181 negative, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in both of two plasma samples taken a median of 5.0 years apart. The remainder either acquired (25) or cleared (19) infection. Multilevel regression analyses and Cox survival analyses revealed that participants chronically infected with GBV-C had a slower decline in CD4(+) T cells (P<0.001) and increased survival time (P=0.041) compared with GBV-C RNA-negative, HIV-positive adults. We show that the association between active GBV-C co-infection and improved survival of HIV-1-infected adults is not restricted to HIV subtype B, but is also observed in both males and females infected with HIV subtypes A and D. PMID:17509174

  15. k190gb.m77t and k190gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-90-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 06/14/1990 to 06/24/1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with SINS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise K-1-90-GB. The cruise was conducted in...

  16. a194gb.m77t and a194gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity A-1-94-GB in Prince William Sound, Yakutat Bay, Glacier Bay and Icy Strait, Alaska from 08/08/1994 to 08/17/1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise A-1-94-GB. The cruise was conducted in Prince...

  17. t198gb.m77t and t198gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity T-1-98-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 08/21/1998 to 09/01/1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise T-1-98-GB. The cruise was conducted in...

  18. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  19. Characterization of a Novel Cotton Subtilase Gene GbSBT1 in Response to Extracellular Stimulations and Its Role in Verticillium Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xingpeng; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Jin; Zuo, Kaijing

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is a disastrous vascular disease in plants caused by Verticillium dahliae. Verticillium pathogens secrete various disease-causing effectors in cotton. This study identified a subtilase gene GbSBT1 from Gossypium babardense and investigated the roles against V. dahliae infection. GbSBT1 gene expression is responsive to V. dahliae defense signals, jasmonic acid, and ethylene treatments. Moreover, the GbSBT1 protein is mainly localized in the cell membrane and moves into the cytoplasm following jasmonic acid and ethylene treatments. Silencing GbSBT1 gene expression through virus-induced GbSBT1 gene silencing reduced the tolerance of Pima-90 (resistant genotype), but not facilitated the infection process of V. dahliae in Coker-312 (sensitive genotype). Moreover, the ectopically expressed GbSBT1 gene enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis to Fusarium oxysporum and V. dahliae infection and activated the expression levels of defense-related genes. Furthermore, pull-down, yeast two-hybrid assay, and BiFC analysis revealed that GbSBT1 interacts with a prohibitin (PHB)-like protein expressed in V. dahliae pathogens during infection. In summary, GbSBT1 recognizes the effector PHB protein secreted from V. dahliae and is involved in Verticillium-induced resistance in cotton. PMID:27088499

  20. 16×10 Gb/s WDM bidirectional gating in a semiconductor optical amplifier for optical cross connects exploiting network connection symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Clausen, Anders;

    2000-01-01

    In order to further reduce the number of gating elements in space switches, the performance of 10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) bidirectional semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gating is investigated, We demonstrate for the first time that a conventional SOA can be used for bidir...... bidirectional WDM gating operation at 10 Gb/s by the use of holding light injection...

  1. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  2. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tyler@medbio.umu.se [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Johansson, Anders [Department of Odontology, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Karlsson, Terese [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  3. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapleton, Jack T; Foung, Steven; Muerhoff, A Scott;

    2011-01-01

    In 1967, it was reported that experimental inoculation of serum from a surgeon (G.B.) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis. In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae, named GBV-A and GBV-B, were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation with...... discovered in bats. Only GBV-B, a second species within the genus Hepacivirus (type species hepatitis C virus), has been shown to cause hepatitis; it causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. The other GB viruses have however not been assigned to a genus within the family Flaviviridae....... Based on phylogenetic relationships, genome organization and pathogenic features of the GB viruses, we propose to classify GBV-A-like viruses, GBV-C and GBV-D as members of a fourth genus in the family Flaviviridae, named Pegivirus (pe, persistent; g, GB or G). We also propose renaming 'GB' viruses...

  4. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  5. Clusters of magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI: the effect of aggregation on T.sub.2./sub. relaxivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědourková, T.; Kaman, Ondřej; Veverka, Pavel; Koktan, Jakub; Veverka, Miroslav; Kuličková, Jarmila; Jirák, Zdeněk; Herynek, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 11 (2015), s. 5300804. ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10088S; GA MPO FR-TI3/521 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : contrast agents * magnetic resonance imaging * magnetic nanoparticles * manganites * transverse relaxivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  6. Nucleoside triphosphatase and RNA helicase activities associated with GB virus B nonstructural protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, W; Ingravallo, P; Wright-Minogue, J; Skelton, A; Uss, A S; Chase, R; Yao, N; Lau, J Y; Hong, Z

    1999-09-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. This virus is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and causes acute hepatitis in tamarins (Saguinus species). Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of GBV-B contains sequence motifs predictive of three enzymatic activities: serine protease, nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase), and RNA helicase. The N-terminal serine protease has been characterized and shown to share similar substrate specificity with the HCV NS3 protease. In this report, a full-length GBV-B NS3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. This recombinant protein was shown to possess polynucleotide-stimulated NTPase and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) unwinding activities. Both activities were abolished by a single amino acid substitution, from the Lys (K) residue in the conserved walker motif A (or Ia) "AXXXXGK(210)S" to an Ala (A), confirming that they are intrinsic to GBV-B NS3. Kinetic parameters (K(m) and k(cat)) for hydrolysis of various NTPs or dNTPs were obtained. The dsRNA unwinding activity depends on the presence of divalent metal ions and ATP and requires an RNA duplex substrate with 3' unpaired regions (RNAs with 5' unpaired regions only or with blunt ends are not suitable substrates for this enzyme). This indicates that GBV-B NS3 RNA helicase unwinds dsRNA in the 3' to 5' direction. Direct interaction of the GBV-B NS3 protein with a single-stranded RNA was established using a gel-based RNA bandshift assay. Finally, a homology model of GBV-B NS3 RNA helicase domain based on the 3-dimensional structure of the HCV NS3 helicase that shows a great similarity in overall structure and surface charge distribution between the two proteins was proposed. PMID:10497107

  7. 棉花不同GbU6启动子截短克隆及功能鉴定%Cloning and Functional Analysis of Different Truncated GbU6 Promoters in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷建峰; 李月; 徐新霞; 阿尔祖古丽·塔什; 蒲艳; 张巨松; 刘晓东

    2016-01-01

    U6启动子是CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体系统中驱动sgRNA转录的重要元件,而使用较短序列的启动子也是构建CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体的基本要求之一.将已经克隆的海岛棉GbU6-5P启动子(长度为1166 bp),采用Transfer PCR方法成功地截出6个长度不同的U6启动子,其长度分别为672、468、358、280、202和105 bp,并分别构建了6个启动子驱动的GUS融合植物表达载体.将构建好的6个GbU6-5Ps::GUS-pCAMBIA1300与初始克隆的GbU6-5P::GUS-pCAMBIA1300植物表达载体一起利用农杆菌真空渗透转化法分别转染棉花花粉.GUS组织化学染色显示,克隆到的7个不同截短大小的GbU6-5P启动子均能驱动GUS基因在棉花花粉中转录,棉花花粉被染成蓝色但颜色深浅存在显著差异.结果显示启动子长度越短,其转录活性越高.而且另外两种棉花U6启动子GbU6-1P和GbU6-7P也表现出类似的结果.本研究克隆了3个短小的、在棉花花粉细胞中具有转录功能的GbU6启动子.结果显示更短的U6启动子具有更高的转录活性,而且这一特点在不同U6启动子上具有共性.这预示着使用更短U6启动子不仅符合构建CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体的要求,而且会提高sgRNA的转录水平,进而可能提高基因组编辑效率.%U6 promoter is an important element for the transcription of sgRNA in the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Using a short promoter is also one of the basic requirements for the construction of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing vector. According to the sequence of GbU6-5P promoter cloned, six different truncated U6 promoters were successfully cloned using Transfer PCR method and their length were 672, 468, 358, 280, 202, and 105 bp, respectively. Together with GbU6-5P::GUS-pCAMBIA1300, GUS fusion expression vectors driven by corresponding truncated promoter were constructed and transformed into cotton pollen by the vacuum in filtration transformation method. Results of GUS

  8. GaAs/GaSb nanowire heterostructures grown by MOVPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, Mattias; Dick, Kimberly A.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2008-01-01

    We report Au-assisted growth of GaAs/GaSb nanowire heterostructures on GaAs(1 1 1)B-substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The growth is studied at various precursor molar fractions and temperatures, in order to optimize the growth conditions for the GaSb nanowire segment. In contrast to...... most other III–V nanowire systems, the GaSb nanowire growth is Group V-limited under most conditions. We found that depending on the TMSb molar fraction, the seed particle is either supersaturated AuGa or AuGa2 during GaSb growth. The high Ga content in the particle gives a characteristic diameter...

  9. Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Akyol, Fatih; Park, Pil Sung; Esposto, Michele; Rajan, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design and demonstration of polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junction diodes with high current density and low tunneling turn-on voltage. Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) calculations were used to model and design tunnel junctions with narrow bandgap InGaN-based barrier layers. N-polar p-GaN/In0.33Ga0.67N/n-GaN heterostructure tunnel diodes were grown using molecular beam epitaxy. Efficient zero bias tunneling turn-on with a high current density of 118 A/cm2 at a r...

  10. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    OpenAIRE

    marzieh akbarzadeh; nasrin bahmani; marzieh moattari; Saeede PourAhmad

    2014-01-01

    objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group) pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based o...

  11. 4×100 Gb/s WDM DD-OFDM using EAM for next generation Ethernet transceivers over SMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ferrera, P.; Vázquez, S. O.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2016-04-01

    The technical feasibility (pre-FEC BERoperation is achieved by finding optimum values for bias voltage and electrical gain in the modulator, and by employing a simple, yet powerful, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)-reduction technique. A performance comparison with a Mach-Zehnder driven system is presented too. The architecture here put forward can be used to define next-generation 400 Gb/s Ethernet standard.

  12. Genome locations of temperature-sensitive mutants in glycoprotein gB of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, N; Person, S; Bzik, D J; Snipes, W

    1984-09-01

    A plasmid containing a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) insert from strain KOS, prototypic coordinates 0.345 to 0.368 (3.45 kilobases) was mutagenized in vitro, and potential mutations were introduced into intact viral DNA by cotransfection. Functions normally associated with the glycoprotein gB are in the 1-9 complementation group, and the above coordinates include those that specify the gB glycoprotein gene. Following cotransfection, individual plaques were screened for temperature sensitivity (ts) of viral growth. A total of seven ts mutants was obtained, of which four were spurious mutations due to alterations outside the cloned sequences, presumably mediated by some aspect of the Ca-precipitation-cotransfection method. The remaining three did not complement known mutants of the 1-9 complementation group. These three mutants, along with tsJ12 (P.A. Schaffer, G.M. Aron, N. Biswal, and M. Benyesh-Melnick, 1973, Virology 52, 57-71) and tsJ33 (C.-T. Chu, D.S. Parris, R.A.F. Dixon, F.E. Farber, and P.A. Schaffer, 1979, Virology 98, 168-181), were physically located by marker-rescue experiments to three different restriction fragments between 0.345 to 0.368 map units. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the glycoproteins synthesized during continuous or pulse-chase labeling protocols. All five mutants were found to synthesize a precursor of gB but did not accumulate mature gB during a pulse, a chase, or continuous labeling at the nonpermissive temperature. PMID:6091335

  13. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KS; Park, CW; Kim, CK; Jeon, HY; Kim, WG; Lee, SJ; Kim, YM; Lee, JY; Choi, YD

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED), and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus, we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study. As a comparative control, the results were com...

  14. 40-Gb/s star 16-QAM transmitter based on single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junming Gao; Xinyu Xu; Qingjiang Chang; Yikai Su

    2009-01-01

    We propose a 40-Gb/s star 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) transmitter using a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM). This transmitter is demonstrated through experiment and simulation and shows the advantage of simplicity for implementation. Simulation results indicate that error free performance could be achieved for the generated signal after 80-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission with coherent detection scheme.

  15. Comparison of seismic actions and structural design requirements in Chinese Code GB 50011 and International Standard ISO 3010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚勇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the Chinese Code GB50011-2001 and the International Standard ISO3010: 2001(E), emphasizing the similarities and differences related to design requirements, seismic actions and analytical approaches. Similarities include: earthquake return period, conceptual design, site classification, structural strength and ductility requirements, deformation limits, response spectra, seismic analysis procedures, isolation and energy dissipation,and nonstructural elements. Differences exist in the following areas: seismic levels, earthquake loading, mode damping factors and structural control.

  16. Scaling single-wavelength optical interconnects to 180 Gb/s with PAM-M and pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dris, Stefanos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Faced with surging datacenter traffic demand, system designers are turning to multi-level optical modulation with direct detection as the means of reaching 100 Gb/s in a single optical lane; a further upgrade to 400 Gb/s is envisaged through wavelength-multiplexing of multiple 100 Gb/s strands. In terms of modulation formats, PAM-4 and PAM-8 are considered the front-runners, striking a good balance between bandwidth-efficiency and implementation complexity. In addition, the emergence of energy-efficient, high-speed CMOS digital-to-analog converters (DACs) opens up new possibilities: Spectral shaping through digital filtering will allow squeezing even more data through low-cost, low-bandwidth electro-optic components. In this work we demonstrate an optical interconnect based on an EAM that is driven directly with sub-volt electrical swing by a 65 GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Low-voltage drive is particularly attractive since it allows direct interfacing with the switch/server ASIC, eliminating the need for dedicated, power-hungry and expensive electrical drivers. Single-wavelength throughputs of 180 and 120 Gb/s are experimentally demonstrated with 60 Gbaud optical PAM-8 and PAM-4 respectively. Successful transmission over 1250 m SMF is achieved with direct-detection, using linear equalization via offline digital signal processing in order to overcome the strong bandwidth limitation of the overall link (~20 GHz). The suitability of Nyquist pulse shaping for optical interconnects is also investigated experimentally with PAM-4 and PAM-8, at a lower symbol rate of 40 Gbaud (limited by the sampling rate of the AWG). To the best of our knowledge, the rates achieved are the highest ever using optical PAM-M formats.

  17. 粮食作物种子第1部分:禾谷类(GB 4404.1-2008)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 范围 GB 4404的本部分规定了稻(Oryza sativa)、玉米(Zea mays)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)、大麦(Hordeum vulgate)、高粱(Sorghum bicolor)、粟(Setaris italica)和黍(Panicum miliaceum)种子的质量要求、检验方法和检验规则.

  18. InGaAlAs RW-based electro-absorption-modulated DFB-lasers for high-speed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Martin; Klein, Holger; Bornholdt, Carsten; Przyrembel, Georges; Sigmund, Ariane; Molzow, Wolf-Dietrich; Troppenz, Ute; Bach, Heinz-Gunter

    2014-05-01

    Electro-absorption modulated 10G and 25G DFB lasers (EML) are key components in transmission systems for long reach (up to 10 km) and extended reach (up to 80 km) applications. The next generation Ethernet will most likely be 400 Gb/s which will require components with even higher bandwidth. Commercially available EMLs are regarded as high-cost components due to their separate epitaxial butt-coupling growth process to separately optimize the DFB laser and the electro-absorption modulator (EAM). Alternatively the selective area growth (SAG) technique is used to achieve different MQW bandgaps in the DFB and EAM section of an EML. However for a lot of applications an emission wavelength within a narrow wavelength window is required enforcing a temperature controlled operation. All these applications can be covered with the developed EML devices that use a single InGaAlAs MQW waveguide for both the DFB and the EAM enabling a low-cost fabrication process similar to a conventional DFB laser diode. It will be shown that such devices can be used for 25Gb/s and 40Gb/s applications with excellent performance. By an additional monolithic integration of an impedance matching circuit the module fabrication costs can be reduced but also the modulation bandwidth of the devices can be further enhanced. Up to 70Gb/s modulation with excellent eye openings can be achieved. This novel approach opens the possibility for 100Gb/s NRZ EMLs and thus 4x100Gb/s NRZ EML-based transmitters in future. Also even higher bitrates seem feasible using more complex modulation formats such as e.g. DMT and PAM.

  19. Evolving Decision Strategies for Computational Intelligence Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Šlapák, M.

    Berlin: Springer, 2012 - (Huang, D.; Ma, J.; Jo, K.; Gromiha, M.), s. 213-220. (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence . 7390). ISBN 978-3-642-31575-6. ISSN 0302-9743. [ICIC 2012. Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications. International Conference /8./. Huangshan (CN), 25.07.2012-29.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : computational intelligence * genetic programming * intelligent agents Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. Reasoning about Computational Agents in FOL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Mill Lane : World Academic Union, 2010 - (Yiang, Y.; Yu, J.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-1-84626-155-8. - (Modelling and Simulation). [ICMS 2010. International Conference on Modelling and Simulation /3./. Wuxi (CN), 04.06.2010-06.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ontology * multi agent system s * first order logics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  1. Electroacupuncture at Qiuxu (GB 40) for Treatment of Migraine——A Clinical Multicentral Random Controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-sheng; MA Xiao-shun; SHI Jing; WANG Yao-min; LI Yong-fang; YUAN Jun; LI Mei; ZHENG Li-xing; ZHANG Xiang-jian; WANG Shao-jin; GAO Jian-ying; LI Xiao-feng; HUO Yong-li

    2009-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at Qiuxu (GB 40) for treatment of migraine so as to provide clinical evidence for compilation of the Acupoints' Dictionary of the People's Republic of China. Methods: 275 migraine patients admitted in 3 hospitals were randomly divided into a treatment group treated by EA at Qiuxu (GB 40),and a control group treated by EA at Tianshu (ST 25). The indexes of the migraine symptoms and the 5-HT level were observed in both the groups before and after treatment. Results: There was an significant difference in VAS score between the two groups of the 3 clinical centers (P<0.01). The therapeutic effects of a 4-week treatment were much better in the treatment group than that of the control group. The 3-month follow-up survey showed that the long-term effects were in favor of the treatment group of the first and third clinical centers,though no significant difference was found in the treatment group of the second clinical center as compared with the control group. The results from the 6-month follow-up survey showed better effects in the treatment group of all the 3 clinical centers.Conclusion: EA at Qiuxu (GB 40) may show effect for migraine.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, K J; Limbach, M P; Conte, D; Paoletti, E

    1994-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) gB, gC and gD homologues was determined. These genes are predicted to encode polypeptides of 879, 459 and 345 amino acids, respectively. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of CHV gB, gC and gD with the homologous sequences from other herpesviruses indicates that CHV is an alphaherpesvirus, a conclusion that is consistent with the previous classification of this virus according to biological properties. Alignment of the homologous gB, gC and gD amino acid sequences indicates that most of the cysteine residues are conserved, suggesting that these glycoproteins possess similar tertiary structures. The nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame downstream from the CHV gC gene was also determined. The predicted amino acid sequence of this putative polypeptide appears to be homologous to a family of proteins encoded downstream from the gC gene in most, although not all, alphaherpesviruses. PMID:7545942

  3. GB-InSAR monitoring and observational method for landslide emergency management: the Montaguto earthflow (AV, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, F.; Gigli, G.; Fanti, R.; Casagli, N.

    2015-12-01

    On 10 March 2010, due to the heavy rainfall that occurred on the previous days, the Montaguto earthflow reactivated, involving the road SS 90 "Delle Puglie", as had happened previously in May 2005 and in September 2009, and reaching the Roma-Bari railway. This determined a special attention of the National Civil Protection Department and a widespread monitoring and analysis program was initiated. A monitoring activity using GB-InSAR (Ground Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) system began, in order to investigate the landslide kinematics, to plan urgent safety measures for risk mitigation and to design long term stabilization work. In this paper the GB-InSAR monitoring system results and its applications in the Observational Method (OM) approach are presented. The paper also highlights how the OM based on the GB-InSAR technique can produce savings in cost and time on engineering projects, without compromising safety, and how it can also benefit the geotechnical community by increasing scientific knowledge. This study focuses on the very much active role played by the monitoring activities, in both the design and plan modifications; with a special consideration for the emergency phase.

  4. Systematic identification of rhythmic genes reveals camk1gb as a new element in the circadian clockwork.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Tovin

    Full Text Available A wide variety of biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes are known to have daily rhythms driven by an endogenous circadian clock. While extensive research has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that constitute the circadian clock, the links between this clock and dependent processes have remained elusive. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and DNA microarrays to systematically identify clock-controlled genes in the zebrafish pineal gland. In addition to a comprehensive view of the expression pattern of known clock components within this master clock tissue, this approach has revealed novel potential elements of the circadian timing system. We have implicated one rhythmically expressed gene, camk1gb, in connecting the clock with downstream physiology of the pineal gland. Remarkably, knockdown of camk1gb disrupts locomotor activity in the whole larva, even though it is predominantly expressed within the pineal gland. Therefore, it appears that camk1gb plays a role in linking the pineal master clock with the periphery.

  5. A Multivalent Marine Lectin from Crenomytilus grayanus Possesses Anti-cancer Activity through Recognizing Globotriose Gb3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Chien, Chih-Ta Henry; Wu, Han-Ying; Huang, Kai-Fa; Wang, Iren; Ho, Meng-Ru; Tu, I-Fan; Lee, I-Ming; Li, Wei; Shih, Yu-Ling; Wu, Chung-Yi; Lukyanov, Pavel A; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we report the structure and function of a lectin from the sea mollusk Crenomytilus grayanus collected from the sublittoral zone of Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan. The crystal structure of C. grayanus lectin (CGL) was solved to a resolution of 1.08 Å, revealing a β-trefoil fold that dimerizes into a dumbbell-shaped quaternary structure. Analysis of the crystal CGL structures bound to galactose, galactosamine, and globotriose Gb3 indicated that each CGL can bind three ligands through a carbohydrate-binding motif involving an extensive histidine- and water-mediated hydrogen bond network. CGL binding to Gb3 is further enhanced by additional side-chain-mediated hydrogen bonds in each of the three ligand-binding sites. NMR titrations revealed that the three binding sites have distinct microscopic affinities toward galactose and galactosamine. Cell viability assays showed that CGL recognizes Gb3 on the surface of breast cancer cells, leading to cell death. Our findings suggest the use of this lectin in cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27010847

  6. Hybrid Multi-Agent System for Metalearning in Data Mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešková, K.; Šmíd, J.; Pilát, M.; Kazík, O.; Neruda, Roman

    Aachen University: CEUR, 2014. s. 53-54. ISSN 1613-0073. [MetaSel 2014. Meta-learning and Algorithm Selection. 19.08.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 610214 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data mining * multi-agent systems * artificial intelligence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1201/paper-13.pdf

  7. Mirror Neurons, Embodied Cognitive Agents and Imitation Learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2003), s. 545-559. ISSN 1335-9150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : complete agents * mirror neurons * embodied cognition * imitation learning * sensorimotor control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2003 http://www.cai.sk/ojs/index.php/cai/article/view/468

  8. Decision Support Architecture for Intelligent Data Mining Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2009, s. 194-199. ISBN 978-981-08-3029-8. [ICITA 2009. International Conference on Information Technology and Applications /6./. Hanoi (VN), 09.11.2009-12.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/1744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data mining * intelligent agents * cooperation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  9. Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Jung Hyun Park, Vasuki Eppakayala, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea Background: Graphene is a novel two-dimensional planar nanocomposite material consisting of rings of carbon atoms with a hexagonal lattice structure. Graphene exhibits unique physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, elasticity, and cytocompatible properties that lead to many potential biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the water-insoluble property of graphene restricts its application in various aspects of biomedical fields. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find a novel biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition, we investigated the biocompatibility effects of graphene in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Materials and methods: Synthesized graphene oxide (GO and GbE-reduced GO (Gb-rGO were characterized using various sequences of techniques: ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Raman spectroscopy. Biocompatibility of GO and Gb-rGO was assessed in human breast cancer cells using a series of assays, including cell viability, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Results: The successful synthesis of graphene was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. DLS analysis was performed to determine the average size of GO and Gb-rGO. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the crystalline nature of graphene. SEM was used to investigate the surface morphologies of GO and Gb-rGO. AFM was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene and the height profile of GO and Gb-rGO. The formation of defects in Gb-rGO was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility

  10. Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane down-converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J M M; Rajbhandari, S; Tsonev, D; Chun, H; Guilhabert, B; Krysa, A B; Kelly, A E; Haas, H; O'Brien, D C; Laurand, N; Dawson, M D

    2016-05-01

    We report free space visible light communication using InGaN sources, namely micro-LEDs and a laser diode, down-converted by a red-emitting AlInGaP multi-quantum-well nanomembrane. In the case of micro-LEDs, the AlInGaP nanomembrane is capillary-bonded between the sapphire window of a micro-LED array and a hemispherical sapphire lens to provide an integrated optical source. The sapphire lens improves the extraction efficiency of the color-converted light. For the case of the down-converted laser diode, one side of the nanomembrane is bonded to a sapphire lens and the other side optionally onto a dielectric mirror; this nanomembrane-lens structure is remotely excited by the laser diode. Data transmission up to 870 Mb/s using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) with fractionally spaced decision feedback equalizer is demonstrated for the micro-LED-integrated nanomembrane. A data rate of 1.2 Gb/s is achieved using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM) with the laser diode pumped sample. PMID:27137612

  11. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  12. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive gene expression and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in transgenic tobacco

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jie Qin; Kaijing Zuo; Jingya Zhao; Hua Ling; Youfang Cao; Chengxiang Qiu; Fupeng Li; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2006-06-01

    GbERF belongs to the ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family of transcription factors and regulates the GCC-box containing pathogen-related (PR) genes in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To study the function of GbERF in the process of biotic stress, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GbERF were generated. Overexpression of GbERF did not change transgenic plant’s phenotype and endogenous ethylene level. However, the expression profile of some ethylene-inducible GCC-box and non-GCC-box containing genes was altered, such as PR1b, PR2, PR3, PR4, Osmotin, CHN50, ACC oxidase and ACC synthase genes. These data indicate that the cotton GbERF could act as a transcriptional activator or repressor to regulate the differential expression of ethylene-inducible genes via GCC and non-GCC cis-elements. Moreover, the constitutive expression of GbERF in transgenic tobacco enhanced the plant’s resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci infection. In conclusion, GbERF mediates the expression of a wide array of PR and ethylene-responsive genes and plays an important role in the plant’s response to biotic stress.

  13. SNOM studies of GaInN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN QW structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodius, Peter; Hitzel, Frank; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Netzel, Carsten; Joenen, Holger; Hoffmann, Lars; Bremers, Heiko; Rossow, Uwe; Hangleiter, Andreas [Technical University Braunschweig (Germany). Institute of Applied Physics

    2008-07-01

    Blue or green light emitting GaInN/GaN-based quantum well (QW) structures achieve quite high internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) at room temperature. In contrast In-free QW-structures based on GaN/AlGaN emitting in the UV-range suffer from low IQE values. This is caused by the high density of defects in this material and nonradiative recombination occuring at these defects. We present studies of photoluminescence with a high spatial resolution, performed on GaInN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN QW structures. The measurements were performed using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The measurements on the GaInN/GaN QWs show that nearly every line defect in these structures is decorated by a so-called V-pit (an inverted hexagonal pyramid with (10 anti 11) planes as sidewalls). On the sidewalls of these pits the growth rate of the QW is reduced, which leads to thinner QWs on the facets than on the c-plane. These thinner QWs form a barrier which prevents carriers from nonradiative recombination at the line defects. We investigate short wavelength GaInN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN structures with the aim of clarifying whether such pits play a role in such structures as well.

  14. Data Mining Process Optimization in Computational Multi-agent Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazík, O.; Neruda, Roman

    Cham: Springer, 2015 - (Cao, L.; Zeng, Y.; An, B.; Symeonidis, A.; Gorodetsky, V.; Coenen, F.; Yu, P.), s. 93-103. (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. 9145). ISBN 978-3-319-20229-7. ISSN 0302-9743. [ADMI 2014. International Workshop on Agents and Data Mining Interaction /10./. Paris (FR), 05.05.2014-09.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 629612; SVV(CZ) 265314 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : multi-agent systems * role-based models * data mining * computational intelligence * preprocessing * meta-learning Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  15. AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs composite MQW structures for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiravittaya, S.; Manmontri, U.; Sopitpan, S.; Ratanathammaphan, S.; Antarasen, C.; Sawadsaringkarn, M.; Panyakeow, S. [Semiconductor Device Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 10330 Bangkok (Thailand)

    2001-04-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs composite MQW structures were theoretically studied and simulated. The computer simulation indicated that an appropriate composite MQW, both with symmetrical and non-symmetrical structures, could keep |{psi}|{sup 2} of quantized carriers at proper locations in electric-field-tilted quantum wells, so the efficient transition by photon absorption would be possible and applicable for photovoltaic cells which have the composite MQW as the active region. The AlGaAs/GaAs MQW and GaAs/InGaAs (4x) SQW structures were separately prepared by MBE and were evaluated for their spectral responses. The AlGaAs/GaAs MQW has a high response at a short wavelengths (peak at 685nm) due to the quantized states in GaAs wells, while the GaAs/InGaAs SQW has a broader spectral response covering longer wavelengths (600-850nm) because of the strong absorption in the GaAs barrier and substrate. However, (4x) photoluminescence peaks at 900-1100nm that were found from GaAs/InGaAs strained quantum wells at room temperature are promising evidence for the longer wavelength spectral response. The AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs composite SQW and MQW samples were experimentally prepared by MBE techniques and tested for their optical properties. The broader photoluminescence peak was observed and reflected the nature of the composite structure. The study on the photospectral response of composite MQW structures has been conducted which provides the basic information for high performance solar cell design.

  16. Circuit demonstrations in a GaAs BiFET technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampardi, P. J.; Beccue, S. M.; Yu, J.; Pedrotti, K.; Pierson, R. L.; Ho, W. J.; Chang, M. F.; Wang, K. C.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, wer present several circuits demonstrating the versatility of our GaAs BiFET technology. Among the circuits presented here are a 360 ps access time SRAM, a 2 GHz 2-bit single-chip DRFM, a reduced power laser driver at 1.5 GHz, and an OEIC suitable for 4 Gb/s systems. This technology will have a significant impact on many areas of circuit research such as delta-sigma analog to digital convertors and mixed-mode applications.

  17. Visible light communication using a blue GaN mu LED and fluorescent polymer color converter

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Hyunchae; Manousiadis, Pavlos; Rajbhandari, Sujan; Vithanage, D.A.; Faulkner, G.; Tsonev, Dobroslav; Mckendry, Jonathan J.D.; Videv, Stefan; Xie, Enyuan; Gu, Erdan; Martin D. Dawson; Haas, Harald; Turnbull, Graham; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; O'Brien, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a novel technique to achieve high-speed visible light communication (VLC) using white light generated by a blue GaN mu LED and a yellow fluorescent copolymer. We generated white light suitable for room illumination by optimizing the ratio between the blue electroluminescence of the mu LED and yellow photoluminescence of the copolymer color converter. Taking advantage of the components' high bandwidth, we demonstrated 1.68 Gb/s at a distance of 3 cm (at 240 lx illumination...

  18. Comparative investigation of InGaP/GaAs/GaAsBi and InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi-Chen [National University of Kaohsiung, Department of Electrical Engineering (China); Tsai, Jung-Hui, E-mail: jhtsai@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [National Kaohsiung Normal University, Department of Electronic Engineering (China); Chiang, Te-Kuang; Wang, Fu-Min [National University of Kaohsiung, Department of Electrical Engineering (China)

    2015-10-15

    In this article the characteristics of In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P/GaAs/GaAs{sub 0.975}Bi{sub 0.025} and In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBTs) are demonstrated and compared by two-dimensional simulated analysis. As compared to the traditional InGaP/GaAs HBT, the studied InGaP/GaAs/GaAsBi HBT exhibits a higher collector current, a lower base-emitter (B–E) turn-on voltage, and a relatively lower collector-emitter offset voltage of only 7 mV. Because the more electrons stored in the base is further increased in the InGaP/GaAs/GaAsBi HBT, it introduces the collector current to increase and the B–E turn-on voltage to decrease for low input power applications. However, the current gain is slightly smaller than the traditional InGaP/GaAs HBT attributed to the increase of base current for the minority carriers stored in the GaAsBi base.

  19. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production...

  20. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  1. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time-div......-division multiplexed with four 10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) channels, thus constituting a 50-Gb/s OTDM serial signal. Error-free performances of the synchronized RZ packet and demultiplexed packet from the aggregated 50-Gb/s OTDM signal are achieved....

  2. An ethylene response-related factor, GbERF1-like, from Gossypium barbadense improves resistance to Verticillium dahliae via activating lignin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weifeng; Jin, Li; Miao, Yuhuan; He, Xin; Hu, Qin; Guo, Kai; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-06-01

    An ethylene response-related factor, GbERF1-like, from Gossypium barbadense cv. '7124' involved in the defence response to Verticillium dahliae was characterized. GbERF1-like transcripts present ubiquitously in various tissues, with higher accumulation in flower organs. GbERF1-like was also responsive to defence-related phytohormones and V. dahliae infection. The downregulation of GbERF1-like increased the susceptibility of cotton plants to V. dahliae infection, while overexpression of this gene improved disease resistance in both cotton and Arabidopsis, coupled with activation of the pathogenesis-related proteins. Further analysis revealed that genes involved in lignin synthesis, such as PAL, C4H, C3H, HCT, CCoAOMT, CCR and F5H, showed higher expression levels in the overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis lines and lower expression levels in the RNAi cotton lines. The expression levels of these genes increased obviously when the GbERF1-like-overexpressing plants were inoculated with V. dahliae. Meanwhile, significant differences in the content of whole lignin could be found in the stems of transgenic and wild-type plants after inoculation with V. dahliae, as revealed by metabolic and histochemical analysis. More lignin could be detected in GbERF1-like-overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis but less in GbERF1-like-silencing cotton compared with wild-type plants. The ratio of S and G monomers in GbERF1-like-overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis increased significantly after infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, our results showed that the promoters of GhHCT1 and AtPAL3 could be transactivated by GbERF1-like in vivo based on yeast one-hybrid assays and dual-luciferase reporter assays. Knockdown of GhHCT1 in GbERF1-like over-expressing cotton decreases resistance to V. dahliae. Collectively, our results suggest that GbERF1-like acts as a positive regulator in lignin synthesis and contributes substantially to resistance to V. dahliae in plants. PMID:26971283

  3. Preparation and evaluation of a radiogallium complex-conjugated bisphosphonate as a bone scintigraphy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuma, E-mail: kogawa@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Takai, Kenichiro; Kanbara, Hiroya; Kiwada, Tatsuto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro [Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Odani, Akira [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: {sup 68}Ga is a radionuclide of great interest as a positron emitter for positron emission tomography (PET). To develop a new bone-imaging agent with radiogallium, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was chosen as a chelating site and Ga-DOTA complex-conjugated bisphosphonate, which has a high affinity for bone, was prepared and evaluated. Although we are interested in developing {sup 68}Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, in these initial studies {sup 67}Ga was used because of its longer half-life. Methods: DOTA-conjugated bisphosphonate (DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP) was synthesized by conjugation of 2-(4-isothiocyanatebenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid to 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (alendronate). {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared by coordination with {sup 67}Ga, and its in vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. Results: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared with a radiochemical purity of over 95% without purification. {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP had great affinity for hydroxyapatite in binding assay. In biodistribution experiments, {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP accumulated in bone rapidly but was hardly observed in tissues other than bone. Pretreatment of an excess amount of alendronate inhibited the bone accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. Conclusions: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP showed ideal biodistribution characteristics as a bone-imaging agent. These findings should provide useful information on the drug design of bone imaging agents for PET with {sup 68}Ga.

  4. Caffeine-hydrazones as anticancer agents with pronounced selectivity toward T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplánek, R.; Jakubek, M.; Rak, J.; Kejik, Z.; Havlík, M.; Dolenský, B.; Frydrych, I.; Hajduch, M.; Kolář, M.; Bogdanová, K.; Králová, Jarmila; Dzubak, P.; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, Jun (2015), s. 19-29. ISSN 0045-2068 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0060; GA MŠk CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0041; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Anticancer agents * Cancer treatment * Caffeine-hydrazones * Leukaemia * Selectivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2014

  5. Bang 3: A Computational Multi-Agent System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel; Kudová, Petra; Rydvan, Pavel; Beuster, G.

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2004 - (Zhong, N.; Bradshaw, J.; Pal, S.; Talia, D.; Liu, J.; Cerrone, N.), s. 563-564 ISBN 0-7695-2101-0. [IAT 2004. IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology. Beijing (CN), 20.09.2004-24.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : multi - agent system s * Bang 3 * computational intelligence models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. Membrane Requirement for Folding of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 gB Cytodomain Suggests a Unique Mechanism of Fusion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jessica L.; Greene, Neil G.; King, David S.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters cells by fusion of its envelope with a host cell membrane, which requires four viral glycoproteins and a cellular receptor. Viral fusion glycoprotein B (gB) mediates membrane fusion through the action of its ectodomain, while its cytoplasmic domain (cytodomain) regulates fusion from the opposite face of the membrane by an unknown mechanism. The gB cytodomain appears to restrict fusion, because point or truncation mutations within it increase the exte...

  7. Role-Based Design of Computational Intelligence Multi-Agent System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Kazík, O.

    New York: ACM, 2010 - (Chbeir, R.), s. 95-101 ISBN 978-1-4503-0047-6. [MEDES 2010 : The International ACM Conference on Management of Emergent Digital EcoSystems. Bangkok (TH), 26.10.2010-29.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/1744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computational agents * multi-agent systems * ontologies * roles Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. Effects of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of protein GB1 studied by steered molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Regulation of the mechanical properties of proteins plays an important role in many biological processes, and sheds light on the design of biomaterials comprised of protein. At present, strategies to regulate protein mechanical stability focus mainly on direct modulation of the force-bearing region of the protein. Interestingly, the mechanical stability of GB1 can be significantly enhanced by the binding of Fc fragments of human IgG antibody, where the binding site is distant from the force-bearing region of the protein. The mechanism of this long-range allosteric control of protein mechanics is still elusive. In this work, the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of GB1 was investigated using steered molecular dynamics simulation, and a mechanism underlying the enhanced protein mechanical stability is proposed. We found that the external force causes deformation of both force-bearing region and ligand binding site. In other words, there is a long-range coupling between these two regions. The binding of ligand restricts the distortion of the binding site and reduces the deformation of the force-bearing region through a long-range allosteric communication, which thus improves the overall mechanical stability of the protein. The simulation results are very consistent with previous experimental observations. Our studies thus provide atomic-level insights into the mechanical unfolding process of GB1, and explain the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical properties of the protein through long-range allosteric regulation, which should facilitate effective modulation of protein mechanical properties. PMID:27444879

  9. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  10. Miniaturized volume holographic optical data storage and correlation system with a storage density of 10 Gb/cm3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Liangcai; HE Qingsheng; WEI Haoyun; LIU Guodong; OUYANG Chuan; ZHAO Jian; WU Minxian; JIN Guofan

    2004-01-01

    The general idea of holographic optical data storage (HODS) is briefly introduced. Based on the recent advances of HODS, the key techniques and the challenges of HODS are discussed. Some new techniques are proposed to improve the system. A miniaturized volume holographic data storage and correlation system is presented. It can achieve a density of 10 Gb/cm3 and a fast correlation recognition rate of more than 2000 images per second. It shows the attracting potential advantages over other conventional storage methods in the information storage as well as information processing.

  11. Clock- and data-recovery IC with demultiplexer for a 2.5 Gb/s ATM physical layer controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Salama, C.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock-recovery is accom......:8 demultiplexer with bit-rotation. Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) is used in the PLL, data-regeneration and part of the demultiplexer, while the low-speed parts of the demultiplexer are implemented in dynamic CMOS using the True Single-Phased Clock (TSPC) approach...

  12. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Rosa; Katzenstein, Terese L; Gerstoft, Jan; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Presumed apathogenic viruses have been suggested to play a role in HIV infection. In some cohorts of HIVpositive patients, GB virus C (GBVC) has been associated with prolonged survival and time to AIDS. We set out to address whether GBVC infection had any influence on survival in a cohort of 112...... homosexual white HIV-1 positive Danish men. Patients were enrolled between 1984 and 1987 and followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Follow-up was censored in May 1996 when the first patient in the cohort received HAART. Plasma samples were screened at baseline using polymerase chain reaction methods for GBVC. Of...

  13. 极速风暴——金士顿Elite Pro 4GB CF卡和512MB SD卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢瑜

    2005-01-01

    金士顿4GB CompactFlash Elite Pro卡和512MB Elite Pro高速SD卡Elite Pro系列中最新也是最大容量的闪存卡。如此超大的存储容量再加上高速的读写速度,无疑为专业摄影师或是发烧级数码玩家们提供了有效的存储保障。

  14. Transmission of 107-Gb/s mode and polarization multiplexed CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Al Amin, Abdullah; Chen, Xi; Shieh, William

    2011-04-25

    In addition to the dimensions of time, frequency, complex constellation, and polarization, spatial mode can be the fifth dimension to be explored for modulation and multiplexing in optical fiber communications. In this paper, we demonstrate successful transmission of 107-Gb/s dual-mode and dual-polarization coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) over a 4.5-km two-mode fiber. A mechanically-induced LP01/LP11 mode converter is used as the mode selective element in a spatial-mode multiplexed system. PMID:21643133

  15. Interferometric wavelength converter operating at 10 Gb/s based on a monolithic-integrated photonic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, C.; Coriasso, C.; Campi, D.; Stano, A.; Cacciatore, C.; Re, D.; Fornuto, G.; Soldani, D.; De Franceschi, R.; Ghiglieno, F.; Vallone, M.; Valenti, P.; Zucchelli, L.; Lupo, S.; Gambini, P.

    2000-02-01

    In this work we present a wavelength converter based on a Michelson interferometer. It is obtained by monolithic integration of two-semiconductor optical amplifiers with a passive waveguided X-coupler, incorporating turning mirrors. It operates in the 1.55 μm spectral window and allows the wavelength conversion of data streams up to 10 Gb/s, showing open-eye diagrams and extinction-ratio regeneration capabilities. Comparison of two structures with different active layers and their influence on the polarization sensitivity is also presented.

  16. A Novel Genotype of GB Virus C: Its Identification and Predominance among Injecting Drug Users in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yue; Zhao, Wenhua; Feng, Yuemei; Dai, Jiejie; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Li; BAI, JIE; Zhang, Huatang; Lu, Ling; Xia, Xueshan

    2011-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is prevalent globally and particularly among individuals at risk of parental exposures. Based on genetic diversity, this virus is now classified into six genotypes and many subtypes with distinct geographical distribution. In this study, 120 Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) were recruited from Yunnan province, China. Among them, 43 (35.8%) were positive for GBV-C RNA, 70 (58.3%) and 103 (85.8%) sero-positive for HIV-1 and HCV respectively. This revealed 18.3% of IDUs having GBV-...

  17. Free-Running 1550 nm VCSEL for 10.7 Gb/s Transmission in 99.7 km PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Ma, Ming; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Neumeyr, C.; Rönneberg, E.; Ortsiefer, M.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    We present a cooler-less, free-running 1550 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) directly modulated at 10.7 Gb/s. We also report on error-free transmission through 40 km of standard single-mode optical fiber, achieved without the use of dispersion-mitigation or mid-span amplification....... Inverse-dispersion fiber was utilized to realize a dispersion-matched 99.7 km optical access uplink supporting error-free transmission with 27 dB loss margin. These results indicate the feasibility of implementing cooler-less long-wavelength VCSEL devices in long-reach optical access networks....

  18. An upstream reach-extender for 10Gb/s PON applications based on an optimized semiconductor amplifier cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Stefano; Antony, Cleitus; Ossieur, Peter; Townsend, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    We present a reach-extender for the upstream transmission path of 10Gb/s passive optical networks based on an optimised cascade of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Through careful optimisation of the bias current of the second stage SOA, over 19dB input dynamic range and up to 12dB compression of the output dynamic range were achieved without any dynamic control. A reach of 70km and split up to 32 were demonstrated experimentally using an ac-coupled, continuous-mode receiver with a reduced 56ns ac-coupling constant. PMID:22274342

  19. N-Terminal Region of GbIspH1, Ginkgo biloba IspH Type 1, May Be Involved in the pH-Dependent Regulation of Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bok-Kyu Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GbIspH1, IspH type 1 in Ginkgo biloba chloroplast, is the Fe/S enzyme catalyzing the reductive dehydroxylation of HMBPP to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP at the final step of methylerythritol phosphate pathway in chloroplast. Compared to the bacterial IspH, plant IspH, including GbIspH1, has an additional polypeptide chain at the N-terminus. Here, biochemical function of the N-terminal region of GbIspH1 was investigated with the N-terminal truncated GbIspH1 (GbIspH1-truncated. Both wild type GbIspH1 (GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated were catalytically active and produced IPP and DMAPP in a ratio of 15 : 1. Kinetic parameters of KM (17.3 ± 1.9 and 14.9 ± 2.3 µM and kcat (369 ± 10 and 347 ± 12 min−1 at pH 8.0 were obtained for GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated, respectively. Interestingly, GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated showed significantly different pH-dependent activities, and the maximum enzyme activities were obtained at pH 8.0 and 7.5, respectively. However, catalytic activation energies (Ea of GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated were almost the same with 36.5 ± 1.6 and 35.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol, respectively. It was suggested that the N-terminal region of GbIspH1 is involved in the pH-dependent regulation of enzyme activity during photosynthesis.

  20. Analysis of the Key Points in Design of Medical Electrical Equipment Based on GB9706.1%基于GB9706.1的医用电气设备的设计要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆雨

    2015-01-01

    In combination with the standard GB 9706.1-2007 Medical Electrical Equipment Part 1:General Safety Requirements, this paper summarized and analyzed the principle and key points in design of medical electrical equipment from the perspective of safety, including design of power supply, application, over-current protection devices, equipment structure and layouts, interfaces as well as the requirements of hazard prevention and bio-safety.%本文主要从安全角度出发,结合标准GB9706.1-2007《医用电气设备第1部分:安全通用要求》,总结并分析了医用电气设备应遵循的设计原则及产品设计阶段需要重点考虑的内容,包括电源部分设计、应用部分设计、过电流保护装置设计、设备结构和布局设计、接口设计、对危险的防护及生物安全性要求。

  1. GB/T36000-2015《社会责任指南》国家标准解读%Interpretation of GB/T36000-2015,Guidance on Social Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于帆; 陈元桥

    2015-01-01

    GB/T36000-2015, Guidance on social responsibility plays a pivotal role in the standardization and implementation of social responsibility activities in China. This paper introduces the development process of this national standard, interprets some of its main contents and key points and puts forward some useful suggestions, to help standard users obtain a correct understanding of the standard.%GB/T36000-2015《社会责任指南》国家标准在规范和实施我国社会责任活动方面具有重要作用。本文介绍了该国家标准的编制过程,对标准中的主要内容和关键点进行了解读并提出了建议,希望能够帮助标准使用者正确理解和认识该国家标准。

  2. GB/T36002-2015《社会责任绩效分类指引》国家标准解读%Interpretation of GB/T36002-2015,Guidance on Classifying Social Responsibility Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元桥

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility performance lays an important technical groundwork for an organization to understand, monitor and evaluate its progress and results in carrying out social responsibility activities. This paper introduces the development process of GB/T36002-2015, Guidance on classifying social responsibility performance, interprets its main contents and key points, and puts forward some suggestions, providing some guidance and reference during its implementation.%社会责任绩效是组织了解、监测和评价其社会责任活动进展及成果的重要技术基础。本文介绍了GB/T 36002-2015《社会责任绩效分类指引》国家标准的编制过程,对标准中的主要内容和关键点进行了解读并提出了建议,为标准具体实施提供了指导和参考。

  3. GB/T36001-2015《社会责任报告编写指南》国家标准解读%Interpretation of GB/T36001-2015,Guidance on Social Responsibility Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于帆

    2015-01-01

    To meet the needs of an organization for developing and publishing social responsibility report, improve its development quality and efficiency and gain a unified understanding, the paper presents some of the main contents of GB/T 36001-2015, Guidance on social responsibility reporting, aiming to provide guiding opinions and suggestions for organizations to develop a social responsibility report.%为了满足组织编写和发布社会责任报告的需求,提高组织社会责任报告的编写质量和效率,增进组织对社会责任报告的统一认识和理解,本文通过介绍GB/T 36001-2015《社会责任报告编写指南》国家标准的主要内容,旨在为组织开展社会责任报告编制工作提供基本的指导性意见和建议。

  4. 基于GB9706.1的医用电气设备的设计要点分析%Analysis of the Key Points in Design of Medical Electrical Equipment Based on GB9706.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆雨

    2015-01-01

    In combination with the standard GB 9706.1-2007 Medical Electrical Equipment Part 1:General Safety Requirements, this paper summarized and analyzed the principle and key points in design of medical electrical equipment from the perspective of safety, including design of power supply, application, over-current protection devices, equipment structure and layouts, interfaces as well as the requirements of hazard prevention and bio-safety.%本文主要从安全角度出发,结合标准GB9706.1-2007《医用电气设备第1部分:安全通用要求》,总结并分析了医用电气设备应遵循的设计原则及产品设计阶段需要重点考虑的内容,包括电源部分设计、应用部分设计、过电流保护装置设计、设备结构和布局设计、接口设计、对危险的防护及生物安全性要求。

  5. The Requirements of Tests in 19.11.4 of GB 4706.1 and Relevant Strategies%GB 4706.1中19.11.4测试的要求及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯懿栒; 刘宇峰; 谭艳

    2013-01-01

    新版标准GB 4706.1《家用和类似用途电器的安全第1部分:通用要求》中,19.11.4对带有电子断开开关、待机等的家用电器产品有新的要求,引用了EMS的标准,测试项目较多,且不合格原因复杂,因此本文详细介绍了此类电器产品的试验及不合格对策,以供试验人员参考。%In the new version of GB 4706.1 Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety-Part 1: General requirements, new requirements are specified for appliances having a device with an off position obtained by electronic disconnection, or a device that can be placed in the stand-by mode in clause 19.11.4. It refer to EMS standards and have many testing items, the reason of nonconformity is complicated. Therefore, this paper introduces the test way of the above appliances, and the strategies for the nonconformity in detail for testers' reference.

  6. The Amendments of GB/T 1576-2008"Industrial Boiler Water Quality"%对GB/T 1576-2008《工业锅炉水质》的修改意见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居光

    2015-01-01

    针对GB/T 1576-2008《工业锅炉水质》实施五年多来存在的问题,提出修改意见。修改重点包括:检测项目根据重要性程度分类分级设置、提倡热力除氧、增加不锈钢灭菌器等特殊锅炉的水质指标。建议对热水锅炉指标、磷酸根、溶解固形物指标进行专项课题研究,从水处理方面进一步提升锅炉的节能减排。%Standard GB/T 1576-2008"industrial boiler water"is implemented for more than ifve years. This paper introduces its drawbacks and appropriate advices, which include classiifcation and grading settings of items according to the different importance, thermal deaeration of dissolved oxygen, adding water quality index of stainless steel boiler. It is suggested to studying on the hot water boiler index, phosphoric acid root and dissolved solids index for boiler energy conservation and emissions reduction with advanced water treatment.

  7. Performance optimization of ultra-short optical pulse generation based on Mamyshev reshaping and its application in 100-Gb/s and 200-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huo, Li; Wang, Qiang; Lou, Caiyun

    2016-04-01

    A robust, cost-effective external-modulated ultra-short pulse generator based on chirp compression and Mamyshev reshaper is simulated numerically and demonstrated experimentally. We investigated the quality of the pulse with numerical calculation, demonstrating that the pulsewidth and pulse pedestal can be significantly improved after optimization. The role of out-of-band suppression ratio of the optical filter in reducing the pulse pedestal is explained. Using the numerical analysis as a guideline, 25-GHz 1.9-ps pedestal-free nearly transform-limited optical pulse with an extinction ratio of 29 dB and a root-mean square timing jitter of 120 fs (100 Hz to 10 MHz) is experimentally generated. The pulse source is then successfully applied in 100-Gb/s and 200-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) system with 100-km transmission, which is a strong proof that such pulse generator is a simple, practical, low-cost, power efficient solution for OTDM applications.

  8. GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors detail the fabrication process of GaAs/GaAlAs ridge waveguide lasers and present their performance characteristics. Threshold currents as low as 8 mA and differential quantum efficiencies as high as 90 percent have been obtained for 250 μm long GRIN-SCH SQW lasers. High-speed short-cavity ridge waveguide lasers for which both the ridge stripe and one mirror facet were formed by Ar-ion beam etching have been achieved. The dependance of threshold current and lasing spectra on the cavity length have been theoretically and experimentally investigated. This process has been successfully used to monolithically integrate a laser diode (LD) with a photodiode (PD) or a field-effect transistor (FET)

  9. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  10. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh akbarzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure at GB21 point. The infants’ physical indicators were compared to the control group one and three months after birth. The study data were analyzed using repeated measurement test, paired sample T-Test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s test. finding: The results showed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding the infants’ weight and height one and three months after birth (p0.05. Also, no significant difference was observed among the three groups concerning the infants’ head and arm circumference (P>0.05. Conclusion: BASNEF model improved the infants’ height and weight. Application of acupressure also improved the infants’ height, weight, and head and arm circumference compared to the control group. Hence, learning and application of techniques and models by the medical team are highly essential.

  11. The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh akbarzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available objective: Educational models are used to study the behavior and plan for changing and determining the factors that affect the individuals’ decision making for conducting a behavior. This study aimed to compare the effects of the educational program based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators.Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (50 per group pregnant women in 2011-2012. The interventions included educational program based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure at GB21 point. The infants’ physical indicators were compared to the control group one and three months after birth. The study data were analyzed using repeated measurement test, paired sample T-Test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s test.finding: The results showed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding the infants’ weight and height one and three months after birth (p0.05. Also, no significant difference was observed among the three groups concerning the infants’ head and arm circumference (P>0.05.Conclusion: BASNEF model improved the infants’ height and weight. Application of acupressure also improved the infants’ height, weight, and head and arm circumference compared to the control group. Hence, learning and application of techniques and models by the medical team are highly essential.

  12. Radiation Mechanisms and Physical Properties of GeV γ-Ray Source GB 1310+487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhou, Bing

    2016-04-01

    With the adoption of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) + external Compton (EC) model, investigation has been conducted on the radiation mechanisms of the GeV-bright active galaxy GB 1310+487 through modeling its quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions in active and quiescent states. We find that from the flare states to the post-flare state, the magnetic field (B) has experienced a gradual increase, whereas the electron spectrum’s prefactor (N 0) and break energy ({γ }{br}) decrease accordingly. The model indicates that the energy of the Poynting flux may be used to accelerate electrons. As for the GeV emission in the source, it is dominated by the EC process while the SSC contribution is negligible. Varying energy distribution of the emitting electrons, rather than location of the radiation blob, appears to be the driving factor for the observed changes in EC emission. Despite the similar total jet power and the same likely energy carrier (cold protons), the radiation efficiency of GB 1310+487 is lower than what is found in bright Fermi blazars.

  13. The characterization of the distant blazar GB6 J1239+0443 from flaring and low activity periods

    CERN Document Server

    Pacciani, L; Denney, K D; Assef, R J; Ikejiri, Y; Yamanaka, M; Uemura, M; Domingo, A; Giommi, P; Tarchi, A; Verrecchia, F; Longo, F; Rainó, S; Giusti, M; Vercellone, S; Chen, A W; Striani, E; Vittorini, V; Tavani, M; Bulgarelli, A; Giuliani, A; Pucella, G; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Colafrancesco, S; Costa, E; De Paris, G; Del Monte, E; Di Cocco, G; Evangelista, Y; Ferrari, A; Feroci, M; Fiorini, M; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vallazza, E; Zanello, D; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Lucarelli, F; Salotti, L; Valentini, G

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 AGILE and Fermi detected gamma-ray flaring activity from the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1236+0457, recently associated with a flat spectrum radio quasar GB6 J1239+0443 at z=1.762. The optical counterpart of the gamma-ray source underwent a flux enhancement of a factor 15-30 in 6 years, and of ~10 in six months. We interpret this flare-up in terms of a transition from an accretion-disk dominated emission to a synchrotron-jet dominated one. We analysed a Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival optical spectrum taken during a period of low radio and optical activity of the source. We estimated the mass of the central black hole using the width of the CIV emission line. In our work, we have also investigated SDSS archival optical photometric data and UV GALEX observations to estimate the thermal-disk emission contribution of GB6 J1239+0443. Our analysis of the gamma-ray data taken during the flaring episodes indicates a flat gamma-ray spectrum, with an extension of up to 15 GeV, with no statistically...

  14. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  15. Fiber Nonlinearity Post-Compensation by Optical Phase Conjugation for 40Gb/s CO-OFDM Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiber nonlinearity impairments in a 40-Gb/s coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COOFDM) system are post-compensated for by a new method of fiber nonlinearity post-compensation (FNPC). The FNPC located before the CO-OFDM receiver includes an optical phase conjugation (OPC) unit and a subsequent 80-km-high nonlinear fiber (HNLF) as a fiber nonlinearity compensator. The OPC unit is based on a four wave mixing effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier. The fiber nonlinearity impairments in the transmission link are post-compensated for after OPC by transmission through the HNLF with a large nonlinearity coefficient. Simulation results show that the nonlinear threshold (NLT) (for Q > 10 dB) can be increased by about 2.5 dB and the maximum Q factor is increased by about 1.2 dB for the single-channel 40-Gb/s CO-OFDM system with periodic dispersion maps. In the 50-GHz channel spacing wavelength-division-multiplexing system, the NLT increases by 1.1 dB, equating to a 0.7 dB improvement for the maximum Q factor. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  16. Agents in domestic environments

    OpenAIRE

    van Moergestel, Leo; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; meyer, john-jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to tie the agents directly to the actuators, sensors and devices involved. This way a level of abstraction is created and all intelligence of the system as a whole is related to the agents involved. A pr...

  17. Dynamical agents' strategies and the fractal market hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2005), s. 172-179. ISSN 1210-0455 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 454/2004/A EK/FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : efficient market hypothesis * fractal market hypothesis * agent's investment horizons Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  18. The Creativity Mechanisms in Embodied Agents: An Explanatory Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    Piscataway: IEEE, 2013, s. 41-47. ISBN 978-1-4673-5923-8. [IEEE SSCI 2013. 2013 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence. Singapore (SG), 16.04.2013-19.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : creativity * embodied agents * model * analogy Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-259. ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface-chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.744, year: 2014

  20. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko;

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  1. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  2. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  3. Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design and demonstration of polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junction diodes with high current density and low tunneling turn-on voltage. Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin calculations were used to model and design tunnel junctions with narrow band gap InGaN-based barrier layers. N-polar p-GaN/In0.33Ga0.67N/n-GaN heterostructure tunnel diodes were grown using molecular beam epitaxy. Efficient interband tunneling was achieved close to zero bias with a high current density of 118 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of 1 V, reaching a maximum current density up to 9.2 kA/cm2. These results represent the highest current density reported in III-nitride tunnel junctions and demonstrate the potential of III-nitride tunnel devices for a broad range of optoelectronic and electronic applications.

  4. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  5. (68) Ga-labeled Ciprofloxacin Conjugates as Radiotracers for Targeting Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Drishty; Arjun, Chanda; Krishnamohan, Repaka; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    With an aim of developing a bacteria-specific molecular imaging agent, ciprofloxacin has been modified with a propylamine spacer and linked to two common bifunctional chelators, p-SCN-Bz-DOTA and p-SCN-Bz-NOTA. The two ciprofloxacin conjugates, CP-PA-SCN-Bz-DOTA (1) and CP-PA-SCN-Bz-NOTA (2), were radiolabeled with (68) Ga in >90% radiochemical yield and were moderately stable in vitro for 4 h. The efficacy of (68) Ga-1 and (68) Ga-2 has been investigated in vitro in Staphylococcus aureus cells where bacterial binding of the radiotracers (0.9-1.0% for (68) Ga-1 and 1.6-2.3% for (68) Ga-2) could not be blocked in the presence of excess amount of unlabeled ciprofloxacin. However, uptake of radiotracers in live bacterial cells was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that in non-viable bacterial cells. Bacterial infection targeting efficacy of (68) Ga-1 and (68) Ga-2 was tested in vivo in rats where the infected muscle-to-inflamed muscle ((68) Ga-1: 2 ± 0.2, (68) Ga-2: 3 ± 0.5) and infected muscle-to-normal muscle ratios ((68) Ga-1: 3 ± 0.4, (68) Ga-2: 6.6 ± 0.8) were found to improve at 120 min p.i. Fast blood clearance and renal excretion was observed for both the radiotracers. The two (68) Ga-labeled infection targeting radiotracers could discriminate between bacterial infection and inflammation in vivo and are worthy of further detailed investigation as infection imaging agents at the clinical level. PMID:26647765

  6. The potential of transferrin-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol liposomes encapsulating decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) as 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate GB-10-encapsulating transferrin (TF)-pendant-type polyethyleneglycol (PEG) liposomes as tumor-targeting 1B-carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Methods and Materials: A free mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-1B (BSH) or decahydrodecaborate-1B (GB-10) solution, bare liposomes, PEG liposomes, or TF-PEG liposomes were injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice, and 1B concentrations in the tumors and normal tissues were measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Meanwhile, tumor-bearing mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all intratumor proliferating cells, then injected with these 1B-carriers containing BSH or GB-10 in the same manner. Right after thermal neutron irradiation, the response of quiescent (Q) cells was assessed in terms of the micronucleus frequency using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The frequency in the total tumor cells was determined from the BrdU nontreated tumors. Results: Transferrin-PEG liposomes showed a prolonged retention in blood circulation, low uptake by reticuloendothelial system, and the most enhanced accumulation of 1B in solid tumors. In general, the enhancing effects were significantly greater in total cells than Q cells. In both cells, the enhancing effects of GB-10-containing 1B-carriers were significantly greater than BSH-containing 1B-carriers, whether loaded in free solution or liposomes. In both cells, whether BSH or GB-10 was employed, the greatest enhancing effect was observed with TF-PEG liposomes followed in decreasing order by PEG liposomes, bare liposomes, and free BSH or GB-10 solution. In Q cells, the decrease was remarkable between PEG and bare liposomes. Conclusions: In terms of biodistribution characteristics and tumor cell-killing effect as a whole, including Q cells, GB-10 TF-PEG liposomes were regarded as promising 1B-carriers

  7. Hybrid Search Methods for Automatic Discovery of Computational Agent Schemes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Vol. 3. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2008 - (Li, Y.; Pasi, G.; Zhang, C.; Cercone, N.; Cao, L.), s. 579-582 ISBN 978-0-7695-3496-1. [WI-IAT 2008 Workshops. IEEE/WIC/ACM 2008 International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology. Sydney (AU), 09.12.2008-12.12.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi-agent systems * intelligent agents * automatic configurations Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. 银杏 GbSAD 基因对非生物胁迫的响应及原核表达1)%Expression Analysis of GbSAD from Ginkgo biloba in Response to Abiotic Stress and Its Prokaryotic Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新亮; 蔡金峰; 王欢利; 曹福亮

    2015-01-01

    以悬浮培养的银杏愈伤组织为材料,采用荧光定量RT-PCR研究了GbSAD基因在高盐和不同外源激素处理条件下的表达模式。结果表明:外施100μmol· L-1水杨酸(SA)后,GbSAD表达量发生显著变化;外施100μmol· L-1脱落酸(ABA)、40μmol· L-1乙烯利(ETH)、100μmol· L-1茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA),GbSAD表达量未呈现显著变化;外施200 mmol· L-1氯化钠( NaCl),GbSAD表达量小幅度降低。 GbSAD组织表达分析表明基因在根、茎、叶、雄花和雌花中均有表达,在叶中表达量最高。 SAD氨基酸序列同源比对发现,GbSAD与其他被子植物的序列相似度较高,表明GbSAD在进化上较保守。将银杏GbSAD克隆到原核表达载体pET-32a(+)中,转化大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli) BL21(DE3)并诱导表达。结果表明,GbSAD蛋白在1 mmol· L-1IPTG的诱导下,培养2 h即能实现融合蛋白的高效表达,为进一步纯化目的蛋白及研究其功能奠定了基础。%We studied the expression pattern of GbSAD under abiotic stress , and cultured the callus of ginkgo in the MS liquid media supplied with NaCl and different exogenous hormones .The expression of GbSAD was induced by exogenous SA ( 100μmol· L-1), but not altered when exposed to exogenous ABA (100μmol· L-1), ETH (40μmol· L-1) or MeJA (100μmol· L-1 ) .The expression of GbSAD was slightly down-regulated by NaCl treatment .GbSAD expressed in various tis-sues, and had the highest expression level in leaves .The deduced amino acid sequence of GbSAD shared a higher identity with SAD from other angiosperms , which indicated that GbSAD was remarkably conservative throughout evolution .We cloned GbSAD into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+) , and then transformed the recombined plasmid into Esche-richia coliBL21 ( DE3) to induce its expression .The fusion protein was expressed to a high level at 1 mmol· L-1 IPTG in-duction for 2 h

  9. Promoter Analysis and Transcriptional Profiling of Ginkgo biloba 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (GbHMGR gene in Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongling LIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terpene trilactones (TTLs are believed to be important for the pharmacological properties of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR is a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of TTLs. In this study, an 1.2-kb fragment of 5’ flanking region of the HMGR gene (GbHMGR, was isolated from G. biloba by genome walking. Extensive sequence analysis revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements in light-regulated transcription,  hormone signaling (gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylic acid, elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses, and plant defense signaling (W-box/WRKY that are common to the promoter region of GbHMGR. EMSA analysis suggested possible functionality of W-box in GbHMGR promoter region. The behavior of gene transcripts in ginkgo callus upon light, low temperature, MeJA and SA treatments further verified the regulatory function of GbHMGR promoter. A significant positive relationship between gene expression level and total TTL contents suggested that GbHMGR might be one of key genes involved in TTL biosynthesis in G. biloba.

  10. (68)Ga-radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging of infection and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Boddeti, Dilip K

    2013-01-01

    Infection imaging has been challenging over the past four decades, which provided an excellent playing field for researchers working in this area, and till date the quest continues to find an ideal imaging agent. Labelled leukocytes were first developed in the 1970s for imaging infection lesions such as osteomyelitis, cellulitis, diabetic foot, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, fever of unknown origin, etc. Subsequently labelled antibiotics such as (99m)Tc-labelled ciprofloxacin have emerged for directly identifying live bacterial infections. From the early 1970s through the mid-1980s,( 67)Ga-Citrate was the prime radionuclide for imaging of inflammation and infection of musculoskeletal origin. Although (68)Ga-PET was described in 1960s for tumour imaging, recent reports described (68)Ga-Citrate and (68)Ga-transferrin as possible agents for PET-imaging of infection due to successful application of (67)Ga-Citrate SPECT in the past, despite its limitations. It is important to establish a faster imaging method for (68)Ga, as its half-life is 68 min compared to 78.3 hrs for (67)Ga. Preparation of (68)Ga-Citrate and (68)Ga-transferrin is described, with very high yield and high radiochemical purity (RCP), which is ideally suited for routine clinical studies. Biodistribution of (68)Ga-Citrate-PET images were characterised with high blood pool, high liver and bone (growth plate) uptake with low soft-tissue activity. (68)Ga-Citrate or (68)Ga-transferrin was able to detect infected lesions in rats within 5-10 min post injection but a focal intense uptake at the lesion (SUV(max)) was visualized only at 30 min, which increased for up to 6 hrs post injection with concomitant decrease in the cardiac blood pool activity. The liver and bowel activity decreased after 90 min then stabilised. In the patient studies, infection lesions were detected within 30 min post injection of (68)Ga-Citrate. Cardiac blood pool and liver activities decreased during the period of study

  11. A CMOS 0.13 mu m, 5-Gb/s laser driver for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Soos, C; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2012-01-01

    The GigaBit Laser Driver (GBLD) is a radiation tolerant ASIC designed to drive both edge emitting lasers and VCSELs at data rates up to 5 Gb/s. It is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) and Versatile Link projects, which are designing a bi-directional optical data transmission system capable of operating in the radiation environment of a typical HEP experiment. The GBLD can provide laser diode modulation currents up to 24 mA and laser bias currents up to 43 mA. Pre- and de-emphasis functions are implemented to compensate for high external capacitive loads and asymmetric laser response. The chip, designed in a 0.13 $\\mu$m CMOS technology, is powered by a single 2.5 V power supply and can be programmed via an $I2C$ interface.

  12. Single and Multicasting Inverted-Wavelength Conversion at 80 Gb/s Based on a Single Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80 Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cross-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In all the cases, converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and large eye opening are obtained. For single-channel wavelength conversion, the ER of the output signal is as high as 30.10 dB. For three-channel wavelength multicasting, high quality converted signals could also be observed. The ERs with three channels are 21.54 dB, 18.58 dB and 17.72 dB, respectively. Thus, one- and three-channel wavelength conversion with high performance can be achieved by using a single quantum-well SOA. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. Compiled data set of exact NOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings and scalar couplings for the protein GB3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Vögeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We compiled an NMR data set consisting of exact nuclear Overhauser enhancement (eNOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs and scalar (J couplings for GB3, which forms one of the largest and most diverse data set for structural characterization of a protein to date. All data have small experimental errors, which are carefully estimated. We use the data in the research article Vogeli et al., 2015, Complementarity and congruence between exact NOEs and traditional NMR probes for spatial decoding of protein dynamics, J. Struct. Biol., 191, 3, 306–317, doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.07.008 [1] for cross-validation in multiple-state structural ensemble calculation. We advocate this set to be an ideal test case for molecular dynamics simulations and structure calculations.

  14. Estimating and Measuring Performance of Computational Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2005 - (Skowron, A.; Barthes, J.; Jain, L.; Morizet-Mahoudeaux, P.; Liu, J.; Zhong, N.), s. 615-618 ISBN 0-7695-2416-8. [IAT 2005. IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology. Compiegne (FR), 19.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computational intelligence * high performance computing * multiagent systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Medical Processes Agent-Based Critiquing System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošanský, Branislav

    Praha : Ústav informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i. & MATFYZPRESS, 2009 - (Kuželová, D.), 5-11 ISBN 978-80-7378-087-6. [Doktorandské dny 2009 Ústavu informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i.. Jizerka (CZ), 21.09.2009-23.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : medical processes * multi-agent systems * decosion support systems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  16. HCMV gB genotypes in cervical secretion and placenta tissues in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastearn Brazil Genótipos gB de citomegalovírus humano em secreção cervical e placenta no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV displays genetic variability in several regions, supposed to be related with strain-specific tissue tropism and immunopathogenesis. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes gB glycoprotein, HCMV strains can be assigned to one of four genotypes. Previous studies have addressed gB genotyping mostly by investigating strains derived from immunosuppressed patients, sometimes without previous knowledge about genotype distribution in a geographic area. The present study verified the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes of strains obtained from immunocompetent women at Vitória City, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern, Brazil. The HCMV genome was extracted from their cervical secretion, fetal and maternal placenta tissues (chorionic villous and decidua from abortion cases and from white blood cells (WBCs. HCMV genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of amplified product from the high variability site of the UL55 gene. All four genotypes were observed in both cervical secretion and placenta, whereas in WBCs a single gB1 genotype was detected. HCMV gB1 and gB2 genotypes were detected, respectively, in nine and in six of the 23 studied samples, while gB3 and gB4 were each found in four separate samples of the total. The differences in genotype frequency were not considered statistically significant. No mixed genotype infection was observed. The results indicated that the four gB HCMV genotypes had no particular tropism for placenta tissues and that all genotypes circulated within immunocompetent women at the time and in the region of study.O citomegalovírus humano (HCMV apresenta variabilidade em diversas regiões do genoma, supostamente relacionada ao tropismo tecidual e imunopatogênese viral. Baseando-se na variação de seqüência do gene UL55 que codifica a glicoproteína gB, o HCMV pode ser classificado em um dos quatro genótipos. Estudos prévios têm investigado a

  17. GaN High Power Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHI,G.C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-07-17

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers, GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors, GaN heterostructure and metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  18. Spatially resolved In and As distributions in InGaAs/GaP and InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaP are promising for monolithic integration of optoelectronics with Si technology. To understand and improve the optical properties of InGaAs/GaP QD systems, detailed measurements of the QD atomic structure as well as the spatial distributions of each element at high resolution are crucial. This is because the QD band structure, band alignment, and optical properties are determined by the atomic structure and elemental composition. Here, we directly measure the inhomogeneous distributions of In and As in InGaAs QDs grown on GaAs and GaP substrates at the nanoscale using energy dispersive x-ray spectral mapping in a scanning transmission electron microscope. We find that the In distribution is broader on GaP than on GaAs, and as a result, the QDs appear to be In-poor using a GaP matrix. Our findings challenge some of the assumptions made for the concentrations and distributions of In within InGaAs/GaAs or InGaAs/GaP QD systems and provide detailed structural and elemental information to modify the current band structure understanding. In particular, the findings of In deficiency and inhomogeneous distribution in InGaAs/GaP QD systems help to explain photoluminescence spectral differences between InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/GaP QD systems. (paper)

  19. Ga and Pt NMR Study of UPtGa5 and UNiGa5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Harukazu; Sakai, Hironori; Tokunaga, Yo; Tokiwa, Yoshihumi; Ikeda, Shugo; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Kambe, Shinsaku; Walstedt, Russell E.

    2003-09-01

    Ga and Pt NMR measurements have been carried out for two isomorphs compounds, UPtGa5 and UNiGa5, which exhibit different magnetic structures below TN. Knight shift K measurements in the paramagnetic region are reported here. The transferred hyperfine coupling constants at Ga and Pt sites are determined. The temperature independent part K0 of K, which probes the conduction electron polarization at the ligand site, has been successfully evaluated. A nearly identical conduction electron structure in the paramagnetic region is suggested for these two compounds. The origin of the different magnetic structures is discussed.

  20. 浅析GB 12021.2-2008《家用电冰箱耗电量限定值及能源效率等级》%Analysis of GB 12021.2-2008 The maximum allowable values of the energy consumption and energy ef ficiency grade f or household refrigerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李弢; 戴红

    2010-01-01

    GB 12021.2-2008为研究对象,分析家用电冰箱新老能效标准的差异,并对与GB/T 8059对耗电量测试的环境温度要求不同而引起的几个问题进行分析,探讨其解决方案.

  1. Suggestions for studying key points of GB/T 15834-2011 General Rules for Punctuations to editors of sci-tech books and periodicals%给科技书刊编辑关于GB/T 15834-2011《标点符号用法》学习重点的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴昌; 陈浩元

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,some suggestions for studying key points of GB/T 15834-2011 General Rules for Punctuations are presented to editors of sci-tech books and periodicals.%对科技书刊编辑提出了关于GB/T 15834-2011《标点符号用法》学习重点的若干建议.

  2. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  3. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  4. Effect of chelating agents on the distribution of monoclonal antibodies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for altering the biodistribution of radiolabel from gallium- and indium-labeled mouse monoclonal antibodies was investigated in mice using metal chelating agents. The chelating agents used were desferrioxamine (DFO), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine-di (O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDHPA), and 2,2' dipyridyl (DIPY). The mouse monoclonal antibody LICR-LON-M8 was labeled with 111In after conjugation to DTPA, and with 67Ga after conjugation to DFO. All the chelating agents except DIPY altered the biodistribution of [67Ga]citrate and [111In]citrate but did not affect the 48-hr tissue uptake of label from [111In]DTPA-M8 or [67Ga]DFO-M8, confirming the in vivo stability of the antibody conjugates. Label fixed in the tissues was inaccessible to the chelating agents, indicating that they will not be suitable for reducing the high background liver radioactivity in patients undergoing scanning with indium-labeled antibodies

  5. Towards More Human-Like Episodic Memory for More Human-Like Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brom, C.; Lukavský, Jiří

    Berlín: Springer, 2009, s. 484-485. (Intelligent Virtual Agents. 5773). ISBN 978-3-642-04379-6. [International Conference: Intelligent Virtual Agents 2009 /9./. Amsterodam (NL), 14.09.2009-16.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : episodic memory * intelligent virtual agents * memory model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  6. How Do Place and Objects Combine? "What-Where" Memory for Human-Like Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brom, C.; Korenko, T.; Lukavský, Jiří

    Berlín: Springer, 2009, s. 42-48. (Intelligent Virtual Agents. 5773). ISBN 978-3-642-04379-6. [International Conference: Intelligent Virtual Agents 2009 /9./. Amsterodam (NL), 14.09.2009-16.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : episodic memory * intelligent virtual agents * memory model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  7. Comparing the Effect of Acupressure at Two GB-21 and SP-6 Points on the Pain Severity of Active Phase of Delivery among Primiparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    M Akbarzadeh; Moradi, Z.; Zare, N.; MJ Hadiyanfard; A Jokar

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Skeletal muscle contraction, secondary to pain and fear, may cause a reaction in the pelvic floor muscle contraction and may result in atypical labor progress, fetal descent and rotation of head. The object of this study was to compare the effect of acupressure at two GB-21 and SP-6 points on the severity of labor pain. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 150 primiparous women were randomly divided into three groups of 1-Acupressure at GB-21 point, 2-Acupressure a...

  8. 0.48Tb/s (12x40Gb/s) WDM transmission and high-quality thermo-optic switching in dielectric loaded plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Papaioannou, S.; Giannoulis, Giannis;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM)-enabled transmission of 480Gb/s aggregate data traffic (12x40Gb/s) as well as high-quality 1x2 thermo-optic tuning in Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguides (DLSPPWs). The WDM transmission characteristics have been verified...... through BER measurements by exploiting the heterointegration of a 60 mu m-long straight DLSPPW on a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide platform, showing error-free performance for six out of the twelve channels. High-quality thermo-optic tuning has been achieved by utilizing Cycloaliphatic...

  9. 40 Gb/s Wavelength Conversion in a Cascade of an SOA and a NOLM and Demonstration of Extinction Ratio Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that ER can be improved when a NOLM is used as a wavelength conversion media. At 40 Gb/s, and ER of 7 dB for a converted signal generated by XGM in an SOA is improved to an ER of 10 dB after wavelength conversion in a NOLM.......We demonstrate that ER can be improved when a NOLM is used as a wavelength conversion media. At 40 Gb/s, and ER of 7 dB for a converted signal generated by XGM in an SOA is improved to an ER of 10 dB after wavelength conversion in a NOLM....

  10. 38.2-Gb/s Optical-Wireless Transmission in 75-110 GHz Based on Electrical OFDM with Optical Comb Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta; Zhang, Xu; Arlunno, Valeria; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Llorente, Roberto; Liu, Deming; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz.......We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz....

  11. Experimental 2.5-Gb/s QPSK WDM phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;

    2010-01-01

    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) link, employing digital coherent detection, is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3$,times,$ 2.5 Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying modulated wavelength-division-multiplexed RoF channels is achieved after 79 km ...... transmission through deployed fiber. Error-free performance (bit-error rate corresponding to $10^{{-}4}$) is achieved using a digital coherent receiver in combination with a $K$-means algorithm for radio-frequency phase recovery....

  12. 40-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Kloch, Allan; Fjelde, Tina;

    2000-01-01

    All-optical 2R and 3R regeneration techniques are investigated at 40 Gb/s, It is shown that an all-active SOA-based Mach-Zehnder device, employed as a,wavelength converter, is capable of improving the OSNR by more than 20 dB at this bit rate, thereby resulting in penalty reduction. Furthermore......, simultaneous all-optical wavelength conversion and demultiplexing from 40 to 10 Gb/s is demonstrated showing that the scheme, which also has a 3R regeneration capability, is feasible in a combined OTDM/WDM network....

  13. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a MADS-Box Gene (GbMADS2) from Ginkgo biloba

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohui; Junhuan CHENG; Feng XU; Xingxiang LI; Zhang, Weiwei; Yongling LIAO; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of transcription factors gene family, MADS-box genes play an important role in plant development processes. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Ginkgo biloba, a MADS-box gene, designated as GbMADS2, was cloned from G. biloba based on EST sequences by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis results showed that the cDNA sequence of GbMADS2 contained a 663 bp length ORF encoding 221 amino acids protein, which displayed typical structure of plant MADS-box protein including MADS, I, and...

  14. Herpesvirus 6 Glycoproteins B (gB), gH, gL, and gQ Are Necessary and Sufficient for Cell-to-Cell Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Yuki; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa; Arase, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    The human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) envelope glycoprotein gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 complex associates with host cell CD46 as its cellular receptor. Although gB has been suggested to be involved in HHV-6 infection, its function in membrane fusion has remained unclear. Here, we have developed an HHV-6A (strain GS)and HHV-6B (strain Z29) virus-free cell-to-cell fusion assay and demonstrate that gB and the gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 complex are the minimum components required for membrane fusion by HHV-6.

  15. Determination of basic orange by improved GB/T 23496-2009%对GB/T23496-2009测定碱性橙方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海鸥; 胡佳薇; 王敏娟; 王辛

    2013-01-01

    目的:对国家标准《GB/T 23496-2009食品中禁用物质的检测碱性橙的检测高效液相色谱法》过程中遇到的回收率低、操作时间长等问题进行改进.方法:称取5 g样品,用25 ml无水乙醇超声提取两次,取10 ml提取液,氮气吹干,用无水乙醇(固体样品)或正己烷(含油样品)溶解定容至1.0ml.色谱条件:Waters Symmetry C18柱(4.6 min×250 mm,5μm),流速1.0 ml/min,流动相为乙腈:0.03%三氟乙酸(20∶80),进样量:10.0μl,检测波长480 nm.结果:该方法测定3种碱性橙的线性范围均为0.5μg/ml~50.0μg/ml,检出限为0.05 mg/kg,相关系数(r)均>0.9999,加标回收率为86%~100%.结论:改进后的检测方法在回收率、操作简便性均优于国标法.%Objective:To improve the low recovery and long operation time of the method in "Detection of prohibited substances in food,basic orange detection with HPLC" (GB/T 23496-2009).Methods:Sample was weighed and extracted by ultrasonic with 25 ml absolute alcohol twice.Then 10 ml extraction liquid was dried by nitrogen,dissolved with absolute alcohol(solid samples) or hexane (oily samples) for constant volume.The separation was performed on Waters Symmetry C18 column(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5 μm) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with photodiode-array detection at 480 nm,the mobile phase was acetonitrile and 0.03 % trifluorocetic acid (20:80).Results:The linear range of this method was 0.5 μg/ml-50.0 μg/ml,and the detection limit was 0.05 mg/kg,the averagerecovery was in the range of 86% ~ 100%.Conclusion:The improved method has better recovery and shorter operating time for determination of basic orange than the GB/T 23496-2009.

  16. Electrochemical preparation and structural characterization of CuGaSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredy, L.; Marquez, O. P.; Lopez-Rivera, S. A.; Marquez, J.; Martínez, Y.; Miranda, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    CuGaSe2 thin films have been synthesized by one-step electrodeposition on titanium and SnO2/glass substrates from aqueous solutions that contain thiocyanate ion as a complexing agent. According to composition, and morphology analysis at deposition potential of -0.55V vs SCE (Standard Calomel Electrode) for 20 minutes from aqueous solutions of 4.6mM CuCl, 25.0mM GaCl3 y 9.2mM SeO2 in 2.0M de KSCN at pH 2.5 was found the optimum condition for obtain the CuGaSe2 thin films with good morphology and good stoichiometric. The samples were annealed at temperature of 520°C in inert atmosphere for 30 minutes to improve their crystallinity. The obtained CuGaSe2 thin film has a direct band gap (Eg) of 1.65eV. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed in order to elucidate the electrodic processes that occur for the formation of semiconductor CuGaSe2. Therefore, the electrochemical behaviour for each ion (Cu+, Ga3+ and Se4+), for binary (Cu-Se, Ga-Se, and Cu- Ga) and for ternary (Cu-Ga-Se) systems are described. This material has potential application in solar cells.

  17. Agent Development Toolkits

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aarti; Sharma, A K

    2011-01-01

    Development of agents as well as their wide usage requires good underlying infrastructure. Literature indicates scarcity of agent development tools in initial years of research which limited the exploitation of this beneficial technology. However, today a wide variety of tools are available, for developing robust infrastructure. This technical note provides a deep overview of such tools and contrasts features provided by them.

  18. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  19. Ultrafast optical studies on GaAs/AlGaAs/GaMnAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Korn, T.; Wurstbauer, U.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.

    2010-01-01

    GaMnAs is a highly interesting material system for future spintronic devices. We present a study of nonmagnetic GaAs quantum wells (QW) embedded in AlGaAs barriers, close to a ferromagnetic GaMnAs layer. The samples were grown on semi-insulating GaAs(001) and contain two QWs, where one QW is close to the GaMnAs layer and the other one is farther away (120 nm), and serves as a reference. We studied the influence of the barrier material, e.g. a short-period AlAs/GaAs superlattice. The photoluminescence (PL) of the upper QWs, close to the GaMnAs layer, show a significant broadening. Additionally, time-resolved Faraday rotation (TRFR) reveals that the spin lifetime in the upper QW is up to 30 times longer than that in the lower QW. We attribute these observations to backdiffusion of Mn into the QW during and after growth. Both, the PL and the TRFR, are highly sensitive to small quantities (below 0.05 %) of Mn and allow us to study the efficiency of barrier layers in suppressing Mn diffusion.

  20. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  1. How do agents represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  2. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  3. GaN Low-dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.F. Dyadenchuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The GaN low-dimensional structures obtained by nitridation of GaAs porous layers were investigated for the first time. The process of GaN quantum dots formation on the GaAs surface was considered. This process was a result of electrochemical etching of GaAs followed by treatment in atomic nitrogen environment. Nitrogen atoms, which were deposited on the GaAs surface, replace arsenic ones that lead to the formation of a thin GaN layer on the GaAs surface. The photoluminescence and surface morphology of the structures obtained were studied by scanning electron spectroscopy.

  4. GaN Low-dimensional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    А.F. Dyadenchuk; V.V. Kidalov

    2014-01-01

    The GaN low-dimensional structures obtained by nitridation of GaAs porous layers were investigated for the first time. The process of GaN quantum dots formation on the GaAs surface was considered. This process was a result of electrochemical etching of GaAs followed by treatment in atomic nitrogen environment. Nitrogen atoms, which were deposited on the GaAs surface, replace arsenic ones that lead to the formation of a thin GaN layer on the GaAs surface. The photoluminescence and surface morp...

  5. Measurement of intraexcitonic transition signatures via THz time-domain spectroscopy: A GaAs/(AlGa)As-(GaIn)As/GaAs comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.; Koehler, D.; Koch, S.W.; Chatterjee, S. [Faculty of Physics, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg (Germany); Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H.M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Hey, R. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany); Grunwald, T.

    2009-02-15

    In this article we present our results on Thz-spectroscopy of intra-excitonic transitions. Especially, properties of different III-V multi quantum well systems are investigated. After an introduction to the methodology of THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy, results for both a GaAs/(AlGa)As and a (GaIn)As/GaAs multi quantum well structure are presented. We find good agreement with previous experiments for the GaAs/(AlGa)As structure, while the (GaIn)As/GaAs structure behaves significantly different. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Preclinical Comparative Study of (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA, NOTA, and HBED-CC Chelated Radiotracers for Targeting PSMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray Banerjee, Sangeeta; Chen, Zhengping; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala; Chen, Jian; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2016-06-15

    (68)Ga-labeled, low-molecular-weight imaging agents that target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are increasingly used clinically to detect prostate and other cancers with positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of three PSMA-targeted radiotracers: (68)Ga-1, using DOTA-monoamide as the chelating agent; (68)Ga-2, containing the macrocyclic chelating agent p-SCN-Bn-NOTA; and (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11, currently in clinical trials, which uses the acyclic chelating agent, HBED-CC. The PSMA-targeting scaffold for all three agents utilized a similar Glu-urea-Lys-linker construct. Each radiotracer enabled visualization of PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor, kidney, and urinary bladder as early as 15 min post-injection using small animal PET/computed tomography (PET/CT). (68)Ga-2 demonstrated the fastest rate of clearance from all tissues in this series and displayed higher uptake in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor compared to (68)Ga-1 at 1 h post-injection. There was no significant difference in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor uptake for the three agents at 2 and 3 h post-injection. (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 demonstrated the highest uptake and retention in normal tissues, including kidney, blood, spleen, and salivary glands and PSMA-negative PC3 flu tumors up to 3 h post-injection. In this preclinical evaluation (68)Ga-2 had the most advantageous characteristics for PSMA-targeted PET imaging. PMID:27076393

  7. GB1103.1-2012锯齿加工细绒棉的解析与建议%Analysis and Recommendation of GB 1103.1-2012 Saw Ginned Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张录灵; 王志鸿; 李小兰; 雒凯

    2013-01-01

    解析GB 1103.1-2012《棉花第1部分:锯齿加工细绒棉》.介绍了该标准的质量指标项目和内容、检验方法、检验规则及质量标志.分析了该标准下的棉花贸易结算体系.论述了该标准下企业应注意的问题.指出:选择合适的结算方式、检验验收中把握好颜色级和做好新标准实施后的配棉工作是三个关键环节.认为准确运用该标准做好原料采购结算、检验验收、原料合理使用等项工作,利于该标准在纺织企业中的顺利实施.

  8. Antisites and anisotropic diffusion in GaAs and GaSb

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-10-02

    The significant diffusion of Ga under Ga-rich conditions in GaAs and GaSb is counter intuitive as the concentration of Ga vacancies should be depressed although Ga vacancies are necessary to interpret the experimental evidence for Ga transport. To reconcile the existence of Ga vacancies under Ga-rich conditions, transformation reactions have been proposed. Here, density functional theory is employed to calculate the formation energies of vacancies on both sublattices and the migration energy barriers to overcome the formation of the vacancy-antisite defect. Transformation reactions enhance the vacancy concentration in both materials and migration energy barriers indicate that Ga vacancies will dominate.

  9. Single and Multicasting Inverted-Wavelength Conversion at 80 Gb/s Based on a Single Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xi; QIN Cui; YU Yu; ZHANG Xin-Liang

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cross-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA).In all the cases,converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and large eye opening are obtained.For singlechannel wavelength conversion,the ER of the output signal is as high as 30.10dB.For three-channel wavelength multicasting,high quality converted signals could also be observed.The ERs with three channels are 21.54 dB,18.58dB and 17.72dB,respectively.Thus,one- and three-channel wavelength conversion with high performance can be achieved by using a single quantum-well SOA.All-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC).[1-4] is a key technology in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks.AOWC based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is widely used due to its potential integration and power efficieney.Many SOAbased AOWCs have been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated.[5,6] Furthermore,wavelength multicasting is very important in all optical signal processing systems.Wavelength multicasting is a signal processing function that can be used to transfer the information carried by a channel at a certain input wavelength on different output wavelengths.Recently,many methods have been proposed for single wavelength conversion and wavelength multieasting.High nonlinear fibers,electro-absorption modulators and SOAs[7] have been used as nonlinear media.How ever,most of the schemes suffer from drawbacks such as complex architecture,a fairly high optical input power requirement,polarization dependence and so on.%We experimentally demonstrate single and multicasting inverted wavelength conversion at 80Gb/s by using the cross-gain modulation and cros-phase modulation in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In all the cases, converted signals with a high extinction ratio (ER) and largo eye opening are obtained. For single-channel wavelength

  10. Experimental demonstration of all-optical 2R regeneration at 10 Gb/s In a novel MMI-SOA based device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup

    2002-01-01

    We have shown the first demonstration of 2R pass-through regeneration of a 10 Gb/s data signal in an MMI-SOA. The measurements show extinction ratio improvement as well as sensitivity improvement. The latter is predominately due to noise suppression. The good high-speed performance, along with the...

  11. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution Over a 50 km Fiber With Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo;

    2010-01-01

    A 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio ultra-wideband signal is created using the incoherent optical field summation resulting from the cross gain modulation of an uncooled distributed feedback laser injected with an external cavity laser. After 50 km of fiber and wireless transmission over 2.9-3.3-m...

  12. Economics and Performance of 10 Gb/s Metro Transport Over Mixed Fiber Plant of G.655 NZDF and G.652.C Zero Water-Peak Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans-J(o)rg Thiele; Santanu Das; Raymond Boncek; Lynn E. Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Using lower-cost lasers, 30% savings are possible for 10-Gb/s uncompensated metro transmission over NZDF, compared to G.652 fiber. We present WDM transmission results for a mixed plant of NZDF rings interconnected to G.652.C-fiber access laterals.

  13. Cloning and function validation of a nb-arc-lrr-type candidate gene for the greenbug aphid resistance locus, Gb3, in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum, is one of the most important aphid pests of small grain crops in many parts of the world. A single dominant gene, Gb3 originated from Aegilops tauschii has shown consistent and durable resistance against prevailing greenbug biotypes in wheat fields. A fine genetic ...

  14. 640 Gb/s timing jitter-tolerant data processing using a long-period fiber-grating-based flat-top pulse shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of a novel all-fiber flat-top pulse shaping technique for improving performance and timing jitter tolerance of a switch made for 640–10 Gb/s signal demultiplexing. The jitter tolerance is increased to almost 30% of the one-bit time window, and an increase of the receiver sens...

  15. Using a newly developed long-period grating filter to improve the timing tolerance of a 320 Gb/s demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2007-01-01

    A 0.8 ps flat top pulse is generated using a long-period fibre grating and used as control pulse for the first time in a 320 Gb/s demultiplexer. The effect is an increased error-free timing tolerance...

  16. Experimental investigation at 10 Gb/s of the noise suppression capabilities in a pass-through configuration in SOA-based interferometric structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan;

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigate a pass-through scheme for all-optical noise suppression in a SOA-based interferometric structure at 10 Gb/s. An input power dynamic range of ~8 dB as well as a noise suppression capability of ~4.5 dB has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the transmission properties have...

  17. Contactless and soft contact electroreflectance of AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN field effect transistor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudrawiec, Robert; Misiewicz, Jan [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-01-15

    AlGaN/GaN field effect transistor (FET) structures with a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface were investigated by electromodulation spectroscopy[contactless electroreflectance (CER), and soft contact electroreflectance (SCER)]. It has been clearly shown that in contactless mode of electroreflectance (i.e., CER spectroscopy) the 2DEG screens the band bending modulation in GaN layer from the external electromodulation which is generated by the capacitor-like system. In a result only the optical transition in AlGaN layer and no signal, which could be associated with the optical transition in GaN buffer layer, is observed in CER spectra. This screening is not present in soft contact mode of electroreflectance (i.e., SCER spectroscopy). It has been clearly shown that the soft contact mode of electroreflectance works very well for AlGaN/GaN FET structures with a 2 nm thick GaN cap layer. In this mode of electroreflectance measurements the signal from GaN buffer layer was clearly observed whereas in CER spectra this signal was not detected. In CER spectra only the AlGaN-related transition and the GaN cap-related transition were observed. The last transition was observed at the energy of {proportional_to}3.65 eV because of quantum confinement in GaN cap layer, i.e., a surface quantum well in fact. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Effect of temperature on the mutual diffusion of Ge/GaAs and GaAs/Ge

    OpenAIRE

    Bosi, Matteo; Attolini, Giovanni; Ferrari, Claudio; Frigeri, Cesare; Calicchio, Marco; Rossi, Francesca; Vad, K.; Csik, Attila; Zolnai, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    GaAs/Ge heterostructures are commonly used in high efficiency solar cell: structures such as InGaP/GaAs/GaAs or GaAs/Ge and triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge, are continuously improving their efficiency. Sharp heterointerfaces and abrupt dopant profiles are essential in order to obtain a good control of the heteroepitaxy. One common problem in the Ge/GaAs, GaAs/Ge, Ge/GaAs/Ge, Ge/GaAs/GaAs, GaAs/Ge/GaAs and GaAs/Ge/Ge heterostructures is the interdiffusion of the elements in the different layers,...

  19. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  20. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  1. 30% Efficient InGaP/GaAs/GaSb Cell-Interconnected-Circuits For Line-Focus Concentrator Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Iles, Peter; Chu, Charlie; Piszczor, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 1989, Fraas and Avery demonstrated a world-record 31% efficient AM0 GaAs/GaSb tandem solar cell. This record efficiency still holds today. However, the GaAs/GaSb mechanical-stacked cell was designed to work with concentrated sunlight and at that time, the space community had no experience with concentrated sunlight solar arrays.

  2. GB - a preliminary linking code between MCNP4C and Origen2.1 - DEN/UFMG version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays it is possible to perform burnup simulation in a detailed 3D geometry and a continuous energy description by the Monte Carlo method. This paper describes an initial project to create and verify a connection code to link Origen2.1 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and MCNP4C (Los Alamos National Laboratory). Essentially the code includes point depletion capability to the MCNP code. The incorporation of point depletion capability is explicit and can be summarized by three steps: 1-Monte Carlo determines reaction rates, 2-the reaction rates are used to determine microscopic cross sections for depletion equations, 3-solution of depletion equations (given by Origen2.1) determines number densities for next MCNP step. To evaluate the initial version of the program, we focused on comparing the results with one of the major Monte Carlo burnup codes: MCNPX version 2.6.0. The input files for all codes share the same MCNP geometry, nuclear data library and core thermal power. While simulating 75 time steps at 800 kw of a Heat Pipe Power System model, we have found that the codes generate very similar results. The neutron flux and criticality value of the core agree, especially in the begin of burnup when the influence of fission products are not very considerable. The small difference encountered was probably caused by the difference in the number of isotopes considered in the transport models (89 MCNPX x 25 GB (author)

  3. The role of large scale storage in a GB low carbon energy future: Issues and policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale storage offers the prospect of capturing and using excess electricity within a low carbon energy system, which otherwise might have to be wasted. Incorporating the role of storage into current scenario tools is challenging, because it requires high temporal resolution to reflect the effects of intermittent sources on system balancing. This study draws on results from a model with such resolution. It concludes that large scale storage could become economically viable for scenarios with high penetration of renewables. As the proportion of intermittent sources increases, the optimal type of storage shifts towards solutions with low energy related costs, even at the expense of efficiency. However, a range of uncertainties have been identified, concerning storage technology development, the regulatory environment, alternatives to storage and the stochastic uncertainty of year-on-year revenues. All of these negatively affect the cost of finance and the chances of successful market uptake. We argue, therefore, that, if the possible wider system and social benefits from the presence of storage are to be achieved, stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary. More work on the social and system benefits of storage is needed to gauge the appropriate extent of support measures. - Highlights: → Time resolved modelling shows future potential for large scale power storage in GB. → The value of storage is highly sensitive to a range of parameters. → Uncertainty over the revenue from storage could pose a barrier to investment. → To realise wider system benefits stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary.

  4. Two active states of the narrow-line gamma-ray-loud AGN GB 1310+487

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovsky, K V; Tanaka, Y T; Abolmasov, P K; Angelakis, E; Bulgarelli, A; Carrasco, L; Cenko, S B; Cheung, C C; Clubb, K I; Fegan, S J; Filippenko, A V; Finke, J D; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Ikejiri, Y; Itoh, R; Kawabata, K S; Komatsu, T; Kovalev, Yu A; Kovalev, Y Y; Krichbaum, T P; Larsson, S; Lister, M L; Lott, B; Max-Moerbeck, W; Nestoras, I; Pittori, C; Pursimo, T; Pushkarev, A B; Readhead, A C S; Recillas, E; Richards, J L; Riquelme, D; Romani, R W; Sakimoto, K; Sasada, M; Schmidt, R; Shaw, M S; Sievers, A; Thompson, D J; Uemura, M; Ungerechts, H; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Yamanaka, M; Yoshida, M; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB 1310+487 showed a gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of ~10^-6 photons/cm^2/s at energies E>100 MeV and becoming one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum is not typical for a blazar, instead, it resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. We investigate changes of the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent GeV flare with the aim to determine the nature of the object and constrain the origin of the variable high-energy emission. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies, Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet, Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical, OAGH and WISE at infrared, and IRAM 30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio, are analysed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. The gamma-ray/radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z=0.6...

  5. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  6. Pre-clinical evaluation of [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 for imaging of insulinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Insulinoma is the most common form of pancreatic endocrine tumors responsible for hyperinsulinism in adults. These tumors overexpress glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, and biologically stable GLP-1 analogs have therefore been proposed as potential imaging agents. Here, we evaluate the potential of a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4, for imaging and quantification of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in insulinoma. Methods: [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 was evaluated for binding to GLP-1R by in vitro autoradiography binding studies in INS-1 tumor from xenografts. In vivo biodistribution was investigated in healthy control mice, INS-1 xenografted and PANC1 xenografted immunodeficient mice at two different doses of peptide: 2.5 μg/kg (baseline) and 100 μg/kg (block). In vivo imaging of [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 in xenografted mice was evaluated by small animal PET/CT using a direct comparison with the clinically established insulinoma marker [11C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([11C]5-HTP). Results: GLP-1 receptor density could be quantified in INS-1 tumor biopsies. [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 showed significant uptake (p ≤ 0.05) in GLP1-R positive tissues such as INS-1 tumor, lungs and pancreas upon comparison between baseline and blocking studies. In vivo imaging showed concordant results with higher tumor-to-muscle ratio in INS-1 xenografted mice compared with [11C]5-HTP. Conclusion: [68Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 has high affinity and specificity for GLP-1R expressed on insulinoma in vitro and in vivo

  7. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  8. Programming Service Oriented Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Benjamin; Konnerth, Thomas; Burkhardt, Michael; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a programming language for service-oriented agents. JADL++ combines the ease of use of scripting-languages with a state-of-the-art service oriented approach which allows the seamless integration of web-services. Furthermore, the language includes OWL-based ontologies for semantic descriptions of data and services, thus allowing agents to make intelligent decisions about service calls.

  9. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  10. Behaviour Study of a Multi-Agent Mobile Robot System during Potential Field Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Nagy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-agent based mobile robot simulation system will bepresented where the behaviour of the system is studied with different number of agents (1,3,6 and also with different number of ultrasonic range sensors on agents (8 or 16 USsensors on individual agents. The task of the autonomous agents is to create the potentialfield (PF of an unknown environment. The classic problems of PF building, like oscillationand trapping, are not the focus of the article, but instead, the article is concerned with theagents’ self-organizing ability where self-organizing is controlled by a genetic algorithm(GA. The GA is equipped with two fitness functions where one “maintains” the distancesbetween certain agents (spat distr, while another “watches” the area coverage (areacover. In fact, the paper can be divided into three main parts. The first part describes theultrasonic sensing and range measuring with systematic errors, the potential field (PFbuilding and the moving strategies. The second part contains description of the GA, theoperation of the GA, the structure of the system, the fitness functions and a general systemerrordetermination. In the final third part, the obtained results are analyzed and presentedin the appendices.

  11. Agent amplified communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  12. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, E. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Barnier, V. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, MPI, CNRS UMR5146, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Paillard, P. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  13. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  14. Preparation and Biological Study of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ashraf; Jalilian, Amir R.; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga). Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats. Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320 GBq/mmol) after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a log P value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65%) was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (<1%) at 30 min after the injection. The data were also confirmed by sequential imaging at 30-90 min following the intravenous injection. Conclusion: The high solubility and anionic properties of the complex led to major renal excretion and low hydroxyapatite uptake; therefore, the complex failed to demonstrate bone imaging behaviors. PMID:27408898

  15. Impurity profiling to match a nerve agent to its precursor source for chemical forensics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Carlos G; Acosta, Gabriel A Pérez; Crenshaw, Michael D; Wallace, Krys; Mong, Gary M; Colburn, Heather A

    2011-12-15

    Chemical forensics is a developing field that aims to attribute a chemical (or mixture) of interest to its source by the analysis of the chemical itself or associated material constituents. Herein, for the first time, trace impurities detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and originating from a chemical precursor were used to match a synthesized nerve agent to its precursor source. Specifically, six batches of sarin (GB, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and its intermediate methylphosphonic difluoride (DF) were synthesized from two commercial stocks of 97% pure methylphosphonic dichloride (DC); the GB and DF were then matched by impurity profiling to their DC stocks from a collection of five possible stocks. Source matching was objectively demonstrated through the grouping by hierarchal cluster analysis of the GB and DF synthetic batches with their respective DC precursor stocks based solely upon the impurities previously detected in five DC stocks. This was possible because each tested DC stock had a unique impurity profile that had 57% to 88% of its impurities persisting through product synthesis, decontamination, and sample preparation. This work forms a basis for the use of impurity profiling to help find and prosecute perpetrators of chemical attacks. PMID:22040126

  16. Agent-based Simulation of Processes in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošanský, Branislav

    Praha : Ústav informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i. & MATFYZPRESS, 2008 - (Hakl, F.), s. 19-27 ISBN 978-80-7378-054-8. [Doktorandské dny 2008 Ústavu informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i.. Jizerka (CZ), 29.09.2008-01.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : multi - agent system s * agent -based simulation * process modelling * medicine Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  17. Nitrogen Adatom Diffusion on a Ga-Rich GaN (0001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xian-Qi; WU Hua-Sheng; XIE Mao-Hai; XU Shi-Hong; TONG Shuk-Yin

    2004-01-01

    @@ The diffusion of N adatoms on a Ga-rich GaN(0001) surface has been studied using density-functional theory. The configuration of Ga adatoms on a Ga-rich GaN surface has been identified. The first adlayer Ga adatoms are on top of the terminating substrate Ga atoms, and the outmost adlayer Ga adatoms exist randomly at the T4 or H3 sites. A very different diffusivity of N adatoms on a Ga-rich GaN(0001) surface has been found. The excess Ga adatoms on a GaN(0001) surface reduce the diffusion barrier by 0.75eV and influence the migration path. It seems that bilayer Ga adatoms are helpful for N atom diffusion.

  18. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    Piscataway : IEEE Computer Society, 2009 - (Baciu, G.; Wang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Kinsner, W.; Chan, K.; Zadeh, L.), s. 448-456 ISBN 978-1-4244-4642-1. [ICCI 2009. IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics /8./. Hong Kong (HK), 15.06.2009-17.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 62-78. ISSN 1942-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.igi-global.com/article/high-level-model-conscious-embodied/46147

  20. Agent-Based Process-Critiquing Decision Support Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošanský, Branislav; Lhotská, L.

    Bratislava: Slovak Technical University, 2009, s. 1-6. [ISABEL 2009. International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies /2./. Bratislava (SK), 24.12.2009-27.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : critiquing decision support system * multi-agent system * process * medical guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  1. Agent-Based Process-Critiquing Decision Support System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bošanský, Branislav; Lhotská, L.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2009, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-1-4244-4640-7. [ISABEL 2009. International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies /2./. Bratislava (SK), 24.12.2009-27.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : decision support system s * health care * multi - agent system s Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  2. Ontology-based and Evolutionary Search for Computational Agents Schemes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman

    Skokie : Knowledge System s Institute Graduate School, 2008, s. 569-572. ISBN 1-891706-22-5. [SEKE 2008. International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering /20./. San Francisco (US), 01.07.2008-03.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * ontology * intelligent agent s Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  3. Behavioural breaks in the heterogeneous agent model: The impact of herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukačka, Jiří; Baruník, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 392, č. 23 (2013), s. 5920-5938. ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Heterogeneous agent model * Behavioural finance * Herding * Overconfidence * Market sentiment * Stock market crash Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.722, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/barunik-0395344.pdf

  4. Mitochondrial complex II, a novel target for anti-cancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klučková, Katarína; Bezawork-Geleta, A.; Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.; Neužil, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1827, č. 5 (2013), s. 552-564. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitochondrion * Complex II * Anti- cancer agent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2013

  5. Energy dispersive X-ray investigation of silane coupling agent modified nickel–manganese–gallium particle surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Modification of surfaces of NiMnGa with silane coupling agents. ► Energy dispersive X-ray emission used for elemental analysis. ► Variable energy electron beams used for depth analysis on particles. ► Silane coupling agents promote silicon polymer attachment to NiMnGa particles. - Abstract: Nickel–manganese–gallium (NiMnGa) has been identified as a possible active material for kinetic energy harvesting. As monolithic crystals are susceptible to fracture, NiMnGa particle/polymer composites where the alloy remains the active material are proposed as an alternative. Optimum transfer of force requires good bonding between the alloy and the polymer matrix. The objectives of the current work were to develop a technique to examine the NiMnGa/polymer interface and the potential changes due to addition of silane coupling agents. To determine the presence of polymer/coupling agent at the alloy particle surface, an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used. Using this method, it was possible to determine that Dow Corning® z6020 had the greatest interaction with the NiMnGa surface, although the polysiloxane had sufficient adherence without the use of coupling agents. This article demonstrates the novel use of EDX spectroscopy to indirectly investigate silane modification of metallic surfaces.

  6. Development of Novel Radiogallium-Labeled Bone Imaging Agents Using Oligo-Aspartic Acid Peptides as Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuma Ogawa; Atsushi Ishizaki; Kenichiro Takai; Yoji Kitamura; Tatsuto Kiwada; Kazuhiro Shiba; Akira Odani

    2013-01-01

    (68)Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide) has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting (68)Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA...

  7. Development of Novel Radiogallium-Labeled Bone Imaging Agents Using Oligo-Aspartic Acid Peptides as Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Ishizaki, Atsushi; Takai, Kenichiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kiwada, Tatsuto; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Odani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    68Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide) has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting 68Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA-(As...

  8. A computational-intelligence-based optimization of agents' initial positions in land combat simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunguo; LIANG Yanchun; GE Hongwei; CAO Lijuan; LEE Heow Pueh

    2003-01-01

    The optimization of agents' initial properties enables agents to perform their assigned tasks more perfectly. This paper presents an optimizing method using the combination of radial basis function (RBF) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA). In the land combat simulation, the method can ensure that the agents optimized defeat the agents not optimized absolutely. Compared with the optimization based on support vector machines (SVM), the proposed method improves the efficiency more than twenty times, so it suits the cases where the speed as well as performance is required.

  9. GB/T 22080-2008《信息安全管理体系要求》解析解析系列一:GB/T 22080-2008信息安全的起源、发展和内容结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳杰

    2012-01-01

    随着信息化技术的发展,信息安全也越来越得到社会各界的关注,为了维护信息安全,适应信息高速发展的需要,ISO组织于2005年发布ISO 27000系列标准,中国电子技术标准化研究院等单位负责起草,国家质检总局和国家标准化管理委员会于2008年6月19日发布了GB/T 22080-2008《信息安全管理体系 要求》.本标准等同采用ISO/IEC 27001:2005《信息技术 安全技术 信息安全管理体系 要求》.本文对该标准的解析系列共五部分:解析系列一:GB/T22080-2008 信息安全的起源、发展和内容结构解析系列二:GB/T 22080 2008信息安全管理体系 要求 1-3章解析解析系列三:GB/T22080-2008 信息安全管理体系 要求 4-8章解析解析系列四:GB/T 22080-2008 信息安全管理体系 要求 附录A5-A10解析解析系列五:GB/T 22080-2008 信息安全管理体系 要求 附录A11-A15解析

  10. Growth and Optical Properties of Double Heterostructure GaN/InGaN/GaN Films with Large Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周劲; 张国义

    2002-01-01

    The double heterostructure GaN/InGaN/GaN films with different thicknesses of the InGaN layer were grownat 780℃ or 800℃ by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. The samples were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering. The dependences of the samples on both the growth temperature and the thickness of the InGaN layer were studied. The comlp, osition of InGaN was determined by the results of XRD, and the bowing parameter of InGaN was calculated in terms of the PL spectra. When the thickness of the InGaN layer was reduced, the phase separation of InGaN was found in some samples. The Raman frequency of the A1 (LO) and E2 (low) modes in all the samples shifted and did not agree with Vegard's law.

  11. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  12. Interpretation and Application of GB/T 30790 Pigmented Paint and Varnish-Anti-corrosion Protection of Steel Structures by Protective Coatings System%GB/T 30790《色漆和清漆 防护涂料体系对钢结构的防腐蚀保护》标准解读与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明菊; 陈振士; 刘新

    2015-01-01

    介绍了GB/T 30790《色漆和清漆防护涂料体系对钢结构的防腐蚀保护》的主要内容,着重于对腐蚀环境分级、不同的耐久性和相应额定干膜厚度的说明.以炼油装置的钢结构为例,说明了如何利用GB/T 30790进行防护涂料体系设计.

  13. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  14. Combining Parameter Space Search and Meta-Learning for Data-Dependent Computational Agent Recommendation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazík, O.; Pešková, K.; Pilát, M.; Neruda, Roman

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2012 - (Wani, M.; Khoshgoftaar, T.; Zhu, X.; Seliya, N.), s. 36-41 ISBN 978-1-4673-4651-1. [ICMLA 2012. International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications /11./. Boca Raton (US), 12.12.2012-15.12.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10023; GA ČR GD201/09/H057 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 629612 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data -mining * meta-learning * multi-agent systems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  15. Investigation of Degradation Properties of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Matrix for Anticancer Agent Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA50GA50) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It offers tremendous potential as a basis for drug delivery, either as drug delivery system alone or in conjugate with a medical device. The PLA50GA50 is the material of choice for relatively shorter-duration applications, while the homopolymer PLA (poly-L-lactide) and PGA (polyglycolide) are preferred for longer term delivery of drugs. This paper discusses the degradation properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLA50GA50) at inherent viscosity of 0.89 dL/g as preliminary studies for anticancer agent delivery.

  16. The sensitivity of yeast and yeast-like cells to new lysosomotropic agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasowska, A.; Chmielewska, L.; Adamski, R.; Luszynski, J.; Witek, S.; Sigler, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 9, 4A (2004), s. 675-683. ISSN 1425-8153 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020202; GA MŠk ME 577 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 01-032; Polish-Czech Treaty on Scientific and Scientific-Technical Cooperation(XX) 2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lysosomotropic agents * yeast * quinacrine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.495, year: 2004

  17. El agente encubierto

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Marcos, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo versa sobre la figura del agente encubierto. Debemos enmarcar tal medida de investigación dentro del ámbito de la criminalidad organizada. Actualmente, estamos asistiendo a una proliferación de la delincuencia organizada. La sociedad ha evolucionado, y con ella la delincuencia. Fruto de tal evolución fue necesario incluir en nuestra Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal medidas extraordinarias de investigación, y una de ellas es el agente encubierto. Se trata de una medida muy polémi...

  18. An Agent-Based Framework for Building Decision Support System in Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, A.; Fazel Zarandi, M. H.

    In this study, two scenarios are presented for solving Production-Distribution Panning Problem (PDPP) in a Decision Support System (DSS) framework. In the first scenario, a Traditional Decision Support System (TDSS) is presented for PDPP and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for solving it. In the second scenario, a Multi-agent Decision Support System (MADSS) is considered for PDPP and three algorithms are used for solving it: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Tabu Search (TS) and Simulated Annealing (SA). Then an algorithm is suggested by using multi-agent system and A Teams concept. The obtained results reveal that the use of MADSS delivers better solutions to us.

  19. The PLS agent : agent behavior validation by partial least squares

    OpenAIRE

    Lorscheid, Iris; Meyer, Matthias; Pakur, Sandra; Ringle, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based modeling is widely applied in the social sciences. However, the validation of agent behavior is challenging and identified as one of the shortcomings in the field. Methods are required to establish empirical links and support the implementation of valid agent models. This paper contributes to this, by introducing the PLS agent concept. This approach shows a way to transfer results about causalities and decision criteria from empirical surveys into an agent-based decision model, th...

  20. Symmetric 10 Gb/s wavelength reused bidirectional RSOA based WDM-PON with DPSK modulated downstream and OFDM modulated upstream signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pallab K.; Khan, Tanvir Zaman

    2016-08-01

    A 10 Gb/s bidirectional wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) with reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based colorless optical network unit (ONU) is proposed and analyzed for next generation gigabit class optical access network. Differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulated signal is used in downstream and further reused as a seeding wavelength for upstream data modulation. By exploiting the constant envelope property of DPSK seed signal, the re-modulation noise in upstream receiver is effectively minimized without employing any constraint on extinction ratio of downstream signal. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal is used in upstream transmission to overcome the limited bandwidth (∼1 GHz) response of RSOA remodulation. The results show that the proposed 10 Gb/s symmetric WDM-PON can achieve good performance over 25 km fiber transmission with error free operation in downstream and bit error rate (BER) lower than forward error correction (FEC) limit in upstream.

  1. Quantification of [{sup 11}C]GB67 binding to cardiac {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors with positron emission tomography: validation in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park-Holohan, So-Jin; Turton, David R.; Hume, Susan P. [Hammersmith Hospital, Hammersmith Imanet Ltd., GE HealthCare, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); Asselin, Marie-Claude [Hammersmith Hospital, Hammersmith Imanet Ltd., GE HealthCare, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Williams, Sharron L.; Camici, Paolo G. [Hammersmith Hospital, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); Rimoldi, Ornella E. [Hammersmith Hospital, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); New York Medical College, Cardiovascular Research Institute Department of Medicine, Valhalla, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    An increase in human cardiac {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor ({alpha}{sub 1}-AR) density is associated with various diseases such as myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Positron emission tomography (PET) with an appropriate radioligand offers the possibility of imaging receptor function in the normal and diseased heart. [{sup 11}C]GB67, an analogue of prazosin, has been shown in rats to have potential as a PET ligand with high selectivity to {alpha}{sub 1}-AR. However, {alpha}{sub 1}-AR density is up to ten times higher in rat heart compared to that in man. The aim of the present preclinical study was to extend the previous evaluation to a large mammal heart, where the {alpha}{sub 1}-AR density is comparable to man, and to validate a method for quantification before PET studies in man. Seven [{sup 11}C]GB67 PET studies, with weight-adjusted target dose of either 5.29 MBq kg{sup -1} (pilot, test-retest and baseline-predose studies) or 8.22 MBq kg{sup -1} (baseline-displacement studies), were performed in four anaesthetised pigs (39.5 {+-} 3.9 kg). Total myocardial volume of distribution (V{sub T}) was estimated under different pharmacological conditions using compartmental analysis with a radiolabelled metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input function. A maximum possible blocking dose of 0.12 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} of unlabeled GB67 was given 20 min before [{sup 11}C]GB67 administration in the predose study and 45 min after administration of [{sup 11}C]GB67 in the displacement study. In addition, [{sup 15}O]CO (3,000 MBq) and [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O, with weight adjusted target dose of 10.57 MBq kg{sup -1}, were also administered for estimation of blood volume recovery (RC) of the left ventricular cavity and myocardial perfusion (MBF), respectively. [{sup 11}C]GB67 V{sub T} values (in ml cm{sup -3}) were estimated to be 24.2 {+-} 5.5 (range, 17.3-31.3), 10.1 (predose) and 11.6 (displacement). MBF did not differ within

  2. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung. - Highlights: • We performed experimental boron biodistribution studies for lung metastases. • 3 protocols employing BPA and GB-10 would be therapeutically useful. • BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic for experimental lung metastases

  3. Saatuse iroonia nöögib edasi / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2008-01-01

    Eldar Rjazanovi menufilmi "Saatuse iroonia ehk Hüva leili!" (1975) järjefilm "Saatuse iroonia: lugu läheb edasi" ("Ironija sudbõ. Prodolzhenije") : režissöör Timur Bekmambetov : stsenarist Aleksei Slapovski : peaosades Liza Bojarskaja, Konstantin Habenski : Venemaa 2007

  4. Peaminister räägib... / Andrus Villem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villem, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Järva Teataja 16. juuli, lk. 2, Nädaline 19. juuli, lk. 4, Lääne Elu 19, juuli, lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 19. juuli, lk. 2, Põhjarannik 19. juuli, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 19. juuli lk. 2, Meie Maa 20. juuli lk. 2, Virumaa Teataja, Sakala 21. juuli lk. 7, 2. Autori sõnul pole ükski Eesti varasem peaminister sattunud ajakirjanduse hammaste vahele nii ruttu kui praegu Andrus Ansip

  5. Kumu film räägib Mehhiko ikoonmaalidest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    KUMU juuliprogrammis saab näha Tartu Maailmafilmi festivali programmi filme. Esimesena näidatakse 5. juulil mehhiko dokumentaalfilmi "Imedele pühendatud" mehhiko kunstnikust Alfredo Vilchis't, ikoonimaali ex voto'de tegijast

  6. Epistemic Logic with Relevant Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peliš, Michal

    London : College Publications, 2009 - (Peliš, M.), s. 123-135 ISBN 978-1-904987-46-8. [ Logica 2008. Hejnice (CZ), 16.06.2008-20.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090703; GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : relevant logic * epistemic logic * modal logic Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  8. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  9. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 107.1620 Section 107.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...

  10. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  11. All-optical NOT and XOR logic operation at 2.5 Gb/s based on semiconductor optical amplifier loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying; Zhang Xin-Liang; Huang De-Xiu

    2004-01-01

    All-optical XOR and NOT logic operations based on semiconductor optical amplifier loop mirror (SLALOM) are simultaneously demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Based on a segmented semiconductor optical amplifier model, the all-optical logic operation process is simulated theoretically. In an experimental study, 2.5 Gb/s all-optical XOR operation was achieved in the output port of SLALOM, while all-optical NOT operation was achieved in the input port through a circulator at the same time.

  12. Acupressure at the Meridian Acupoint Xiyangguan (GB33) Influences Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Parameters (Regional Oxygen Saturation) in Deeper Tissue of the Knee in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Litscher; Michael Ofner; Wei He; Lu Wang; Ingrid Gaischek

    2013-01-01

    Up to now, it is still unknown whether microcirculation of deeper peripheral tissue (knee) can be modulated by acupuncture or acupressure on a meridian acupoint. The goal of this pilot study was to investigate possible effects of acupressure at the Xiyangguan acupoint (GB33) on the regional oxygen saturation of the deeper knee tissues by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twelve healthy volunteers with a mean age of 23.8 ± 1.6 years were investigated. Acupressure stimulation was performed for...

  13. Schwangerschaftsabbruch als sprachliches Problem : eine linguistische Textanalyse ausgewählter Gesetzentwürfe zur Reform des § 218 StGB

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Pia

    2004-01-01

    Die Arbeit stellt eine linguistische Textanalyse von Gesetzentwürfen zur Reform des § 218 StGB aus dem Jahr 1991 dar. Mitspieler (Aktanten) in den jeweiligen Handlungsframes der Gesetzentwürfe sind die Frau als Entscheidungsträgerin für die Handlung "Schwangerschaftsabbruch", der Arzt, der den Schwangerschaftsabbruch vornimmt, und der Embryo, der abgetrieben wird. Unter Rückgriff auf die Prototypensemantik werden die Handlung und die Aktanten in dem jeweiligen Textzusammenhang der einzelnen G...

  14. Rabbits immunized with Epstein-Barr virus gH/gL or gB recombinant proteins elicit higher serum virus neutralizing activity than gp350.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinle; Cao, Zhouhong; Chen, Quanyi; Arjunaraja, Swadhinya; Snow, Andrew L; Snapper, Clifford M

    2016-07-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and has been strongly implicated in the etiology of multiple epithelial and lymphoid cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is currently no licensed prophylactic vaccine for EBV. Most efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines have focused on EBV gp350, which binds to CD21/CD35 to gain entry into B cells, and is a major target of serum neutralizing antibody in EBV seropositive humans. However, a recombinant monomeric gp350 protein failed to prevent EBV infection in a phase II clinical trial. Thus, alternative or additional target antigens may be necessary for a successful prophylactic vaccine. EBV gH/gL and gB proteins coordinately mediate EBV fusion and entry into B cells and epithelial cells, strongly suggesting that vaccination with these proteins might elicit antibodies that will prevent EBV infection. We produced recombinant trimeric and monomeric EBV gH/gL heterodimeric proteins and a trimeric EBV gB protein, in addition to tetrameric and monomeric gp350(1-470) proteins, in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We demonstrated that vaccination of rabbits with trimeric and monomeric gH/gL, trimeric gB, and tetrameric gp350(1-470) induced serum EBV-neutralizing titers, using cultured human B cells, that were >100-fold, 20-fold, 18-fold, and 4-fold higher, respectively, than monomeric gp350(1-470). These data strongly suggest a role for testing EBV gH/gL and EBV gB in a future prophylactic vaccine to prevent EBV infection of B cells, as well as epithelial cells. PMID:27291087

  15. Phase equilibria in Sm-Ga-S ternary system according to SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3, SmS-GaS, Sm-GaS cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase equilibria in ternary system Sm-Ga-S over cross sections SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, SmS-GaS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3, Sm-GaS have been studied for the first time using the methods of physicochemical analysis, their T-x projections were plotted. The cross sections SmGa2-GaS, SmGa2-SmS, Sm3S4-Ga2S3 and SmS-GaS are quasibinary, while Sm-GaS is nonquasibinary one. Formation of two ternary compounds of the composition Sm4GaS5 and Sm5Ga2S5 was ascertained by peritectic reactions

  16. Ga NMR study on UNiGa5 and UPtGa_5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Walstedt, R. E.; Tokiwa, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Onuki, Y.

    2003-03-01

    Actinide compounds exhibit a variety of magnetic properties, reflecting the characteristic features of 5f electrons. Here, we focus on UNiGa5 and UPtGa_5, which are 5f-itinerant antiferromagnets with Néel temperatures TN = 86 K (Ni) and 26 K (Pt). Remarkably, recent neutron scattering experiments^1 have revealed that UNiGa5 and UPtGa_5, although nearly identical crystallographically, are quite different in their magnetic structure below T_N. To clarify the origin of these different magnetic structures, ^69,71Ga NMR measurements have been carried out for these two compounds. >From NMR spectra, the Knight shift K(T) has been evaluated. By the K-i plot, we have successfully separated the T-independent term K0 from the T-dependent term K_CW(T). Noting that K0 reflects the Van Vleck susceptibility of the f-electrons, we discuss the difference of the two compounds from a microscopic of view. 1) Y. Tokiwa et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71 (2002) 725

  17. InGaP/InGaAsN/GaAs NpN double-heterojunction bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated a functional NpN double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) using InGaAsN for the base layer. The InGaP/In0.03Ga0.97As0.99N0.01/GaAs DHBT has a low VON of 0.81 V, which is 0.13 V lower than in a InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). The lower turn-on voltage is attributed to the smaller band gap (1.20 eV) of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown In0.03Ga0.97As0.99N0.01 base layer. GaAs is used for the collector; thus the breakdown voltage (BVCEO) is 10 V, consistent with the BVCEO of InGaP/GaAs HBTs of comparable collector thickness and doping level. To alleviate the current blocking phenomenon caused by the larger conduction band discontinuity between InGaAsN and GaAs, a graded InGaAs layer with δ doping is inserted at the base-collector junction. The improved device has a peak current gain of seven with ideal current-voltage characteristics. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Comparing the Effect of Acupressure at Two GB-21 and SP-6 Points on the Pain Severity of Active Phase of Delivery among Primiparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbarzadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Skeletal muscle contraction, secondary to pain and fear, may cause a reaction in the pelvic floor muscle contraction and may result in atypical labor progress, fetal descent and rotation of head. The object of this study was to compare the effect of acupressure at two GB-21 and SP-6 points on the severity of labor pain. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 150 primiparous women were randomly divided into three groups of 1-Acupressure at GB-21 point, 2-Acupressure at SP-6 point and 3-control group (contact at two points. The intervention was carried out for 20 minutes at 3-4 cm dilatation of cervix. The pain severity prior to, immediately and 3 and 60 minutes after intervention were measured by Visual Analog Scale. Collected data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variances. Results: The pain severity before intervention among three groups was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, the pain severity was reduced immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after intervention in two intervention groups at 3-4 cm dilatation as compared with the control group (P<0.001. No significant statistical difference was observed between the two case groups (P=0.93. Conclusion: Current study showed that the application of acupressure at two GB-21 and SP-6 points was effective on the reduction of the severity of labor pain. Hence, it is recommended to conduct further studies regarding the application of acupressure along with non-medicinal methods.

  19. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE OF FENGCHI (GB 20) ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND SERUM IL-6 and PLASMA ET LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture of Fengchi (风池 GB 20) on blood pressure,serum IL-6 and plasma endothelin (ET) contents in patients with hypertension. Methods: Thirty cases of hypertension patients were made up of treatment group and treated with acupuncture of Fengchi (GB 20); while 20 healthy subjects were made up of control group. Blood pressure was determined before and after the treatment. Fasting blood samples were taken from the cubital venous vessel for detecting serum interleukin (IL)-6 and plasma ET contents with radioimmunoassay before and after acupuncture treatment. Results: Before the treatment, in hypertension patients, serum IL-6 and plasma ET levels were significant higher than those in healthy subjects (P < 0.01 ); while after the treatment, blood pressure of treatment group declined significantly ( P < 0.01 ), serum IL-6 and plasma ET levels decreased considerably ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion:Acupuncture of Fengchi (GB 20) can lower blood pressure, regulate cellular immunity and secretion functions of the vascular endothelial cells in hypertension patients.

  20. Characteristics of GaN/InGaN Double-Heterostructure Photovoltaic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hsien Wu; Sheng-Po Chang; Shoou-Jinn Chang; Ray-Hua Horng; Wen-Yih Liao; Ray-Ming Lin

    2012-01-01

    The p-GaN/i-InxGa1−xN/n-GaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic (PV) cells have been fabricated and the theoretical photovoltaic properties were also calculated in this work. From theoretical simulation, higher efficiency can be obtained in GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with higher In composition in i-InGaN intrinsic layer. GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14% were fabricated and characterized for demonstrating wit...

  1. Anomalous disorder-related phenomena in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well heterosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y.-J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technology and Science Institute of Northern Taiwan, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.-W.; Fang, C.-H.; Wang, J.-C.; Chen, Y.-F. [Group of Abel and Lie Operations In Sciences and Quantum Electro-optical Science and Technology Laboratory (GALOIS-Quest-Lab), Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Nee, T.-E., E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.t [Group of Abel and Lie Operations In Sciences and Quantum Electro-optical Science and Technology Laboratory (GALOIS-Quest-Lab), Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The influences of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) heterostructures with InGaN/GaN and GaN barriers on carrier confinement were investigated. The degree of disordering over a broad range of temperatures from 20 to 300 K was considered. The optical and electrical properties were strongly influenced by structural and compositional disordering of the InGaN/GaN MQW heterostructures. To compare the degree of disordering we examined the temperature dependence of the luminescence spectra and electrical conductance contingent on the Berthelot-type mechanisms in the InGaN/GaN MQW heterostructures. We further considered carrier transport in the InGaN/GaN disordered systems, probability of carrier tunneling, and activation energy of the transport mechanism for devices with InGaN/GaN and GaN barriers. The optical properties of InGaN/GaN disordered heterosystems can be interpreted from the features of the absorption spectra. The anomalous temperature-dependent characteristics of the disordered InGaN/GaN MQW structures were attributable to the enhancement of the exciton confinement.

  2. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  3. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dispersion of denatured aggregates of serum albumin to which tin is attached is prepared and lyophilized. A mixture of polycarboxylic acid and a disaccharide or monosaccharide is included in the dispersion in sufficient amount to reduce degradation during lyophilization and aging. The dispersion is suitable for radioactive labelling and use as a diagnostic agent

  4. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...

  5. Biomimetic Emotional Learning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    This extended abstract proposes a type of AI agent comprised of: an autonomous real-time control system, low-level emotional learning (including a simple knowledge base that links homeostatic/innate drives to sensory perception states), and a novel sliding-priority drive motivation mechanism. Learning occurs in both phylogenetic and ontogenetic training.

  6. Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    at large, it emphasises universities as key change agents and providers in new learning, including tools such as project based and problem oriented learning (PBL) as well as information and communication technology (ICT); as providers of competent and motivated graduates to fill key positions in society...

  7. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  8. Preclinical evaluation of two 68Ga-siderophores as potential radiopharmaceuticals for Aspergillus fumigatus infection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains high, mainly due to the difficulties and limitations in diagnosis. We have shown that siderophores can be labelled with 68Ga and can be used for PET imaging of A. fumigatus infection in rats. Here we report on the further evaluation of the most promising 68Ga-siderophore candidates, triacetylfusarinine (TAFC) and ferrioxamine E (FOXE). Siderophores were labelled with 68Ga using acetate buffer. Log P, protein binding and stability values were determined. Uptake by A. fumigatus was studied in vitro in cultures with high and low iron loads. In vivo biodistribution was determined in normal mice and an infection model was established using neutropenic rats inoculated with A. fumigatus. Static and dynamic μPET imaging was performed and correlated with CT images, and lung infection was evaluated ex vivo. 68Ga-siderophores were labelled with high radiochemical purity and specific activity. 68Ga-TAFC and 68Ga-FOXE showed high uptake by A. fumigatus in iron-deficient cultures. In normal mice, 68Ga-TAFC and 68Ga-FOXE showed rapid renal excretion with high metabolic stability. In the rat infection model focal lung uptake was detected by μPET with both compounds and increased with severity of the infection, correlating with abnormal CT images. 68Ga-TAFC and 68Ga-FOXE displayed excellent in vitro stability and high uptake by A. fumigatus. Both compounds showed excellent pharmacokinetics, highly selective accumulation in infected lung tissue and good correlation with severity of disease in a rat infection model, which makes them promising agents for A. fumigatus infection imaging. (orig.)

  9. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  10. Two active states of the narrow-line gamma-ray-loud AGN GB 1310+487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Larsson, S.; Lister, M. L.; Lott, B.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Nestoras, I.; Pittori, C.; Pursimo, T.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Recillas, E.; Richards, J. L.; Riquelme, D.; Romani, R. W.; Sakimoto, K.; Sasada, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shaw, M. S.; Sievers, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Uemura, M.; Ungerechts, H.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; Yamanaka, M.; Yoshida, M.; Zensus, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB 1310+487 showed a γ-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of ~ 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1 at energies E> 100 MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims: We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent γ-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods: The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at γ-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM 30 m, OVRO 40 m, Effelsberg 100 m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results: The γ-ray/radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and γ-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during γ-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the γ-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest γ-ray state. The γ-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between γ-ray and radio flares could be established. Conclusions: If the γ-ray flux

  11. In vivo evaluation of a radiogallium-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical, Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the findings obtained by X-ray crystallography of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Ga-DOTA) chelates and the drug design concept of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals, we previously designed and synthesized a radiogallium-labeled DOTA chelate containing two metronidazole moieties, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging. As expected, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited high in vivo stability, although two carboxyl groups in the DOTA skeleton were conjugated with metronidazole moieties. In this study, we evaluated 67/68Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors. 67Ga-labeling of DOTA-MN2 with 67GaCl3 was achieved with high radiochemical yield (>85%) by 1-min of microwave irradiation (50 W). The pharmacokinetics of 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 were examined in mammary carcinoma (FM3A) tumor-bearing mice, and compared with those of 67Ga-DOTA-MN1 containing one metronidazole unit and '67Ga-DOTA. Upon administration, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited higher accumulation in the implanted tumors than '67Ga-DOTA. Tumor-to-blood ratios of 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 were about two-fold higher than those of 67Ga-DOTA-MN1. Autoradiographic analysis showed the heterogeneous localization of '67Ga-DOTA-MN2 in the tumors, which corresponds to hypoxic regions suggested by well-established hypoxia marker drug, pimonidazole. Furthermore, in positron emission tomography (PET) study, the tumors of mice administered '68Ga-labeled DOTA-MN2 were clearly imaged by small-animal PET at 1 h after administration. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of 67/68Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors and suggests that two functional moieties, such as metronidazole, can be conjugated to radiogallium-DOTA chelate without reducing the complex stability. The present findings provide useful information about the chemical design of radiogallium-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. (author)

  12. Advantages of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with p-GaN grown under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with p-GaN grown under high pressures are studied. It is shown that the high growth pressure could lead to better electronic properties of p-GaN layers due to the eliminated compensation effect. The contact resistivity of p-GaN layers are decreased due to the reduced donor-like defects on the p-GaN surface. The leakage current is also reduced, which may be induced by the better filling of V-defects with p-GaN layers grown under high pressures. The LED efficiency thus could be enhanced with high pressure grown p-GaN layers. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Dislocation reduction in GaN film using Ga-lean GaN buffer layer and migration enhanced epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GaN buffer layer grown under Ga-lean conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) was used to reduce the dislocation density in a GaN film grown on a sapphire substrate. The Ga-lean buffer, with inclined trench walls on its surface, provided an effective way to bend the propagation direction of dislocations, and it reduced the dislocation density through recombination and annihilation processes. As a result, the edge dislocation density in the GaN film was reduced by approximately two orders of magnitude to 2 x 108 cm-2. The rough surface of the Ga-lean buffer was recovered using migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE), a process of alternating deposition cycle of Ga atoms and N2 radicals, during the PAMBE growth. By combining these two methods, a GaN film with high-crystalline-quality and atomically-flat surface can be achieved by PAMBE on a lattice mismatch substrate.

  14. Polarization-induced Zener tunnel diodes in GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Wenjun; Islam, S. M.; Pourang, Kasra; Fay, Patrick [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep, E-mail: djena@cornell.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Departments of ECE and MSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-10-19

    By the insertion of thin In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers into Nitrogen-polar GaN p-n junctions, polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions are studied. The reverse-bias interband Zener tunneling current is found to be weakly temperature dependent, as opposed to the strongly temperature-dependent forward bias current. This indicates tunneling as the primary reverse-bias current transport mechanism. The Indium composition in the InGaN layer is systematically varied to demonstrate the increase in the interband tunneling current. Comparing the experimentally measured tunneling currents to a model helps identify the specific challenges in potentially taking such junctions towards nitride-based polarization-induced tunneling field-effect transistors.

  15. Temperature coefficients for GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, Arto; Isoaho, Riku; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Aho, Timo; Raappana, Marianna; Guina, Mircea [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-09-28

    We report the temperature coefficients for MBE-grown GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb multijunction solar cells and the corresponding single junction sub-cells. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements were carried out using a solar simulator equipped with a 1000 W Xenon lamp and a three-band AM1.5D simulator. The triple-junction cell exhibited an efficiency of 31% at AM1.5G illumination and an efficiency of 37–39% at 70x real sun concentration. The external quantum efficiency was also measured at different temperatures. The temperature coefficients up to 80°C, for the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current density, and the conversion efficiency were determined to be −7.5 mV/°C, 0.040 mA/cm{sup 2}/°C, and −0.09%/°C, respectively.

  16. Temperature coefficients for GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Arto; Isoaho, Riku; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Aho, Timo; Raappana, Marianna; Guina, Mircea

    2015-09-01

    We report the temperature coefficients for MBE-grown GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb multijunction solar cells and the corresponding single junction sub-cells. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements were carried out using a solar simulator equipped with a 1000 W Xenon lamp and a three-band AM1.5D simulator. The triple-junction cell exhibited an efficiency of 31% at AM1.5G illumination and an efficiency of 37-39% at 70x real sun concentration. The external quantum efficiency was also measured at different temperatures. The temperature coefficients up to 80°C, for the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current density, and the conversion efficiency were determined to be -7.5 mV/°C, 0.040 mA/cm2/°C, and -0.09%/°C, respectively.

  17. Temperature coefficients for GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the temperature coefficients for MBE-grown GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb multijunction solar cells and the corresponding single junction sub-cells. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements were carried out using a solar simulator equipped with a 1000 W Xenon lamp and a three-band AM1.5D simulator. The triple-junction cell exhibited an efficiency of 31% at AM1.5G illumination and an efficiency of 37–39% at 70x real sun concentration. The external quantum efficiency was also measured at different temperatures. The temperature coefficients up to 80°C, for the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current density, and the conversion efficiency were determined to be −7.5 mV/°C, 0.040 mA/cm2/°C, and −0.09%/°C, respectively

  18. Polarization-induced Zener tunnel diodes in GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the insertion of thin InxGa1−xN layers into Nitrogen-polar GaN p-n junctions, polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions are studied. The reverse-bias interband Zener tunneling current is found to be weakly temperature dependent, as opposed to the strongly temperature-dependent forward bias current. This indicates tunneling as the primary reverse-bias current transport mechanism. The Indium composition in the InGaN layer is systematically varied to demonstrate the increase in the interband tunneling current. Comparing the experimentally measured tunneling currents to a model helps identify the specific challenges in potentially taking such junctions towards nitride-based polarization-induced tunneling field-effect transistors

  19. A new approach to grow C-doped GaN thick epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogova, D.; Siche, D.; Albrecht, M.; Irmscher, K.; Rost, H.J.; Fornari, R. [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Strasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Rudko, G.Yu. [V. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductors Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we employ a new method for growth of carbon-doped wurtzite crystalline GaN (GaN:C) based on vapour phase transport of Ga by the pseudohalide hydrogen cyanide HCN. GaN:C layers with a thicknesses from 10 to 100 {mu}m and up to 19 mm in size were grown from gallium melt and ammonia as feeding materials in a carbon-containing equipment. The properties of the GaN:C layers were characterized by low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL), High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and room-temperature Hall effect and Raman spectroscopy measurements. HRXRD studies demonstrated good crystalline quality of the thick GaN layers (the Rocking curve FWHMs are 570 arcsec for the (0004) reflection and 561 arcsec for the (10-14) reflection for 10 {mu}m thick samples). The LTPL and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the good optical and structural quality of the material. The carbon concentration measured by SIMS was 6x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, however, the room-temperature Hall effect experiments showed n-type conductivity. Carbon acceptor incorporation into GaN (from the transport agent) as well as the reason of its electrical overcompensation by unintentional impurities like oxygen and silicon is discussed. Ways of technological process improvement are proposed. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Novel Preclinical and Radiopharmaceutical Aspects of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: A New PET Tracer for Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of prostate cancer lesions by PET imaging of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has gained highest clinical impact during the last years. 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC represents a successful novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has recently demonstrated its suitability in individual first-in-man studies. The radiometal chelator HBED-CC used in this molecule represents a rather rarely used acyclic complexing agent with chemical characteristics favourably influencing the biological functionality of the PSMA inhibitor. The simple replacement of HBED-CC by the prominent radiometal chelator DOTA was shown to dramatically reduce the in vivo imaging quality of the respective 68Ga-labelled PSMA-targeted tracer proving that HBED-CC contributes intrinsically to the PSMA binding of the Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx pharmacophore. Owing to the obvious growing clinical impact, this work aims to reflect the properties of HBED-CC as acyclic radiometal chelator and presents novel preclinical data and relevant aspects of the radiopharmaceutical production process of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.

  1. Influence of internal electric fields on band gaps in short period GaN/GaAlN and InGaN/GaN polar superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structures of short period mGaN/nGayAl1−yN and mInyGa1-yN/nGaN superlattices grown along the wurtzite c axis have been calculated for different alloy compositions y and various small numbers m of well- and n of barrier-monolayers. The general trends in gap behavior can, to a large extent, be related to the strength of the internal electric field, E, in the GaN and InGaN quantum wells. In the GaN/GaAlN superlattices, E reaches 4 MV/cm, while in the InGaN/GaN superlattices, values as high as E ≈ 6.5 MV/cm are found. The strong electric fields are caused by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, the latter contribution dominating in InGaN/GaN superlattices. The influence of different arrangements of In atoms (indium clustering) on the band gap values in InGaN/GaN superlattices is examined

  2. Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Que, Christopher T. [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004 (Philippines); Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

  3. The Effects of a Low-Temperature GaN Interlayer on the Performance of InGaN/GaN Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An InGaN/GaN p—i—n solar cell inserted with a 5-nm low-temperature (LT) GaN interlayer between the p-GaN cap layer and the InGaN i-layer is grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The effects of the LT GaN interlayer on the performance of the InGaN/GaN solar cells are investigated. It is found that the LT-GaN interlayer prevents the extension of threading dislocations from the InGaN layer to the p-GaN layer and improves the crystal quality of both the p-GaN cap layer and the InGaN i-layer, ultimately leading to an increasing external quantum efficiency and photocurrent density of the InGaN/GaN solar cells

  4. Towards Dynamic Generation of Computational Agents by Means of Logical Descriptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Beuster, G.

    Paris : UTBM/LST, 2007, s. 17-28. [MASUPC'07. International Workshop on Multi - agent System Challenges for Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing. Paris (FR), 02.05.2007-04.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computational intelligence * multi agent system s * ubiquitous computing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Midinfrared GaInSb/AlGaInSb quantum well laser diodes grown on GaAs. .

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, G. R.; S. J. Smith; Coomber, S D; Przeslak, S.; Andreev, A.; Carrington, P.; Yin, M.; Krier, A; Buckle, L.; Emeny, M. T.; Ashley, T.

    2007-01-01

    The realization of midinfrared GaInSb/AlGaInSb type I quantum well diode lasers grown on GaAs is reported. Lasing was observed up to 95 K, at an emission wavelength of similar to 3.5 mu m, threshold current density of 115 A/cm(2), and with a characteristic temperature T-0 similar to 51 K.

  6. Growth and characterization of InGaN nanodots hybrid with InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform InGaN nanodots were successfully grown on SiO2 pretreated GaN surface. It was found that the InGaN nanodots were 20 nm in diameter and 5 nm in height, approximately. After the growth of two periods of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on the surface of InGaN nanodots, nanodot structure still formed in the InGaN well layer caused by the enhanced phase separation phenomenon. Dual-color emissions with different behavior were observed from photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of InGaN nanodots hybrid with InGaN/GaN quantum wells. A significant blueshift and a linewidth broadening were measured for the low-energy peak as the increase of PL excitation power, while a slight blueshift and a linewidth narrowing occurred for the high-energy peak. Accordingly, these two peaks were assigned to be from the In-rich nanodots and quantized state transition from the InGaN/GaN quantum wells with indium content, respectively. (orig.)

  7. Electrical Characteristics of InGaN/AlGaN and InGaN/GaN MQW Near UV-LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Sen; YU Tong-Jun; HUANG Liu-Bing; JIA Chuan-Yu; PAN Yao-Bo; YANG Zhi-Jian; CHEN Zhi-Zhong; QIN Zhi-Xin; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Ino.05Gao.95N/AJo.07Gao.93N and Ino.05Gao.95N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) at 400 nm wavelength are measured. It is found that for In-GaN/AlGaN MQW LEDs, both ideality factor and parallel resistance are similar to those of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs, while series resistance is two times larger. It is suggested that the AJ0.07Ga0.93N barrier layer did not change crystal quality and electrical characteristic ofp-n junction either, but brought larger series resistance. As a result, InGaN/AlGaN MQW LEDs suffer more serious thermal dissipation problem although they show higher light output efficiency.

  8. Actions and Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the notion of agency in AI is presented..It has been argued that in order to behave rationally in prevalent software applications artificial entities would have to be autonomous and adaptive. Besides, rather than working with single, isolated systems the new trend in AI would need to focus on inherently social entities in the form of multi-agent systems. The chapter begins by introducing the notion of action in traditional AI systems, deliberative and reactive. Next, the i...

  9. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  10. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  11. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant

  12. Characteristics of GaN/InGaN Double-Heterostructure Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The p-GaN/i-InxGa1−xN/n-GaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic (PV cells have been fabricated and the theoretical photovoltaic properties were also calculated in this work. From theoretical simulation, higher efficiency can be obtained in GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with higher In composition in i-InGaN intrinsic layer. GaN/InGaN double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14% were fabricated and characterized for demonstrating with the simulated results. The corresponding photoelectrical conversion efficiency of fabricated GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14% is 0.51%, 0.53%, and 0.32% under standard AM 1.5G measurement condition, respectively. GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells with In composition of 10% showed high open-circuit voltage (Voc of 2.07 V and fill factor (F.F. of 80.67%. The decrease of Voc and FF was observed as In composition increasing from 10% to 14%. For comparing with the fabricated GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells, theoretical conversion efficiency of GaN/InGaN photovoltaic cells with In compositions of 10%, 12%, and 14%, is 1.80%, 2.04%, and 2.27%, respectively. The difference of GaN/InGaN photovoltaic properties between theoretical simulation and experimental measurement could be attributed to the inferior quality of InGaN epilayer and GaN/InGaN interface generated as the increase of In composition.

  13. Ultraviolet Phototransistors on AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; JIANG Wen-Hai; REN Chun-Jiang; LI Zhong-Hui; JIAO Gang; DONG Xun; CHEN Tang-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of phototransistors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown over 6H-SiC substrates. The device has two functions: as a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and an ultraviolet photodetector at the same time. As an HEMT, its maximum transconductance is 170 mS/mm, while the minimum cutoff frequency fT and the maximum oscillation frequency fm axe 19 and 35 GHz, respectively.As a photodetector, the device is visible blind, with an ultraviolet/green contrast of three orders of magnitude,and a responsivity as high as 1700 A/W at the wavelength of 362nm.

  14. InGaN/GaN Nanowire LEDs and Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The large specific surface, and the associated high density of surface states was found to limit the light output power and quantum efficiency of nanowire-array devices, despite their potential for addressing the “green-gap” and efficiency-droop issues. The phonon and carrier confinement in nanowires also led to junction heating, and reduced heat dissipation. In this paper, we will present our studies on effective surface states passivation in InGaN/GaN quantum-disks (Qdisks)-in-nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers grown on silicon (Si), as well as our recent work on nanowires LEDs grown on bulk-metal, a non-conventional substrate.

  15. SAM : Semantic Agent Model for SWRL rule-based agents

    OpenAIRE

    Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience SemanticWeb technologies are part of multi-agent engineering, especially regarding knowledge base support. Recent advances in the field of logic for the semantic web enable a new range of applications. Among them, programming agents based on semantic rules is a promising field. In this paper we present a semantic agent model that allows SWRL programming of agents. Our approach, based on the extended finite state machine concept, results in a three layers architecture...

  16. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  17. InGaN/GaN Tunnel Junctions For Hole Injection in GaN Light Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    InGaN/GaN tunnel junction contacts were grown on top of an InGaN/GaN blue (450 nm) light emitting diode wafer using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The tunnel junction contacts enable low spreading resistance n-GaN top contact layer thereby requiring less top metal contact coverage on the surface. A voltage drop of 5.3 V at 100 mA, forward resistance of 2 x 10-2 ohm cm2 and a higher light output power are measured in tunnel junction LED. A low resistance of 5 x 10-4 ohm cm2 was measur...

  18. Development of novel radiogallium-labeled bone imaging agents using oligo-aspartic acid peptides as carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Ogawa

    Full Text Available (68Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET. Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting (68Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA-(Aspn (n = 2, 5, 8, 11, or 14 with easy-to-handle (67Ga, with the previously described (67Ga-DOTA complex conjugated bisphosphonate, (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. After synthesizing DOTA-(Aspn by a Fmoc-based solid-phase method, complexes were formed with (67Ga, resulting in (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn with a radiochemical purity of over 95% after HPLC purification. In hydroxyapatite binding assays, the binding rate of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn increased with the increase in the length of the conjugated aspartate peptide. Moreover, in biodistribution experiments, (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp8, (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp11, and (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp14 showed high accumulation in bone (10.5 ± 1.5, 15.1 ± 2.6, and 12.8 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively but were barely observed in other tissues at 60 min after injection. Although bone accumulation of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn was lower than that of (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP, blood clearance of (67Ga-DOTA-(Aspn was more rapid. Accordingly, the bone/blood ratios of (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp11 and (67Ga-DOTA-(Asp14 were comparable with those of (67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. In conclusion, these data provide useful insights into the drug design of (68Ga-PET tracers for the diagnosis of bone disorders, such as bone metastases.

  19. Wallace'il ja Gromitil läheb hästi, isegi väga / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    PÖFFi animafilmide festivali "Animated Dreams" ja Nukufilmi 50. juubeli külaline, Bristolis asuva kuulsa Aardman stuudio asutajaid ja režissöör Peter Lord räägib oma stuudiost. Lisatud on teade konverentsi "Voodoo hing" esinejate kohta, kus peale P. Lordi on veel rohkesti rahvusvahelisi kuulsusi

  20. Chemisorption of Al and Ga on the GaAs (110) surface

    OpenAIRE

    Swarts, C. A.; Barton, J J; Goddard, W. A.; T. C. Mcgill

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the initial stages of the chemisorption of Al and Ga on the clean GaAs (110) surface by applying quantum chemical methods to small clusters representing Al or Ga on GaAs (110). These calculations suggest that at smallest coverages Al or Ga bind to a surface Ga atom; for higher coverages Al and the surface Ga interchange positions. We have obtained the binding energy, the chemical shifts of the Ga–3d, As–3d and Al–2p states, and the microscopic dipole associated with chemisorpt...