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Sample records for agent sulfur mustard

  1. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sulfur Mustard What sulfur mustard is Sulfur mustard is a type of ... it is in liquid or solid form. Where sulfur mustard is found and how it is used ...

  2. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness. PMID:27107236

  3. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  4. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  5. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  6. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).

  7. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  8. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur m...

  9. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  10. Sulfur Mustard Toxicity Following Dermal Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Paromov, Victor; Suntres, Zacharias; Smith, Milton; Stone, William L

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (bis-2-(chloroethyl) sulfide) is a chemical warfare agent (military code: HD) causing extensive skin injury. The mechanisms underlying HD-induced skin damage are not fully elucidated. This review will critically evaluate the evidence showing that oxidative stress is an important factor in HD skin toxicity. Oxidative stress results when the production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS) exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense mec...

  11. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event

  12. "Immunobiological Consequences of Sulfur Mustard Contamination "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Mohammad Hassan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard has been employed in chemical warfare in certain regions including Iran. The short and long term biological effects of sulfur mustard contamination have been studied in both basic and clinical aspects. Sulfur mustard has been shown to induce a vast array of pathological effects in affected persons. In addition to skin, lung, eyes and gastrointestinal disturbances, sulfur mustard has been shown to induce hematological complications and a severe suppression of the immune system. The short and long term immunological (both cellular and humoral, hematological, genetic and biochemical consequences of persons exposed to sulfur mustard are extensively reviewed here. The long term complications of these patients indicate the need to develop effective preventive and therapeutic strategies in the clinic. These strategies may be based upon immunopotentiating intervention and therapy.

  13. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  14. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  15. Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Panahi, Yunes; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2011-05-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims. PMID:21329486

  16. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  17. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  18. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m2 g−1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  19. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  20. Multiphoton imaging the disruptive nature of sulfur mustard lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werrlein, Robert J.; Braue, Catherine R.; Dillman, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide] is a vesicating agent first used as a weapon of war in WWI. It causes debilitating blisters at the epidermal-dermal junction and involves molecules that are also disrupted by junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and other blistering skin diseases. Despite its recurring use in global conflicts, there is still no completely effective treatment. We have shown by imaging human keratinocytes in cell culture and in intact epidermal tissues that the basal cells of skin contain well-organized molecules (keratins K5/K14, α6β4 integrin, laminin 5 and α3β1 integrin) that are early targets of sulfur mustard. Disruption and collapse of these molecules is coincident with nuclear displacement, loss of functional asymmetry, and loss of polarized mobility. The progression of this pathology precedes basal cell detachment by 8-24 h, a time equivalent to the "clinical latent phase" that defines the extant period between agent exposure and vesication. Our images indicate that disruption of adhesion-complex molecules also impairs cytoskeletal proteins and the integration of structures required for signal transduction and tissue repair. We have recently developed an optical system to test this hypothesis, i.e., to determine whether and how the early disruption of target molecules alters signal transduction. This environmentally controlled on-line system provides a nexus for real-time correlation of imaged lesions with DNA microarray analysis, and for using multiphoton microscopy to facilitate development of more effective treatment strategies.

  1. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansour Razavi Seyed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980–1988. More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic.

  2. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980--1988. More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic.

  3. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-07-15

    Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

  4. Protein Changes in Sulfur Mustard Exposure: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminin-5, a heterotrimer of laminin α3, β3, and γ2 subunits, is a component of the skin basal epithelium. Laminin-5 functions as a ligand of the α3β1 and α6β4 integrins in epidermal keratinocytes to regulate cell adhesion, migration, morphogenesis, and assembly of basement membranes; thus it is essential for a stable attachment of the epidermis to the dermis and recovery of damaged skin. Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare and terrorism agent. Skin exposure to SM results in fluid-filled blisters; proposed mechanisms are inflammation, protease stimulation, basal cell death, and separation of the epidermis from the dermis apparently due to the degradation of attachment proteins like laminin-5. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SM exposure on the degradation of laminin-5 by exposing normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to SM (0-300 μM, 1-24 hours). We found that SM degraded laminin-5 and its two subunits β3 and γ2, but not α3. Preincubation of cells with a serine protease inhibitor (PMSF), or a metalloprotease inhibitor (1, 10-phenanthroline) prior to SM exposure partially prevented SM-induced degradation of laminin-5 subunits, β3 and γ2. Regarding specificity, laminin-5 γ2 was degraded due to a bifunctional mustard compound like SM, but not due to the other alkylating agents tested. Our results support that laminin-5 degradation is an important mechanism of SM injury as well as a useful biomarker of SM exposure. This knowledge of the mechanism of laminin-5 degradation due to SM has potential application in developing cutaneous therapeutics against SM.(author)

  5. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied

  6. Historical perspective on effects and treatment of sulfur mustard injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John S; Schoneboom, Bruce A

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide; SM) is a potent vesicating chemical warfare agent that poses a continuing threat to both military and civilian populations. Significant SM injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in long-term complications affecting the skin, eyes, and lungs. This report summarizes initial and ongoing (chronic) clinical findings from SM casualties from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), with an emphasis on cutaneous injury. In addition, we describe the cutaneous manifestations and treatment of several men recently and accidentally exposed to SM in the United States. Common, chronic cutaneous problems being reported in the Iranian casualties include pruritis (the primary complaint), burning, pain, redness, desquamation, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, erythematous papular rash, xerosis, multiple cherry angiomas, atrophy, dermal scarring, hypertrophy, and sensitivity to mechanical injury with recurrent blistering and ulceration. Chronic ocular problems include keratitis, photophobia, persistent tearing, sensation of foreign body, corneal thinning and ulceration, vasculitis of the cornea and conjunctiva, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Chronic pulmonary problems include decreases in lung function, bronchitis with hyper-reactive airways, bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, stenosis of the trachea and other large airways, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, decreased total lung capacity, and increased incidences of lung cancer, pulmonary infections, and tuberculosis. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management; current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. New strategies are needed to provide for optimal and rapid healing, with the goals of (a) returning damaged tissue to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest period of time, and (b) ameliorating chronic

  7. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7-1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNFα and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells are highly resistant to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Annette; Scherer, Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    The effect of sulfur mustard (SM) to the direct injured tissues of the skin, eyes and airways is well investigated. Little is known about the effect of SM to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, this is an interesting aspect. Comparing the clinical picture of SM it is known today that MSC play an important role e.g. in chronic impaired wound healing. Therefore we wanted to get an understanding about how SM affects MSC and if these findings might become useful to get a better understanding of the effect of sulfur mustard gas with respect to skin wounds. We used mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from femoral heads from healthy donors and treated them with a wide range of SM to ascertain the dose-response-curve. With the determined inhibitory concentrations IC1 (1μM), IC5 (10μM), IC10 (20μM) and IC25 (40μM) we did further investigations. We analyzed the migratory ability and the differentiation capacity under influence of SM. Already very low concentrations of SM demonstrated a strong effect to the migratory activity whereas the differentiation capacity seemed not to be affected. Putting these findings together it seems to be likely that a link between MSC and the impaired wound healing after SM exposure might exist. Same as in patients with chronic impaired wound healing MSC had shown a reduced migratory activity. The fact that MSC are able to tolerate very high concentrations of SM and still do not lose their differentiation capacity may reveal new ways of treating wounds caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:23933411

  9. Sulfur mustard destruction using ozone, UV, hydrogen peroxide and their combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous methods are used for destruction of sulfur mustard. Oxidation is one of those methods. There have been only limited data concerning application of the advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) for mustard destruction available before. In this study sulfur mustard oxidation rate depending on kind of the oxidative system and process parameters used was assessed using selected AOT. The following were selected for mustard oxidation: ozone (O3), UV light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); double systems: UV/O3, UV/H2O2, and O3/H2O2; a triple system: O3/H2O2/UV and Fenton reaction. Effectiveness of the selected AOT methods has been evaluated and the most suitable one for mustard destruction was chosen. Using ozone in various combinations with hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation mustard can be destroyed much quicker comparing to the classical oxidizers. Fast mustard oxidation (a few minutes) occurred in those systems where ozone alone was used, or in the following combinations: O3/H2O2, O3/UV and O3/H2O2/UV. When those advanced oxidation technologies are used, mustard becomes destroyed mainly in course of the direct oxidation with ozone, and reactions of mustard with radicals formed due to ozone action play a secondary role. Rate of sulfur mustard oxidation in the above mentioned ozone-containing oxidative systems decreases with pH value increasing from 2 to 12. Only when pH value of reaction solutions is close to pH 5, mustard oxidation rate is minimal, probably due to 'disappearance' of radicals participating in oxidation in this pH. Sulfur mustard can be most effectively destroyed using just ozone in pH 7. In that case mustard destruction rate is only slightly lower than the rate achieved in optimal conditions, and the system is the simplest

  10. Reduced sulfur mustard-induced skin toxicity in cyclooxygenase-2 knockout and celecoxib-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a potent vesicant and chemical warfare agent, induces tissue damage involving an inflammatory response, including vasodilatation, polymorphonuclear infiltration, production of inflammatory mediators, and cyclooxygenase activity. To evaluate the role of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1, COX-2) in sulfur mustard-induced skin toxicity, we applied the agent to the ears of wildtype (WT) and COX-1- and COX-2-deficient mice. In the latter, ear swelling 24 and 48 h after exposure was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 55% and 30%, respectively, compared to WT. Quantitative histopathology revealed no epidermal ulceration in COX-2-deficient mice but some degree of severity in WT. COX-2-deficient mice showed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in severity of epidermal necrosis (29%), acute inflammation (42%), and hemorrhage (25%), compared to the WT mice. COX-1 deficiency resulted in significant exacerbation (P < 0.05) in severity of some parameters, including increases of 4.6- and 1.2-fold in epidermal ulceration and epidermal necrosis, respectively, compared to WT. Postexposure treatment of normal male ICR mice with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib resulted in significant reductions of 27% (P < 0.05) and 28% (P < 0.01) in ear swelling at intervals of 40 and 60 min between exposure and treatment, respectively. Histopathological evaluation revealed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in subepidermal microblister formation (73%) and dermal necrosis (32%), compared to the control group. These findings may indicate that COX-2 participates in the early stages of sulfur mustard-induced acute skin toxicity and that COX-1 might exert some protective function against this chemical insult

  11. HO1 mRNA and Protein do not Change in Parallel in Bronchial Biopsies of Patients After Long Term Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Nourani; Samaneh Yazdani; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Majid Ebrahimi; Raheleh Halabian; Leila Mirbagheri; Mostafa Ghanei; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), is an alkylating agent and has been emerged as a chemical weapon in various battlefields. More recently, SM was employed in the Iraq conflict against Iranian military forces and civilians. Nowadays there are more than 40,000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to mustard gas in Iran. SM causes the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzyme for heme ...

  12. Smad Molecules Expression Pattern in Human Bronchial Airway Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Adelipour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Airway remodelling is characterized by the thickening and reorganization of the airways seen in mustard  lung patients. Mustard lung is the  general description  for  the  chronic obstructive  pulmonary  disease induced  by  sulfur  mustard(SM. Pulmonary  disease was diagnosed as the most important  disorder in individuals that had been exposed to sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent developed during Wars. Iraqi forces frequently used it against Iranian during Iran –Iraq in the 1980–1988. Peribronchial fibrosis result  from  airway remodeling  that  include  excess  of  collagen of  extracellular matrix deposition  in  the  airway wall. Some of  Smads families in  association with TGF-β  are involved in airway remodeling due to lung fibrosis. In the present study we compared the mRNA expression of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 and Smad7 genes in airway wall biopsies of chemical-injured patients with non-injured patients as control.We used airway wall biopsies of ten unexposed patients and fifteen SM-induced patients. Smads expression was evaluated by RT-PCR followed by bands densitometry.Expression levels of Smad3 and Smad4 in SM exposed patients were upregulated but Smad2 and Smad7 was not significantly altered.Our results revealed that Smad3, and 4 may be involved in airway remodeling process in SM induced  patients  by  activation of  TGF-β.  Smad pathway is  the  most  represented signaling mechanism for  airway remodeling and  peribronchial fibrosis. The  complex of Smads in the nucleus affects a series of genes that results in peribronchial fibrosis in SM- induced patients.

  13. Mustard vesicating agent-induced toxicity in the skin tissue and silibinin as a potential countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to the vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) causes severe skin injury with delayed blistering. Depending upon the dose and time of their exposure, edema and erythema develop into blisters, ulceration, necrosis, desquamation, and pigmentation changes, which persist weeks and even years after exposure. Research advances have generated data that have started to explain the probable mechanism of action of vesicant-induced skin toxicity; however, despite these advances, effective and targeted therapies are still deficient. This review highlights studies on two SM analogs, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and NM, and CEES- and NM-induced skin injury mouse models that have substantially added to the knowledge on the complex pathways involved in mustard vesicating agent-induced skin injury. Furthermore, employing these mouse models, studies under the National Institutes of Health Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats program have identified the flavanone silibinin as a novel therapeutic intervention with the potential to be developed as an effective countermeasure against skin injury following exposure to mustard vesicating agents. PMID:27326543

  14. Effect of doxycycline on sulfur mustard-induced respiratory lesions in guinea pigs. : Doxycycline Prevents SM-Induced Respiratory Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Guignabert, Christophe; Taysse, Laurent; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Planus, Emmanuelle; Delamanche, Séraphin; Galiacy, Stéphane; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory tract lesions induced by the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) are characterized by epithelial damages associated with inflammatory cell infiltration. Here we evaluated the imbalance between gelatinase and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and we tested pretreatment with the protease inhibitor doxycycline. Guinea pigs were intoxicated intratracheally with SM and evaluated 24 h after exposure. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gelatinase activity of bronchial l...

  15. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Barker Peter E; Xiao Yan; Ray Radharaman; Gao Xiugong; Ray Prabhati

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using ...

  16. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Imani; Yunes Panahi; Jafar Salimian; Junjiang Fu; Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl) sulphide) is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs express...

  17. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  18. Sulfur mustard destruction using ozone, UV, hydrogen peroxide and their combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popiel, Stanislaw [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: spopiel@wat.edu.pl; Witkiewicz, Zygfryd [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); ' Jan Kochanowski' Swietokrzyska Academy, Institute of Chemistry, 5, Checinska-Street, 25-020 Kielce (Poland); Chrzanowski, Michal [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-05-01

    Numerous methods are used for destruction of sulfur mustard. Oxidation is one of those methods. There have been only limited data concerning application of the advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) for mustard destruction available before. In this study sulfur mustard oxidation rate depending on kind of the oxidative system and process parameters used was assessed using selected AOT. The following were selected for mustard oxidation: ozone (O{sub 3}), UV light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}); double systems: UV/O{sub 3}, UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; a triple system: O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and Fenton reaction. Effectiveness of the selected AOT methods has been evaluated and the most suitable one for mustard destruction was chosen. Using ozone in various combinations with hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation mustard can be destroyed much quicker comparing to the classical oxidizers. Fast mustard oxidation (a few minutes) occurred in those systems where ozone alone was used, or in the following combinations: O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV and O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV. When those advanced oxidation technologies are used, mustard becomes destroyed mainly in course of the direct oxidation with ozone, and reactions of mustard with radicals formed due to ozone action play a secondary role. Rate of sulfur mustard oxidation in the above mentioned ozone-containing oxidative systems decreases with pH value increasing from 2 to 12. Only when pH value of reaction solutions is close to pH 5, mustard oxidation rate is minimal, probably due to 'disappearance' of radicals participating in oxidation in this pH. Sulfur mustard can be most effectively destroyed using just ozone in pH 7. In that case mustard destruction rate is only slightly lower than the rate achieved in optimal conditions, and the system is the simplest.

  19. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Imani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl sulphide is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs expression. It seems SM can induce the epigenetic modifications that are translated into change in gene expression. Classification of epigenetic modifications long after exposure to SM would clarify its mechanism and paves a better strategy for the treatment of SM-affected patients. In this study, we review the key aberrant epigenetic modifications that have important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and compared with mustard lung.

  20. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Mirbagheri; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi; Mostafa Ghanei; Mohammad Reza Nourani

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs,  and  respiratory  tract  in  Iranian  veterans.  The  most  common  disease  is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO)). SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are kn...

  1. Prophylactic Effect of Gossypin Against Percutaneously Administered Sulfur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANSHOO GAUTAM; R.VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective efficacy of gossypin(3,3',4',5,7,8-hexahydroxyflavone 8-glucoside)by administering it intraperitoneally,for dose,time,and vehicle dependent effects against sulphur mustard(SM),administered through percutaneous route in mice.Methods SM(diluted in PEG-300)was administered percutaneously.The protective efficacy of gossypin was evaluated by administering it intraperitoneally(50,100,200,and 400 mg/kg),in various vehicles (water,PEG-300 and DMSO),and time intervals(30 min prior,simultaneous and 2 h post).The time dependent protection of gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was also evaluated using selected biochemical variables(GSH,GSSG,MDA,total antioxidant status,Hb,WBC count,RBC count,glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase,and superoxide dismutase)and liver histology.The protection of gossypin by oral route was also evaluated against percutaneously administered SM.Results The protection against systemic toxicity of SM(LD50 8.1 mg/kg)was beRer when gossypin was given with PEG-300 (8.0 folds)than DMSO(5.7 folds).No protection was observed when gossypin was administered with water.Good protection (8.0 folds)was observed when gossypin was administered(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)at 30 min prior or simultaneous to SM exposure,but no protection was observed when gossypin was administered 2 h post to SM exposure.A significant weight loss was observed 7 days after SM administration(2 LD50),with a significant increase in RBC and Hb.A significant decrease in total antioxidant status of plasma,liver GSH and GSSG levels,and in the activities of glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase was also observed 7 days after SM administration.SM treated mouse liver also showed necrosis.A significant protection was observed when gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was administered either as a pretreatment(30 min before)or simultaneous treatment,and not as a post treatment(2 h).The protective efficacy of gossypin was better

  2. Calmodulin mediates sulfur mustard toxicity in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (SM) causes blisters in the skin through a series of cellular changes that we are beginning to identify. We earlier demonstrated that SM toxicity is the result of induction of both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis in human keratinocytes (KC). Because of its importance in apoptosis in the skin, we tested whether calmodulin (CaM) mediates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway induced by SM. Of the three human CaM genes, the predominant form expressed in KC was CaM1. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis revealed upregulation of CaM expression following SM treatment. To delineate the potential role of CaM1 in the regulation of SM-induced apoptosis, retroviral vectors expressing CaM1 RNA in the antisense (AS) orientation were used to transduce and derive stable CaM1 AS cells, which were then exposed to SM and subjected to immunoblot analysis for expression of apoptotic markers. Proteolytic activation of executioner caspases-3, -6, -7, and the upstream caspase-9, as well as caspase-mediated PARP cleavage were markedly inhibited by CaM1 AS expression. CaM1 AS depletion attenuated SM-induced, but not Fas-induced, proteolytic processing and activation of caspase-3. Whereas control KC exhibited a marked increase in apoptotic nuclear fragmentation after SM, CaM1 AS cells exhibited normal nuclear morphology up to 48 h after SM, indicating that suppression of apoptosis in CaM1 AS cells increases survival and does not shift to a necrotic death. CaM has been shown to activate the phosphatase calcineurin, which can induce apoptosis by Bad dephosphorylation. Interestingly, whereas SM-treated CaM1-depleted KC expressed the phosphorylated non-apoptotic sequestered form of Bad, Bad was present in the hypophosphorylated apoptotic form in SM-exposed control KC. To determine if pharmacological CaM inhibitors could attenuate SM-induced apoptosis via Bad dephosphorylation, KC were pretreated with the CaM-specific antagonist W-13 or its less active structural

  3. Photoassisted and photocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard using TiO2 nanoparticles and polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Sarabadani, Mansour; Ashrafi, Davood; Saeidian, Hamdollah; Babri, Mehran

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition of highly toxic chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide or HD), has been studied by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation on titania nanoparticles. Direct photolysis degradation of HD with irradiation system was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of HD was investigated in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyoxometalates embedded in titania nanoparticles in liquid phase at room temperature (33 ± 2 °C). Degradation products during the treatment were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas apparent first-order kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were slow (0.0091 min(-1)), the highest degradation rate is obtained in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles as nanophotocatalyst. Simultaneous photolysis and photocatalysis under the full UV radiation leads to HD complete destruction in 3 h. No degradation products observed in the presence of nanophotocatalyst without irradiation in 3 h. It was found that up to 90 % of agent was decomposed under of UV irradiation without TiO(2), in 6 h. The decontamination mechanisms are often quite complex and multiple mechanisms can be operable such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and elimination. By simultaneously carrying out photolysis and photocatalysis in hexane, we have succeeded in achieving faster HD decontamination after 90 min with low catalyst loading. TiO(2) nanoparticles proved to be a superior photocatalyst under UV irradiation for HD decontamination. PMID:22707206

  4. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  5. The Protective and Therapeutic Roles of Hexamethylenetetramine and N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Sulfur Mustard-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, M; SH Sadraie; GR Kaka; Z Abdi; R. Rezaie; M Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sulfur mustard(SM) is a strong alkylating agent that increases the formation of free radicals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the protective and therapeutic roles of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and N-acetyl-cysteine(NAC) in reduction of SM-induced oxidative stress in rat serum. Methods: In the present experimental study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups including: control group, SM group (an endotracheal injection of SM 0.5%/kg only once), HM...

  6. A Role for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Sulfur Mustard Analog 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide-Induced Lung Cell Injury and Antioxidant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Neal S; White, Carl W; Day, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur mustards (SMs) have been used as warfare agents since World War I and still pose a significant threat against civilian and military personnel. SM exposure can cause significant blistering of the skin, respiratory injury, and fibrosis. No antidote currently exists for SM exposure, but recent studies, using the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), have focused on the ability of antioxidants to prevent toxicity. Although antioxidants can prevent CEES-induc...

  7. Quenching action of monofunctional sulfur mustard on chlorophyll fluorescence: towards an ultrasensitive biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simerjit; Singh, Minni; Flora, Swaran Jeet Singh

    2013-11-01

    An ultrasensitive fluorimetric biosensor for the detection of chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) was developed using its monofunctional analogue. SM is a vesicant and a potent chemical threat owing to its direct toxic effects on eyes, lungs, skin and DNA. This work investigates the quenching action of the analyte on chlorophyll fluorescence as elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies suggesting the electrophilic attack of carbonium ion on nitrogens of the porphyrin moiety of chlorophyll. The properties of immobilisation matrix were optimised and scanning electron microscope observations confirmed improvement in pore size of sol-gels by addition of 32 % (v/v) glycerol, a feature enabling enhanced sensitivity towards the analyte. Chlorophyll embedded sol-gel was treated with increasing concentrations of monofunctional SM and the corresponding drop in maximum fluorescence intensity as measured by emission at 673 nm was observed, which varied linearly and had a detection limit of 7.68 × 10(-16) M. The biosensor was found to be 6 orders of magnitude more sensitive than the glass microfibre-based disc biosensor previously reported by us. PMID:23955347

  8. Relationship of oxidative stress with male infertility in sulfur mustard-exposed injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a cytotoxic and chemical agent that targets different tissues such as reproductive system. SM causes a wide variety of pathological effects on reproductive system such as disturbance in reproductive hormones, testis atrophy, spermatogenesis deficiency, low quality of sperm and fertility problem. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms of its adverse effects are still not well known. General events such as tissue damage, inflammation, DNA alkylation, cell membrane defects, apoptosis and cell death are observed frequently in SM-exposed subjects. Oxidative stress (OS and antioxidants depletion induced by SM seem to be one of the main factors that lead to low sperm quality and male infertility among exposed patients. It is believed that SM can trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation in reproductive system that can cause impaired spermatogenesis, sperm apoptosis and poor sperm quality as well as loss of tissue structure and function. Identification of these signaling pathways and molecules gives us valuable information regarding the mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive dysfunction and the way for developing a better clinical treatment. Therefore, in this review we aimed to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive system, the significance of oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which SM induces OS and antioxidants depletion in SM exposed men.

  9. Sulfur Mustard Exposure and Non-Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Shoeibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man was referred with a complaint of visual loss in his left eye and his best corrected visual acuity was 20/80. Slit lamp examination showed arborizing conjunctival vessels and dry eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography revealed a non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. Cardiovascular, rheumatologic, and hematologic work up showed no abnormal findings. An ascertained history of exposure to sulfur mustard during the Iran-Iraq war was documented in his medical history. Four sessions of intravitreal bevacizumab injections were done as needed. After two-year follow-up, visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/25 and macular edema was resolved without any need for further interventions. We conclude that sulfur mustard gas exposure may be considered as a predisposing factor for central retinal vein occlusion, as was found in our patient (an Iranian war veteran by excluding all yet known etiologies and predisposing factors.

  10. Nitric Oxide Alleviates Salt Stress Inhibited Photosynthetic Performance by Interacting with Sulfur Assimilation in Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur (S) on stomatal responses and photosynthetic performance was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 μM NO (as sodium nitroprusside) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (S) more prominently influenced stomatal behavior, photosynthetic and growth performance both in the absence and presence of salt stress. The chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized chloroplast thylakoids, but com...

  11. Sulfur mustard induces expression of metallothionein-1A in human airway epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nourani MR; Ebrahimi M; Roudkenar MH; Vahedi E; Ghanei M; AA Imani Fooladi

    2011-01-01

    Mohammad Reza Nourani1, Majid Ebrahimi1, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar3, Ensieh Vahedi1, Mostafa Ghanei1, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi21Chemical Injury Research Center; 2Microbial Product Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences; 3Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, IranBackground: Sulfur mustard can cause several long-term complications in the organs of individuals exposed to this toxic gas, and among these, pulmonary sequelae are the most important. Mo...

  12. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450’s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroe...

  13. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  14. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  15. Differential toxicity of sulfur mustard administered through percutaneous, subcutaneous, and oral routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (SM), chemically 2,2'-dichloro diethyl sulphide, is an incapacitating and extremely toxic chemical warfare agent. It causes serious blisters on contact with human skin. While screening various antidotes against its toxicity, we observed that SM was more toxic through percutaneous (p.c.) route compared to oral (p.o.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes. The LD50 of SM in female mice was found to be 5.7, 8.1 and 23.0 mg/kg through p.c., p.o., and s.c. routes, respectively. The body weight of the animals was monitored and it was found that percentage body weight loss was more in the p.c. route. There was significant DNA fragmentation in liver in all the three routes evaluated at 19.3 mg/kg dose of SM. The depletion of hepatic GSH content was found to be more in the p.c. route of exposure compared to s.c. route. There was significant reduction in WBC count in all the three routes of exposure. Histopathological evaluation of lung, liver, and spleen also showed that the damage was more in the p.c. route and severity of lesions was dependent on the dose of exposure. The most affected organ was liver by all the three routes. LD50 was also determined in male rats and it was found to be 2.4, 2.4, and 3.4 mg/kg through p.c., p.o. and s.c. routes respectively. Since skin contains maximum number of metabolically active and rapidly dividing cells, differential metabolism of SM cannot be ruled out. Probably, this is the first report of a chemical showing more toxicity through p.c. route compared to s.c. route

  16. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  17. Loss of expression of TGF-βs and their receptors in chronic skin lesions induced by sulfur mustard as compared with chronic contact dermatitis patients

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    Panahi Yunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM is a blister-forming agent that has been used as a chemical weapon. Sulfur mustard can cause damage in various organs, especially the skin, respiratory system, and eyes. Generally, the multiple complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency; it reacts with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipid membranes. TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine with multiple biological effects ranging from cell differentiation and growth inhibition to extracellular matrix stimulation, immunosuppression, and immunomodulation. TGF-β has 3 isoforms (TGF-β 1, 2, 3 and its signaling is mediated by its receptors: R1, R2 and intracellular Smads molecules. TGF-β has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF-βs and their receptors also have an important role in modulation of skin inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells, and wound healing, and they have been implicated in different types of skin inflammatory disorders. Methods Seventeen exposed SM individuals (48.47 ± 9.3 years, 17 chronic dermatitis patients (46.52 ± 14.6 years, and 5 normal controls (44.00 ± 14.6 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of TGF-βs and their receptors expressions was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Only TGF1was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results Our results showed significant decreases in the expression percentages of TGF-β 1, 2 and R1, R2 in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal subjects and significant decreases in the intensity of R1 and R2 expressions in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal controls. (P value Conclusions TGF-βs and their receptors appear to have a noticeable role in chronic inflammatory skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard.

  18. Comparison of fixation and processing methods for hairless guinea pig skin following sulfur mustard exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M.A.; Braue Jr, E.H.

    1992-12-31

    Ten anesthetized hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR were exposed to 10 pi of neat sulfur mustard (HD) in a vapor cup on their skin for 7 min. At 24 h postexposure, the guinea pigs were euthanatized and skin sections taken for histologic evaluation. The skin was fixed using either 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), McDowell Trump fixative (4CF-IG), Zenker`s formol-saline (Helly`s fluid), or Zenker`s fluid. Fixed skin sections were cut in half: one half was embedded in paraffin and the other half in plastic (glycol methacrylate). Paraffin-embedded tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin; plastic-embedded tissue was stained with Lee`s methylene blue basic fuchsin. Skin was also frozen unfixed, sectioned by cryostat, and stained with pinacyanole. HD-exposed skin was evaluated histologically for the presence of epidermal and follicular necrosis, microblister formation, epidermitis, and intracellular edema to determine the optimal fixation and embedding method for lesion preservation. The percentage of histologic sections with lesions varied little between fixatives and was similar for both paraffin and plastic embedding material. Plastic-embedded sections were thinner, allowing better histologic evaluation, but were more difficult to stain. Plastic embedding material did not infiltrate tissue fixed in Zenker`s fluid or Zenker`s formol-saline. Frozen tissue sections were prepared in the least processing time and lesion preservation was comparable to fixed tissue. It was concluded that standard histologic processing using formalin fixation and paraffin embedding is adequate for routine histopathological evaluation of HD skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig.... Sulfur mustard, Vesicating agents, Pathology, Hairless guinea pig model, Fixation.

  19. Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Transfer Overcomes the Inhibition of Wound Healing by Sulfur Mustard in a Human Keratinocyte In Vitro Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Ishida; Radharaman Ray; Jack Amnuaysirikul; Keiko Ishida; Prabhati Ray

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes extensive skin injury. Previously we reported that SM exposure resulted in suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression to inhibit the healing of scratch wounds in a cultured normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) model. Based on this finding, the present study was to use adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of iNOS to restore the nitric oxide (NO) supply depleted by exposure to SM and to evaluate the effect of N...

  20. Discrepancy between mRNA and Protein Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Ebrahimi; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi; Raheleh Halabian; Mostafa Ghanei; Hisatake Kondo; Mohammad Reza Nourani

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant that has been employed as a chemical weapon in various conflicts during the 20th century. More recently, mustard was used in the Iraq conflict against Iranian troops and civilians. At the present time there are more than 40.000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special bronchiolitis obliterans (BOs) due to mustard gas. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, NGAL...

  1. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Singh; Vimal Malviya; Anshoo Gautam; Ram Singh; Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate) and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide) are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent) toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostin...

  2. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mirbagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs,  and  respiratory  tract  in  Iranian  veterans.  The  most  common  disease  is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Superoxide dismutases (SODs are known as protective antioxidants against the harmful effects of ROS.Twenty exposed SM individuals (43.2±6.4 years, and 10 normal controls (41.3±2.5 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of SODs was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and mmunohistochemistry.Our  results  demonstrated  that  CuZnSOD   and  MnSOD  mRNA  were  up-regulated 2.79±1.09  and  2.49±1.11  folds, respectively in SM-injured patients  in comparison  with control  levels. In  contrast,  Immunohistochemistry  results  showed  downregulation  of CuZnSOD protein expression in SM injured patients.Our results revealed that SODs may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress due to mustard gas toxicity in airway wall of SM exposed patients.

  3. Zinc oxide nanocubes as a destructive nanoadsorbent for the neutralization chemistry of 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide: A sulfur mustard simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanocubes were surveyed for their destructive turn-over to decontaminate 2-chloro ethyl phenyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. Prior to the reaction, nanocubes were prepared through sol-gel method using monoethanolamine, diethylene glycol, and anhydrous citric acid as the stabilizing, cross linking/structure directing agents, respectively. The formation of nanoscale ZnO, the cubic morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical-adsorptive characteristics were certified by FESEM-EDS, TEM-SAED, XRD, FTIR, BET-BJH, H2-TPR, and ESR techniques. Adsorption and destruction reactions were tracked by GC-FID analysis in which the effects of polarity of the media, reaction time, and temperature on the destructive capability of the surface of nanocubes were investigated and discussed. Results demonstrated that maximum neutralization occurred in n-heptane solvent after 1/2h at 55°C. Kinetic study construed that the neutralization reaction followed the pseudo-second order model with a squared correlation coefficient and rate constant of 0.9904 and 0.00004gmg(-1)s(-1), respectively. Furthermore, GC-MS measurement confirmed the formation of 2-hydroxy ethyl phenyl sulfide (2-HEPS) and phenyl vinyl sulfide (PVS) as neutralization products that together with Bronsted and Lewis acid/base approaches exemplify the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the surface of zinc oxide nanocubes. PMID:27309947

  4. Efficacy of Tiotropium Bromide and Rehabilitation Treatment on Pulmonary Function of Patients With Sulfur Mustard Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary complication is the most common delayed toxic effect of sulfur mustard (SM) and it has no treatment so far. Objectives: To evaluate short-term therapeutic effects of inhaled tiotropium bromide and pulmonary rehabilitation on pulmonary function of patients with SM induced lung injury. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, using convenient sampling method, 54 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM exposure were recruited in Baqiyatallah Genera...

  5. Epidermal hydration and skin surface lipids in patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pouran Layegh; Masoud Maleki; Seyed Reza Mousavi; Hadis Yousefzadeh; Akram Momenzadeh; Shiva Golmohammadzadeh; Mahdi Balali-Mood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite almost the three decades passed since the chemical attacks of Iraqi′s army against the Iranian troops, some veterans are still suffering from long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning, including certain skin complaints specially dryness, burning, and pruritus. We thus aimed to evaluate the skin′s water and lipid content in patients with a disability of >25% due to complications of SM poisoning and compare them with a matched control group. Materials and Meth...

  6. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  7. Acute and chronic respiratory lesions induced by sulfur mustard in guinea pigs: Role of tachykinins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, J.H.; Trouiller, G.; Harf, A.

    1993-05-13

    We investigated in anesthetized guinea pigs the involvement of tachykinins in respiratory alterations after an airway intoxication by sulfur mustard (SM). Early lesions were evaluated after 5h. Respiratory system resistance (R) and compliance were measured by the occlusion method and airway microvascular permeability by measuring the Evans Blue dye concentration in the trachea and main bronchi. Two groups of animals were studied treated with capsaicin (which induces a tachykinin depletion) or by its vehicle. Capsaicin pretreatment had no effect on the measured parameters. We also measured 14 J after the intoxication tracheal epithelium neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (the main enzyme which degrades tachykinins). In addition bronchial responsiveness to exogenous substance P was studied in two groups of animals intoxicated with SM or not. Tracheal epithelium NEP activity was decreased from 0.448 + or 0.027 nmol.min- 1.mg protein- 1 in controls to 0. 182 + or 0.038 in intoxicated animals. Response to substance P was greater in intoxicated animals with R=2.98 + or - 1.57 cmH20.MI-1.s versus 0.35 + or 0.02 in controls, after 5.10-5 M aerosolized substance P These results suggest tachykinins are not preponderant in the early stage lesions but that bronchial hyperactivity is present at recovery, related to epithelium NEP depletion.

  8. Nitric oxide alleviates salt stress inhibited photosynthetic response by interacting with sulfur assimilation in mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehar eFatma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nitric oxide (NO and/or sulfur (S on stomatal and photosynthetic responses was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L. in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 µM NO (as sodium nitroprusside and 200 mg S kg-1 soil (excess-S more prominently influenced stomatal behaviour, photosynthetic and growth responses in the absence of salt stress and alleviated salt stress effects on photosynthesis. Plants receiving combined treatment of NO plus excess-S showed well-developed thylakoid membrane and properly stacked grana lamellae under salt stress, while the chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized thylakoids. Moreover, the leaves from the NO and excess-S treated plants exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress, induced activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys and glutathione (GSH reduced. These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation.The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic responses of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received excess-S. Thus, excess-S conditions may be adopted for higher impact of NO in the reversal of salt stress effects on photosynthesis.

  9. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Emami; Mohammad Talaei; Yunes Panahi; Amin Saburi; Mostafa Ghanei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks) and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 m...

  10. Protective effects of the thiol compounds GSH and NAC against sulfur mustard toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balszuweit, Frank; Menacher, Georg; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent causing blistering, inflammation and ulceration of the skin. Thiol compounds such as glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been suggested as potential antidotes. We investigated SM toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and used GSH and NAC to counteract its cytotoxic effects. Cells were treated with 1, 5 or 10mM GSH or NAC and exposed to 30, 100 or 300μM SM. Different treatment regimens were applied to model extra- and intra-cellular GSH/NAC effects on SM toxicity. Necrosis, apoptosis and interleukin-6 and -8 levels were determined 24h post-exposure. Necrosis and apoptosis increased with SM dose. Interleukin-6 and -8 production peaked at 100μM and decreased at 300μM probably due to reduced ability for interleukin biosynthesis. Intracellular GSH/NAC diminished necrosis induced by 100μM SM. Extracellular GSH/NAC protected against necrosis and apoptosis induced by 100 and 300μM SM. Interleukin-6 and -8 production, induced by 100μM SM was reduced by GSH/NAC. However, low-dose GSH/NAC treatment of cells exposed to 300μM SM led to increased interleukin production. Thus, moderately poisoned cells are mostly responsible for SM-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. GSH and NAC treatment can reduce SM-induced toxic effects. Protective effects were more pronounced by extracellular GSH or NAC administration. Rescue of severely poisoned cells may result in a strong secretion of pro- inflammatory cytokines. In summary, thiol compounds such as GSH or NAC constitute a promising approach to improve the therapy for SM injury. Additional intervention to prevent adverse effects of interleukin production might be beneficial. PMID:26361990

  11. Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products

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    John Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR, has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50 for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  12. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM

  13. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  14. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  15. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  16. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Peter E

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using SM-exposed normal human small airway epithelial (SAE cells and bronchial/tracheal epithelial (BTE cells. Cell viability, expression of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were examined, since these proinflammatory cytokines/mediators are import indicators of tissue inflammatory responses. We suggest that the influence of roxithromycin on SM-induced inflammatory reaction could play an important therapeutic role in the cytotoxicity exerted by this toxicant. Results MTS assay and Calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (EthD-1 fluorescence staining showed that roxithromycin decreased SM cytotoxicity in both SAE and BTE cells. Also, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-stimulated overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF at both the protein level and the mRNA level, as measured by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or real-time RT-PCR. In addition, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-induced overexpression of iNOS, as revealed by immunocytochemical analysis using quantum dots as the fluorophore. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that roxithromycin has inhibitory effects on the cytotoxicity and inflammation provoked by SM in human respiratory epithelial cells. The decreased cytotoxicity in roxithromycin-treated cells likely depends on the ability of the macrolide to down-regulate the production of proinflammatory

  17. Malignant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma among 1100 Iranian victims, two decades after exposure to sulfur mustard: a long term investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur Mustard ((SM; 2, 2 -dichlorethyl sulfide)) is a potent chemical warfare agent that was widely used during First World War and Iran -Iraq conflict. Over 100,000 Iranians were injured by sulfur mustard. This vesicant agent has a lot of acute and chronic destructive influences on the skin, eye and respiratory system. SM via the alkylation of DNA and several cellular proteins (structural, cytoplasmic and enzymes) and cell nuclei; produce several toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on epidermis, dermis, dermal appendix and hypodermics. In acute phases flexural locations and thin epidermal area such as groin, scrotum, and axilla and eyelids showed the most severe complication. According to scientific studies on chemical victims depression of cell-mediated immunity and also lower percentage of NK cell has been observed in SM exposure furthermore cytokines and other growth factors produced and secreted during epidermal and dermal regeneration of healing skin blisters. In reference to the last study about long term effect of SM the cutaneous signs and disorders could be categorized into 3 different groups. Conclusion Human data on the carcinogenicity of SM are from (a) battlefield exposures, (b) accidents, and (c) workers in chemical factories. Both British and American studies and other researchers have investigated the increased incidences of leukemia, pulmonary and skin carcinoma arising from World War I battlefield exposure. Clinical documentation in our cases shows notable and common signs, symptoms and data such as 1- Middle ages 2- Location of CTCL (folds and exposed areas) 3- The similarity between CTCL and SM scar (pigmentory and vascular changes) 4- Chronic dermatitis especially xerosis and eczema with itching before the beginning of CTCL. All of this study and data leads us to the conclusion that SM can possibly cause CTCL in indirect and direct way. CTCL can be caused indirectly due to prolonged period of chronic dermatitis (xerosis, eczema

  18. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Paromov; Sudha Kumari; Marianne Brannon; Kanaparthy, Naga S.; Hongsong Yang; Smith, Milton G.; Stone, William L

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD) and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-sol...

  19. Effect of Additive on Sulfur-fixation Process of Sulfur-fixation Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jun-lin; QIU Jian-rong; ZHAO Gai-ju; LOU Jin-ping; HAN Chun-hua

    2003-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of desulfurization product is directly related to its high-temperatureresistant ability. Effects of the additive on the sulfur-fixation efficiency of the Ba-sulfur-fixation agent and also on the crystallization behavior of the sulfur-fixation product were studied when CaCO3 and BaCO3 were used as the desulfurization agent and MgO and SrCO3 used as the assistant sulfur-fixation agent. The result shows that increase of sulfur-fixation capability for the additive is not owe to their directly react to form sulfate or interact with CaCO3 and BaCO3 to form composite mineral heat-resistant in high temperature, but owe to their activation to sulfur-fixation reaction of the sulfur-fixation agent.

  20. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostine and DRDE-07 were carried out in rats using a bodyplethysmograph fitted with a volumetric pressure transducer for sensing the respiratory flowsignals. The signals were amplified, digitised, and stored on a personal computer for furtheranalysis. After taking control recordings of respiratory signals, different doses (0.5 LD50, 1.0 LD50and 2.0 LD50 of amifostine and DRDE-07 were administered orally (LD50 amifostine = 2262 mg/kg; DRDE-07 = 1599 mg/kg, and the respiratory changes were monitored for 4 h. Amifostine andDRDE-07 showed a uniform breathing pattern even in 2.0 LD50 dose. However, a significant dosedependentdecrease in respiratory frequency was observed following amifostine administration.DRDE-07 did not show any significant change. The tidal volume was not altered significantlyboth in amifostine and DRDE-07 administered animals. The study shows that DRDE-07, even inlethal doses, may not affect the respiration immediately, whereas, amifostine may decrease therespiratory frequency.

  1. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  2. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yunes Panahi; Zohreh Poursaleh; Ali Amini-Harandi; Amin Saburi; Majid Shohrati; Mostafa Ghanei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM) induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR) theophylline, salmetrol, flux...

  3. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naghibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  4. Proteomic assessment of sulfur mustard-induced protein adducts and other protein modifications in human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some toxicological mechanisms of sulfur mustard (HD) have been uncovered, new knowledge will allow for advanced insight in the pathways that lead towards epidermal-dermal separation in skin. In the present investigation, we aimed to survey events that occur at the protein level in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) during 24 h after exposure to HD. By using radiolabeled 14C-HD, it was found that proteins in cultured HEK are significant targets for alkylation by HD. HD-adducted proteins were visualized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Several type I and II cytokeratins, actin, stratifin (14-3-3σ) and galectin-7 were identified. These proteins are involved in the maintenance of the cellular cytoskeleton. Their alkylation may cause changes in the cellular architecture and, in direct line with that, be determinative for the onset of vesication. Furthermore, differential proteomic analysis was applied to search for novel features of the cellular response to HD. Partial breakdown of type I cytokeratins K14, K16 and K17 as well as the emergence of new charge variants of the proteins heat shock protein 27 and ribosomal protein P0 were observed. Studies with caspase inhibitors showed that caspase-6 is probably responsible for the breakdown of type I cytokeratins in HEK. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of toxicological relevance and possible clues for therapeutic intervention

  5. The effects of sulfur mustard exposure and freezing on transdermal penetration of tritiated water through ex vivo pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, O J; Graham, S J; Dalton, C H; Spencer, P M; Mansson, R; Jenner, J; Azeke, J; Braue, E

    2013-02-01

    The percutaneous absorption of tritiated water ((3)H(2)O) through sulfur mustard (SM) exposed abdominal pig skin was measured using in vitro Franz-type static diffusion cells. The barrier function to water permeation following exposure to liquid SM for 8 min and excision 3h later did not change significantly. A small, but statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in steady state penetration (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp) and lag time (t(L)) of (3)H(2)O was observed between fresh skin and skin stored frozen (-20 °C) for up to two weeks. Steady-state penetration and Kp values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in skin stored frozen compared with fresh skin. Fresh naïve skin had an average Kp of 1.65 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen naïve skin was 2.04 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Fresh SM exposed skin had a mean Kp of 1.72 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen SM exposed skin was 2.31 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Lag times were also shorter (P<0.05) in skin that had been stored frozen. Frozen, SM-exposed porcine abdominal skin may be used for in vitro penetration studies, but effects of treatment and storage on the barrier layer should be taken into account. PMID:23041075

  6. Use of epr spin-trapping techniques to detect radicals from rat lung lavage fluid following sulfur mustard vapor exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Yourick, J.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Young, G.D.; Harris, L.W.

    1993-05-13

    Although well known for skin vesicating properties, pulmonary damage and associated infections account for most of the mortality associated with sulfur mustard (HD). We have employed an in vivo HD vapor exposure model, bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques to provide evidence for HD-induced (free radical/lipid peroxidation associated) lung injury. Anesthetized rats were intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.35 mg HD vapor over 50 min. Immediately, 1 hr or 24 hr after exposure, lungs were lavaged with the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN; 0.35 mg/ml). Recovered lavage fluid was assayed by EPR spectroscopy for radical spin adducts. Airway lipid extracts were assayed for thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARs); while separate groups of rats were used to evaluate histopathology. EPR results show the presence of an ascorbyl radical at 1 and 24 hr, and a carbon centered PBN spin adduct at 24 hr, both indicative of lipid peroxidation. TBAR (A532nm) formation was also detected at 24 hr. Histopathology revealed multifocal separation of the bronchial epithelium from the submucosa with little or no alveolar involvement at 24 hrs. These studies provide evidence that HD may affect lungs by a free radical mechanism which produces membrane and other tissue damage.

  7. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FTTM, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE2 synthases, leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  8. The Short-Term Effects of Sulfur Mustard Gas on the Complement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Keyhani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The serum levels of C3, C4, and the total hemolytic activity of complement system (CH50 of patients ex­posed to mustard gas (MG in the battlefield were measured in this study. Methods: C3 and C4 were measured by single radial immunodifusion and CH50 was evaluated according to total hemolytic activ­ity of the serum. Results:  The serum levels of C3 showed a significant increase on day 3 after exposure to MG. The serum levels of C3 in the sera of patients collected during 4-18 and 19-31 days after exposure to MG were also found to have increased significantly com­paring to those of the controls. The levels of C4 in the sera of patients collected from the patients during 4-18 and 19-31 days after exposure were also found to be significantly higher than those of the controls. However the increase in the serum lev­els of C4 were not in the same magnitude as those of the C3. The serum CH50, which is a measure of the total hemolytic activ­ity of classical complement system also showed a significant increase in patients' sera on day 3 and in the sera collected dur­ing 4-18 days after exposure. However, the CH50 in the sera of patients showed a decrease in the sera collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG. Conclusion: Since C3 is an acute phase protein as well as a complement component, these results are discussed in terms of a vigorous acute phase response and activation of the complement system.

  9. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target

    OpenAIRE

    Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Zhu, Angela Y.; Young, Kellie S.; Hillier, Shawn M.; Proffitt, Kyle D.; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action...

  10. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Won, E-mail: chyj7983@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research, The Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Nae [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Soo [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Ja [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong-Keun, E-mail: dksong@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  11. Fibrinogen and inflammatory cytokines in spontaneous sputum of sulfur-mustard-exposed civilians--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraee, Roya; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Rezaei, Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kazemi, Hadi; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Foroutan, Abbas; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) causes late complications in respiratory system of exposed individuals. In this preliminary study, the levels of IL-1α and β, TNF, IL-1Ra, IL-6 and fibrinogen in the spontaneous sputum of SM-exposed individuals were examined 20 years after exposure and the correlation with pulmonary function was tested. The participants were categorized into two major subgroups (hospitalized and non-hospitalized) based on the severity of the clinical complications immediately after exposure. Every participant was visited by a physician; the respiratory functions were checked using spirometry and were categorized as normal, mild, moderate or severe pulmonary complications. The levels of cytokines in the sputum and serum samples were measured using ELISA method. The mean values of TNF, IL-1α and IL-1β were 524.15, 115.15, 1951.33 pg/ml respectively, and the mean levels of IL-1Ra and IL-6 were 6410.52 and 124.44 pg/ml respectively; fibrinogen was 71.59 ng/ml and index of IL-Ra/IL-1β was 7.78. There was more TNF-α and IL-1β and less IL-1Ra and fibrinogen in the sputum of the hospitalized subgroup. The level of TNF-α and IL-1β also increased in moderate and severe pulmonary status comparing with the group with mild disorders, while fibrinogen was lower or decreased significantly in problematic patients. IL-1β and TNF showed positive correlation (r=0.5, and r=0.59, respectively); fibrinogen and IL1Ra/IL-1β have negative correlation with lung function according to the GOLD classification (r=-0.4, and r=-0.61, respectively). It is concluded that sputum cytokines and fibrinogen, reflect the degree of the severity of airway inflammation and the cytokine levels in the sputum might be completely different from the serum fluctuations. PMID:23375935

  12. Long term impact of sulfur mustard exposure on peripheral blood mononuclear subpopulations--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Kariminia, Amina; Yaraee, Roya; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Ardestani, Sussan K; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Mostafaie, Ali; Foroutan, Abbas; Rezaei, Abbas; Shams, Jalaleddin; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Soroush, Mohammad R; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammadreza; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Ajdary, Soheila; Darabi, Hiedeh; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Kazemi, Hadi; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2013-11-01

    The most important long-term morbidity problem of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is pulmonary complications but the pathogenesis of these complications is not clearly understood. This study evaluates the peripheral blood mononuclear sub-sets and their correlation with pulmonary function in SM exposed civilian cases 20 years post-exposure as gathered in the context of the Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS). Samples were randomly selected from two groups, SM-exposed (n=372) and control (n=128), with the same ethnicity, culture, and demography. Three color flow cytometry was applied for peripheral blood mononuclear sub-population determination. Results indicated a significant decrease in CD45+/CD3+, CD45+/CD3+/CD4+, and an increase in CD3+/CD16+56+ percentages. It was also found that absolute count of NK cells was highly increased in peripheral blood of exposed cases. There was a significant increase in NK cell count of SM exposed group with pulmonary problems as compared to the same group without pulmonary problems (p-value<0.04) based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). The findings showed a significant negative correlation between absolute numbers of T lymphocyte and FVC % and positive correlation with FEV1/FVC%. The results also demonstrated that absolute numbers of monocytes had a negative correlation with FVC %. We propose that NK and T cells are probably involved in the pathogenesis or immune reactions to the delayed pulmonary complications induced by SM. This hypothesis should be tested in a more severe pulmonary complicated group. PMID:23434855

  13. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca2+]i increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  14. Decontamination of Sulfur Mustard from Printed Circuit Board Using Zr-Doped Titania Suspension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Olšanská, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 9 (2013), s. 3436-3440. ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agents * nanofiber membranes * manganese oxide * metal-oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  15. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I R; Khan, Nafees A; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown without Ni stress. The H2O2 application also resulted in alleviation of photosynthetic inhibition induced by 200 mg Ni kg(-1) soil through increased photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), sulfur-use efficiency (SUE), and glutathione (GSH) reduced production together with decreased lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in both the cultivars. However, the effect of H2O2 was more pronounced in Varuna than RH30. The greater increase in photosynthetic-NUE and SUE and GSH production with H2O2 in Varuna resulted from higher increase in activity of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) assimilation enzymes, nitrate reductase and ATP-sulfurylase, respectively resulting in enhanced N and S assimilation. The increased N and S content contributed to the higher activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase under Ni stress. Application of H2O2 also regulated PS II activity and stomatal movement under Ni stress for maintaining higher photosynthetic potential in Varuna. Thus, H2O2 may be considered as a potential signaling molecule for augmenting photosynthetic potential of mustard plants under optimal and Ni stress conditions. It alleviates Ni stress through the regulation of stomatal and non-stomotal limitations, and photosynthetic-NUE and -SUE and GSH production. PMID:26870064

  17. Selection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and treatment regimen for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Buccellato, Matthew A; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S

    2016-09-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in sulfur mustard (HD) injury and HD pathogenesis, suggesting that anti-inflammatory treatments applied as soon as possible following HD injury may reduce tissue damage and accelerate healing. This study used the HD dermal weanling swine model to investigate the efficacy of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin and diclofenac, when applied in combination with the steroid, clobetasol. The therapeutic regimen was also investigated with respect to initiation of treatment post-exposure, frequency and duration. Yorkshire-cross pigs were randomly assigned to experimental groups, corresponding to all combinations of treatment (capsaicin with clobetasol or diclofenac with clobetasol), onset time (1, 2 or 4 h post-exposure), treatment duration (1, 3 or 5 days) and frequency of applications (2, 3 or 4 per day). For each animal, two sites on the ventral abdomen were exposed to 400 μL of neat HD for 8 min to achieve superficial dermal (SD) lesions and two sites were exposed to 400 μL neat HD for 30 min to achieve deep dermal (DD) lesions. Each treatment regimen was tested against a SD and a DD injury. Untreated SD and DD lesion sites served as within-animal controls. Assessments, up to one week post-challenge, included digital photographs, clinical assessments (lesion size measurements and modified Draize scoring), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reflectance colorimetry and histopathologic evaluations that included an estimate for depth of injury and wound healing parameters. Diclofenac plus clobetasol treatment resulted in significant reductions in lesion contracture and modified Draize scores, increased barrier function (decreased TEWL), and increased healing as determined by histopathology for both SD and DD injury when compared with untreated sites and sites treated with capsaicin plus clobetasol. An increased duration of treatment from 1 to 5 days was most commonly associated with decreased

  18. EVALUATIO OF MICROBIAL AGENTS AND BIO-PRODUCTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MUSTARD APHID, LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI (KALT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJENDRA NAGAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial agents (Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water,plant products (Tobacco, onion and neem seed kernel extract @ 5%, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha and dimethoate30EC @ 300 g a.i/ha were evaluated against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt. and their safety to naturalenemies and pollinators. Significantly higher aphid reduction was recorded under these treatments over thecontrol without any phytotoxic effect and found safe to natural enemies of mustard aphid and honeybee. Mostfavourable cost-benefit ratio was obtained under the treatment i.e. dimethoate 30 EC @ 300 g a.i/ha (1:38followed by neem seed kernel extract @ 5% (1:18, onion extract @ 5% (1:17, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha (1:11,Beauveria bassiana @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Verticillium lecanii @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Metarhiziumanisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water (1:8, tobacco extract @ 5% (1:6 and water spray (1:2.

  19. Comparison of the Lonidamine Potentiated Effect of Nitrogen Mustard Alkylating Agents on the Systemic Treatment of DB-1 Human Melanoma Xenografts in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Putt, Mary E.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Garman, Bradley; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Glickson, Jerry D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous NMR studies demonstrated that lonidamine (LND) selectively diminishes the intracellular pH (pHi) of DB-1 melanoma and mouse xenografts of a variety of other prevalent human cancers while decreasing their bioenergetic status (tumor βNTP/Pi ratio) and enhancing the activities of melphalan and doxorubicin in these cancer models. Since melphalan and doxorubicin are highly toxic agents, we have examined three other nitrogen (N)-mustards, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and bendamustine, to determine if they exhibit similar potentiation by LND. As single agents LND, melphalan and these N-mustards exhibited the following activities in DB-1 melanoma xenografts; LND: 100% tumor surviving fraction (SF); chlorambucil: 100% SF; cyclophosphamide: 100% SF; bendamustine: 79% SF; melphalan: 41% SF. When combined with LND administered 40 min prior to administration of the N-mustard (to maximize intracellular acidification) the following responses were obtained; chlorambucil: 62% SF; cyclophosphamide: 42% SF; bendamustine: 36% SF; melphalan: 10% SF. The effect of LND on the activities of these N-mustards is generally attributed to acid stabilization of the aziridinium active intermediate, acid inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, which acts as a scavenger of aziridinium, and acid inhibition of DNA repair by O6-alkyltransferase. Depletion of ATP by LND may also decrease multidrug resistance and increase tumor response. At similar maximum tolerated doses, our data indicate that melphalan is the most effective N-mustard in combination with LND when treating DB-1 melanoma in mice, but the choice of N-mustard for coadministration with LND will also depend on the relative toxicities of these agents, and remains to be determined. PMID:27285585

  20. Role of TNFR1 in lung injury and altered lung function induced by the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung toxicity induced by sulfur mustard is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. To elucidate mechanisms mediating pulmonary damage, we used 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. Male mice (B6129) were treated intratracheally with CEES (3 or 6 mg/kg) or control. Animals were sacrificed 3, 7 or 14 days later and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue collected. Treatment of mice with CEES resulted in an increase in BAL protein, an indication of alveolar epithelial damage, within 3 days. Expression of Ym1, an oxidative stress marker also increased in the lung, along with inducible nitric oxide synthase, and at 14 days, cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inflammatory proteins implicated in tissue injury. These responses were attenuated in mice lacking the p55 receptor for TNFα (TNFR1-/-), demonstrating that signaling via TNFR1 is key to CEES-induced injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation. CEES-induced upregulation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MnSOD was delayed or absent in TNFR1-/- mice, relative to WT mice, suggesting that TNFα mediates early antioxidant responses to lung toxicants. Treatment of WT mice with CEES also resulted in functional alterations in the lung including decreases in compliance and increases in elastance. Additionally, methacholine-induced alterations in total lung resistance and central airway resistance were dampened by CEES. Loss of TNFR1 resulted in blunted functional responses to CEES. These effects were most notable in the airways. These data suggest that targeting TNFα signaling may be useful in mitigating lung injury, inflammation and functional alterations induced by vesicants.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  2. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Uma Pathak; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 ...

  3. Optimized verification method for detection of an albumin-sulfur mustard adduct at Cys(34) using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer after direct plasma proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Siegert, Markus; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-02-26

    The vesicant sulfur mustard (SM) is a banned chemical warfare agent that is controlled by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Bioanalytical procedures are mandatory for proving an alleged use and incorporation of SM into the body. We herein present the development and application of a novel optimized procedure suitable for qualitative verification analysis of plasma targeting the SM-adduct of human serum albumin (HSA) alkylated at the cysteine(34) residue. Diluted human plasma is directly mixed with pronase in an ultrafiltration device (10kDa cut-off) for proteolysis (4h, 37°C). Following ultrafiltration the filtrate is diluted and analyzed by microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution tandem-mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI HR MS/MS) targeting the alkylated dipeptide hydroxyethylthioethyl-CysPro (HETE-CP). A hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer provided high mass spectrometric resolution in the MS/MS mode enabling highest selectivity and sensitivity (lower limit of detection corresponding to 9.8nM SM in plasma). Kinetics of HETE-CP formation from heparin-, citrate-, and EDTA-plasma as well as serum are presented and the influence of different EDTA and pronase concentrations was characterized. The novel procedure was applied to plasma samples provided by the OPCW as well as to patientś plasma derived from real cases of SM-poisoning. PMID:26449527

  4. CD4/CD8 ratio and cytokine levels of the BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis caused by sulfur mustard gas inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze cytokine levels in BAL fluid of patients with bronchiectasis due to mustard gas inhalation. Patients 29 victims with mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis and 25 normal veterans as control group. Intervention PFTs,, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, analyses of BAL fluids for five cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and flow-cytometric analysis of the phenotype of bronchoalveolar cells were performed in all cases. Results CD4 lymphocytes expressed as percentage or absolute number were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (32.17 ± 16.00 vs 23.40 ± 6.97%, respectively; p = 0.01; and 3.31 ± 2.03 vs 1.88 ± 0.83 × 103 cells/ml, respectively; p = 0.001. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (3.08 ± 2.05 vs 1.68 ± 0.78; p = 0.002. There were significant differences in cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 levels of BAL fluid between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy controls. A significant correlation was observed between the HRCT scores and both the percentage and the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes in BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis (r = -0.49, p = 0.009; r = -0.50, p = 0.008; respectively. HRCT scores showed a significant correlation with CD4/CD8 ratios (r = 0.54, p = 0.004 too. Of measured BAL cytokines, only IL-8 (r = -0.52, p = 0.005 and TNF-aα (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 showed significant correlations with the HRCT scores. Conclusion The increased levels of cytokines CD4 lymphocytes in the BAL fluid suggest the possible causative mechanism in the lung in sulfur mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung.

  5. Study on structural characteristics and adsorption performance of ultrasonic treated Mn-containing sulfur transfer agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiyu Jiang; Jiling Zhang; Lei Zhang; Qinfang Zhang; Guihua Hou; Ning Xu

    2014-01-01

    To prepare manganese-containing spinel sulfur transfer agent with acid peptization, ultrasonic wave is used for the first time to modify the structure of sulfur transfer agent in this work. Mini fixed bed reactor was used to investigate the effect of ultrasonic power, time and temperature on the structure and oxidation adsorption performance of sulfur transfer agent and the adsorption kinetics and mechanism of SO2 were analyzed. SEM, TEM, XRD and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques were employed to characterize and analyse the function of sulfur transfer agent. The results indicated that manganese-containing spinel is a kind of promising sulfur transfer agent and exhibits higher sulfur capacity and desulfurization degree under the selected conditions of the ultrasonic wave power of 60%, and with the treatment period for 3 h at a temperature of 60◦C.

  6. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gravett, Matthew R.; Hopkins, Farrha B.; Self, Adam J.; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M.; Matthew J. Baker

    2014-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve a...

  7. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR theophylline, salmetrol, fluxitide, omeprazole and NAC (study group were compared to a group of age and gender matched SM-exposed patients who received same medications except oral SR theophylline (historical control group. PFTs were measured at the beginning of the study and after 8 weeks of the treatment.Results: In total, 33 subjects in the study group and 27 subjects in the control group were studied. Mean (SD age of all subjects was 51 (14.1 years. In the study group, on the 8th week post-treatment, PFTs decreased, though the differences of tests between before and after treatment were not significant. In the control group, all the tests decreased in the same period and these reductions were not also significant. However, the changes in PFTs were significantly different between the two groups. The results of most PFTs in the controls decreased in greater extents compared to theophylline treated patients. This shows that despite theophylline was unable to improve the patients; it was partially able to decelerate the reductions in PFTs.Conclusion: Theophylline may not improve PFTs of SM exposed patients but it may decelerate the progress of the underlying respiratory disease. Further studies in this setting with higher doses of theophylline and longer term of evaluation are needed to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of SM induced bronchiolitis and the effectiveness of the treatment with theophylline.   How to cite this article: Panahi Y, Poursaleh Z, Amini-Harandi A

  8. Impairment of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α signaling in keratinocytes and fibroblasts by sulfur mustard is counteracted by a selective PHD-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Janina; Popp, Tanja; Egea, Virginia; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Thiermann, Horst; Weber, Christian; Ries, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Skin exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) provokes long-term complications in wound healing. Similar to chronic wounds, SM-induced skin lesions are associated with low levels of oxygen in the wound tissue. Normally, skin cells respond to hypoxia by stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). HIF-1α modulates expression of genes including VEGFA, BNIP3, and MMP2 that control processes such as angiogenesis, growth, and extracellular proteolysis essential for proper wound healing. The results of our studies revealed that exposure of primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) to SM significantly impaired hypoxia-induced HIF-1α stabilization and target gene expression in these cells. Addition of a selective inhibitor of the oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD-2), IOX2, fully recovered HIF-1α stability, nuclear translocation, and target gene expression in NHEK and NHDF. Moreover, functional studies using a scratch wound assay demonstrated that the application of IOX2 efficiently counteracted SM-mediated deficiencies in monolayer regeneration under hypoxic conditions in NHEK and NHDF. Our findings describe a pathomechanism by which SM negatively affects hypoxia-stimulated HIF-1α signaling in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and thus possibly contributes to delayed wound healing in SM-injured patients that could be treated with PHD-2 inhibitors. PMID:26082309

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Immunotherapy with Interferon-Gamma in the Management of Chronic Sulfur Mustard-Induced Cutaneous Complications: Comparison with Topical Betamethasone 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present trial investigated the efficacy of immunotherapy with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ in the treatment of sulfur mustard (SM-induced chronic skin complications. Forty subjects who were suffering from chronic skin complications of SM and were diagnosed to have severe atopic dermatitis, were assigned to IFN-γ (50 μg/m2 subcutaneously three times per week (n=20 or betamethasone valerate topical cream 0.1% (n=20 every night for 30 days. Extent and intensity of cutaneous complications was evaluated using scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index, and quality of life using dermatology life quality index (DLQI at baseline and at the end of trial. SCORAD-A and SCORAD-B scores were significantly decreased in both IFN-γ and betamethasone. However, SCORAD-C score was decreased only in the IFN-γ group. There were significant reductions in overall as well as objective SCORAD scores in both groups. As for the magnitude of changes, treatment with IFN-γ was associated with greater reductions in overall, objective and segmented SCORAD scores compared to betamethasone. DLQI reduction was found to be significantly greater in the IFN-γ group. Promising improvements in quality life and clinical symptoms that was observed in the present study suggest the application of IFN-γ as an effective therapy for the management of SM-induced chronic skin complications.

  10. Amifostine: An Effective Prophylactic Agent against Sulphur Mustard Toxicity (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Pathak

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine, S-2-(aminopropylamino ethylphosphorothioate and two of its analogues have been evaluated as prophylactic agent against SM toxicity. The compounds were administered intraperitoncally (i.p. at 0.2 LD/sub59 dose in mice 30 min prior to dermal application of SM. The protective efficacy was determined by observing the mortality for 14 days. The protection offered by amifostine was better than its analogues. Subsequent study on time-dependent protection, carried out with amifostine (0.2 LD/sub50, i.p. provided significant protection when the drug was administered as 30 min pre-treatment and simultaneous treatment against SM at 155 mg.kg/-1 dose (equal to 19-fold LD/sub50. Furthermore, oral administration of amifostine (30 min pre-treatment showed similar results. These findings suggest that amifostine is a promising prophylactic agent against SM toxicity.

  11. Amifostine: An Effective Prophylactic Agent against Sulphur Mustard Toxicity (Short Communication)

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Kumar, P.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; D. K. Jaiswal

    2002-01-01

    Amifostine, S-2-(aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioate and two of its analogues have been evaluated as prophylactic agent against SM toxicity. The compounds were administered intraperitoncally (i.p.) at 0.2 LD/sub59 dose in mice 30 min prior to dermal application of SM. The protective efficacy was determined by observing the mortality for 14 days. The protection offered by amifostine was better than its analogues. Subsequent study on time-dependent protection, carried out with amifo...

  12. An improved method for retrospective quantification of sulfur mustard exposure by detection of its albumin adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChangCai; Liang, LongHui; Xiang, Yu; Yu, HuiLan; Zhou, ShiKun; Xi, HaiLing; Liu, ShiLei; Liu, JingQuan

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) adduct to human serum albumin (ALB) at Cys-34 residue has become an important and long-term retrospective biomarker of HD exposure. Here, a novel, sensitive, and convenient approach for retrospective quantification of HD concentration exposed to plasma was established by detection of the HD-ALB adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with a novel non-isotope internal standard (IS). The HD-ALB adduct was isolated from HD-exposed plasma with blue Sepharose. The adduct was digested with proteinase K to form sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl ([S-HETE])-Cys-Pro-Phe tripeptide biomarker. The tripeptide adduct could be directly analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS without an additional solid phase extraction (SPE), which was considered as a critical procedure in previous methods. The easily available 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES) as HD surrogate was first reported to be used as IS in place of traditional d8-HD for quantification of HD exposure. Furthermore, 2-CEES was also confirmed to be a good IS alternative for quantification of HD exposure by investigation of product ion spectra for their corresponding tripeptide adducts which exhibited identical MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. The method was found to be linear between 1.00 and 250 ng•mL(-1) HD exposure (R(2)>0.9989) with precision of method. The entire method required only 0.1 mL of plasma sample and took under 7 h without special sample preparation equipment. It is proven to be a sensitive, simple, and rugged method, which is easily applied in international laboratories to improve the capabilities for the analysis of biomedical samples related to verification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC). PMID:26164303

  13. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  14. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities produced during the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reaction-produced impurities indicative of specific TEA and chloroform stocks were exclusively discovered in HN3 batches made with those reagent stocks. In addition, some reagent impurities were found in the HN3 batches that were presumably not altered during synthesis and believed to be indicative of reagent type regardless of stock. Supervised classification using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) on the impurity profiles of chloroform samples from seven stocks resulted in an average classification error by cross-validation of 2.4%. A classification error of zero was obtained using the seven-stock PLSDA model on a validation set of samples from an arbitrarily selected chloroform stock. In a separate analysis, all samples from two of seven chloroform stocks that were purposely not modeled had their samples matched to a chloroform stock rather than assigned a “no class” classification.

  15. Upregulation of miR-203 and miR-210 affect growth and differentiation of keratinocytes after exposure to sulfur mustard in normoxia and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Janina; Steinritz, Dirk; Santovito, Donato; Egea, Virginia; Schmidt, Annette; Weber, Christian; Ries, Christian

    2016-02-26

    Exposure of the skin to sulfur mustard (SM) results in long-term complications such as impaired tissue regeneration. Previous own studies in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) treated with SM demonstrated reduced proliferation, premature differentiation and a restricted functionality of hypoxia-mediated signaling in the cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of microRNAs, miR-203 and miR-210, in these mechanisms. SM significantly upregulated the expression of miR-203 in NHEK when cultivated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. SM had no effect on miR-210 under normoxia. However, miR-210 levels were greatly increased in NHEK when grown in hypoxia and further elevated upon exposure of the cells to SM. In normoxia and hypoxia, inhibition of miR-203 by transfection of NHEK with complementary oligonucleotides, anti-miR-203, attenuated the SM-induced impairment of metabolic activity and proliferation, and counteracted SM-promoted keratin-1 expression in these cells. Consistent ameliorating effects on dysregulated metabolic activity, proliferation and keratin-1 expression in SM-treated NHEK were obtained upon inhibition of miR-210 in these cells grown in hypoxia. Our findings provide evidence that miR-203 and miR-210 are key regulators in normal and SM-impaired keratinocyte functionality, and suggest potential usefulness of inhibitors against miR-203 and miR-210 for target-directed therapeutical intervention to improve re-epithelialization of SM-injured skin. PMID:26383628

  16. Th17/Treg-related cytokine imbalance in sulfur mustard exposed and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) patients: correlation with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Saber; Salimian, Jafar; Fu, Junjiang; Ghanei, Mostafa; Panahi, Yunes

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated expression changes of Th17/Treg-related cytokine in transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLBs) of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure, stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and also compared it with a healthy control (HC) group. Here, ROR-γt, FoxP3, and Treg/Th17-related cytokines (IL-10, IL-17A, IL-6, and TGF-β1) were assessed using a combination of RT-QPCR and ELISA in 11 SM-exposed cases, 9 patients with GOLD stage II COPD diagnosed, and 8 HC. Our results showed that the levels of Foxp3 expression were lower and ROR-γt expression was higher in SM and COPD patients when compared with HC (all p values were less than 0.001). The relative Foxp3 expressions and Foxp3/ROR-γt ratio were positively correlated with FEV1 (%) pred (R = 0.682 and R = 0.602, respectively; p ≤ 0.001). However, the relative ROR-γt expressions were inversely correlated with FEV1 (%) pred (R= -0.75, p = 0.003) and relative Foxp3 expression (R= -0.704, p = 0.003). The mRNA and protein expression of IL-10 were significantly decreased in SM and COPD patients compared with HC (p Treg/Th17-mediated distributions are involved in the progression of chronic lung injury of SM and COPD patients. PMID:27241137

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. I. R.; Khan, Nafees A; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown witho...

  18. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic cements have been the primary radioactive waste stabilization agents in the United States for 50 years. Twelve years ago, Brookhaven National Laboratory was funded by the Department of Energy's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program to test and develop sulfur polymer cement (SPC). It has stabilized routine wastes as well as some troublesome wastes with high waste-to-agent ratios. The Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program joined the effort by providing funding for testing and developing sulfur polymer cement as a hazardous-waste stabilization agent. Sulfur polymer cement has passed all the laboratory scale tests required by the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two decades of tests by the US Bureau of Mines and private concrete contractors indicate this agent is likely to exceed other agents in longevity. This bulletin provides technical data from pertinent tests conducted by these various entities

  19. Biological and molecular mechanisms of sulfur mustard analogue-induced toxicity in JB6 and HaCaT cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related cell cycle checkpoint pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2010-06-21

    Effective medical treatment and preventive measures for chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD)-caused incapacitating skin toxicity are lacking, because of limited knowledge of its mechanism of action. The proliferating basal epidermal cells are primary major sites of attack during HD-caused skin injury. Therefore, employing mouse JB6 and human HaCaT epidermal cells, here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HD analogue 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES)-induced skin cytotoxicity. As compared to the control, up to 1 mM CEES treatment of these cells for 2, 4, and 24 h caused dose-dependent decreases in cell viability and proliferation as measured by DNA synthesis, together with S and G2-M phase arrest in cell cycle progression. Mechanistic studies showed phosphorylation of DNA damage sensors and checkpoint kinases, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) at ser1981 and ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related (ATR) at ser428 within 30 min of CEES exposure, and modulation of S and G2-M phase-associated cell cycle regulatory proteins, which are downstream targets of ATM and ATR kinases. Hoechst-propidium iodide staining demonstrated that CEES-induced cell death was both necrotic and apoptotic in nature, and the latter was induced at 4 and 24 h of CEES treatment in HaCaT and JB6 cells, respectively. An increase in caspase-3 activity and both caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage coinciding with CEES-caused apoptosis in both cell lines suggested the involvement of the caspase pathway. Together, our findings suggest a DNA-damaging effect of CEES that activates ATM/ATR cell cycle checkpoint signaling as well as caspase-PARP pathways, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis in both JB6 and HaCaT cells. The identified molecular targets, quantitative biomarkers, and epidermal cell models in this study have the potential and usefulness in rapid development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against HD-induced skin toxicity

  20. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; SINGH, LOKENDRA

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nemat...

  1. Semi-continuous high speed gas analysis of generated vapors of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trap, H.C.; Langenberg, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and satin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a 'standard length' column, the system can either b

  2. Preclinical investigation of the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and protein and red blood cell binding of DRDE-07: a prophylactic agent against sulphur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Verma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available DRDE-07, a newly synthesized amifostine analog currently under clinical investigation in a phase I trial, is a potent antidote against sulfur mustard toxicity. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of DRDE-07 in female Swiss Albino mice after a single oral dose of 400 or 600 mg/kg. The physicochemical properties of DRDE-07, including solubility, pKa, Log P, plasma protein binding and plasma/blood partitioning, were determined to support the pharmacokinetic characterization. DRDE-07 concentration was determined by an HPLC-UV method. The profile of plasma concentration versus time was analyzed using a non-compartmental model. Plasma protein binding was assessed using ultrafiltration. DRDE-07 appeared rapidly in plasma after oral administration with peak plasma levels (Cmax observed in less than 15 min. There was a rapid decline in the plasma levels followed by a smaller second peak about 90 min after dosing. The plasma protein binding of DRDE-07 was found to be less than 25% at all concentrations studied. Plasma clearance of DRDE-07 is expected to be ~1.5 fold higher than the blood clearance of DRDE-07. The probable metabolite of DRDE-07 was identified as phenyl-S-ethyl amine.

  3. 3-D QSAR CoMFA study of nitrogen mustards possessing new chemical entities as possible anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work is an investigation of anticancer activities of the nitrogen mustards possessing quinazolinone, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole nuclei by the three-dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity paradigm, Comparative Molecular Field Analysis. A total of 39 compounds were modelled in SYBYL 6.7 (Tripos, USA. The molecules were aligned by root-mean-square fit of atoms and field fit of the steric and electrostatic molecular fields and the resulting databases analysed by partial least squares analysis with cross-validation, leave-one-out and no validation to extract the optimum number of components. The analysis was then repeated with bootstrapping to give the final Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship models. Eight compounds, which were kept separately as test set, were used to test the predictive ability of the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis models. Out of the two models generated, one was found to be useful. The predicted activities of the test set were in good agreement with experimentally determined values.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  5. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  6. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOSWAMI Bijoy Kumar; PANDEY Rajesh Kumar; RATHOUR Kabindra Singh; BHATTACHARYA Chaitali; SINGH Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  7. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  8. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  9. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is made by reacting 95% sulfur with 2.5 % dicyclopentadiene and 2.5% cyclopentadiene oligomers, to produce a product that is much better than unmodified sulfur. SPC is being tested as a solidifying and stabilizing agent for low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes. Heavy loadings (5 wt%) of eight toxic metals were combined individually with SPC and 7 wt% sodium sulfide nonahydrate. The leach rates for mercury, lead, chromium and silver oxides were reduced by six orders of magnitude, while those of arsenic and barium were reduced by four. SPC is good for stabilizing incinerator ash. Ion-exchange resins can be stabilized with SPC after heat treatment with asbestos or diatomite at 220-250 deg C. 19 refs

  10. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Lewisite in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of lewisite was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation method and by the preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TAlOO and TA102. All strains were tested with activation (20 and 50 {micro}l/ plate) and without activation. The lewisite was screened initially for toxicity with TA98 over a range of concentrations from 0.01 to 250 {micro}g of material per plate. However, concentrations selected for mutagenicity testing were adjusted to a range of 0.001 to 5 {micro}g/plate because of the sensitivity of tester strain TA102, which exhibited cytotoxicity at 0.01 ug/plate. No mutagenic response was exhibited by any of the strains in either method used. All other tester strains showed evidence of cytoxicity (reduction in mutagen response or sparse background lawn) at 5.0 {micro}g/plate or lower.

  11. Study on the Relation between the Mn/Al Mixed Oxides Composition and Performance of FCC Sulfur Transfer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyu Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sulfur transfer agent in catalysts can effectively reduce the emission of SO2 with minimum adverse effects on the catalytic cracking ability of the primary catalyst. In this paper, the composition and performance of sulfur transfer agents with different oxidative active components (such as Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Ba, Zn and Cr were prepared by acid peptization technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The relationship between the composition and performance of the new sulfur transfer agents was investigated and the regeneration and recycling of the agents were performed. The results indicates that copper is a very good desulfurization active component. Moreover, the presence of CO has no significant effect on the absorption ability of SO2 by the sulfur transfer agent.

  12. Study on the Relation between the Mn/Al Mixed Oxides Composition and Performance of FCC Sulfur Transfer Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiyu Jiang; Shuanglin Yu; Yudong Zhou; Tao Zhu

    2016-01-01

    A sulfur transfer agent in catalysts can effectively reduce the emission of SO2 with minimum adverse effects on the catalytic cracking ability of the primary catalyst. In this paper, the composition and performance of sulfur transfer agents with different oxidative active components (such as Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Ba, Zn and Cr) were prepared by acid peptization technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and N2 adsorption-desorption techniq...

  13. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5-(4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. Methods The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3) following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. Results BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. Conclusions These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells. PMID:21244709

  14. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Teh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethylamino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5-(4-methylacridin-9-ylaminophenyl]urea (BO-1051 is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. Methods The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3 following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. Results BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. Conclusions These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells.

  15. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5- (4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3) following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells

  16. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  17. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic. PMID:27385368

  18. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  19. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U3O8 and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U3O8 using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U3O8 content. (author)

  20. Suppression of Hyperactive Immune Responses Protects against Nitrogen Mustard Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Liemin; Meisch, Jeffrey P.; Das, Lopa M; Binko, Amy M; Boxer, Rebecca S.; Wen, Amy M.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lu, Kurt Q.

    2015-01-01

    DNA alkylating agents like nitrogen mustard (NM) are easily absorbed through the skin and exposure to such agents manifest not only in direct cellular death but also in triggering inflammation. We show that toxicity resulting from topical mustard exposure is mediated in part by initiating exaggerated host innate immune responses. Using an experimental model of skin exposure to NM we observe activation of inflammatory dermal macrophages that exacerbate local tissue damage in an inducible nitri...

  1. Sulfur polymer cement, a new stabilization agent for mixed and low- level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidification and stabilization agents for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes are failing to pass governmental tests at alarming rates. The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program funded testing of Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980s. Those tests and tests by the US Bureau of Mines (the original developer of SPC), universities, states, and the concrete industry have shown SPC to be superior to hydraulic cements in most cases. Superior in what wastes can be successfully combined and in the quantity of waste that can be combined and still pass the tests established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  2. Determination of hydrolysis products of sulfur mustards by reversed-phase microcolumn liquid chromatography coupled on-line with sulfur flame photometric detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using large-volume injections and peak compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Hulst, A.G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    On-line coupling of reversed-phase microcolumn liquid chromatography (micro-RPLC) and sulfur-selective flame photometric detection (S-FPD) was studied for the selective and direct determination of thiodiglycol, bis(2- hydroxyethylthio)methane, 1,2-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)ethane, 1,3-bis(2- hydroxyeth

  3. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD.

  4. Mustard meal weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  5. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, A.; HR Koohestani; Z Roosta

    2008-01-01

    ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical ...

  6. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  7. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  8. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  9. Free radical production from the interaction of 2-chloroethyl vesicants (mustard gas) with pyridine nucleotide-driven flavoprotein electron transport systems*

    OpenAIRE

    Brimfield, A.A.; Mancebo, A.M.; Mason, R P; Jiang, J.J.; Siraki, A.G.; Novak, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The biochemical sequelae to chloroethyl mustard exposure correspond very well to toxic processes initiated by free radicals. Additionally, mustard solutions contain spontaneously formed cyclic onium ions which produce carbon free radicals when reduced electrochemically. Therefore, we hypothesized that the onium ions of sulfur or nitrogen mustards might produce carbon free radicals upon being reduced enzymatically, and that these radicals might constitute a metabolic activation. We set out to ...

  10. 无钒型硫转移剂的研究及中试试验%Study and pilot experiment of vanadium-free sulfur transfer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 张强; 李春义; 崔秋凯; 丁洪春

    2012-01-01

    采用自制的小型固定床装置和中试提升管循环流化床对比了含钒和不含钒硫转移剂的硫容和连续脱硫能力.试验结果表明,不含钒的硫转移剂的饱和硫容和连续脱硫性能都与含钒硫转移剂的性能相差不大,并且对催化裂化的产物分布基本没有影响,可以替代有毒的含钒型硫转移剂.%The sulfur capacity and continuous desulfurization capability of vanadium and vanadium-free sulfur transfer agent were studied in home-made fixed bed instruments and riser of circulating fluidized bed units. The results show that the difference in saturation sulfur capacity and continuous desulfurization capability between vanadium and vanadium-free sulfur transfer agents is small. The vanadium-free sulfur transfer agents have little influence on product distribution, which could substitute for vanadium sulfur transfer agents.

  11. Protection of chymotrypsin from inactivation by a N-mustard analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, A S; Koenig, M J

    1995-02-01

    Chymotrypsin activity is rapidly inactivated by the N-mustard anti-tumor drug, chlorambucil. Since mustards react with thiols, amines, carboxyls, imidazoles, and sulfide sites on proteins, N-acetylcysteine, 2 proprietary protein hydrolyzates, beta-mercaptoethanol, ethanolamine, and sodium lactate were tested for their capacity to protect chymotrypsin from inactivation by the mustard. In each instance, protection was afforded to chymotrypsin. In as much as N-acetylcysteine protected chymotrypsin from inactivation by chlorambucil, it is suggested that this thiol compound may serve as a detoxication agent and may not require prior transformation into glutathione by cells in order to reduce mustard levels within the cells, as suggested by Smith and Gross (Proceedings of the NATO Panel VIII meeting, Grenoble, France, 1991.) It is further suggested that amino acids present as biosynthetic and degradative components of cells may detoxify mustards. PMID:7701511

  12. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  13. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100...

  14. Interaction of cyanocobalamin with sulfur-containing reducing agents in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikov, D. S.; Dereven'kov, I. A.; Artyushina, E. N.; Makarov, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of cyanocobalamin reduction by sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate and dithionite in alkaline media are studied. It is established that the character of the rate-determining step depends on the concentration of the reducing agents: when they are in excess, it is a step of elimination of cyanocobalamin, at lower concentrations of reducing agents a rate-determining is a step of their addition to cobalamin.

  15. Nitrogen mustard inhibits transcription and translation in a cell free system.

    OpenAIRE

    Masta, A; Gray, P J; D. R. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard and its derivatives such as cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and melphalan are widely used anti-cancer agents, despite their non-specific reaction mechanism. In this study, the effect of alkylation by nitrogen mustard of DNA and RNA (coding for a single protein) was investigated using both a translation system and a coupled transcription/translation system. When alkylated DNA was used as the template for coupled transcription and translation, a single translation product corres...

  16. Glutathione-Garlic Sulfur Conjugates: Slow Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Agents for Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashif Iqbal Bhuiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS or without (GaWS glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S, also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications.

  17. Glutathione-garlic sulfur conjugates: slow hydrogen sulfide releasing agents for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Ashif Iqbal; Papajani, Vilma Toska; Paci, Maurizio; Melino, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS) or without (GaWS) glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S), also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST) enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25608858

  18. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3 and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 mg/kg was used and for other analogues, equimolar dose of DRDE-07 was used. For amifostine, N-acetyl cysteine, melatonin and sodium thiosulphate, oral dose was 185 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg respectively. The animals were observed for mortality for 14 days. The protection index (PI was calculated as a ratio of LD50 with treatment to LD50 without treatment. The protection of the antidotes was also determined by intraperitoneal route and half of the oral dose of the antidotes was given. The estimated percutaneous LD50 of HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 and sulphur mustard was 11.9 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 7.1 mg/kg and 7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-1 were DRDE-10 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-2 were amifostine, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-30, DRDE-35 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-3 were amifostine, DRDE-30, DRDE-35, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin with a PI of 1.7. In the case of sulphur mustard, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30, and DRDE-35 gave a good protection with a PI of more than 5.0. Amifostine and sodium thiosulphate gave a PI of 4.5 and 4.0, respectively, while DRDE-09, N-acetyl cysteine and melatonin gave less protection against sulphur mustard. Intraperitoneally administered amifostine, DRDE-30, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin gave marginal protection against HN-2 with a PI of 1.2, while

  19. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Five Odor Reducing Agents for Sewer System Odors Using an On-Line Total Reduced Sulfur Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunook Kim; Joungdu Shin; Hyunjoo Lee; Il Choi

    2012-01-01

    Sewer odors have been a concern to citizens of the Metropolitan Seoul region, which has installed combined sewer systems (CSSs) in 86% of its area. Although a variety of odorants are released from sewers, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) have been recognized as major ones. A number of technologies have been proposed to monitor or control odors from sewers. One of the most popular strategies adopted for the control of sewage odor is by applying a commercial odor-reducing agent into the sewer. ...

  20. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Five Odor Reducing Agents for Sewer System Odors Using an On-Line Total Reduced Sulfur Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunook Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewer odors have been a concern to citizens of the Metropolitan Seoul region, which has installed combined sewer systems (CSSs in 86% of its area. Although a variety of odorants are released from sewers, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs have been recognized as major ones. A number of technologies have been proposed to monitor or control odors from sewers. One of the most popular strategies adopted for the control of sewage odor is by applying a commercial odor-reducing agent into the sewer. In this study, the effectiveness of five different commercial odor-reducing agents (i.e., an odor masking agent, an alkaline solution, two microbial agents, and a chemical oxidant was evaluated by continuously monitoring VSCs released from the sewer with an on-line total reduced sulfur (TRS analyzer before and after each agent was sprayed into CSSs at five different locations of the city. In short, when the effectiveness of odor treatment was tested in the sewer system using five commercial odor reducing treatments, only the chemical oxidant was good enough to reduce the odor in terms of TRS levels measured before and after the application (p < 0.01.

  1. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  2. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  3. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  4. Inhibition of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Milton; Yang Hongsong; Paromov Victor M; Qui Min; Stone William L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD). Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide...

  5. The influence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthesis in stimulated macrophages treated with a mustard gas analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Milton; Yang Hongsong; Qui Min; Paromov Victor; Stone William L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulphur mustard gas, 2, 2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide (HD), is a chemical warfare agent. Both mustard gas and its monofunctional analogue, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES), are alkylating agents that react with and diminish cellular thiols and are highly toxic. Previously, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and that CEES transiently inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production via suppression ...

  6. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen Tatjana; Krivokapić Mirjana; Zlatković Branislav; Antić Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  7. Covalent adduction of nitrogen mustards to model protein nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vanessa R; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2013-08-19

    Protein adducts have the potential to serve as unique biomarkers of exposure to compounds of interest. Many xenobiotics (or their metabolites) are electrophilic and therefore reactive with nucleophilic amino acid residues on proteins. Nitrogen mustards are reactive xenobiotics with potential use as chemical warfare agents (CWA) or agents of terrorist attack, in addition to being employed as chemotherapeutic agents. The present study utilized cysteine-, lysine-, and histidine-containing model peptides to characterize in vitro adduction of the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine (HN-2) and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine (HN-3) to these nucleophilic amino acid residues by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study assessed the structure of adducts formed, the time course of adduct formation, concentration-response relationships, and temporal stability of adducts. Adduction was hypothesized to occur on all three model peptides via initial formation of a reactive aziridinium intermediate for both mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine, followed by covalent adduction to nucleophilic residues. While adduction was found to occur most readily with cysteine, it was also observed at lysine and histidine, demonstrating that adduction by mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine is possible at multiple nucleophilic sites. Following solid phase extraction cleanup, adducts formed with mechloroethamine were stable for up to three weeks. Adducts formed with tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine were less stable; however, hydrolyzed secondary adducts were observed throughout the three week period. This study demonstrates that the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine form stable adducts with reactive protein nucleophiles other than cysteine. PMID:23859065

  8. The synthesis of spiromustine-d8. A general approach to octadeuterated nitrogen mustards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of deuterium labelled spiromustine, a potential new antitumor agent designed specifically for neoplasms of the central nervous system, is described. Eight deuterium atoms have been incorporated specifically into the nitrogen mustard moiety to provide a deuterated internal standard suitable for selected ion monitoring by GC/MS. Starting with ethylene glycol-d6, diethanolamine-d8 is produced efficiently in good yield with no deuterium exchange via a 2-imino-1,3-oxazolidine intermediate. The resultant diethanolamine-d8 may then be used to synthesize spiromustine-d8 or other octadeuterated nitrogen mustards. (author)

  9. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J.; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg−1. Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4ʹ-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as an important intermediate. Hot mustard made only from brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) or black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra) contained no BPF. BPF is structurally very similar to bisphenol A and has a similar weak estrogenic activity. The consumption of a portion of 20 g of mustard can lead to an intake of 100–200 µg of BPF. According to a preliminary risk assessment, the risk of BPF in mustard for the health of consumers is considered to be low, but available toxicological data are insufficient for a conclusive evaluation. It is a new and surprising finding that BPF is a natural food ingredient and that this is the main uptake route. This insight sheds new light on the risk linked to the family of bisphenols. PMID:26555822

  10. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  11. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  12. Synthesis of a duplex oligonucleotide containing a nitrogen mustard interstrand DNA-DNA cross-link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, J O; Grueneberg, D A; Loechler, E L

    1989-12-01

    Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents react with DNA and give adducts that block DNA replication, which is thought to result in cytotoxicity, especially in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells. One class of these agents is bifunctionally reactive (e.g., the nitrogen mustards) and forms DNA-DNA cross-links. It is unknown whether inter- or intrastrand cross-links are more effective at blocking DNA replication. To evaluate this, a DNA shuttle vector is being constructed with an interstrand cross-link at a unique site. In the first step of this project, a duplex oligonucleotide containing an interstrand cross-link is isolated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the reaction of nitrogen mustard with two partially complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. The purified oligonucleotide product is characterized and shown to be cross-linked in a 5'-GAC-3' 3'-CTG-5' sequence by a nitrogen mustard moiety that is bound at the N(7)-position of the guanines in the opposing strands; the glycosylic bonds of these guanine adducts are stabilized in their corresponding imidazole ring-opened form. Nitrogen mustard is shown to react with a variety of oligonucleotides and, based upon these results, its preferred targets for interstrand cross-linking are 5'-GXC-3' sequences, where X can be any of the four deoxyribonucleotide bases. PMID:2819709

  13. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affe...

  14. 7 CFR 457.168 - Mustard crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Any other uninsurable mustard production that is delivered to fulfill the processor contract. (d... applicable, it will be made prior to any adjustment for quality. (1) Mustard production will be reduced by 0... of the production to determine the moisture content. (2) Mustard production will be eligible...

  15. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. → 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. → New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn4+ content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn4+ content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn37 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn5 with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  16. Effect of methionine and glucosamine conjugation on the anticancer activity of aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karmakar Subhendu; Sudipta Bhattacharyya; Arindam Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Certain nutrients viz.,glucose and methionine are consumed more by cancer cells. Hence, an anticancer agent conjugated to them may render more toxicity in cancer cells due to higher uptake. To probe this effect, methionine and glucosamine were conjugated to a series of well-known aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies performed to probe the effect of such conjugation showed that the conjugation of methionine and glucosamine to one of the dinitrobenzamide mustard led to more toxicity selectively in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. However, effect of functionalization cannot be generalized. Hypoxia based studies showed that IC50 value did not show much change from normoxic condition which is encouraging as many drugs deactivate in hypoxia. Among the glucosamine and methionine conjugated dinitrobenzamide mustards, the methionine conjugated aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustard of 2-chlorobenzoic acid is the most effective one. It acts by inducing apoptosis through G2/M phase arrest and encouragingly, is much less toxic to nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines in vitro.

  17. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  18. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg−1. Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4ʹ-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-...

  19. Mustard meal as an organic herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings: unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Field research was conducted in s...

  20. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz P. Kurowski; Barbara Majchrzak; Krzysztof Jankowski

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20"). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem ...

  1. High resolution computed tomography findings and pulmonary function tests among mustard gas exposed patients: is there a remarkable relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) are the two main methods, currently used for investigation of pulmonary complications in sulfur mustard gas exposed patients. According to different types of injuries in mustard gas exposed individuals, we decided to test the correlation between PFT and HRCT in these victims. Methodology: Fifty one randomly selected cases from 12000 mustard gas exposed patients during Iran-Iraq war (1983-1989) were studied. HRCT and PFT were conducted based on standard protocols. HRCT scores were tested for correlation to PFT measures. Results: A significant differences between PFT findings were found within HRCT groups (score=3, score 4-6 and score =7). There was a significant correlation between HRCT scores and FEV1, MMEF and FEV1: FVC ratio (P<0.05) in all subjects. Conclusion: HRCT and PFT results showed an acceptable correlation in mustard gas exposed patients. It seems to be useful to use each of these two diagnostic tools based on clinical judgment and feasibility. (author)

  2. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  3. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: field mustard [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available field mustard Brassica rapa Brassica_rapa_L.png Brassica_rapa_NL.png Brassica_rapa_S.png Brassica..._rapa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica...+rapa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NS ...

  5. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  6. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  7. Steamed Sliced Pork with Dried Mustard Cabbage (Meigancai Kourou)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    500 grams pork with skin75 grams dried mustard cabbage10 grams Shaoxing wine50 grams sugar100 grams soy sauce2 grams salt5 grams spring onions5 grams ginger500 grams clear stockClean the pork, soak the dried mustard cabbage until soft, and clean and slice the spring onion and ginger.Braise the pork in a wok, then

  8. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn75 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn37U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  9. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Bing Zhang; Ji Jun Xue; Xiao Long Zhao; De Gang Liu; Ying Li

    2009-01-01

    Two novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustard conjugates 1a and 1b were synthesized by using estrogenic acid 4 coupled with aniline mustard 8 and phenol mustard 13 in an esterification or amidation procedure. Preliminary cytotoxic screening on cancer cell lines in vitro showed that, the steroid-ester linked nitrogen mustard conjugate la exhibited obvious increasing of activities.

  11. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  12. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10−2 s−1) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10−8–10−6 s−1). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  13. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  14. Therapeutic effect of intratumoral injection of 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension in liver cancer. A comparative study with chemical agents in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Hepatoma is a common disease in some countries. The intervention therapy was used often for non-resectable tumor. The aim of our study was to compare the therapeutic effect of 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension to ethanol, acetic acid and the mixture of mitomycin and lipiodol for hepatoma in an animal model by intermittently injection. Methods: Forty-nine nude mice bearing hepatic cell carcinoma were divided into six groups. Group 1 (n=14) was intratumoral y injected with 0.1 ml saline. There were 5 experimental groups (group 2 to 6). Each group consisted of 7 mice. The mice in group 2 was intratumoral y injected with 18.5 MBq/0.1 ml 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension each, the mice in group 3 was injected intratumorally with 9.25 MBq/0.1 ml 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension each, group 4 was injected intratumorally with 0.1 ml ethanol, the mice in group 5 was injected with 0.1 ml 30% acetic acid and group 6 was injected intratumorally with 30 μg mitomycin in 0.1 ml lipiodol respectively. The mice were sacrificed 7 days post injection and the specimen were collected for pathological analysis. Results: The average tumor weight were 1.75±0.29 g (mean±S.D.), 0.26±0.03 g, 0.44±0.17 g, 1.38±0.25 g, 0.91±0.28 g, 1.38±0.28 g for group 1 to 6 respectively. Tumors in all experimental groups were significantly smaller than group 1 (control group, P88Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension injection had the smallest tumor weight among all the experimental groups (P188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension shows better therapeutic effect. (authors)

  15. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  16. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  17. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  18. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.Tewari-Singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Jain, Anil K., E-mail: Anil.Jain@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Inturi, Swetha, E-mail: Swetha.Inturi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Ammar, David A., E-mail: David.Ammar@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla, E-mail: Chapla.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Tyagi, Puneet, E-mail: Puneet.Tyagi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kompella, Uday B., E-mail: Uday.Kompella@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Enzenauer, Robert W., E-mail: Robert.Enzenauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Petrash@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  19. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant. PMID:16394442

  20. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  1. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  2. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md. Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at...

  3. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  4. Nitrogen mustard (Chlorambucil) has a negative influence on early vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulphur and nitrogen mustards are strong alkylating agents, which induces inflammations of the skin including blistering right up to ulcerations. Depending on the severity, the wounds may need weeks to heal. In the past it was shown that sulphur mustard has a destructive effect on endothelial precursor cells, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the wound healing reaction by inducing neovascularisation. However, for these alkylating agents as well as for sulphur mustard nothing is known about their effects on endothelial precursors. Therefore, we investigated and compared the influence of Chlorambucil on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of endothelial cells in intact mouse embryoid bodies (EB). EBs were treated at different developmental stages and with different periods of Chlorambucil treatment. It was found that in each developmental stage and under each treatment period's Chlorambucil has an extremely negative effect on the vascularisation with a vessel reduction of around 99%. Of particular importance was the negative effect of treatment around day 3 of the development. On this day we found 377 vessels under control conditions but only 1.6 vessels under 24 h treatment of Chlorambucil. At this point in time many endothelial precursors can be found in the EB. Moreover, a negative effect on all stem cells was evident at this point in time, shown by an extreme reduction in EB size with 17.9 mm2 for the control and only 1.55 mm2 under Chlorambucil treatment. This negative effect on the vascularisation, on endothelial precursors but also on stem cells in general is of possible importance for impaired wound healing.

  5. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  6. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  7. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and ...

  8. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  9. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Wolny, Martina; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food. The primers and the probe target the B. nigra partial RT gene for reverse transcriptase from gypsy-like retroelement 13G42-26. The real-time PCR method does not show any cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species with the exception of white mustard. Low cross-reactivities with cinnamon, cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric can be ignored because in common mustard containing foodstuffs these biological species are present in very low amounts. By analysing serially diluted DNA extracts from black and brown mustard, the DNA of both mustard species could be detected down to 0.1 pg. With 10 ng DNA per PCR tube the real-time PCR method allows the detection of 5 ppm black and brown mustard in brewed sausages. PMID:23265498

  10. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein. PMID:25859422

  11. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  12. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  13. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  14. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  15. [Mustard gas bombs found astray in the Faxaflói bay. Mustard gas: usage and poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Jakop; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2009-05-01

    The finding in 1972 of two World War II mustard gas artillery shells in crushed shell sediment dredged in the Faxaflói Bay and transported as raw material for cement production at Akranes (Western Iceland) is reported. One of the shells was wedged in a stone crusher in the raw material processing line and was ruptured. As a result dark fluid with a garlic like smell seeped out from the metal canister. The attending employees believed the metal object to be inert and tried to cut it out with a blow torch. This resulted in the explosion of the shell charge and in the exposure of four employees to mustard gas. All suffered burns on their hands and two of them in the eyes also. The second shell was detonated in the open at a distance from the factory. Emphasis is given to the fact that instant, or at least as soon as possible, cleansing and washing is the most efficient measure to be taken against the debilitating effects of mustard gas. It is also pointed out that the active principle in mustard gas (dichlorodiethyl sulphide) can easily be synthesized and none of the precursor substances are subjected to any restrictions of use. The authors conclude that mustard gas bombs may still be found in the arsenals of some military powers in spite of an international convention that prohibits the production, stockpiling and the use of chemical weapons. Terrorist groups have also seemingly tried to aquire mustard gas bombs and other chemical weapons. Therefore cases of mustard gas poisoning might still occur. PMID:19430031

  16. 有机硫类净水剂的合成及性能评价%Synthesis and capability assessment of water purifying agents of organic sulfur kind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学勉; 王素芳; 滕厚开

    2015-01-01

    利用多乙烯多胺、己二酸、二硫化碳等合成了二硫代氨基甲酸盐型净水剂,并对药剂作用机理进行探讨。实验结果表明:向含聚污水中投加50 mg/L该药剂,除油率达63%,除浊率可达90%,悬浮物去除率达87%,COD去除率达54%,且具有一定的杀菌缓蚀性能。%A new kind of water purifying agent,dithiocarbamate,has successfully been synthesized with polyamine, adipic acid,carbon disulfide. The action mechanism of the agent is discussed. The experimental results show that when 50 mg/L of the agent is added to the polymer-containing wastewater,the oil removing rate is 63%,turbidity re-moving rate 90%,suspended solids removing rate 87%,and removing rate of COD 54%. Furthermore ,the agents have certain corrosion inhibition and sterilization capacities.

  17. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. PMID:23735551

  18. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  19. Epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity; hypothesis and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathogenesis of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is not fully understood, although it is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative stress, DNA damage, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation within the affected cell. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of SM poisoning in rats' lung. A total of 40 male SD rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only; group 3 received histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (Trichostatine A) (1 mg/kg) and group 4 received DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitor (5-Azacytidine) (0.02 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes as well as mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. In group 3, the HDAC inhibitor significantly reduced interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, we have observed severe lung damage by using DNMT inhibitor (group 4). In HDAC inhibitor group, the results were close to sham group. In DNMT inhibitor group, however, lungs were worse than MEC group results. These preliminary results revealed that, SM itself and/or its intracellular metabolites may perturb the epigenetic environment of the affected cell in lung tissue. Hypothetically, MEC may cause HDAC induction leading to a variety of gene silencing. Trichostatine A can reduce the active enzyme level and can reactivate the already silenced genes. Further studies are needed to clarify the involvement of epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity.(author)

  20. Characterization of mustard seeds and paste by DART ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchalová, Jana; Kovařík, František; Ševčík, Rudolf; Čížková, Helena; Rajchl, Aleš

    2014-09-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a novel technique with great potential for rapid screening analysis. The DART ionization method coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) has been used for characterization of mustard seeds and table mustard. The possibility to use DART to analyse glucosinolates was confirmed on determination of sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate). The DART-TOF-MS method was optimized and validated. A set of samples of mustard seeds and mustard products was analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography and DART-TOF-MS were used to determine glucosinolates in mustard seeds and compared. The correlation equation between these methods was DART = 0.797*HPLC + 6.987, R(2)  = 0.972. The DART technique seems to be a suitable method for evaluation of the quality of mustard seeds and mustard products. PMID:25230177

  1. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  2. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  3. Covalent DNA-Protein Cross-Linking by Phosphoramide Mustard and Nornitrogen Mustard in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groehler, Arnold; Villalta, Peter W; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2016-02-15

    N,N-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphorodiamidic acid (phosphoramide mustard, PM) and N,N-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-amine (nornitrogen mustard, NOR) are the two biologically active metabolites of cyclophosphamide, a DNA alkylating drug commonly used to treat lymphomas, breast cancer, certain brain cancers, and autoimmune diseases. PM and NOR are reactive bis-electrophiles capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form covalent DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to characterize PM- and NOR-mediated DNA-protein cross-linking in human cells. Following treatment of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) with cytotoxic concentrations of PM, over 130 proteins were found to be covalently trapped to DNA, including those involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA splicing/processing, chromatin organization, and protein transport. HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of proteolytic digests of DPC-containing DNA from NOR-treated cells revealed a concentration-dependent formation of N-[2-[cysteinyl]ethyl]-N-[2-(guan-7-yl)ethyl]amine (Cys-NOR-N7G) conjugates, confirming that it cross-links cysteine thiols of proteins to the N7 position of guanines in DNA. Cys-NOR-N7G adduct numbers were higher in NER-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (XPA) as compared with repair proficient cells. Furthermore, both XPA and FANCD2 deficient cells were sensitized to PM treatment as compared to that of wild type cells, suggesting that Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair pathways are involved in the removal of cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage. PMID:26692166

  4. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  5. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are stabil

  6. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items. For use in reentry decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  7. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  8. [Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish to prevent asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Na; Zhu, Wei-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yang; Yu, Xiang; Li, Miao; Jin, Yi-Guang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the manuscript was to optimize formulations and preparation technologies of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish, and to evaluate its anti-asthma effect on rats. The single factor experiments included spreading thickness, types of crosslinking agents, dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate amount, sodium polyacrylate amount, types of adhesive agents with human sense as the evaluation index. Blank cataplasm matrix was optimized by the orthogonal experiment with the amount of glycerine, citric acid, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the major influential factors. Initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense were as the evaluation index. The optimized formulation of blank cataplasm were as followings: glycerine-water-ethanol-PEG400-dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate-citric acid-sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2 : 8 : 0.8 : 0.4 : 0.07: 0.15 : 0.1 : 0.5. The active ingredients of white mustard seed, corydalis, and gansui root were extracted by alcohol extraction method. Asiasarum volatile oil was extracted by oil extractor. The optimized drug loading amount was 11% with initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense as the evaluation index. Asthma rats model were established by sensitized with ovalbumin and nose-scratching time as the evaluation index. High dose (17%) group of drug-loaded cataplasm had the obvious inhibition effect on nose-scratching time of rats (P = 0.037 < 0.05). In comparison, middle dose (11%), low dose (4%) and positive-control groups had no obvious inhibitive effect on rats. White mustard seed cataplasm supplied a novel choice for anti-asthma therapy. And the overall pharmacodynamics assessment will be carried out on molecular level in near future. PMID:25911808

  9. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB). They...... utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms in...... other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative of the...

  10. Surface studies of aminoferrocene derivatives on gold: electrochemical sensors for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad A K; Long, Yi-Tao; Schatte, Gabriele; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    The cystamine conjugate [(BocNH)Fc(CO)CSA]2 was prepared by coupling cystamine with the N-protected ferrocene amino acid derivative BocHN-Fc-COOH and was fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cystamine conjugate forms films on gold substrates, which upon deprotection of the amino group, react with chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics, upon which the redox properties of the Fc group are affected significantly. Cyclic voltammetry shows 50(5) mV anodic shifts of the Fc redox potentials after exposure to EtSCH2CH2Cl, a simulant for sulfur mustard HD (MA), and (NC)(EtO)2P(O), a simulant for nerve agent Tabun (NA). Exposure to MA and NA causes an increase in 2.3 and 4.5 ng mass, respectively, in QCM which indicates ca. 70% efficiency in Boc-deprotection. Ellipsometry measured a film thickness increase from 6(+/-1) A for the deprotected film to 10(+/-4) A for the film modified with MA and to 7(+/-2) A for the film modified with NA. AFM measurements show changes in the thickness and morphology of the film after reaction with MA and NA. The surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and clearly show the attachment of the cystamine conjugate on the surface and its reaction with CWA mimics. PMID:17319647

  11. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  12. The design, synthesis and anticancer activity of new nitrogen mustard derivatives of natural indole phytoalexin 1-methoxyspirobrassinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezencev, R; Kutschy, P; Salayova, A; Updegrove, T; McDonald, J F

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards cis-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[N,N-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (4) and trans-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[N,N-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (5) derived from 1-methoxyspirobrassinol, an indole phytoalexin produced by the Japanese radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis were designed as prospective dual-action compounds with DNA-alkylating effect and glutathione-depleting effects that may sensitize cancer cells to alkylating agents. Both new compounds demonstrated cytostatic/cytotoxic effects on various leukemia and ovarian cancer cell lines and dsDNA-destabilizing effects in vitro. Compound 4, the more promising of the two compounds, exerts earlier onset of anticancer effects on Jurkat cells via induction of apoptosis compared to the traditional alkylating anticancer agent melphalan. In addition, it demonstrated higher potency on ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cell line and lower fold resistance between Jurkat and Jurkat-M cells selected for the resistance to melphalan. Therefore, compound 4 may be less affected by certain cancer drug resistance mechanisms than melphalan and it may become a prototype of a new class of anticancer active nitrogen mustards that combine DNA-damaging and DNA-damage-sensitizing properties. PMID:19473057

  13. Seed lipids of irradiated mustard and sunflower plants in the first and second generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under gamma irradiation of vegetating plants the changes in a lipid complex of the Chinese mustard and sunflower seeds occur. Low radiation doses change the ratio of falty acids in common lipids (native oil), triglycerides, phospholipids, esters of sunflower and mustard seed sterols. Radiation does not effect on substances with cyclic structure: sunflower sterols-kampesterine, stigmasterin, β citosterine; mustard sterols-brassicasterine, kampesterine, β citosterine

  14. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  15. Efficacy of Treatments against Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Effects on Forest Understory Plant Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Storer; Shartell, Lindsey M.; Nagel, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Garlic mustard, an invasive exotic biennial herb, has been identified in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but is not yet widely distributed. We tested the effectiveness and impact of management tools for garlic mustard in northern hardwood forests. Six treatment types (no treatment control, hand-pull, herbicide, hand-pull/herbicide, scorch, and hand-pull/scorch) were applied within a northern hardwood forest invaded by garlic mustard. We sampled understory vegetation within plots to compare g...

  16. Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Production in Chitwan District of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    S.C. Dhakal; Regmi, P.P.; R.B. Thapa; S.K. Sah; D.B. Khatri-Chhetri

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43) indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. T...

  17. Occurrence and possible sources of arsenic in seafloor sediments surrounding sea-disposed munitions and chemical agents near O´ahu, Hawai´i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael S.; De Carlo, Eric Heinen

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Defense disposed of conventional and chemical munitions as well as bulk containers of chemical agents in US coastal waters including those surrounding the State of Hawai´i. The Hawai´i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment has been collecting biota, water, and sediment samples from two disposal areas south of the island of O´ahu in waters 500 to 600 m deep known to have received both conventional munitions and chemical agents (specifically sulfur mustard). Unlike a number of other sea-disposed munitions investigations which used grabs or corers lowered from surface vessels, we used manned submersibles to collect the samples. Using this approach, we were able to visually identify the munitions and precisely locate our samples in relation to the munitions on the seafloor. This paper focuses on the occurrence and possible sources of arsenic found in the sediments surrounding the disposed military munitions and chemical agents. Using nonparametric multivariate statistical techniques, we looked for patterns in the chemical data obtained from these sediment samples in order to determine the possible sources of the arsenic found in these sediments. The results of the ordination technique nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicate that the arsenic is associated with terrestrial sources and not munitions. This was not altogether surprising given that: (1) the chemical agents disposed of in this area supposedly did not contain arsenic, and (2) the disposal areas studied were under terrestrial influence or served as dredge spoil disposal sites. The sediment arsenic concentrations during this investigation ranged from <1.3 to 40 mg/kg-dry weight with the lower concentrations typically found around control sites and munitions (not located in dredge disposal areas) and the higher values found at dredge disposal sites (with or without munitions). During the course of our investigation we did, however, discover that mercury appears to be loosely associated

  18. Biodiesel from Mustard oil: a Sustainable Engine Fuel Substitute for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Various attractive features of mustard oil based biodiesel as a potential substitute for engine fuel are investigated in this paper for use in Bangladesh. Although the use of mustard oil as edible oil has been reduced, Bangladesh still produces 0.22 million metric tons of mustard oil per year. This surplus mustard oil would satisfactorily be used as an alternative to diesel fuel, and thus could contribute in reducing the expenses for importing fuel from foreign countries. Moreover, the rural people of Bangladesh are capable of producing mustard oil themselves using indigenous machines. Fuel properties of biodiesel obtained from mustard oil were determined in the laboratory using standard procedure and an experimental setup was constructed to study the performance of a small diesel engine. It is observed that with biodiesel, the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Initially different lower blends of biodiesel (e.g., B20, B30 etc. have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine and the fuel supply system. It is also found in some condition that mustard oil based biodiesel have better properties than those made from other vegetable oils. These properties of mustard oil based biodiesel were evaluated to validate its sustainability in Bangladesh. Keywords: biodiesel, indigenous machines, mustard oil, renewable energy policy, sustainability

  19. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. PMID:24025044

  20. Chronic health effects of sulphur mustard exposure with special reference to Iranian veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Balali-Mood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of sulphur mustard (SM as an incapacitating chemical warfare agent in the past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. It may also be used as a chemical terrorist agent. Therefore, all health professionals should have sufficient knowledge and be prepared for any such chemical attack. SM exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, immunological, haematological, digestive, and reproductive systems. SM is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis, and, thus, delayed complications have been seen since the First World War. Cases of malignancies in the target organs, particularly in haematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systems, have been reported. Important delayed respiratory complications include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deteriorate with time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction of natural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infections and malignancies are also among the most distressing long-term consequences of SM intoxication. However, despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunction, as well as the relationship between SM exposure and mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity are important fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranian veterans with chronic health effects of SM poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on the medical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of SM poisoning—a subject that greatly challenges health care specialists.

  1. Pepsin and bile acid concentrations in sputum of mustard gas exposed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM exposed cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. Result: The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23 compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003. Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls ( P = 0.5. Conclusion: Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients.

  2. Seasonal changes in radiation penetration within mustard crop canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Adak, Tarun; Chakravarty, NVK

    2012-01-01

    Green leaf area index, dry matter production and economic seed yield are significantly influenced by dynamics of radiation penetration within oilseed crop canopy. Keeping this in view, following a two years field experiment with Indian mustard cultivars in IARI research farm, it was revealed that the radiation penetration at the early crop growth stage was high and then decreased within the canopy as the leaf area developed. The study indicated significant seasonal changes in radiation penetr...

  3. Brassica tournefortii: Phenology, Interactions and Management of an Invasive Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Marushia, Robin Gene

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONBrassica tournefortii: Phenology, Interactions and Management of an Invasive Mustardby Robin Gene Marushia Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Plant Biology University of California, Riverside, June 2009 Dr. Jodie S. Holt, Chairperson Brassica tournefortii (Gouan), or Sahara mustard, is a nonnative, invasive annual forb currently invading the deserts of North America. Despite its increasing distribution and dominance in desert plant communities, little is kno...

  4. Topical cyclosporine A for mustard gas induced ocular surface disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrow Jadidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A 0.05% for treatment of mustard gas-induced ocular surface disorders with special attention to conjunctival goblet cell density in patients with severe dry eye. Methods: This prospective clinical study included 20 eyes of 20 patients previously exposed to mustard gas with dry eye syndrome unresponsive to artificial tears. Before and after treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% twice daily for 3 months, subjects were evaluated for improvement in symptoms using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI and signs by tear breakup time (TBUT, Schirmer test and measurement of superior bulbar conjunctival goblet cell density. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD and the degree of corneal squamous cell metaplasia were also assessed before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, mean OSDI score, Schirmer test I value and mean TBUT were 42.8 ± 6.1, 4.2 ± 1.2 mm and 2.5 ± 1.3 s, respectively. After 3 months of treatment with topical cyclosporine A, these scores reached 36.4 ± 5.2, 5.8 ± 1.6 mm and 4.9 ± 2.1 s, respectively showing a statistically significant improvement (P 0.05. Conclusion: Treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in patients with severe dry eye due to mustard gas injury increases goblet cell density in the bulbar conjunctiva and improves symptoms of the disease.

  5. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mostafa Ghanei; Payman Salamati; Mehdi Safiabadi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone IraqIran war.Electronic databases of Scopus,Medline,ISI,IranMedex,and Irandoc sites.were searched.We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators.Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%.The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea.Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchiectasis,and asthma.Spirometry resuits can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease.Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases.High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi.There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung.The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration,use of vaporized moist air,respiratory physiotherapy,administration of mucolytic agents,bronchodilators,corticosteroids,and long-acting beta-2 agonists,antioxidants,surfactant,magnesium ions,therapeutic bronchoscopy,laser therapy,placement of respiratory stents,early tracheostomy in laryngospasm,and ultimately lung transplantation.High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi.The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic,upper or lower respiratory tract involvement).There are various treatment protocols,but unfortunately none of them is defmitely curable.

  6. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C. [Laboratório de Radiobiologia Molecular (Brazil); Lage, C., E-mail: claudia_lage_dna@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Radiações em Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe{sup 2+} ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains

  7. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  8. Nitrogen mustard derivated from adiphenine. Synthesis and 14C labelling. Antitumor activity and tissular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of a new nitrogen mustard 14C is described. The compound is found to be active in intraperitoneal murine L 1210 and P 388 tumors. Preliminary tissue distribution studies after i.v. administration to rats and mice show that the mustard and/or its metabolites partially cross the blood-brain barrier

  9. Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy and 15 other Brassica vegatables

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip...

  10. Comparing the therapeutic efficiency of aminoguanidine and 3-aminobenzamide in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and peroxynitrite are responsible for sulfur mustard (SM) induced toxicity. Since endogenous production of peroxynitrite is known to lead to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and sometimes ultimately cell death, in this study, it was aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiencies of aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor) and 3 aminobenzamide (PARP inhibitor) in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only, group 3 received selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) (100 mg/kg i.p.) and, group 4 received PARP inhibitor 3 aminobenzamide (3-AB) (20 mg/kg i.p.). MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes, Mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. MEC injection also caused mucosal thinning, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, ischemic changes and multifocal, superficial ulcerations (erosions) in small intestine. In AG group, interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage slightly reduced in lung comparing to MEC group. Inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal, septal thickening was similar to MEC group at densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas. In 3 AB group, edematous and hemorrhagic areas were very small, inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal and there were no densly densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas in lung. The results were better than AB group. In intestine, results of AG group were better than MEC group but worse than 3 AB group. These results suggest that both iNOS and PARP inhibitors are effective but PARP inhibitors may be more promising for treatment of SM induced early lung and intestinal toxicity.(author)

  11. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  12. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  13. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis. PMID:25977054

  14. Breeding strategy for the improvement of mustard (Brassica Juncea Coss.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants having desirable agronomic characters were obtained in the high yielding, recommended mustard (B. juncea) varieties Rai 5, RL 9 and Varuna (T 59). Following hybridizations between induced mutants or mutants with other promising varieties, recombinants having superior agronomic traits have been developed. The parent varieties are characterised by open pod arrangement and blackish brown seeds. The mutants and the recombinants have desirable agronomic characters like compact plant type, appressed pods with less shattering nature, yellow seeds, higher oil content and lighter coloured oil. Among the 12 new strains developed at this centre, five have been tested at various locations in the country. At many places, TM-(Trombay Mustard-) cultures outyielded or were at par with the local check varieties. TM-2-11 (Appressed pod mutant) and TM-4 (Yellow bold seeded Mutant) have also been included in the Initial Evaluation Trial of the All India Co-ordinated Research Project in Oilseeds (AICORPO) improvement. Reports so far received from various locations in the country indicate that TM-strains, being relatively early cultures, are suited more for states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P. and Bihar. (author)

  15. Assessment of apoptosis occurring in spleen cells from nitrogen mustard-treated or gamma-irradiated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugel, B; Weltin, D; Holl, V; Marchal, J; Dufour, P; Freyssinet, J M; Bischoff, P L

    1998-01-01

    The short-term consequences on spleen cells of the intraperitoneal administration of nitrogen mustard (HN-2) to mice or of a whole-body gamma irradiation have been evaluated. Experiments were designed to assess the induction of apoptosis in spleen cells following exposure to these agents. The occurrence of this type of cell death was analysed by several methods, in particular the quantification in the blood of phosphotidylserine-bearing microparticles shed by apoptotic cells. In response to HN-2 or radiations, spleens undergo a rapid involution of their weight and cellularity. Ex vivo apoptosis occurs within 24 hours in cultured lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner after both treatments. As compared with untreated controls, circulating microparticles increased 3-fold after the injection of 5 mg/kg of HN-2. PMID:9858897

  16. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. Cosson): An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Chauhan; Kandpal, B. K.; O. P. Premi; Kapila Shekhawat; Rathore, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble carbon nanotubes from mustard soot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant Dubey; Devarajan Muthukumaran; Subhashis Dash; Rupa Mukhopadhyay; Sabyasachi Sarkar

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been synthesized by pyrolysing mustard oil using an oil lamp. It was made water-soluble (wsCNT) through oxidative treatment by dilute nitric acid and was characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesized wsCNT showed the presence of several junctions and defects in it. The presence of curved graphene structure (sp2) with frequent sp3 hybridized carbon is found to be responsible for the observed defects. These defects along with the presence of di- and tri-podal junctions showed interesting magnetic properties of carbon radicals formed by spin frustration. This trapped carbon radical showed ESR signal in aqueous solution and was very stable even under drastic treatment by strong oxidizing or reducing agents. Oxidative acid treatment of CNT introduced several carboxylic acid group functionalities in wsCNT along with the nicking of the CNT at different lengths with varied molecular weight. To evaluate molecular weights of these wsCNTs, an innovative method like gel electrophoresis using high molecular weight DNA as marker was introduced.

  18. 'NIFA-mustard canola' - First mutant variety of oilseed mustard (Brassica juncea COSS and CZERN.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The edible oil production in the country is short of requirements to the tune of 70%. The gap is filled by heavy imports costing the national exchequer over 400 million US$ annually. Increasing domestic production of edible oil is thus of high priority for the Government of Pakistan. Rapeseed and mustard (Brassica juncea), being indigenous oilseed crops and well entrenched in the cropping system of the growers, have the potential to bridge the gap between production and consumption. Mustard is the predominantly grown species of oilseed Brassica in Pakistan as it has superior adaptability to semi-arid conditions and tolerance to drought as well as heat and seed shattering. However, no juncea cultivar of canola quality is available in Pakistan so far. In this backdrop, a comprehensive research program was launched in 1994- 95 at NIFA, with the help of IAEA, through a Technical Cooperation Project to develop improved varieties of mustard. Gamma irradiation and fast neutrons were used to induce genetic variability in traits of economic importance, thus diversifying the genetic base of indigenous/exotic cultivars (cvs.) of Brassica oilseeds. About 15,000 dry seeds of exotic mustard line (DLJ-3) having about 10% moisture were irradiated at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 kGy gamma rays (60Co gamma source) in 1994-95. The treated seeds were planted directly in the field in isolation of M1 generation. Selection for desirable mutants was carried out in M2 and useful mutants, including MM-1266, were selected. The stability of selected traits of MM-1266 was confirmed in M3 and M4 generations. MM-1266 was thoroughly assessed for yield in different replicated trials at NIFA and other stations in Pakistan and the results of MM-1266 in comparison with the control cv. is presented. In the preliminary yield trial in rabi 1997-98d at NIFA, MM-1266 produced the highest yield (1908 kg/ha) and significantly outyielded the parent by 100%. The following year, MM-1266 was tested in advanced yield trials

  19. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  20. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of 31P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  1. Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Sven-Eric; Bautista, Diana M; Chuang, Huai-Hu; McKemy, David D; Zygmunt, Peter M; Högestätt, Edward D; Meng, Ian D; Julius, David

    2004-01-15

    Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors. PMID:14712238

  2. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 μM) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

  3. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern...

  4. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative ...

  5. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun) of East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adeniji, OT.; A. Aloyce, A.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improv...

  6. 28-HOMOBRASSINOLIDE PROTECTS PHOTOSYNTHETIC MACHINERY IN INDIAN MUSTARD UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Qazi Fariduddin; Mohammad Yusuf; Mahmooda Begum; Aqil Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated wi...

  7. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna sausages by an antimicrobial film containing mustard extract or sinigrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Lledó, Marta; Olaimat, Amin; Holley, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    The ability of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes to convert glucosinolates into antimicrobial isothiocyanates was investigated. Mustard glucosinolates in pure (sinigrin) or extract forms (sinigrin, oriental; sinalbin, yellow mustard) were used in broth media and in a polyvinyl polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PPG) packaging film with bologna to examine their value as antimicrobial precursors for the control of L. monocytogenes viability and extension of bologna shelf-life at 4 °C. During broth tests with deodorized (myrosinase-inactivated) mustard extracts (10 d at 20 °C) or with purified sinigrin (21 d at 20 °C) L. monocytogenes was only inhibited when exogenous myrosinase was added. None the less, the organism was able to hydrolyze almost half the pure sinigrin by 21 d in tests without added enzyme. Reductions in sinigrin levels were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and in the absence of L. monocytogenes or added myrosinase the glucosinolate was stable. When pure sinigrin, oriental or yellow mustard extracts were incorporated in PPG films containing 3, 5 and 6% (w/w) of the corresponding glucosinolate and used to package bologna inoculated with 4 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, the pathogen became undetectable in bologna packed with the oriental mustard extract at 52 d storage and remained undetectable at 70 d. The yellow mustard extract was less inhibitory and the pure sinigrin was not antimicrobial. L. monocytogenes numbers reached >7 log CFU/g in the film and untreated controls at 17 d storage. At 35 d storage, samples packed with control film contained sufficient numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (>7 log CFU/g) to be considered spoiled, whereas treatments containing mustard or sinigrin remained <7 log CFU/g LAB for ≤ 70 d. L. monocytogenes played a key role in exerting control over its own viability in bologna by hydrolysis of the glucosinolate in the oriental mustard film, but other antimicrobials in treatments may have contributed. PMID

  8. Mutation induced changes in essential fatty acids composition in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in fatty acid composition were studied in M2 generation using two varieties (Varuna and BR-40) of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Fatty acid profile indicated inverse relationship between erucic acid and oleic acid in Varuna progenies derived from higher doses of gamma rays whereas in BR-40, it was true for all the treatments. Selection of mutants having high oleic and linoleic acid and low erucic and eicosenoic acid was preferred for further quality improvement in Indian mustard. (author)

  9. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  10. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal formation of crucifer leaf mustard induced by flavonoids apigenin and daidzein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Changjin; ZHAO Bin

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids from legume root secretion may probably act as signal molecules for expression of Rhizobial "nod" nodulation genes and AM fungal symbiotic gene. Leaf mustard is a non-mycorrhizal plant; it does not contain fiavonoids and other signal molecules. AM fungi could not infect the roots of leaf mustard and form a symbiont in nature,when it was treated with fiavonoids (apigenin or daidzein).The results of trypan blue staining showed that two kinds of AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) successfully infected the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard. AM fungi grew towards and colonized the roots of leaf mustard,producing young spores and completing the course of life.AM fungi are the only one kind of fungi with ALP activity.The result of ALP staining has also proved that AM fungi infected successfully the roots of leaf mustard. AM fungi (G.intraradices and G. mosseae) that existed in the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard were probed by nested PCR and special molecular probes. The above-mentioned proof chains have fully proved that fiavonoids induced AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) to infect non-mycorrhizal plant and establish symbiotic relationship.

  12. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in White Mustard (A Biochemical Anomaly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. N.; Kiddle, G.; Wallsgrove, R. M.

    1997-08-01

    One of the first steps in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to their aldoximes. The biochemistry of this process is controversial, and several very different enzyme systems have been described. The major glucosinolate in white mustard (Sinapis alba) is sinalbin, which is derived from tyrosine via its aldoxime, and this conversion is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) monooxygenase. Phenylethyl- and alkenylglucosinolates are also present in white mustard leaves, as are the enzymes catalyzing the relevant aldoxime formation from homophenylalanine and methionine homologs, respectively. These enzymes are similar to those found in Brassica sp. and are distinct from the tyrosine-dependent enzyme in that they contain no heme and are unaffected by Cyt P450 inhibitors. They are instead inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and by Cu2+. In both white mustard and oilseed rape (Brassica napus) methyl jasmonate specifically stimulates indolylglucosinolate biosynthesis and yet has no effect on sinalbin accumulation in either cotyledons or leaves of white mustard. White mustard appears to be unique among crucifers in having a Cyt P450 aldoxime-forming enzyme for biosynthesis of one glucosinolate, although it also contains all of the non-Cyt P450 enzyme systems found in other members of the family. Sinalbin biosynthesis in white mustard is therefore an inappropriate model system for the synthesis of other glucosinolates in crucifers, including canola and oilseed rape. PMID:12223771

  13. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  14. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  15. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in environmental technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorna, Dana; Zabranska, Jana

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is widely known as the most undesirable component of biogas that caused not only serious sensoric and toxic problems, but also corrosion of concrete and steel structures. Many agricultural and industrial waste used in biogas production, may contain a large amount of substances that serve as direct precursors to the formation of sulfide sulfur-sources of hydrogen sulfide in the biogas. Biological desulfurization methods are currently promoted to abiotic methods because they are less expensive and do not produce undesirable materials which must be disposed of. The final products of oxidation of sulfides are no longer hazardous. Biological removal of sulfide from a liquid or gaseous phase is based on the activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. They need an oxidizing agent such as an acceptor of electrons released during the oxidation of sulfides-atmospheric oxygen or oxidized forms of nitrogen. Different genera of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and their technological application are discussed. PMID:25701621

  16. Radioiodination and preliminary biological tests of aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate as a potential anticancer prodrug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate were radioiodinated with 131I. The preliminary dynamic tests were carried out on rabbits. The scintigrams showed clearly that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard was very quickly cleared from the metabolism, accumulating in the bladder in about 15 minutes. The clearance time of radioiodinated aniline-mustard-glucuronide was considerably longer (about 45 min.). The results obtained from the biodistributional studies have represented interesting differences between the metabolic details of radioiodinated compounds, and indicated that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard may be a promising radioiodinated prodrug, if verification of its selective accumulation in some kinds of tumor cells can be obtained. (author)

  17. 38 CFR 3.316 - Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., bronchitis, emphysema, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (3) Full-body exposure to nitrogen mustard during active military service together with the subsequent development of acute...

  18. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Sulfuric acid in the Venus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The extremely dry nature of the Venus upper atmosphere appears to demand the presence of an efficient desiccating agent as the chief constituent of the clouds of Venus. On the basis of polarization measures it is to be expected that this substance is present as spherical droplets, 1 to 2 microns in diameter, with a refractive index n of 1.46 plus or minus 0.02 at 3500A in the observed region of the atmosphere, with T about equal to 235 K. This substance must have ultraviolet, visible, and infrared reflection properties not inconsistent with the observed spectrum of Venus. Sulfuric acid, of about 86% by weight composition, roughly fulfills the first of these properties. The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  20. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  1. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  2. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  3. Study of the Efficacy of CC-2 and Fuller's Earth Combination as a Decontaminant against Sulphur Mustard (Mustard Gas) Dermal Intoxication in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Kumar; U. S. Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1991-01-01

    Decontamination efficacy of Fuller's earth and CC-2 independently; and in different combinations was evaluated against toxicity of sulphur mustard applied percutaneously on mice. Maximum protection was obtained with Fuller's earth and CC-2 in a combination of 80:20(w/w).

  4. The Scarlet Letter of Alkylation: A Mini Review of Selective Alkylating Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Oronsky, Bryan T.; Reid, Tony; Knox, Susan J.; Scicinski, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    If there were a stigma scale for chemotherapy, alkylating agents would be ranked at the top of the list. The chemical term alkylation is associated with nonselective toxicity, an association that dates back to the use of nitrogen mustards during World War I as chemical warfare agents. That this stigma persists and extends to compounds that, through selectivity, attempt to “tame” the indiscriminate destructive potential of alkylation is the subject of this review. Selective alkylation, as it i...

  5. Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Coal by the Thermophilic Organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    OpenAIRE

    KARGI, Fikret; Robinson, James M.

    1982-01-01

    The thermophilic, reduced-sulfur, iron-oxidizing bacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was used for the removal of sulfur compounds from coal. The inclusion of complex nutrients such as yeast extract and peptone, and chemical oxidizing agents, 0.01 M FeCl3 into leaching medium, reduced the rate and the extent of sulfur removal from coal. The rate of sulfur removal by S. acidocaldarius was strongly dependent on the sulfur content of the coal and on the total external surface area of coal particl...

  6. The Short-Term Effect of Mustard Gas on the Serum Immunoglobulin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Keyhani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas (MG, as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto antigenic stimulation of the patients’ immune systems.

  7. Evaluation of CC2 as a Decontaminant in Various Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Formulations Against Sulphur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate CC2 (N, N' -dichloro-bis [2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl] urea) in various hydrophilic and lipophilic formulations as a personnel decontaminant for sulphur mustard (SM). Methods Twenty percent of CC2 was prepared as a suspension or ointment with various chemical agents and its stability was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated in mice by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM (LD50 =8.1 mg/kg dermally) and decontaminating it after 2 min with 200 mg of the formulation.Studies were also carried out with 10% and 20% CC2 in acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose,and the suspensions were stored in polyethylene containers. The stability of the suspensions was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM in mice and 12 LD50 of SM in rats (LD50 = 2.4 mg/kg dermally), and decontaminating it with the formulations. LD50 by different routes and primary skin irritation test of CC2 were also carried out. Results CC2 reacted with peanut oil and neem oil, and was unstable in povidone iodine and Fuller's earth. Good stability was achieved with petroleum jelly, honey, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, calamine lotion, acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Though CC2 was stable in lipophilic formulations, it did not protect the animals. The hydrophilic formulations particularly acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose gave very good protection and was stable in the polyethylene containers for a period of 1 year. The efficacy of 20% CC2 was better than 10% CC2. The oral and dermal LD50 of CC2 was found to be above 5.0 g/kg. CC2 was also found to be nonirritant.Conclusion Twenty percent of CC2 in hydroxypropyl cellulose is better with respect to stability, efficacy and ease of decontamination. CC2 is also a safe chemical.

  8. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles

  9. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  10. Ge{sup 4+} doped TiO{sub 2} for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared nanodisperse Ge{sup 4+} doped titania by a novel synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis does not involve organic solvents, organometallics nor thermal processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared materials are efficient in removal of chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ge{sup 4+} doping improves rate of removal of soman and agent VX by TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Germanium doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl{sub 4} and TiOSO{sub 4} with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge{sup 4+} doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge{sup 4+} doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  11. Interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard and sunflower grown in the hydroponic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Indian mustard and sunflower were grown in a hydroponic solution treated with different concentration activities of 134Cs or with different amounts of copper or with both in order to investigate the interaction between copper and radiocesium. It was found that 134Cs activity concentration applied in the nutrient solution exerted more influence on the uptake and translocation of copper by Indian mustard than by sunflower. Indian mustard grown in hydroponic solution containing certain levels of copper and being treated with higher 134Cs activity concentration showed higher uptake of copper than sunflower. However, in the case of root copper concentrations, sunflower showed significantly higher copper immobilization by roots than Indian mustard. It was also found that the presence of copper the the hydroponic solution did modify radiocesium uptake by both species. The application of 1 mg/l in the growth medium could greatly increase the uptake of 134 Cs by both species. With 3 mg/l concentration of copper amended to the solution, the accumulation of 134Cs by both species was decreased compared to the 1 mg/l copper treatment. These lines of evidence show that there is stronger interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard than in sunflower during the root uptake through nutrient solution. (author)

  12. Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Production in Chitwan District of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Dhakal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43 indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. The magnitude of regression coefficients of mustard implied that use of human labor, tractor, nutrient and irrigation and pesticides costs had significant positive effect on gross return with estimated increasing return to scale (1.03. According to estimated allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to increase use of tractor labor, seed, nutrient and irrigation plus pesticides cost by about 47%, 82%, 84% and 94%, respectively. Extension of modern technologies with adjustment on resource use is to be encouraged for increase in productivity and profit from mustard production which indirectly promotes and ensure forage for pollinators.

  13. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Glucosinolate Content Varies Across a Natural Light Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren M

    2015-05-01

    Garlic mustard is a well-known invader of deciduous forests of North America, yet the influence of environmental factors on garlic mustard allelochemical production is not well understood. Three experiments were conducted to detect interactions between one garlic mustard allelochemical (glucosinolate) production and light availability. First, to detect patterns of glucosinolate production across a natural light gradient, leaves and roots of mature plants and first-year rosettes were sampled in patches ranging from 100 to 2 % of full sun within an Indiana forest. Second, to determine whether genetic variation drives observed correlations between glucosinolate content and light, seed collected across light gradients within six sites was grown in a common garden and glucosinolate production was measured. Finally, to understand whether local adaptation occurred in garlic mustard's response to light, seed collected from defined light environments across six sites was grown under four light treatments. Results of the field sampling showed that mature plants' root glucosinolate content was elevated in high compared to low light. In the common garden experiment, however, there was no correlation between light availability at seed origin and constitutive glucosinolate content. Additionally, in the common light treatments, there was no evidence for local adaptation to light environment. Overall, the results indicate that plasticity in response to light, not genetic variation among plants growing in different light environments, generates correlations between glucosinolate content and light in the field. Since mature garlic mustard populations in high light may exhibit increased glucosinolate content, it makes them potential targets for management. PMID:25912227

  14. The stibian mustard gold from the Kriván¿ Au deposit,Tatry Mts., Slovak Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Martin, Chovan; František, Bakos

    2007-01-01

    with pores more or less fi lled by oxidation products of Sb and Fe. Compositionally it does not conform with stibian mustard gold from Yakutia and Bolivia, approximately AuSb1.4O2.1, derived from decomposition of aurostibite, but it conforms with mustard gold from Krásná Hora, Czech Republic. For this...

  15. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  16. New studies on mustard gold from the Dongping Mines, Hebei Province, China: The tellurian, plumbian, manganoan and mixed varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiuling; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold......geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold...

  17. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  18. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  19. Long-Term Outcome of Mustard/Senning Correction for Transposition of the Great Arteries in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlstrup, Niels; Sørensen, Keld; Mattsson, Eva; Thilén, Ulf; Kvidal, Per; Johansson, Bengt; Iversen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Lars; Dellborg, Mikael; Eriksson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atrial switch operation, the Mustard or Senning operation, for the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) was introduced in the late 1950s and was the preferred surgery for TGA until the early 1990s. The Mustard and Senning operation involves extensive surgery in the atria and...... leaves the right ventricle as the systemic ventricle. The Mustard and Senning cohort is now well into adulthood and we begin to see the long-term outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: All the 6 surgical centers that performed Mustard and Senning operations in Sweden and Denmark identified all operated TGA...... long-term outcome (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.46, P=0.04), once the TGA patient has survived the perioperative period. The risk of reoperation was correlated to the presence of associated defects and where the first Mustard/Senning operation was performed. CONCLUSIONS: The long...

  20. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  1. Antioxidants from defatted Indian Mustard (Brassica Juncea) protect biomolecules against in vitro oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anita; Chander, Subhash; Agrawal, Sharad; Mahajan, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Indian mustard seeds were defatted by distillation with hexane and the residue extracted with methanol was analyzed for potential antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, and polyphenols. Gallic acid (129.796 μg), caffeic acid (753.455 μg), quercetin (478.352 μg) and kaempferol (48.060 μg)/g dry seeds were identified by HPLC analysis of the extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protection of lipids, proteins and DNA against metal induced oxidation was examined. Defatted mustard seed remnant had excellent free radical scavenging activity and protects biomolecules with IC50 value 2.0-2.25 mg dry seed weight. Significant content of polyphenols in methanol extract of defatted seeds accounts for high antioxidant potential. We are the first to report the detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and protection of biomolecules against oxidative damage by methanol extract of mustard seed remnant after oil extraction. PMID:25320478

  2. Study on irradiation sterilization of mixture of blanched mustard greed and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological and sensory qualities of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean stored at commercial condition and D10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua were investigated. The results show that D10 value of Listeria innocua inoculated in mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean is 0.264 kGy, and fatality rate of the Listeria irradiated by a dose of 1.2 kGy was 99.996%; Irradiation at doses less than 2.0 kGy does not have significant effects on sensory qualities, and this dose is able to decrease microbe and pathogens of Listeria innocua by 2-3 log and 6 log, respectively. A dose of 2.0 kGy might be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean. (authors)

  3. Using neutron source distinguish mustard gas bomb from the others with Monte Carlo simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Japan was defeated, the chemical weapon that left in China injured people constantly. It made very grave lost to the Chinese because of people's innocent to it. In these accidents, mustard gas bomb is the most. It is more difficult to distinguish mustard gas bomb from other normal bomb in out because it embedded in the earth for long time; leakage, eroding and rust appearance looked very serious. So the untouched measure method, neutron source inducing γ spectrum, showed very important. The Monte Carlo method was used in this paper to compute the γ spectrum when using neutron source irradiate mustard gas bomb. The characteristic radial of Cl, S, Fe and the other elements can picked up clearly. The result play some referenced role in analyzing γ spectrum. (authors)

  4. Preparation and performance of a sulfur/graphene composite for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising electrochemical system that has high theoretical capacity. The sulfur/graphene nanosheets (S/GNS) composite is prepared through thermal reduction between the sulfur (S) and graphene oxide (GO). The morphology and composition of the composite are analyzed by means of x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) characterization. It is found that the element S distributed uniformly between the layers of GNS. Graphene with a two-dimensional structure of carbon atoms is employed as a conductive and absorbing agent for the S cathode materials of rechargeable Li-S battery. The S/GNS composite cathode shows a specific electrochemical capacity, which is about 1598 mAh g−1 S at the initial discharge and remains above 670 mAh g−1 after 80 cycles.

  5. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  6. IMPACT OF HONEY BEE POLLINATION ON POD SET OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.: CRUCIFERAE AT PANTNAGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIMLA GOSWAMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and abundance of different insect visitors on mustard (Brassica juncea were studied at Pantnagar. A total of 19 insect visitors belonging to order Hymenoptera (15 and Diptera (4 were found to visit the mustard blossoms at Pantnagar. The abundance (percentage of insect/m2/2min. of Hymenopterans were maximum followed by the Dipterans and others. In Hymenopterans, the honeybees (Apis bees were observed maximum followed by non Apis bees and the scolid wasp. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods and percent pod set.

  7. Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatmen...

  8. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  9. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  10. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  11. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  12. Experiments regarding the development of sulfur-containing chelating agents for excretion via the biliary duct as an antidote therapy of cadmium intoxication. Versuche zur Entwicklung schwefelhaltiger, biliaer eliminierbarer Chelatbildner zur Antidottherapie bei Cadmium-Intoxikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, T.

    1988-01-01

    The study represents an effort to synthesize new cadmium complexing agents which would be free of the shortcomings of substances available so far. As the kidneys seem to be the 'critical organs' both in cadmium intoxication and in chelate therapy, the new compounds were to assure elimination of the cadmium chelate formed via the biliary tract. After introductory chapters, the work first of all describes the syntheses of the new potential complexing agents. The second part of the work attempts to transform known chelating agents into substances permitting biliary excretion by forming derivatives with a diazomethane containing cumarin as a substitute. However, no suitable chelate compound could be obtained. The last part studies the cadmium complexing capability of the synthesized 3,6-dioxaoctanedithioamides 4 and 8 and of the N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thioacetamide 6 using different methods. Only the compound N,N,N',N'-tetrabutyl-3,6-dioxaoctanedithioamide 4/sup 104-106/, previously described in literature, and the monothioamide 6 formed cadmium chelates. But these compounds, having a relatively low molecular weight, are unlikely to satisfy the requirements for elimination via the biliary duct.

  13. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; LI Yang; Zhou, Feng-shan; Hu, Ying-mo; Zhang, Yi-he

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1) Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2) Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sul...

  14. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  15. Formation of CuxS Layers on Polypropylene Sulfurized by Molten Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa ALABURDAITĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of formation of electrically conductive layers of copper sulfides CuxS by the sorption-diffusion method on polypropylene (PP using molten sulfur as sulfurizing agent was investigated. The amount of sorbed sulfur increased with the increase of the duration of treatment. Copper sulfide layers were formed on the surface of polypropylene after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Cu(II/I salt solution. The amount of copper sulfide in layer increased with the increase of treatment duration in copper salt solution. XRD spectra of PP films treated for 3 min with molten sulfur and then with Cu(II/I salt solution for the different time showed that the copper sulfide phases, mostly digenite, Cu2-xS and a-chalcocite, Cu2S were formed in the layers. Electromotive force measurement results confirmed the composition of formed CuxS layers on PP. The phase composition of layers also changed after the annealing. The value of electrical resistance of copper sulfide layers on PP varied from 20 W/cm2 to 80 W/cm2 and after annealing at 80 °C - in the interval of 10 W/cm2 - 60 W/cm2.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.776

  16. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  17. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  18. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  19. Speciation and bioaccessibility of lead and cadmium in soil treated with metal-enriched Indian mustard leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanshan Cui; Jin Fu; Xiaochen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) has shown good potential for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there is little information about the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil during the decomposition of metal-rich Indian mustard leaves. Incubation experiments (1-, 3-, and 6-month) were carried out in Beijing and Hunan soil with metal-rich Indian mustard leaves addition (1% and 3%) and the effects of mustard leaves addition on the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals were studied. The results showed that the addition of mustard leaves led to significant increases in pH and DOC in the Hunan soil. Both 1% and 3% of mustard leaf amendment caused the percentage of the exchangeable (F1), precipitated with carbonates (F2), bound to Fe/Mn oxides (F3) and bound to organic matter (F4) fractions of Pb and Cd to increase dramatically, while the percentage of the residual fraction (F5) of Cd and Pb significantly dropped in both Beijing and Hunan soils. Mustard leaf addition caused the bioaccessibility of Pb to decrease in the gastric phase, whereas the values increased in the small intestinal phase. The Cd bioaccessibility increased with mustard leaf addition in both the gastric and small intestinal phases. In conclusion, the metal-enriched mustard leaves addition induces Pb and Cd concentrations and their mobility increasing in the Beijing and Hunan soils. Therefore, heavy metal risk in metal-enriched plant leaves should be considered in phytoremediation system in which heavy metal might be brought back to soil and changed over time.

  20. Distribution of cadmium in oilseed rape and Indian mustard grown on cadmium contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal distribution in the specialized accumulating plants was important for phytoextraction technique. Hydroponic and pot experiment were conducted to investigated Cd phytoextraction ability and Cd distribution in the plant of oilseed rape species. The results showed that oilseed rape Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 was more effective in phytoexetraction Cd among 21 varieties of oilseed rape and indicator plant Indian mustard. Cd concentration in the shoot of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard gradually decreased with an increase in growth period, while the amount of Cd uptake increased with the increase of growth period. There was constantly decrease in Cd concentration from the base leaves to the top leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard, the percentages of Cd uptake in older leaves were higher than those of younger leaves. Older leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ -10 and Indian mustard extracted more Cd for the Cd contamination soil, leaves should as far as possible develop before they reached the soil and the older leaves were harvested in priority.

  1. Study of Inheritance of Erucic acid in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Pandey, Manoj Kabdal and M.K.Tripathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed-mustard is second most important group of oilseed crops next to groundnut. Among these, Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czern and Coss] is the most important crop grown during rabi season. Though the productivity of Indian mustard in India has considerably improved in last decade but it is still very low in comparison to many European countries. On the other hand, Rapeseed – mustard have been used as a source of oil since long time. The reason for low use of the oil is the presence of high percentage of erucic acid and linolenic acid contents in the oil, which not only deteriorate the oil quality but are also known to produce harmful effects on the body. In the present study one zero erucic acid line PRQ-9701-46 was crossed with JM-1 (46.29%, a high erucic acid cultivar including reciprocals to find out the number of genes controlling inheritance of erucic acid in Brassica juncea. The erucic acid content of F1’s and their reciprocals was intermediate between the parents thus indicating embryonic control of erucic acid and absence of maternal effect in the inheritance of erucic acid in B. juncea. Erucic acid content of F2 seeds segregated into 5 classes (46% erucic acid with a ratio of 1:2:1. The segregation patterns confirmed that inheritance of erucic acid content in B. juncea was governed by two genes with additive effects.

  2. Efficacy of white mustard and soybean meal as a bioherbicide in organic broccoli and spinach production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic cropping systems generally rely on mechanical or physical methods because of the lack of reliable organically accepted herbicides. Among the several potential bioherbicides being explored, white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal is among those bioherbicides that have been sho...

  3. Analysis of esterase isozyme and SSR for mutagenic progenies induced by space mutation in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of five mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) varieties were carried into outer space by 'Shijian No.8' satellite. After five years' consecutive planting and selection, ten relatively stable mutant lines were obtained, which had significant variation in agronomic and economic characters. The mutant lines and their original varieties without space mutation treatment as control were studied by esterase isozyme and SSR analyses. Electrophoresis analysis of esterase isozymes indicated that there were differences between mutant lines and their controls in enzyme types and enzyme activity. Different mustard varieties had different enzymographs, and so did the mutants induced by space mutation, which shows different sensitivity among different mustard varieties. The SSR analysis showed that large differences were found in the SSR loci between mutant lines and their original variety, the variation frequency was between 9.52% and 57.14% with an average frequency of 26.19% for all the mutant lines. Among the mutant SSR loci, about 56.36% showed changes in band number and 43.64% in molecular weight. These results indicated that the ten mutant lines had large genetic difference in phenotype, genomic sequence and gene expression, and the outer space mutation would be an effective method to develop new mustard germplasm and variety. (authors)

  4. CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demand increases and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. Properties of waste oil (cotton seed oil and mustard oil have been compared with the properties of petro-diesel, showing a comparable regimefor satisfactory optimized blend which is to be selected for the better performance of a C.I. engine with biodiesel. The work presented in this paper is the study of characteristics of biodiesel prepared from vegetable oils (waste cotton seed oil and waste mustard oil.The characteristics of biodiesel are to be checked at different blends (B10, B15, B20 and select the optimum blend based on these characteristics. The characteristics include free fatty acid value, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point and pour point, carbon residue content and ash residue content. Different fuel properties of the cotton methyl ester and mustard methyl ester were also measured. Results show that the properties of methyl ester of cotton seed were more suitable as compared to properties of mustard methyl ester.

  5. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar...

  6. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency. PMID:23359937

  7. Comparative growth of Spring-planted canola, brown mustard and camelina

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased emphasis for diesel substitution, production of brown mustard (Brassica juncea), canola (B. napus) and camelina (Camelina sativa) used as biodiesel may increase in the High Plains. The objective was to elucidate the growth pattern of these crops when spring-planted in western Nebraska...

  8. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  9. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  10. Characterization of Sulfur Compounds in MTBE

    OpenAIRE

    Mingqing Wu; Chunyan Chang; Tao Li; Jian Zhou; Liping Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A study is carried out on chemical constitution of sulfur compounds in MTBE and their formation mechanisms. These sulfur compounds are classified into three types: common sulfur compounds, newly formed sulfur compounds, and high boiling sulfur compounds. Common sulfur compounds which include mercaptans, low molecule sulfides and disulfides, are directly from C4, one of the stocks for production of MTBE. The newly formed sulfur compounds, with one sulfur atom and five or more total carbon atom...

  11. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  12. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  13. The effect of vitamin E on pathological changes in kidney and liver of sulphur mustard-exposed guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Tabatabayee, Abbas; Amiri, Sediqa; Vahedi, Nasim

    2012-04-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) gas is a poisonous chemical agent causing various systemic action in laboratory animals. There is no definite treatment for disorders induced by SM. In this study, the effect of vitamin E alone and in combination with dexamethasone on the pathological changes in the kidney and liver of SM-exposed (SME) guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs were divided into five groups (n = 5 in each). These groups were exposed to ethanol (control group), 100 mg/m(3) inhaled SM (SME group), SME treated with vitamin E, 600 mg/kg (SME + E), SME treated with dexamethasone, 5 mg/kg (SME + D), and SME treated with both drugs (SME + E + D), respectively. Pathological evaluation of the kidneys and livers was done 14 days post exposure. There were statistically significant pathological changes in the liver and kidney of SME group compared to control animals (p livers and kidneys (p liver and more prominently in the kidneys of SME guinea pigs. PMID:21967843

  14. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pHi) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pHi to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC50 values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlueTM. The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD50 obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pHi, so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pHi that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death

  15. Reduced sulfur in euxinic sediments of the Cariaco Basin : Sulfur isotope contraints on organic sulfur formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Werne, J.; Lyons, T.W.; Hollander, D.J.; Formolo, M.

    2003-01-01

    Reduced sulfur accumulation in Holocene and latest Pleistocene euxinic marine sediments from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, was investigated to constrain the timing and possible pathways of organic matter (OM) sulfurization. Data were collected for a diverse suite of sulfur species, including concent

  16. Investigation of the nutraceutical potential of monofloral Indian mustard bee pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer S.Ketkar; Atul S.Rathore; Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan; Lakshmi Rao; Anant R.Paradkar; Kakasaheb R.Mahadik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the nutraceutical potential of monolforal Indian mustard bee pollen (MIMBP). METHODS: The nutritional value of MIMBP was examined in terms of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and energy value. Its chemical composition in terms of total polyphenol and lfavonoid content was determined. MIMBP was screened for free lfavonoid aglycones by developing and validating a high-performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA) method. MIMBP was analyzed forin vitro antioxidant effect in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. RESULTS: MIMBP was found to be comprised of proteins ((182.2±5.9) g/kg), fats ((137.7±6.8) g/kg) and carbohydrates ((560.6±17.4) g/kg), which result in its high energy value ((17 616.7±78.6) kJ/kg). MIMBP was found to contain polyphenols ((18 286.1±374.0) mg gallic acid equivalent/kg) and lfavonoids ((1 223.5±53.1) mg quercetin equivalent/kg). The HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the presence of kaempferol ((65.4±0.5) mg/kg) and quercetin ((51.4±0.4) mg/kg) in MIMBP, which can be used as markers for determining the quality of bee pollen. The MIMBP extract showed DPPH free radical-scavenging activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 54.79 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: The MIMBP was found to be a rich source of nutrients providing high caloric value, which makes it a candidate for a potential nutraceutical agent. The study also illustrated the high antioxidant content of MIMBP, especially in the principle polyphenols and lfavonoids, which suggests its potential role in the prevention of free radical-implicated diseases. The DPPH-scavenging effect of MIMBP further conifrmed its antioxidant potential. Additionally, we developed a simple, speciifc and accurate HPLC-PDA method for the identiifcation and quantiifcation of free lfavonoid aglycones. This can be applied in future screenings of the quality of pollen collected by honeybees.

  17. Exogenously-sourced ethylene increases stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and growth under optimal and deficient nitrogen fertilization in mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Noushina; Nazar, Rahat; Syeed, Shabina; Masood, Asim; Khan, Nafees A.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ascertain the stomatal and photosynthetic responses of mustard to ethylene under varying N availability, photosynthetic characteristics of mustard grown with optimal (80 mg N kg−1 soil) or low (40 mg N kg−1 soil) N were studied after the application of an ethylene-releasing compound, ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) at 40 days after sowing (DAS). The availability of N influenced ethylene evolution and affected stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. The effect of ethylene...

  18. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulator, Immunity and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard Seeds (Brassica juncea)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Among the oilseeds grown around the world, mustard is one of the important crop worldwide due to its wide adaptability and high yielding capacity. Owing to the importance of its utilities as condiment, cooking oil and some medical aids, the demand for its seed production is too high. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in leaves, ...

  19. Mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionation during reoxidative sulfur cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellerin, André; Bui, Thi Hao; Rough, Mikaella;

    2015-01-01

    The multiple sulfur isotope composition of porewater sulfate from the anoxic marine sapropel of Mangrove Lake, Bermuda was measured in order to establish how multiple sulfur isotopes are fractionated during reoxidative sulfur cycling. The porewater-sulfate d34S and D33S dataset exhibits the...... distinct isotopic signatures of microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur reoxidation. We reproduced the measurements with a simple diagenetic model that yielded fractionation factors for net sulfate removal of between 29.2 0/00 and 32.5 0/00. A new approach to isotopic modeling of the sulfate profiles......, informed by the chemistry of sulfur intermediate compounds in Mangrove Lake, reveals that sulfate reduction produces a relatively small intrinsic fractionation and that an active reoxidative sulfur cycle increases the fractionation of the measured values. Based on the model results, the reoxidative cycle...

  20. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor

  1. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 3 (2011), s. 1491-1504. ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : warfare agents * nanodispersive oxides * homogeneous hydrolysis * urea Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  2. Facile synthesis and performance of polypyrrole-coated sulfur nanocomposite as cathode materials for lithium/sulfur batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui Yuan; Haodong Wang

    2014-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation polymerization of pyrrole on the surface of sulfur particles was carried out to synthesize a sulfur/polypyrrole (S/PPy) nanocomposite with core-shell structure. The composite was characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical measurements. XRD and FTIR results showed that sulfur well dispersed in the core-shell structure and PPy structure was successfully obtained via in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on the surface of sulfur particles. TEM observation revealed that PPy was formed and fixed to the surface of sulfur nanoparticle after polymerization, developing a well-defined core-shell structure and the thickness of PPy coating layer was in the range of 20-30 nm. In the composite, PPy worked as a conducting matrix as well as a coating agent, which confined the active materials within the electrode. Consequently, the as prepared S/PPy composite cathode exhibited good cycling and rate performances for rechargeable lithium/sulfur batteries. The resulting cell containing S/PPy composite cathode yields a discharge capacity of 1039 mAh·g-1 at the initial cycle and retains 59%of this value over 50 cycles at 0.1 C rate. At 1 C rate, the S/PPy composite showed good cycle stability, and the discharge capacity was 475 mAh·g-1 after 50 cycles.

  3. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of ∼30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  4. Cytoplasmic male sterility of tuber mustard is associated with the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yanxi; CHEN Zhujun; CAO Jiashu; CHEN Xuejun; LIU Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Two transcripts of T gene, T1170 and T1243, were obtained from the mitochondrial cDNA of tuber mustard CMS line. T1243 was a transcript with an intron unspliced, which has the basic characteristics of type Ⅱ intron. The expressions of the two transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed that, at seedling stage, the expression of T gene was mainly in the form of T1170 but decreased with the development gradually, while the expression abundance of another transcript, T1243, increased gradually. The T1243 was prevalent at the profuse flowering stage. The expression pattern was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These results suggested that the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts were related to CMS of tuber mustard.

  5. Reliable screening technique for evaluation of wild crucifers against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Y P; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-01

    Wild crucifers namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica fruticulosa, B. rugosa, B. spinescens, B. tournefortii, Camelina sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Crambe abysinnica, Cronopus didymus, Diplotaxis assurgens, D. gomez-campoi, D. muralis, D. siettiana, D. tenuisiliqua, Enatharocarpus lyratus, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba along with five cultivated Brassica species including B. rapa (BSH-1), B. juncea (Rohini), B. napus (GSC-6), B. carinata (DLSC-2) and Eruca sativa (T-27) were screened against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with a standardized technique under definite level of aphid pressure developed using specially designed cages. Observations have revealed that B. fruticulosa, B. spinescens, Camelina sativa, Crambe abysinnica and Lepidium sativum were resistant to mustard aphid L. erysimi with aphid infestation index (AII) ≤ 1. Capsella bursa-pastoris was highly susceptible to bean aphid, Aphis fabae during its vegetative stage (with 100% mortality). Other genotypes were found in the range of 'susceptible' to 'highly susceptible' with AII ranging 3-5. PMID:25651614

  6. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphries Steve E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to mustard gas frequently results in long-term respiratory complications. However the factors which drive the development and progression of these complications remain unclear. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS has been implicated in lung inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Genetic variation within the gene coding for the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE, specifically the Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (I/D, is associated with variable levels of ACE and with the severity of several acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesized that the ACE genotype might influence the severity of late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. Methods 208 Kurdish patients who had suffered high exposure to mustard gas, as defined by cutaneous lesions at initial assessment, in Sardasht, Iran on June 29 1987, underwent clinical examination, spirometric evaluation and ACE Insertion/Deletion genotyping in September 2005. Results ACE genotype was determined in 207 subjects. As a continuous variable, FEV1 % predicted tended to be higher in association with the D allele 68.03 ± 20.5%, 69.4 ± 21.4% and 74.8 ± 20.1% for II, ID and DD genotypes respectively. Median FEV1 % predicted was 73 and this was taken as a cut off between groups defined as having better or worse lung function. The ACE DD genotype was overrepresented in the better spirometry group (Chi2 4.9 p = 0.03. Increasing age at the time of exposure was associated with reduced FEV1 %predicted (p = 0.001, whereas gender was not (p = 0.43. Conclusion The ACE D allele is associated with higher FEV1 % predicted when assessed 18 years after high exposure to mustard gas.

  8. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S. K.; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming sta...

  9. Clinical, High Resolution Computed Tomography and Pulmonary Function in Sulphur Mustard Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Moghimi; Armita Valizadeh; Habib Heybar; Mahdi Yadollahzadeh; Ahmad Ahmadzadeh; Esmaeil Idani

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate clinical, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings after 18-23 years of exposure in veterans of sulphur mustard (SM) exposure. We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 patients. Inclusion criteria were 1: documented exposure to SM as confirmed by toxicological analysis of their urine and vesicular fluid after exposure 2: single exposure to SM that cause skin blisters and subsequent transient or permanent sequel. Cigarette sm...

  10. Effect of high temperature stress on photosynthesis and partitioning of 14C in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of high temperature stress on 14Co2 assimilation and partitioning of 14C by photosynthetically active parts of Indian mustard is investigated. It is observed that heat stressed plants have low rates of 14Co2 assimilation which leads to low rates of 14C export from source organs. Heat stress is also found to inhibit translocation of 14C-assimilates into sink organs. (M.G.B.). 21 refs., 4 figs

  11. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T.; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin JT

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs betwee...

  12. UTILIZATION OF MUSTARD OIL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnain Javed; Nazia Jamil

    2015-01-01

    With the unnecessary use of plastics and cumulative pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Bioplastic production from mustard oil was considered relatively cheap, easily available, included in vegetable oil and don’t having much volatile characteristics. Total of 67 bacterial strains were isolated and purified from different regio...

  13. Mobilization of sulfur by green sulfur bacteria : physiological and molecular studies on Chlorobaculum parvum DSM 263

    OpenAIRE

    Donà, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria are photolithotrophs that use inorganic sulfur compounds as electron donors for photosynthesis. Elemental, solid sulfur is one of the electron donors used. Sulfur is produced by green sulfur bacteria during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, and during the oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfur and sulfate. Green sulfur bacteria have been known for long, and the genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced. Yet, it is not clear how green sulfur bacteria can access elemental s...

  14. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates. PMID:23575118

  15. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  16. Obtaining Sulfur from Sulfur Hexafluoride and Studying the Sulfur Isotopes Properties by Using Vibrational Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Egorov, Nikolai Borisovich; Akimov, Dmitry Vasilievich; Zhuravlev, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Scheme of isotopically enriched SF[6] to elemental sulfur with orthorhombic modification conversion is offered. This scheme includes SF[6] reduction to Li2S by using lithium. The yield of isotopically enriched sulfur is not less than 97% with chemical purity not less than 99.9%. The results which show the dependence of the experimental frequencies in the vibrational spectra on the molecular weight of the sulfur isotope have been obtained.

  17. Development and characterization of Brassica juncea – fruticulosa introgression lines exhibiting resistance to mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atri Chhaya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard aphid is a major pest of Brassica oilseeds. No source for aphid resistance is presently available in Brassica juncea . A wild crucifer, Brassica fruticulosa is known to be resistant to mustard aphid. An artificially synthesized amphiploid, AD-4 (B. fruticulosa × B. rapa var. brown sarson was developed for use as a bridge species to transfer fruticulosa resistance to B. juncea. Using the selfed backcross we could select a large number of lines with resistance to mustard aphid. This paper reports cytogenetic stability of introgression lines, molecular evidence for alien introgression and their reaction to mustard aphid infestation. Results Majority of introgression lines had expected euploid chromosome number(2n= 36, showed normal meiosis and high pollen grain fertility. Well-distributed and transferable simple-sequence repeats (SSR markers for all the 18 B. juncea chromosomes helped to characterize introgression events. Average proportions of recipient and donor genome in the substitution lines were 49.72 and 35.06%, respectively. Minimum alien parent genome presence (27.29% was observed in the introgression line, Ad3K-280 . Introgressed genotypes also varied for their resistance responses to mustard aphid infestations under artificial release conditions for two continuous seasons. Some of the test genotypes showed consistent resistant reaction. Conclusions B.juncea-fruticulosa introgression set may prove to be a very powerful breeding tool for aphid resistance related QTL/gene discovery and fine mapping of the desired genes/QTLs to facilitate marker assisted transfer of identified gene(s for mustard aphid resistance in the background of commercial mustard genotypes.

  18. Sulfur oxidation genes in diverse deep-sea viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, Karthik; Duhaime, Melissa B; Breier, John A; Wendt, Kathleen A; Toner, Brandy M; Dick, Gregory J

    2014-05-16

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans and a pervasive cause of mortality of microorganisms that drive biogeochemical cycles. Although the ecological and evolutionary effects of viruses on marine phototrophs are well recognized, little is known about their impact on ubiquitous marine lithotrophs. Here, we report 18 genome sequences of double-stranded DNA viruses that putatively infect widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Fifteen of these viral genomes contain auxiliary metabolic genes for the α and γ subunits of reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rdsr). This enzyme oxidizes elemental sulfur, which is abundant in the hydrothermal plumes studied here. Our findings implicate viruses as a key agent in the sulfur cycle and as a reservoir of genetic diversity for bacterial enzymes that underpin chemosynthesis in the deep oceans. PMID:24789974

  19. Agent engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  20. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Dick

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  1. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair

  2. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  3. Progress in the improvement of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern and Coss.) with yellow seed coat colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives in the mustard breeding programme at BARC are to evolve high yielding strains with yellow seed coat colour. Two of the Trombay mustard (TM) selections, TM-2 and TM-4 have been released for commercial cultivation in Assam State. In 1991-92 crop season, these two cultures were also evaluated in 60 and 200 minikit trials respectively at the farmers fields in Rajasthan State. The mean yield of TM-2 and TM-4 was however lower than the improved cultivar grown as the check. In the trials conducted at 3-4 locations by the Punjabrao Agricultural University for the past four years, TM-9 gave the highest mean yield of 840 kg/ha. TM-9 and TM-21 were the top yielders in the non-traditional mustard growing areas in Maharashtra State. TM-18 is presently the earliest maturing mustard available in the country. Such early cultures have the potential to replace toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) in the multiple cropping system. Simple and reliable methods for screening mustard germplasm for aphid tolerance at three different stages of plant growth have been developed. Using these methodologies, selections showing tolerance against crucifer aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) have been identified. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum Opiz ex Junell) resistant selection have been isolated from a cross between TM-18 and Brassica carinata. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 10 tabs

  4. Dinitrobenzamide mustard prodrugs - hypoxic cytotoxins and dual substrates for E.coli nitroreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditional replicating adenoviral vectors (CRAds) have received considerable attention as therapeutic tools in combination with radiotherapy. Viral distribution and micro-regional geometry are likely to be important issues in the treatment of human solid tumours with gene therapy, particularly following intravenous virus administration. The use of CRAds that are 'armed' with enzyme/prodrug systems may overcome some of the perceived limitations; CRAds can redistribute and self-amplify in a cytolytic fashion whilst prodrug metabolites may elicit a local bystander effect. Either or both of these cytotoxic properties could have favourable interactions with radiotherapy (IR). Nevertheless, they may be insufficient to avoid pockets of vector-naive tumour cells beyond the diffusion limits of cytotoxic prodrug metabolites, such as when perivascular seeding occurs. Under such circumstances hypoxic tumour cells may represent the least accessible compartment for vector transfection; the same tumour subpopulation that is likely to be radioresistant. E.coli nitroreductase (NTR) can bioactivate dinitrobenzamide mustards (DNBMs) and is a promising enzyme/prodrug system for 'arming' CRAds. Notably DNMBs can also be activated by endogenous human reductases under low oxygen conditions providing an opportunity to identify dual hypoxic cytotoxins/NTR substrates that may circumvent some of the geometry issues and provide complementarity with IR. To identify a prodrug for NTR that is also active as a hypoxic cytotoxin in vivo. From a set of 164 DNB prodrugs, 19 with favourable activity in vitro against a panel of four NTR-expressing cancer cells were selected and screened for activity as hypoxic cytotoxins in vitro. Measured E17 values ranged from -444 to -366 mV. Seven DNBMs possessed acceptable hypoxic selectivity against the human NSCLC cell line A549WT or clones engineered to overexpress either a human single-electron reductase, cytochrome P450 reductase (A549P450R), or oxic

  5. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-09-22

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and repair mechanisms. As expected, BO-1055 induces ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage response cascades, including downstream Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. Further investigation revealed that cell survival sensitivity to BO-1055 is comparable to that of mitomycin C. Both compounds require nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination, but not non-homologous end-joining, to repair conventional cross-linking DNA damage. Interestingly and unlike mitomycin C and melphalan, MGMT activity was also observed in BO-1055 damage repair systems, which reflects the occurrence of O-alkyl DNA lesions. Combined treatment with ATM/ATR kinase inhibitors significantly increases BO-1055 sensitivity. Our study pinpoints that BO-1055 can be used for treating tumors that with deficient NER, HR, and MGMT DNA repair genes, or for synergistic therapy in tumors that DNA damage response have been suppressed. PMID:26208482

  6. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  7. Development and validation of a triplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species and three celery varieties in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents a triplex real-time PCR assay allowing the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (white, black and brown mustard) and three celery varieties (celery roots, celery stalks and leaf celery) in foodstuffs. The triplex assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae. Low cross-reactivities were observed with fenugreek, cumin, ginger, caraway, turmeric, lovage and rye, the ΔCt values were, however, ⩾ 12 compared to positive controls. The triplex assay allows the detection of traces of DNA of the allergenic components in spite of an excess of the other DNA templates. Analysis of extracts from model sausages containing defined concentrations of mustard and celery showed that the triplex assay is applicable to both raw and processed foods. It was found to allow the detection of 1 ppm black/brown mustard and 50 ppm white mustard and celery in raw and brewed sausages with a probability ⩾ 95%. PMID:25872425

  8. Effects of Additives on Sulfur Transformation, Crystallite Structure and Properties of Coke during Coking of High-sulfur Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-fu ZHANG; Liang-ying WEN; Kun WANG; Chong ZOU; Jian XU

    2015-01-01

    High-sulfur coal, as an alternative coal source, has a relatively high proportion in coal reserves. However, the feature of high sulfur content, which can cause environmental pollution and poor quality of molten iron, restrains its utilization in coking industry. Coking experiments of high-sulfur coal with Fe2O3, La2O3 and CaO as additives were carried out in order to ifx the sulfur in coke. The effects of additives on sulfur distribution, crystallite structure, surface morphology and properties of coke were inves-tigated. The results indicate that CaO can be used as sulfur-ifxing agent in coking process, and CaS is the main mineralogical phase of the sulfur-contained mineral constituents in coke. Fe2O3 and La2O3 facilitate the conversion of CaO to CaS. The additives mainly inlfuence the crystallite height and the average interlayer spacingd002 of coke. The addition of La2O3 increases the value of the crys-tallite heightwhile the addition of CaO and Fe2O3 decreases it. CaO leads the pores of coke to increase with its physical action and agglomerating characteristic. Fe2O3and C can form (Fe,C), resulting in the pulverization and erosion of the pore wall. La2O3 makes the coke surface become more compact and thinner. The reactivity of coke increases with the decrease of crystallite height and crystallite layer number.

  9. PerformanceAndEmissionCharacteristicsOfAVariableCo mpressionRatio Diesel Engine Using Methyl Esters Of Mustard Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Basavaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use ofbiodiesel inconventional diesel engines resultsinsubstantialreductionof unburnedhydrocarbon,carbon monoxideand particulatematters. The performance, emission and characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multi fuel engine when fueled with mustard oil methyl ester and its 10%, 20%, and blends with diesel (on a volume basis are investigated and compared with standard diesel. Bio diesel produced from mustard oil by transesterificationprocess has been used in this study. Experiment has been conducted a compressionratios of 14:1, 16:1and 18:1 The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The blends when used as fuel results in reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides emissions. It is concluded that mustard oil ester can be used as fuel in diesel engine by blending it with diesel fuel.

  10. Use of nuclear techniques to increase fertilizer nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies in mustard and wheat in rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted for three years from 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute farm with mustard (Brassica juncea 'T-59') and wheat (Triticum aestivum 'WH-147) during the winter season under rainfed conditions and with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 'V 890') during the monsoon season. Three levels of N and P were applied (0, 30 and 60 kg N ha-1 and 0, 15 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 for mustard; 0, 40 and 80 kg N ha-1 and 0, 20 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 for wheat). In treatments N1 and N2, 15N-urea was applied to micro-plots. Also in treatments P1 and P2, 32P-labelled single superphosphate was applied to micro-plots. During the monsoon season in the same layouts cowpea was grown with 20 kg N ha-1 and maize as the reference crop for measuring biological N2 fixation using the 15N-dilution technique. Wide variation amongst replicates in germination and dry matter yield was recorded at the Z30 stage in wheat. Nitrogen and P contents were higher in N- and P-fertilized plots during the first two years. However, during the third and fourth years these differences were very much less as the wheat was sown without tillage to conserve moisture. The highest wheat-grain yield of 1.89 Mg ha-1 was obtained with 80 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the third year (2000-2001); this treatment gave only 1.21 Mg ha-1 in the second year (1999-2000). The highest mustard-seed yield of 1.59 Mg ha-1 was obtained with the highest applications of N and P in the third year (2000-2001). Both in mustard and in wheat, increases in yields were more pronounced with N application than with P. Fertilizer-N use efficiency in mustard during the four years ranged from 31 to 72%. Wheat utilized fertilizer N less efficiently. In both mustard and wheat, nearly 90% of the applied fertilizer N could be recovered in either the crop or soil. Fertilizer-P recovery in mustard was nearly twice that in wheat. Mustard extracted more water from the soil than did wheat. The δ13C data in

  11. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  12. 46 CFR 148.04-20 - Sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur. 148.04-20 Section 148.04-20 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-20 Sulfur. (a) When sulfur is loaded in a deep hold with general cargo in the 'tween deck hold above the sulfur, a dust proof wooden...

  13. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  14. The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by indian mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassil; Kapulnik; Raskin; Salt

    1998-06-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants exposed to Pb and EDTA in hydroponic solution were able to accumulate up to 55 mmol kg-1 Pb in dry shoot tissue (1.1% [w/w]). This represents a 75-fold concentration of Pb in shoot tissue over that in solution. A threshold concentration of EDTA (0.25 mm) was found to be required to stimulate this dramatic accumulation of both Pb and EDTA in shoots. Below this threshold concentration, EDTA also accumulated in shoots but at a reduced rate. Direct measurement of a complex of Pb and EDTA (Pb-EDTA) in xylem exudate of Indian mustard confirmed that the majority of Pb in these plants is transported in coordination with EDTA. The accumulation of EDTA in shoot tissue was also observed to be directly correlated with the accumulation of Pb. Exposure of Indian mustard to high concentrations of Pb and EDTA caused reductions in both the transpiration rate and the shoot water content. The onset of these symptoms was correlated with the presence of free protonated EDTA (H-EDTA) in the hydroponic solution, suggesting that free H-EDTA is more phytotoxic than Pb-EDTA. These studies clearly demonstrate that coordination of Pb transport by EDTA enhances the mobility within the plants of this otherwise insoluble metal ion, allowing plants to accumulate high concentrations of Pb in shoots. The finding that both H-EDTA and Pb-EDTA are mobile within plants also has important implications for the use of metal chelates in plant nutritional research. PMID:9625697

  15. Study On The Growth Promotion Effect Of Grapefruit Oligopectin Prepared By Radiation Processing On Mustard Greens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, oligosaccharides such as oligochitosan, oligoalginate, and oligopectin, etc. were asserted as natural active compounds. These products not only showed the plant growth promoter effect, but also stimulated the phytoalexin induction that helped plant against the diseases cause by microorganisms. The process for extraction of pectin from discard-waste grapefruit peels with a high pectin content and a shorter extraction time has been set up. The degradation of pectin solutions with the concentrations of 1-4% by Co-60 gamma irradiation was studied. The obtained results on the characterization of irradiated products including molecular weight (Mw), IR-spectra and UV-spectra indicated that gamma-rays induced the degradation of pectin and slightly reduced the methyl ester degree in the molecular structure of radiation-degraded oligopectin. The results also showed that oligopectin with molecular weight about 3.53 kDa prepared by irradiation of 2% pectin solution at 75 kGy displayed a good effect on the growth and development of mustard greens (Brassica junco Vary rugs) cultivated in hydroponics system. The optimal concentration of radiation-degraded oligopectin for treatment of mustard greens was found at 75 ppm. The treatment with 75 ppm radiation-degraded oligopectin increased the plant height, root length and fresh biomass of mustard green in 6.5, 4.8 and 17.7%, respectively. The above results indicated that produced natural product, i.e. oligopectin, may potentially to apply in high-tech agriculture for increase of safe-agro-products and for environment protection. (author)

  16. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of the Nitrogen Mustards and Local Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Michael Lee

    The density matrix description of pulsed nitrogen -14 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-echoes is presented. The parallel between this problem, when formulated in terms of the fictitious spin- 1/2 operators, and that of spin - 1/2 NMR spin-echoes in liquids is discussed along with the complications which arise in multiple-pulse NQR experiments in powders due to the random orientation of the electric field gradient tensors. The equipment and procedures involved in searching for, detecting and identifying NQR resonances using pulsed techniques are described. The ('14)N NQR spectra of several nitrogen mustard compounds in the solid state are reported and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. For the aniline derivatives, a correlation exists between l -(sigma), l being the nitrogen lone-pair electron density and (sigma) the average N-C sigma bond electron density, and the enhanced Hammett sigma constant (sigma)('-). An improved correlation is obtained between l-(sigma) and (sigma)(,R)('-), which emphasizes the importance of resonance effects in determining l-(sigma). The increase of hydrolysis and alkylation rates with increasing values of l-(sigma) is in agreement with the identification of the cyclic immonium ion as the intermediate in the hydrolysis and alkylation processes of the aromatic nitrogen mustards. A possible correlation is noted between the ('35)Cl NQR spectra for some of the mustards and measures of toxic and antitumor activity. ('14)N NQR spectra for several local anesthetics in the solid state are also reported and analyzed using the Townes and Dailey approach. The changes in the electron distributions at various nitrogen sites, produced by protonating the tertiary amino nitrogen, are discussed and shown to be in general agreement with expectations bases on the increased electrophilic character of the protonated amino group.

  17. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO2 (NO3)2 . 6H2O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  18. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  19. Toxicology of sulfur in ruminants: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandylis, K.

    1984-10-01

    This review deals with the toxicology of sulfur in ruminants including toxicity, neurotoxic effects, and mechanism of toxic action of hydrogen sulfide, clinical signs, and treatment. It will report effects of excessive intake of sulfur by ruminants on feed intake, animal performance, ruminal digestion and motility, rumination, and other physiological functions. Poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions (sulfur dioxide) also is discussed. Excessive quantities of dietary sulfur (above .3 to .4%) as sulfate or elemental sulfur may cause toxic effects and in extreme cases can be fatal. The means is discussed whereby consumption of excessive amounts of sulfur leads to toxic effects. 53 references, 1 table.

  20. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  1. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  2. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  3. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  4. Sulfur dioxide scrubbing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.; Cornell, C.F.

    1976-11-02

    Sulfur dioxide is scrubbed from stack gases in an absorption device by a sodium-based aqueous scrubbing solution, a portion of which is subsequently and continuously regenerated outside the absorption apparatus by a causticizing reaction with slaked lime. The causticized solution is routed through a settling device wherefrom a portion of the aqueous sediment is returned to the causticizing zone to provide seed crystals which encourage the formation of larger sized solid particles; also, a portion of the aqueous sediment from the settling device is continuously mechanically dewatered and then removed from the system. The liquid effluent solution from the settling device is passed to a solids-contacting and reaction device for mixing with sodium carbonate in order to reduce the calcium ion concentration and the solids content of the solution. The underflow of the solids-contacting device is conveyed back to the causticizing zone and the clarified overflow, i.e., the regenerated scrubbing liquor, is conveyed to the absorption apparatus.

  5. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  6. Transporters in plant sulfur metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Gigolashvili, Tamara; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential nutrient, necessary for synthesis of many metabolites. The uptake of sulfate, primary and secondary assimilation, the biosynthesis, storage, and final utilization of sulfur (S) containing compounds requires a lot of movement between organs, cells, and organelles. Efficient transport systems of S-containing compounds across the internal barriers or the plasma membrane and organellar membranes are therefore required. Here, we review a current state of knowledge of the tra...

  7. Genetics of alternaria leaf blight resistance in Indian mustard [Brassica Juncea (L. Czern & Coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chaurasia and Ram Bhajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight disease in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss was carried-out using generation mean analysis. Results based on generation mean analysis of per cent disease index (PDI showed significant estimates of additive [d] and dominance [h] effects as well as all the three types of epistasis in all the three crosses. The opposite signs of [h] and [l] indicated that duplicate epistasis was operative in the inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight in the material studied.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  9. Therapeutic Efficacy of Saline and Glucose Saline against Dermally applied Sulphur Mustard Intoxication in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugendran

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose of saline or glucose-saline (5 mg glucose/kg offered similar protection to mice against sulphur mustard intoxication, the extent of survival being 83 per cent as against 33 per cent without treatment. All the animals were protected when the treatment was extended by another two consecutive days in the glucose-saline treated group. Both saline and glucose-saline treatments could ameliorate the haemoconcentration as well as normalise pO/sub 2/ and % oxygen saturation. The protection conferred is attributed to the probable replenishment of fluid loss.

  10. Effects of process variables and additives on mustard oil hydrolysis by porcine pancreas lipase

    OpenAIRE

    D. Goswami; De, S.; Basu, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Selective hydrolysis of brown mustard oil (from Brassica juncea) with regioselective porcine pancreas lipase was studied in this work. Buffer and oil phase were considered as the continuous and dispersed phases, respectively. Effects of speed of agitation, pH of the buffer phase, temperature, buffer-oil ratio and enzyme concentration on hydrolysis were observed. The best combination of process variables was: 900 rpm, pH 9, 35 ºC, buffer-oil ratio of 1:1 and enzyme concentration of 10 mg/g oil...

  11. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Srivastava; Singh, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Refined rice bran oil (RBO) was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO), MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO) and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO) to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), Total p...

  12. Solvent extraction of rhenium (5) from hydrochloric acid solutions by organic sulfur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction ability of organic sulfur compounds with concentrates, separated by sulfuric acid extraction from oil, were used as extragents Rhenium extraction by individual sulfurous compounds was also studied for comparison. Potassium oxypentachlororhenate (K2ReOCl5) extraction was carried out at room temperature from 6N hydrochloric acid at phase volume ratio of 1:1. Hexane and gasoline were used at extracting agent organic phase. It was established that with the increase of concentration of individual organic sulfur compounds and sulfurous concentrates distribution coefficient increases sharply. The use of gasoline as organic phase, as compared to hexane, leads to distribution coefficient increase. It was also established that the most intensive rhenium (5) extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions is reached by 3-butylthiocyclohexane (96,1%) and aliphatic sulfides. In case of the use of sulfurous concentrates increase the content of thiophene structure and thioindans in the latter decreases rhenium extraction coefficient. It is shown that in organic phase complexes are formed, which have probability composition Re:L equals 1:2 (at extracting agent concentration up to 2 mol/l) and Re:Li = 1:3 (at extracting agent concentration higher than 2 mol/l)

  13. Plant sulfur and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, Stanislav; Calderwood, Alexander; Weckopp, Silke C; Koprivova, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur is an essential mineral nutrient for plants, therefore, the pathways of its uptake and assimilation have been extensively studied. Great progress has been made in elucidation of the individual genes and enzymes and their regulation. Sulfur assimilation has been intensively investigated by -omics technologies and has been target of several genome wide genetic approaches. This brought a significant step in our understanding of the regulation of the pathway and its integration in cellular metabolism. However, the large amount of information derived from other experiments not directly targeting sulfur has also brought new and exciting insights into processes affecting sulfur homeostasis. In this review we will integrate the findings of the targeted experiments with those that brought unintentional progress in sulfur research, and will discuss how to synthesize the large amount of information available in various repositories into a meaningful dissection of the regulation of a specific metabolic pathway. We then speculate how this might be used to further advance knowledge on control of sulfur metabolism and what are the main questions to be answered. PMID:26706053

  14. Interaction products of sulfuric acid and sulfurous compounds of sour oil and their structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to interaction products of sulfuric acid and sulfurous compounds of sour oil and their structural properties. The results of studies of obtaining of sulfides by complex formation with 86% sulfuric acid from sour oil were considered.

  15. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; Chen; Wang; Chen; Kai; Chang; Shu; Chang; Chan; Jiunn; Shiuh; Shieh; Chih; Kwang; Chiu; Pin-Der; Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria(LAB)strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method.The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt.Strains with lowering cholesterol activity,were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells.Results:Strain B0007,B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC17010.The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains,with more than 10~s CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS.In addition,strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterollowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  16. Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Kai; Chang; Shu-Chen; Wang; Chih-Kwang; Chiu; Shih-Ying; Chen; Zong-Tsi; Chen; Pin-Der; Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity Methods: One hundred and fifty nine strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Taiwan fermented mustard were evaluated for their immunopotentiating activity on a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.Results: Of the strains, pronounced increases in the levels of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were observed in strains B0040, B0110 and B0145. Among them,strain B0145 had the highest NO and tumor necrosis factor-α generation in RAW 264.7 cells;strains B0040 and B0110 were also superior to that of Lactobacillus casei. These results demonstrated that NO and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial stimulants were treated with macrophages. In addition, strains B0040 and B0110 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and B0145 as Weissella cibaria using 16 S rDNA analysis.Conclusions: The results implicated selected strains may be regarded as a biological response modifier and had a broad application prospects in exploiting new functional food or as a feed additive.

  17. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays, EMS and their combination in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed-mustard, the second most important oilseed crop after groundnut has shown considerable progress in terms of productivity. However, the potential yield still could not be realised due to susceptibility of released varieties to Alternaria blight. Mutation breeding is an important means for developing resistance as well as for extending the range of plant architecture. Four varieties of Indian mustard viz.. RH 30, RH 819, Varuna and Kranti were exposed to four doses of gamma rays, four doses of EMS and four doses of both gamma rays and EMS. Pollen sterility was estimated in the M1 generation and was used to calculate the mutagenic efficiency. The chlorophyll mutation frequency in M2 was highest in variety RH 819 and among the treatments it was maximum in 80 kR of gamma ray. Total mutation frequency was highest in the combination treatments. Over the varieties 60 kR of gamma rays was most effective and EMS was more efficient than gamma rays and combination treatment. RH 819 and Varuna appeared to be suitable base for improvement in quantitative traits where as Kranti and RH 30 are better bases for induction of Alternaria blight resistance through mutations. (author)

  18. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent. PMID:27295923

  19. Effect of method and time of application on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiophosphorus(32p) employed in a two years field study to evaluate some techniques of phosphate application in relation to P utilization by mustard as a test crop on I.A.R.I. Farm alluvial soil revealed that split application of phosphate proved superior to other methods of P fertilization as judged by significantly higher values for per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization. Band placement of plain single suprphosphate(SSP) as well as slurry blended SSP 3 to 4 cm below the seed were at par but both were superior to broadcast application of slurry blended SSP in terms of different P uptake parmeters. Fertilizer applied as a traditional practice, i.e, to broadcast it at seeding was least efficiently utilized. Moreover, alternate tagging technique conclusively indicated that mustard crop derived relatively more P from the basal dose than that of side dressed 25 days after seeding. The grain yield response per unit quantity of added P was much higher in favour of split application followed by comparable response of band placement of blended SSP and unblended fertilizer. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern cv. WNFP, Varuna and Barton, were investigated in/under hydroponic conditions during a 4-week experiment. Cadmium and chromium were provided since germination as cadmium nitrate Cd(NO32 and chromium bichromate K2Cr2O7 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M. Plant biomass growth measured at the end of the experiments varied with the different metal concentrations in the nutrient solution and the accumulation of the elements in the plant fractions differed significantly among/between cultivars. Ability in the uptake of metals and their mobilization and storage in the aerial plant biomass, expressed by the bioconcentration factor (BCF and translocation factor (TF, respectively, are the most important traits of plants with phytoextraction potential. Brassica juncea was confirmed as being a highly tolerant species, but poor metal translocation values were registered, therefore the high amount of Cd and Cr concentrated in the root systems did not migrate to the aerial, harvestable, part of the plant.

  1. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  2. Pilot-scale ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography: purification of sinalbin from white mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Pinel, Benoît; Boudesocque, Leslie; Lafosse, Michel; De La Poype, François; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2009-06-01

    The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) on a multigram scale from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba var. concerta) was successfully achieved by scaling up a strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC) laboratory procedure. Thus, the one-step sinalbin purification was performed with 2.35 g of crude extract in approximately 170 min (830 mg/h) up to 70.3 g in approximately 160 min (26.3 g/h) by switching from a 200 mL laboratory scale column to a 5.7 L pilot-scale column. The required biphasic solvent system contained ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in 3:2:5 v/v/v proportions, Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride) was added to the organic stationary phase (80 mM) and acted as ion-exchanger. Potassium iodide in the aqueous mobile phase (80 mM) was used as sinalbin displacer. The 28.5 mass scale factor arose from the increase in mobile phase flow-rate (from 2 to 50 mL/min), from the higher mass of injected white mustard seed extract (from 12 to 350 g), and from the calculated productivity (from 830 mg to 26.3 g). These results demonstrate that industry scale production of glucosinolates is easily performed by SIXCPC, thus providing pure reference standards for pharmacology studies. PMID:19479767

  3. Development of Improved Varieties of Rapeseed and Mustard through In Vivo Mutagenesis and Hybridization in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed and mustard are the second most important source of vegetable oil in Pakistan. However, due to low productivity, these crops have been pushed to marginal lands, which resulted in a narrow genetic base. Mutation breeding research in conjunction with classical breeding techniques were therefore initiated at NIFA in 1989 to induce useful genetic variability in characters of economic importance in Oilseed Brassicas. The research efforts have resulted in the development of three varieties, namely Abasin-95 in 1996, NIFA-Raya in 2003 and Durr-e-NIFA in 2005. These varieties were approved by Seed Council of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) for commercial cultivation in the irrigated and rainfed areas of the province. Abasin-95 and NIFA-Raya are the first ever mutant varieties respectively of rapeseed and mustard in Pakistan. Durr-e-NIFA was developed from a hybridized population of a cross between 'Dunkeld' and 'Abasin-95'. All the three varieties possess high yield potential, medium-to-high oil content, early maturity and broader adaptability to rainfed and irrigated environments in comparison with the local check varieties and respective parents. These varieties are being cultivated by growers on appreciable areas. This paper reports the developmental history and performance of these varieties. (author)

  4. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Chen Wang; Chen Kai Chang; Shu Chang Chan; Jiunn Shiuh Shieh; Chih Kwang Chiu; Pin-Der Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results: Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  5. Experimental study on detecting the explosives and chemical warfare agents by using neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some cases, some small security inspection systems for detecting explosives or chemical warfare agents are useful. By using the 252Cf neutron source, some thermal neutron captured γ rays of 10.83 and 6.6 MeV could be observed as the indicator of the existence of nitrogen and chlorine, respectively. As a result of the experiment, the detecting limit for TNT and the mustard gas is 200 g and 20 g, respectively. It is observed that by the use of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation crystal to detect the inelastic scattering γ rays of 5.1 MeV from nitrogen, of which the single escape and double escape peaks could be discriminated from the inelastic scattering peak of 4.43 MeV from carbon, since the energy resolution of LaBr3 is much better than that of other scintillators. In the case of nitrogen, it is better to detect the inelastic scattering γ rays induced by fast neutrons than to detect thermal neutron captured γ rays, since the counting rate is much higher. For the detection of mustard gas bomb, thermal neutron captured γ rays of 1.95 MeV is better than that of 6.6 MeV, since the interference of the background from the iron shell of the mustard gas bomb is smaller. These studies are useful for the establishment of the practical systems. (authors)

  6. Study of selective metals accumulation in green mustard (Brassica rapa var. parachinesis L.) from Cameron Highlands farmlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. However, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green mustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor (EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selected vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The green mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior to analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the concentration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentration in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows. (Author)

  7. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Franks, S. J.; Hufbauer, R. A.; Kotanen, P. M.; Torchin, M.; Byers, J. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Bossdorf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 29-47. ISSN 1619-0033 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : garlic mustard * citizen science * model system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  9. Testing and evaluation of polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies related to the use of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement as new binder materials for the improved solidification of low-level wastes. Waste streams selected for this study include those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those that remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion-exchange resins). Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported for polyethylene. For sulfur cement the recommended waste loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt % incinerator ash are reported. However, incorporation of ion-exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended due to poor waste form performance. The work presented in this paper will, in part, present data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. 8 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Testing and evaluation of polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies related to the use of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement as new binder materials for the improved solidification of low-level wastes. Waste streams selected for this study include those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those that remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt% sodium sulfate, 50 wt% boric acid, 40 wt% incinerator ash and 30 wt% ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported for polyethylene. For sulfur cement the recommended waste loadings of 40 wt% sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt% incinerator ash are reported. However, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended due to poor waste form performance. Data is presented that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. 8 references, 10 figures, 6 tables

  11. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  12. Monoclinic sulfur cathode utilizing carbon for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Chul; Han, Young-Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries have been designed to be combined with conductive carbon because the insulating nature of sulfur causes low active material utilization and poor rate capability. This paper is the first to report that carbon can induce a phase transition in a sulfur cathode. The stable form of a sulfur crystal at ambient temperature is orthorhombic sulfur. We found that monoclinic sulfur becomes more stable than orthorhombic sulfur if carbon atoms penetrate into the sulfur at elevated temperatures and the carbon density exceeds a threshold of C0.3S8. The high stability of the carbon-containing monoclinic sulfur persists during lithiation and is attributed to locally formed linear SC3S chains with marked stability. This study provides a novel perspective on the role of carbon in the sulfur cathode and suggests control of the crystal phase of electrodes by composite elements as a new way of designing efficient electrode materials.

  13. Overexpression of GSTA2 protects against cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by the DNA inter-strand crosslinking nitrogen mustard, mechlorethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingping; Shults, Keith; Flye, Leanne; Jiang, Fen; Head, David R; Briggs, Robert C

    2005-05-15

    The effectiveness of bifunctional alkylating nitrogen mustard compounds in chemotherapy is related to their ability to form DNA inter-strand crosslinks. Patients exposed to DNA inter-strand crosslinking (ICL) agents subsequently experience an elevated incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and MDS related acute myeloid leukemia. Fanconi's anemia (FA) patients are deficient in the repair of crosslink DNA damage and they experience a high incidence of MDS. These observations indicate that hematopoietic cells are specific target for the transforming effects of DNA crosslinking damage. Changes in transcript levels were characterized in human hematopoietic cells occurring in response to the nitrogen mustard, mechlorethamine (HN2), but not in response to monofunctional analogs. Only modest changes in a few gene transcripts were detected in HL60 cells exposed to levels of HN2 tittered to maximal dose that caused growth suppression with minimal cell death and allowed eventual resumption of normal cell growth. Under conditions of transient growth suppression, a subset of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme genes was consistently upregulated three to fourfold by HN2, but not by monofunctional analogs. Subsequent efforts to confirm the changes detected by microarray analyses revealed an unexpected dependence on treatment conditions. The GST alpha class A2 subfamily member transcripts were upregulated 24 h after a 1 h exposure to HN2 that caused an extensive, but transient block in late S/G2 cell cycle phase, but were minimally altered with continuous exposure. The 1-h exposure to HN2 caused a transient late S/G2 cell cycle arrest in both the HL-60 cell line and the Colo 320HSR human colon cancer cell line. Overexpression of GSTA2 by transient transfection protected Colo 320HSR cells against both cycle arrest and apoptosis following exposure to HN2. Overexpression of GSTA2 in Colo 320HSR cells induced after exposure to HN2 did not alter cycle arrest or apoptosis

  14. Protection by thiols against poisoning by radiomimetic agents. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of reports of studies aimed at detecting a protective effect of thiols against radiomimetic alkylating agents such as those used in cancer therapy (nitrogen mustards (HN2), sarcolysine, busulfan, etc.). Protection by thiols against alkylating agents has been observed in mammals, plant cells, bacteria, isolated mammalian cells and in model systems. The lack of correlation between the protective power of various thiols against radiomimetic agents and ionizing radiations indicates that different mechanisms are involved. Studies have been made of the toxicity of the protector and the competition factor, increased excretion of detoxication products of alkylating agents, decreased alkylation of DNA and RNA both in vivo and in vitro, the protection of hematopoietic tissues, tumours and the adrenal cortex, and the modification of the effects of nitrosoalkylamines, carbon tetrachloride and fungistatics by thiols. The restriction of DNA alkylation by the competitive removal of radiomimetic agents is thought to account for the protective effect of thiols against radiomimetic agents. (U.K.)

  15. Role of cytostatic agent and radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with radiation-resistant testicular tumours and with inoperable metastases to retroperitoneal lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 5 out of 19 patients with radiation-resistant testicular tumours qualified for abdominal lymphadenectomy inoperable metastases to the lymph nodes were found. Three of these patients died within 4-6 months despite treatment with cytostatic and radiotherapy. In one of the two remaining patients necrosis of the metastases was observed after hemicastration and administration of nitrogen mustard, in the other cause the further progression of the neoplasm was stopped with cytostatic agents and radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  17. 28-homobrassinolide Protects Photosynthetic Machinery in Indian mustard Under High Temperature Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Fariduddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated with double distilled water or 0.01 µM of 28-homobrassinolide. Treated plants, after 24 h, were exposed to 30°C or 40°C for 48 h. One set of plants were kept at ambient temperature, 25°C, as the control. Plants were harvested at 30 days stage of growth to assess the various parameters. Plants exposed to 40°C had a decline in growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, and activities of carbonic anhydrase (E.C.4.2.1.1 and nitrate reductase (E.C.1.6.1.1. The 28-homobrassinolide alone improved growth and photosynthesis responses along with various enzymes activities. Treatment of plants with HBL prior to exposure to 40°C, partially reduced damage and completely controlled damage when exposure was to 30°C. Levels of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (E.C.1.11.1.6, peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and superoxide dismutase (E.C.1.15.1.1, and the level of proline increased in response to 30 or 40°C and were further enhanced in the presence of 28-homobrassinolide. Plants grown under high temperature had increased levels of H2O2; application of HBL before temperature treatment decreased H2O2 content compared to the control. Elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes and proline might be responsible for conferring tolerance to high temperature stress in Indian mustard and overcome the loss of productivity of the crop.

  18. Improvement of rapeseed and mustard by induced mutations and in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the improvement of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea Czern and Coss.) was initiated during 1995-96 with the objective to develop genotypes with high yield potential, high oil content, canola quality and improved polyenoic fatty acid composition or high erucic acid for industrial applications, and tolerance to different stresses. The results of the M1 and M2 generations have been reported in the second RCM at Giessen, Germany. Stable mutants (M5) of a photo period sensitivity exotic juncea genotype (DLJ-3) were assessed in preliminary yield trials (PYT) in the field for yield and other agronomic characteristics in comparison with the parent (P) variety. The mutants performing better in PYTs were further assessed in advanced yield trials (AYT) in comparison with P and a local commercial cultivar (LC). Fatty acid composition of promising mutants and interspecific hybrid lines was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and total seed glucosinolates by spectrophotometry. The quality analyses showed that 50 mutants had low erucic acid contents and 10 of them showed 0%. Two mutants were isolated for high oleic acid (∼50%), 16 mutant plants had more than 35% linoleic acid and one mutant had the desirable low linolenic acid content, 3%. No mutant with more than 60% erucic acid for industrial uses was found. The yield tests indicated that significant variability existed among the mutant lines with regards to different traits. 58 mutants flowered significantly earlier, reducing their growing period by 17 to 55% as compared to P (control), 43 were significantly shorter than P (7-30% reduction in height), and 32 mutants out yielded the parent line significantly by a margin of 26-71% during two years of field testing. Some of the mutants exhibited better performance than P and LC under local short photo period environment, indicating adaptability and great potential to replace the indigenous non-canola genotypes. Induced mutations appear to

  19. Mutation induction, evaluation and utilization for development of high yielding varieties in Indian mustard and sunflower: an overview of BARC work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding programme in Indian mustard and sunflower at BARC has resulted into the development of wide spectrum of mutations for seed coat colour, chlorophyll, plant height, maturity, flower morphology, seed weight and oil content. In Indian mustard, TM1 and TM50 are high yielding yellow seed coat mutants, which were exploited in hybridisation to develop bold, yellow seed coat and high yielding genotypes. Light green leaf and variegated leaf are novel mutation in mustard. Putative mutants for drought tolerance have been isolated. Variability for zero erucic acid and zero glucosinolates genotypes have been developed in B. napus and B. juncea. In sunflower, high yielding black seed coat mutant were isolated. Extreme dwarf measuring only 11 cm is novel. Three high yielding varieties namely TM2, TM4, and TPM1 in mustard and one i.e.TAS82 in sunflower have been released for cultivation in collaboration with state agricultural universities. (author)

  20. Sulfur Release during Alternative fuels Combustion in Cement Rotary Kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar

    are of high importance for SO 2 release because it is shown that introducing the same total amount of gas, the highest reducing agent concentration fo r a short period released a higher total SO 2 amount compared to the lowest concentration during a long period. A mathematical reaction based model...... but the effect of sulfur content in the bed cannot be predicted. Further development regarding particle motion according to the rotational speed may be needed. Furthermore, a model for predicting the tendency of build-ups for a kiln system is developed based on the prediction of SO 3 and Cl concentrations...... total SO 2 amount compared to the lowest concentration during a long period. A mathematical reaction based model for predicting sulfur release caused by volatiles from wood particles fired in the material kiln inlet is developed and evaluated against pilot scale data, which shows that the model follows...

  1. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  2. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eAziz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03 transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm. In contrast, a previously-characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against beet armyworm feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense.

  3. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mina; Nadipalli, Ranjith K.; Xie, Xitao; Sun, Yan; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Paré, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW). In contrast, a previously characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against BAW feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense. PMID:27092166

  4. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mina; Nadipalli, Ranjith K; Xie, Xitao; Sun, Yan; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Paré, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant's growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW). In contrast, a previously characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against BAW feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense. PMID:27092166

  5. Sulfur monochloride in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the reactivity of sulfur monochloride published in the past 15 years have been reviewed and systematized. The review focuses on the synthesis of acyclic and heterocyclic compounds with the use of S2Cl2. The bibliography includes 154 references

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes from Meghalaya, India against mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Arun K; Lalramliana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) from Meghalaya, India, namely Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David, Steinernema thermophilum Ganguly and Singh, and Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) against the last instar larva of mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug, a serious pest of mustard and radish in India. The larvae of A. lugens proxima were exposed to 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles ...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set. PMID:27066163

  9. evaluation of best planting time of mustard (brassica juncea) strains in southern punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to find out the proper planting time of newly evolved mustard (Brassica juncea) strains at Regional Agriculture Research Institute, Bahawalpur during the year 2000-2002. The study included 4 planting dates from 1st October to November 15th and three strains i.e. BRS-2 and BRS-10 and KH- 74 along with check RL-18. The 1st fortnight of October proved to be the best sowing time. KH-74 and BRS-2 gave significantly higher yield in wide range of sown period i.e. 1st October to 15th November. The highest grain yield of 2435 and 2341 Kgs, ha were obtained when crop was planted on 1st October and 15th October respectively. (author)

  10. Induced mutagenesis for the development of high yielding varieties in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation for resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. was induced in the oleiferous Brassica campestris cultivar yellow sarson, 'YS 52' using gamma rays. Variations were identified and isolated from the M2 population. Screening in the subsequent generations (M3-M4) confirmed the varying degrees of field resistance of the mutants. A total of 8 mutants of mustard developed by gamma irradiation was compared with the parental line and a released variety 'Sampad' as a check. Maximum plant height, highest number of pods and primary branches/plant were recorded in mutant '17-5-83'. The mutants '17-5-83' and '70-7-82' gave 45 and 21 per cent more grain yield respectively than the parent cultivar 'YS 52'. The mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant while the mutants '70-7-82' and '53-11-82' were found to be moderately resistant against the disease. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  11. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389 and P. moraviensis (JX149542. Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.

  12. The Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Interferon in Chronic Bronchiolitis Due to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2005-06-01

    In the two groups, FEV1 did not have statistical differences at base line (49.3±2.9 and 48.7±4.1, respectively, p = 0.6, whereas after treatment the data for FEV1 showed a significant increase in the case group (66.3±5.4 when compared with those in the control group (57.3±8.6, p=0.001. The findings of this study indicate that a 6-month treatment with interferon gamma -1b plus a low-dose of prednisolone is associated with the improvement of the lung function in mustard gas exposed patients with bronchiolitis

  13. Adsorption of copper from aqueous solution on Brassica cumpestris (mustard oil cake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption behavior of various heavy metals on mustard oil cake (MOC) was studied. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) was observed followed by Zn(II), Cr(VI), Mn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II). The adsorption of Cu(II) was found to be dependent on initial concentration of solution, pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and contact time. The adsorption followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics but pseudo-second-order kinetic model was better obeyed since experimental data agreed well with theoretical data. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Attempts were also made to desorb Cu(II) from the adsorbent and regeneration of the spent adsorbent. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 10 mg g-1, respectively

  14. Development of improved varieties of rapeseed and mustard through in vivo mutagenesis and hybridization in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is facing edible oil shortage for the past many years despite modest progress made in the development of agriculture sector. More than a billion US $ are being spent annually to meet the domestic requirement of edible oil of the country. This huge import bill can be reduced considerably by increasing the domestic oilseed production. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and Brassica campestris L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L.) are the second important oilseed crops of Pakistan and their share in total area and production of all oilseed crops grown in the country is over 31% and 28% respectively. However, these crops have been pushed to marginal lands due to their low productivity that resulted in narrow genetic base. Mutation breeding research in conjunction with classical breeding techniques was, therefore, initiated at NIFA in 1989 to induce useful genetic variability in characters of economic importance in Oilseed Brassicas. The research efforts of NIFA Scientists resulted in the development of three varieties namely Abasin-95 in 1996, NIFA-Raya in 2003 and Durr-e-NIFA in 2005. These varieties were approved by Seed Council of North West Frontier Province for commercial cultivation in the irrigated and rainfed areas of the province. Abasin-95 and NIFA-Raya are the first ever-mutant varieties respectively of rapeseed and mustard in Pakistan. Durr-e-NIFA was developed from hybridized population of a cross between Australian canola variety 'Dunkeld' and NIFA mutant variety 'Abasin-95' . All the three varieties possess high yield potential, medium to high oil content, early maturity and broader adaptability to rainfed and irrigated environments in comparison with the local check varieties and respective parents. These varieties are being cultivated by growers on appreciable areas. The paper reports the developmental history and performance of these varieties. (author)

  15. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  16. Impact of mixed low-molecular-weight organic acids on uranium accumulation and distribution in a variant of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) composed of CA/MA/OA/LA with a molar ratio of 2.5:2.31:1.15:0.044 on uranium (U) accumulation and distribution in mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida) was studied in this paper in order to understand the mechanism of rhizosphere-exudation assisted phytoremediation by hydroponic and pot culture experiments. The impact of the mixture of LWMOAs (Mix) on U accumulation showed that in hydroponic conditions Mix could enhance U translocation from root-to-shoot in mustard, but inhibit U uptake in root. In pot experiments, Mix enhanced both root and shoot U accumulation in mustard. The time-dependent kinetics of U uptake in mustard on Mix treatment showed that U content in plant shoots and roots increased with time increasing, and the steady state conditions were obtained at the 8th and 5th day with the U content of 1,528 and 2,300 mg/kg, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis for mustard roots showed that U was mainly observed on cell membrane of mustard roots on Mix treatment. This study would provide new insights for the mixture of LWMOAs-assisted phytoremediation of U-contaminated soil. (author)

  17. 一种即食芥菜加工技术的研究%Processing Technology of Instant Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文彬; 陈聪宇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究不同加工工艺参数对芥菜加工产品的影响.[方法]以芥菜为原料,以芥菜感官评价为考察指标,通过单因素试验和L9(33)正交试验优化并确定了芥菜腌制及干燥的最佳工艺条件.[结果]研究表明,芥菜最佳的腌制及干燥工艺参数为:腌制盐浓度3%,腌制糖浓度6%,CaCl2添加量0.15%,腌制时间24h,干燥温度60℃,干燥时间6h.在此工艺条件下腌制的即食芥菜亚硝酸盐含量远低于国家标准,干燥后保持了良好的芥菜特性.[结论]研究可为工业化生产芥菜干提供理论依据.%[Objective] To study effects of different processing technique parameters on mustard products.[Method] With mustard as material,sensory evaluation as investigation indicators,the optimum conditions for mustard salting and drying were optimized by single-factor test and L9 (33)orthogonal test.[Result] The optimum parameters are:salt 3%,sugar 6%,CaCl2 dosage 0.15%,salted for 24 hours,drying temperature 60 ℃ and drying time 6 hours.It is suggested that the nitrite content in pickled mustard was much lower than the national standard,and maintained good characteristics of mustard after drying.[Conclusion] The study will provide theoretical basis for industrial production of mustard.

  18. Nitrogen Mustards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Page last reviewed April ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Download page Subscribe to RSS Get email ...

  19. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarat Babu Imandi; Sita Kumari Karanam; Hanumantha Rao Garapati

    2014-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been acco...

  20. Rhodanese functions as sulfur supplier for key enzymes in sulfur energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussignargues, Clément; Giuliani, Marie-Cécile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ilbert, Marianne

    2012-06-01

    How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus. PMID:22496367

  1. Identification of vital and dispensable sulfur utilization factors in the Plasmodium apicoplast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haussig, J.M.; Matuschewski, K.; Kooij, T.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are ubiquitous and critical cofactors in diverse biochemical processes. They are assembled by distinct [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways, typically in organelles of endosymbiotic origin. Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, harb

  2. Catalytic conversion of sulfur dioxide and trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov' eva, E.L.; Shenfel' d, B.E.; Kuznetsova, S.M.; Khludenev, A.G.

    1987-11-10

    The reclamation and utilization of sulfur-containing wastes from the flue gas of fossil-fuel power plants and the subsequent reduction in sulfur emission is addressed in this paper. The authors approach this problem from the standpoint of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on solid poison-resistant catalysts with subsequent sorption of the sulfur trioxide and its incorporation into the manufacture of sulfuric acid. The catalyst they propose is a polymetallic dust-like waste from the copper-smelting industry comprised mainly of iron and copper oxides. Experiments with this catalyst were carried out using multifactorial experiment planning.

  3. Stand-off tissue-based biosensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents using photosynthetic fluorescence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C A; Rodriguez, M; Greenbaum, E

    2001-09-01

    Tissue biosensors made from immobilized whole-cell photosynthetic microorganisms have been developed for the detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and simulants. The sensor read-out is based on well-known principles of fluorescence induction by living photosynthetic tissue. Like the cyanobacteria and algae from which they were constructed, the sensors are robust and mobile. The fluorescence signal from the sensors was stable after 40 days, storage and they can be launched or dropped into suspected danger zones. Commercially available hand-held fluorometric detector systems were used to measure Photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency of green algae and cyanobacteria entrapped on filter paper disks. Toxic agents flowing in the gas stream through the sensors can alter the characteristic fluorescence induction curves with resultant changes in photochemical yields. Tabun (GA), sarin (GB), mustard agent, tributylamine (TBA) (a sarin stabilizer), and dibutyl sulfide (DBS) (a mustard agent analog) were tested. Upper threshold limits of detectability for GA, TBA, and DBS are reported. With additional research and development, these biosensors may find application in stand-off detection of chemical and perhaps biological warfare agents under real-world conditions. PMID:11544038

  4. In Situ Analysis of Sulfur Species in Sulfur Globules Produced from Thiosulfate by Thermoanaerobacter sulfurigignens and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong-Jin; Prange, Alexander; Lichtenberg, Henning; Rohde, Manfred; Dashti, Mona; Wiegel, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    The Firmicutes Thermoanaerobacter sulfurigignens and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes convert thiosulfate, forming sulfur globules inside and outside cells. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis revealed that the sulfur consisted mainly of sulfur chains with organic end groups similar to sulfur formed in purple sulfur bacteria, suggesting the possibility that the process of sulfur globule formation by bacteria is an ancient feature.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of Ti1+xS2 prepared by CS2 sulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT value of TiS2 is enhanced by prevention of sulfur deficiency and formation of the oriented texture. The highest ZT of 0.34 was observed at 663 K in the near-stoichiometric Ti1.008S2 for the in-plane direction. Display Omitted - Abstract: Titanium disulfide (TiS2) powder was prepared by sulfurizing TiO2 powder with CS2 gas at 1073 K for 4 h. Because CS2 gas is a powerful sulfurizing agent for TiO2, CS2 sulfurization can be performed at a low temperature. The TiS2 powder thus prepared was first mixed with sulfur powder in a mass ratio of 1:0.04 and pressure sintered at 973 K for 1 h under a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa in vacuum. The addition of a small amount of sulfur powder to the TiS2 powder prevents sulfur deficiency in the sintered compact, resulting in the formation of a near-stoichiometric Ti1.008S2 composition. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the crystalline ab-axis is preferentially oriented perpendicular to the pressing direction. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the oriented TiS2 sintered compacts with near-stoichiometric and sulfur-poor (titanium-rich) compositions were measured in the temperature range 300–723 K. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT was enhanced by prevention of sulfur deficiency and formation of the oriented texture. The highest ZT of 0.34 was observed at 663 K in Ti1.008S2 for the direction perpendicular to the pressing axis.

  6. Utilization of 'elemental' sulfur by different phototrophic sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae): A sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, B; Prange, A [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Competence Center for Microbiology and Biotechnology (CCMB), Rheydter Strasse 277, 41065 Moenchengladbach (Germany); Lichtenberg, H; Hormes, J [Louisiana State University, Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Dahl, C, E-mail: A.Prange@gmx.d [University of Bonn, Institute for Microbiology and Biotechnology, Meckenheimer Allee 168, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are generally able to use elemental sulfur as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Elemental sulfur is mainly a mixture of cyclo-octasulfur and polymeric sulfur. The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum strongly prefers the polymeric sulfur fraction showing that sulfur speciation has a strong influence on availability of elemental sulfur. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to investigate whether polymeric sulfur is also the preferred sulfur species in other purple sulfur bacteria belonging to the families Chromatiaceae and Ecothiorodospiraceae. The cultures were fed with 50 mM of elemental sulfur consisting of 68% polymeric sulfur and 30% cyclo-octasulfur. In all cultures, elemental sulfur was converted into intra- or extracellular sulfur globules, respectively, and further oxidized to sulfate. Sulfate concentrations were determined by HPLC and turbidometric assays, respectively. However, the added elemental sulfur was only partly used by the bacteria, one part of the 'elemental sulfur' remained in the cultures and was not taken up. XANES spectroscopy revealed that only the polymeric sulfur fraction was taken up by all cultures investigated. This strongly indicates that polymeric 'chain-like' sulfur is the form preferably used by phototrophic sulfur bacteria.

  7. Concise Access to 2-Aroylbenzothiazoles by Redox Condensation Reaction between o-Halonitrobenzenes, Acetophenones, and Elemental Sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Pasturaud, Karine; Ermolenko, Ludmila; Al-Mourabit, Ali

    2015-05-15

    A wide range of 2-aroylbenzothiazoles 3 including some pharmacologically relevant derivatives can be obtained in high yields by simply heating o-halonitrobenzenes 1, acetophenones 2, elemental sulfur, and N-methylmorpholine. This three-component nitro methyl coupling was found to occur in an excellent atom-, step-, and redox-efficient manner in which elemental sulfur played the role of nucleophile building block and redox moderating agent to fulfill electronic requirements of the global reaction. PMID:25929738

  8. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment. PMID:27229135

  9. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  10. Biosorption potential of moss (Funaria Hygrometrica), banana (Musa Acuminata), mustard (Brassica Juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts of sunflower, moss, banana and Indian mustard plants were investigated for the uptake of uranium using EDXRF and tracer studies. Out of these, only banana and mustard exhibited 100% uptake of the radionuclide. After further fractionation, only water fraction of banana pith extract showed maximum U uptake. High content of the polysaccharides and protein found in the active fraction may be responsible for U uptake. FTIR spectrometry of the active fraction indicated the presence of organic molecules bearing hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups. Present study suggests that banana pith waste could be potentially utilised for the remediation of uranium from the contaminated sites by exploring the active molecules responsible for the radionuclide uptake. (author)

  11. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi Seyed Mansour; Ghanei Mostafa; Salamati Payman; Safiabadi Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complicat...

  12. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS): challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Colautti; Franks, Steven J.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Kotanen, Peter M.; Mark Torchin; Byers, James E.; Petr Pyšek; Oliver Bossdorf

    2014-01-01

    To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single inv...

  13. Study the density, ultrasonic and compressibility of binary mixture of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol and mustard oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monupal, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The ultrasonic velocities, compressibility and bulk modulus of binary mixtures of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol with mustard oil have been measured at different concentrations at room temperature. The results are varied with the concentration in such a way i.e. ultrasonic velocity and Bulk Modulus is decreases with the increase in concentration and compressibility is increases with the increase in concentration of aqueous isopropyl alcohol. It is due to molecular interactions present in the mixtures.

  14. Augmentation of potential phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) stimulate growth of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.) in marginal soil

    OpenAIRE

    SULIASIH; SRI WIDAWATI

    2006-01-01

    The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB (Bacillus megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Chromobacterium lividum and Klebsiella aerogenes) were used as biofertilizer to increase the fresh leaf production of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.). An experiment was conducted at green house condition. The experiment were used 18 treatments such as single isolate of potential PSB (A,B,C,D), inoculants contain two isolates of potential PSB (E,F,G,H,I,J), inoculants contain three isolates of p...

  15. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher conc...

  16. Antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  17. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  18. Corrosion in sulfur recovery units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, M.

    1979-06-01

    Corrosion in sulfur recovery units may be caused by sulfuric acid formed at cold points in operating units or during the startup, shutdown, or catalyst regeneration periods. Insufficient high-temperature resistance of main boiler materials to sulfuric acid is another common cause of severe corrosion. The specific corrosion problems encountered in hydrotreating units include high- and low-temperature hydrogen embrittlement of steel above 200/sup 0/C and between -50/sup 0/ and +20/sup 0/C, respectively, sometimes accompanied with blistering; carbon steel corrosion by hydrogen sulfide above 280/sup 0/C in desulfurization units; low-temperature stress corrosion or hydrogen blistering by H/sub 2/S in aqueous environments; corrosion by chloride ions coupled with precipitation of ammonium chloride in catalytic reformers during catalyst regeneration; corrosion and fouling by ammonium sulfide in gas oil hydrodesulfurization units and reformers below 90/sup 0/C; and intergranular and stress corrosion of austenitic steels by polythionic acids which may be formed during startup or catalyst regeneration periods. Methods for preventing these types of corrosion are outlined.

  19. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  20. Potassium and calcium application ameliorates growth and oxidative homeostasis in salt-stressed indian mustard (brassica juncea) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on growth and antioxidant defence system of salt-stressed Indian mustard plants was studied. Twenty-day-old Indian mustard plants grown hydroponically in Hoagland growth medium were randomly divided into five groups. To served as control and did not receive any additional K or Ca (except that present in Hoagland solution), T1 received 150 mM NaCl, T2 was given an additional doze of 6 mM K, T3 was given 5.6 mM Ca as additional doze, while as T4 received a combination of 150 mM NaCl + 6 mM K + 5.6 mM Ca. The response of the plants was studied ten days after treatment. Salt stress inhibited growth parameters including biomass, chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity. Membrane damage was induced by the salt treatment with a concurrent increase in antioxidant defence system and proline content. Individual application of K and Ca mitigated the negative influence of the stress with the maximum alleviating potential exhibited by the combined application of these nutrients. Results obtained on real time expression of genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT and GR), NR and proline supported our findings with biochemical assays. We conclude from the study that maintaining high K and Ca levels may serve as an effective means for regulating the growth and productivity of Indian mustard plants under saline conditions. (author)

  1. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg-1 dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL AND OIL QUALITY TRAITS IN INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. CZERN & COSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINOD KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of diverse parents in any crop species like Indian mustard is the pre-requisite and in any cropimprovement programme aimed to obtain the desirable recombinants in segregating generations. Greatercontribution of additive genetic component was reflected by main shoot length, siliqua on main raceme, siliqualength, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid with pronounced range of variation, high heritability coupledwith high genetic advance under selection, which may be exploited in early segregating generations for yield andquality enhancement of Indian mustard. Amongst eight, five mono-genotype and clusters III, IV, I with 18, 12 and11 genotypes, respectively, maximum divergence exhibiting mono-genotype clusters (VII and VIII may be utilizedthrough inter varietal hybridization to exploit high degree of genetic diversity between them. Noteworthy is thatcluster VII exhibiting high genetic diversity for siliqua length, 1000 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield perplant; cluster II and VII for secondary branches per plant, siliqua on main raceme, 1000 seed weight andbiological yield per plant heritability coupled with high heritability and genetic gain under selection, may provetheir worth in genetic enhancement of mustard for yield and oil quality.

  3. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Department of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  4. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years. PMID:19054545

  5. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  6. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended

  7. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. PMID

  8. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  9. Effect of different sulfur levels from various sources on brassica napus growth and soil sulfur fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rain fed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha/sup -1/ ). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl/sub 2/ extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha/sup -1/. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. (author)

  10. Acidithiobacillus caldus Sulfur Oxidation Model Based on Transcriptome Analysis between the Wild Type and Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase Defective Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Linxu Chen; Yilin Ren; Jianqun Lin; Xiangmei Liu; Xin Pang; Jianqiang Lin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus) is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox) system (omitting SoxCD), non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR). The complexity ...

  11. Effects of air pollution on crops. I. Effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide and ozone on the occurrence of symptoms of injuries on vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahara, O.; Mega, K.

    1974-06-01

    In order to obtain information on plant injuries due to air pollution to utilize susceptible plants as biological indicators of air pollution, potted plants such as chard, spinach, Chinese cabbage, and Japanese radish or cut plants such as Welsh onion were exposed in a glass house to sulfur dioxide at 0.4 ppM continuously for a week or to ozone for 6 hr at 0.13, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ppM. The symptoms due to sulfur dioxide appeared first as peripheral and interveinal necrosis, followed by dehydration. The period of exposure required for the appearance of injuries depended mainly on the vegetable species and ranged from 1 day for potted herb mustard to more than a week for maize. A variety of cabbage did not show any injury after 1 week of continuous exposure to sulfur dioxide. The symptoms due to ozone appeared on the veinal or interveinal parts of leaves and were white to light brown in color on cruciferous vegetables and onions. Brown spots appeared on cucumber, and brown, reddish-purple, or dark purple lesions appeared on burdock, rice, and kidney bean. Damage was most severe on cucumbers occurring even at 0.13 ppM. The environmental conditions before and after the exposure to these gases affected the appearance of the symptoms.

  12. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  13. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  14. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  15. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Kwang, Yak Hwa

    1998-01-01

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  17. Reduced sulfur compound oxidation by Thiobacillus caldus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, K. B.; Dopson, M; Lindström, E B

    1996-01-01

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds was studied by using resting cells of the moderate thermophile Thiobacillus caldus strain KU. The oxygen consumption rate and total oxygen consumed were determined for the reduced sulfur compounds thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur, sulfide, and sulfite in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors and uncouplers. The uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone had no affect on the oxidation of thiosulfate, ...

  18. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  19. Neurobehavioral impairments, generation of oxidative stress and release of pro-apoptotic factors after chronic exposure to sulphur mustard in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent global events have focused attention on the potential threat of international and domestic chemical terrorism, as well as the possibility of chemical warfare proliferation. Sulphur mustard (SM) is one of the potent chemical warfare agents (CWA), which initiates a cascade of events that converge on the redox mechanisms common to brain injury. The present study was designed to examine the effects of chronic SM exposure on neurobehavioral impairments, mitochondrial oxidative stress in male Swiss Albino mice and its role in inducing apoptotic neuronal cell death. The animals were divided into four groups (control, low, medium and high dose) of 5 animals each. Exposure to SM was given percutaneously daily for 12 weeks. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioral indices viz. rota rod, passive avoidance and water maze tests in a dose dependent manner. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content whereas, decrease in the activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase suggesting impaired antioxidant defense system. Immunoblotting of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax and activation of caspase-3 suggest induction of apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Finally, increased p53 expression suggests that it may target the mitochondrial pathway for inducing apoptosis in response to DNA damage signals. In conclusion, chronic SM exposure may have the potential to generate oxidative stress which may trigger the release of cytochrome c as well as caspase-3 activation in neurons leading to cell death by apoptosis in a dose dependent manner which may in the end be responsible for the disruption of cognitive functions in mice.

  20. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H2O2, resulting in lower H2O2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian mustard, a

  1. Are the clouds of Venus sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that strong aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have the right refractive index and freeze at Venusian cloud temperature, explain the dryness of the Venusian stratosphere, are consistent with some features of the Venusian IR spectrum, and do not absorb in highly reflecting areas of Venus. It is also indicated that such solutions should be produced by reactions between known atmospheric constituents and most sulfur-bearing rock at the Venusian surface temperature, and require only small amounts of sulfur consistent with its cosmic abundance and with the amounts of other volatile elements present in the atmosphere. It is believed therefore that the clouds of Venus consist of sulfuric acid solutions.

  2. Correlations between cellular resistance to ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents: Patterns of interaction with DFMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated a number of antitumor agents to determine the extent to which cytotoxic responses to these agents correlate with those of x-rays and PUVA. As part of this determination, the authors measured the effect of depletion of cellular levels of polyamines by DFMO on the survival patterns in V79 cells. These studies indicate several agents are cosensitive with x-rays and PUVA in that cell survival is markedly decreased in DFMO treated cells: cis-platinum, nitrogen mustard, mitomycin-C and 4 hydroxycyclophosphamide. The authors data taken in toto suggest common factors in the cytotoxic response of mammalian cells to most DNA-damaging agents whose initial level of damage can be modulated by higher-order chromatin structure

  3. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but, under the right conditions of oxygen potential, it can act as a flux to produce a glassy slag. This glassy slag should be dense and environmentally inert. In this reporting period, the thermodynamic conditions are determined for the operation of the first stage of a combustor which would have as its feed six types of coals. The calculations are made for the four phase equilibrium: FeO(wustite)/Fe/Liquid/Gas over the temperature range 950{degrees} to 1300{degrees}C. The minimum dosage of iron oxide required at equilibrium an the calculated maximum percent sulfur removal are reported. Also given are the expected pounds of S0{sub 2} per million Btu of heat evolution calculated for complete combustion. These preliminary results indicate in the Fe-O-S system that higher temperatures give better results approaching 96 percent sulfur removal from a coal containing (on a dry basis) 3.29% by weight sulfur. In the prior reporting period, a comparison is made between iron oxide and lime as a desulfurizing agent. With lime, the thermodynamic conditions were chosen: a set of conditions where the compound calcium sulfide is the product and a set of conditions where calcium sulfate is the product. The temperature limits of the sulfate forming and sulfide forming reactions were defined.

  4. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  5. TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Diana M; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Nikai, Tetsuro; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Read, Andrew J; Poblete, Jeannie; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Basbaum, Allan I; Julius, David

    2006-03-24

    TRPA1 is an excitatory ion channel targeted by pungent irritants from mustard and garlic. TRPA1 has been proposed to function in diverse sensory processes, including thermal (cold) nociception, hearing, and inflammatory pain. Using TRPA1-deficient mice, we now show that this channel is the sole target through which mustard oil and garlic activate primary afferent nociceptors to produce inflammatory pain. TRPA1 is also targeted by environmental irritants, such as acrolein, that account for toxic and inflammatory actions of tear gas, vehicle exhaust, and metabolic byproducts of chemotherapeutic agents. TRPA1-deficient mice display normal cold sensitivity and unimpaired auditory function, suggesting that this channel is not required for the initial detection of noxious cold or sound. However, TRPA1-deficient mice exhibit pronounced deficits in bradykinin-evoked nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Thus, TRPA1 is an important component of the transduction machinery through which environmental irritants and endogenous proalgesic agents depolarize nociceptors to elicit inflammatory pain. PMID:16564016

  6. Interface polymerization synthesis of conductive polymer/graphite oxide@sulfur composites for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A hybrid nanostructure that incorporate the merits of conductive polymer nanorods and graphite oxide sheets. • A novel approach based on interface polymerization for synthesizing CP/GO@S ternary composite. • CP/GO@S ternary composite cathode shows enhanced electrochemical properties compared with CP@S binary composite cathode. • PEDOT/GO@S composite is the material system that have best electrochemical performance in all CP/GO@S ternary composites. - Abstract: The novel ternary composites, conductive polymers (CPs)/graphene oxide (GO)@sulfur composites were successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot route and used as cathode materials for Li-S batteries The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/GO and polyaniline (PANI)/GO composites were prepared by interface polymerization of monomers on the surface of GO sheets. Then sulfur was in-situ deposited on the CPs/GO composites in same solution. The component and structure of the composites were characterized by XPS, TGA, FTIR, SEM, TEM and electrochemical measurements. In this structure, the CPs nanostructures are believed to serve as a conductive matrix and an adsorbing agent, while the highly conductive GO will physically and chemically confine the sulfur and polysulfide within cathode. The PEDOT/GO@S composites with the sulfur content of 66.2 wt% exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 800.2 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 0.5 C, which is much higher than that of PANI/GO@S composites (599.1 mAh g−1) and PANI@S (407.2 mAh g−1). Even at a high rate of 4 C, the PEDOT/GO@S composites still retain a high specific capacity of 632.4 mAh g−1

  7. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  8. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population. average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005-06 which were 2005-06 which were 31 and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004,05) and 817.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained non significant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  9. Evolution of improved varieties of rapeseed/mustard through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding using gamma rays led to the development and release of two high yielding yellow sarson mustard mutant varieties, 'Safal' and 'Agrani' which are now commercially cultivated by the farmers of Bangladesh. Further studies with Brassica napus created a lot of variabilities in M2 with the selection of eight early maturing mutants which took 82 - 85 days to mature compared to 105 days by the original cultivar. The mutants bred true in M3 for earliness. A few indehiscent and semi-indehiscent mutants were also developed. Seed yields of the early mutants were about 2,000 kg per hectare which was comparable to the original cultivar. The mutants have 44-45% oil content in the seed compared to previously released varieties with 42-43% oil content. Mutants are moderately resistant to Alternaria blight in field condition. Other mutants segregated in M3 in different ratios and further selection was made. Evaluation of yellow sarson mutant BINA 2 along with other high yielding varieties in three saline zones of Bangladesh revealed that BINA 2 is more tolerant to salinity compared to existing high yielding varieties with an average yield of 1,888 kg followed by 1,758 kg by 'Agrani' and 1,699 kg by 'Safal', per ha. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  10. Mustard tuber wastewater treatment and simultaneous electricity generation using microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Fu, Guokai; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Chunling

    2013-05-01

    Mustard tuber wastewater (MTWW) was utilized as fuel in the typical dual-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to recover bio-energy and to obtain effluent treatment simultaneously. The whole experiment was divided into four phases characterized by increasing contents of primary clarifier effluent (PCE). Results showed substrate1, with which MFC generated a maximum power density of 246 mW/m(2), was the most appropriate fuel in terms of power recovery and the internal resistance and columbic efficiency were 121 Ω and 67.7±1%, respectively. When feeding MFCs with substrate4, 85±0% of COD could be removed, which was the highest COD removal, however, the power retrieve efficiency was much lower. Interestingly, significantly negative correlation (P<0.01, F-test) between contents of PCE and maximum cell voltages and positive correlation between the contents and internal resistances were found. It was the complexity and colloidal particulates present in PCE that gradually increased internal resistance and accordingly decreased power-generating performance. PMID:23567712

  11. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  12. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  13. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Long; Tao, Zong-Ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2016-08-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. PMID:27156168

  14. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  15. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  16. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a crucial mediator of the noxious effects of mustard oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerts, Wouter; Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Farre, Ricard; Leten, Cindy; Apetrei, Aurelia; Dewachter, Ilse; van Leuven, Fred; Vennekens, Rudi; De Ridder, Dirk; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2011-02-22

    Mustard oil (MO) is a plant-derived irritant that has been extensively used in experimental models to induce pain and inflammation. The noxious effects of MO are currently ascribed to specific activation of the cation channel TRPA1 in nociceptive neurons. In contrast to this view, we show here that the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 has a surprisingly large contribution to aversive and pain responses and visceral irritation induced by MO. Furthermore, we found that this can be explained by previously unknown properties of this compound. First, MO has a bimodal effect on TRPA1, producing current inhibition at millimolar concentrations. Second, it directly and stably activates mouse and human recombinant TRPV1, as well as TRPV1 channels in mouse sensory neurons. Finally, physiological temperatures enhance MO-induced TRPV1 stimulation. Our results refute the dogma that TRPA1 is the sole nocisensor for MO and motivate a revision of the putative roles of these channels in models of MO-induced pain and inflammation. We propose that TRPV1 has a generalized role in the detection of irritant botanical defensive traits and in the coevolution of multiple mammalian and plant species. PMID:21315593

  17. The Protective and Therapeutic Roles of Hexamethylenetetramine and N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Sulfur Mustard-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jafari

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The study findings revealed that SM induces oxidative stress in rat serum. HMT and NAC can ameliorate SM-induced oxidative stress by altering antioxidant defense system in serum. The protective effect of HMT against the toxicity of SM is higher than NAC.

  18. Commercial Test of Multi-functional Desulfurizing Agent TS-01 for Gasoline in FCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhi; Wu Yingjian; Yu Weisheng

    2003-01-01

    Experimental use of multi-functional desulfurizing agent TS-01 for FCC gasoline in the FCC unitof SINOPEC Jiujiang Company shows that the multi-functional desulfurizing agent can effectivelyremove various kinds of sulfur in FCC gasoline and diesel fuel and fulfill passivation on heavy metals.

  19. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y

    2015-05-05

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  20. Preparation and bioevaluation of a 99mTc-labeled chlorambucil analog as a tumor targeting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorambucil belongs to a group of nitrogen mustards which are used for the treatment of variety of cancers. Hence, a chlorambucil derivative has been radiolabeled with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ core and its efficacy as a tumor targeting agent has been evaluated. Radiochemical yield of the complex was >98% as observed by HPLC. The in vitro studies in MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed about 30% inhibition of the radiolabeled complex in presence of the cold chlorambucil derivative. Biodistribution studies in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumor showed an uptake of 3.2±0.3% ID/g at 3 h.p.i.