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Sample records for aged uk women

  1. Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Macdonald, H M; Horton, K; Kang'ombe, A R; Berry, J L; Lanham-New, S A

    2013-02-01

    This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Serum 25(OH)D Asians in the winter (81 %) and autumn (79.2 %). Deficient status (below 50 nmol/L) was common in Caucasian women. Multi-level modelling suggested that, in comparison to sun exposure (1.59, 95 %CI = 0.83-2.35), dietary intake of vitamin D had no impact on 25(OH)D levels (-0.08, 95 %CI = -1.39 to 1.23). Year-round vitamin D deficiency was extremely common in South Asian women. These findings pose great health threats regarding the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and warrant urgent vitamin D public health policy and action.

  2. A UK clinical audit addressing the quality of prescribing of sodium valproate for bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carol; Cookson, John; Ferrier, I Nicol; Bhatti, Sumera; Fagan, Elizabeth; Barnes, Thomas R E

    2018-04-12

    To review prescribing practice concerning valproate, an established human teratogen, for the management of bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age. The Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health conducted a baseline clinical audit in the UK, as part of a quality improvement programme. Six hundred and forty-eight clinical teams from 55 mental health Trusts submitted retrospective treatment data relating to patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Of the audit sample of 6705 patients, 3854 were 50 years of age or younger. Valproate was prescribed for 24% of women and 43% men in this age group, and the mean dose of valproate was lower in women (1196 mg) than in men (1391 mg). For only half of such women was there documented evidence that information had been provided on the risks for the unborn child and the need for adequate contraception. Valproate was more often used in men to treat mania and aggression, while the most common treatment targets in women were hypomania and relapse prevention. Despite explicit recommendations in national treatment guidelines and published safety alerts and warnings regarding the use of valproate in women of childbearing age, current prescribing of this medication to such women in the context of the treatment of bipolar disorder falls short of best practice, particularly with regard to provision of information regarding the risks associated with exposure to valproate during pregnancy. While women younger than 50 years of age were less likely to be prescribed valproate than men in the same age group, and at a lower dosage, it is unclear to what extent this reflects clinicians' concerns about teratogenicity or is driven by perceptions of the indication for valproate, and the dosage required, for the treatment of different phases of the disorder in men and women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  3. Comparison of self-reported signs of facial ageing among Caucasian women in Australia versus those in the USA, the UK and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Greg J; Armour, Katherine S; Kolodziejczyk, Julia K; Santangelo, Samantha; Gallagher, Conor J

    2017-04-10

    Australians are more exposed to higher solar UV radiation levels that accelerate signs of facial ageing than individuals who live in temperate northern countries. The severity and course of self-reported facial ageing among fair-skinned Australian women were compared with those living in Canada, the UK and the USA. Women voluntarily recruited into a proprietary opt-in survey panel completed an internet-based questionnaire about their facial ageing. Participants aged 18-75 years compared their features against photonumeric rating scales depicting degrees of severity for forehead, crow's feet and glabellar lines, tear troughs, midface volume loss, nasolabial folds, oral commissures and perioral lines. Data from Caucasian and Asian women with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III were analysed by linear regression for the impact of country (Australia versus Canada, the UK and the USA) on ageing severity for each feature, after controlling for age and race. Among 1472 women, Australians reported higher rates of change and significantly more severe facial lines (P ≤ 0.040) and volume-related features like tear troughs and nasolabial folds (P ≤ 0.03) than women from the other countries. More Australians also reported moderate to severe ageing for all features one to two decades earlier than US women. Australian women reported more severe signs of facial ageing sooner than other women and volume-related changes up to 20 years earlier than those in the USA, which may suggest that environmental factors also impact volume-related ageing. These findings have implications for managing their facial aesthetic concerns. © 2017 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley and Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2014-05-01

    Concern has recently been expressed about Pb levels in Pb-shot game meat. Our aim was to determine the consumption of game birds in a representative sample population in the UK, and in children and women of childbearing age in particular. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. Data from 4 d diet diaries from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS; 2008-2010) were extracted to analyse data on game bird consumption in the sample population, in women of childbearing age (15-45 years old) and in children ≤6 years old. Home-based study in representative areas of the UK. Participants in the NDNS (2008-2010; n 2126, age 1·5 to >65 years). Fifty-eight participants (2·7 %) reported eating game birds. The mean intake was 19·5 (sd 18·1) g/d (median 15·6, range 1·3-92·9 g/d). In women of childbearing age (15-45 years), 11/383 (2·9 %) reported eating game birds, with a mean intake of 22·4 (sd 25·8) g/d (median 15·6, range 2·0-92·9 g/d). In children aged ≤6 years old, 3/342 (0·9 %) were reported as eating game birds, with a mean intake of 6·8 (sd 9·7) g/d (median 2·4, range 1·3-23·2 g/d). The prevalence of consumption of game birds by women of childbearing age and children ≤6 years old was relatively low and intakes were small. However, any exposure to Pb in these two groups is undesirable. As are uncertainties about the ability of the diet diary method to capture the consumption of food items that are infrequently consumed, alternative methods of capturing these data should be used in future studies.

  5. Bariatric Surgery in Obese Women of Reproductive Age Improves Conditions That Underlie Fertility and Pregnancy Outcomes: Retrospective Cohort Study of UK National Bariatric Surgery Registry (NBSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Eric; Whyte, Martin; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Jones, Simon; Gatenby, Piers; de Lusignan, Simon; Shawe, Jill

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study are the following: to describe the female population of reproductive age having bariatric surgery in the UK, to assess the age and ethnicity of women accessing surgery, and to assess the effect of bariatric surgery on factors that underlie fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Demographic details, comorbidities, and operative type of women aged 18-45 years were extracted from the National Bariatric Surgery Registry (NBSR). A comparison was made with non-operative cases (aged 18-45 and BMI ≥40 kg/m 2 ) from the Health Survey for England (HSE, 2007-2013). Analyses were performed using "R" software. Data were extracted on 15,222 women from NBSR and 1073 from HSE. Women aged 18-45 comprised 53 % of operations. Non-Caucasians were under-represented in NBSR compared to HSE (10 vs 16 % respectively, p years (Wilcoxon test p year postoperatively from 48.2 ± 8.3 to 37.4 ± 7.5 kg/m 2 (t test, p fertility and pregnancy outcomes. A prospective study is required to verify these effects.

  6. Poorer mental health in UK bisexual women than lesbians: evidence from the UK 2007 Stonewall Women's Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, Lisa; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Bisexual- and lesbian-identified women have significantly worse mental health than heterosexual women. Less evidence exists about mental health differences between lesbian and bisexual women. Self-completion survey with community-based, opportunistic sampling recruited 937 bisexual-identified and 4769 lesbian-identified women. Associations between sexual identity and mental health indicators were assessed by logistic regression, controlling for age, income, student status and employment. As a group, bisexual women were younger, poorer, and more likely to be trans-identified, minority ethnic identified and to use marijuana, compared with lesbians. Bisexuals were more likely than lesbians to report eating problems (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.64, P women attended lesbian or bisexual social events, were 'out', or had experienced any sexuality-related discrimination, compared with lesbians. More bisexual women reported poor mental health or psychological distress than did lesbians. Bisexual women may be more likely to experience social stress due to the 'double discrimination' of homophobia and biphobia. This stress, experienced mainly as internalized and felt stigma, could result in greater risk for poor mental health compared with lesbians. Addressing both biphobia and homophobia within UK society has important preventative mental health implications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Health screenings for women over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  8. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  9. Constraints on food choices of women in the UK with lower educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, M.; Lawrence, W. T.; Skinner, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Women of lower educational attainment have less balanced and varied diets than women of higher educational attainment. The diets of women are vital to the long-term health of their offspring. The present study aimed to identify factors that influence the food choices of women with lower...... educational attainment and how women could be helped to improve those choices. Design: We conducted eight focus group discussions with women of lower educational attainment to identify these factors. We contrasted the results of these discussions with those from three focus group discussions with women...... of higher educational attainment. Setting: Southampton, UK. Subjects: Forty-two white Caucasian women of lower educational attainment and fourteen of higher educational attainment aged 18 to 44 years. Results: The dominant theme in discussions with women of lower educational attainment was their sense...

  10. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  11. Engineering Careers in the UK: Still Not What Women Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Liz; Hamill, Les

    2006-01-01

    Of all professions, engineering is ranked near the bottom in the UK in terms of the proportion of female applicants for university places, so the engineering industry is missing out on some of the best young talent available. Despite initiatives to increase the number of women entering engineering, there has been little change over the last…

  12. Changing trends in reproductive/lifestyle factors in UK women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Glazer, Clara; Burnell, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort analysis. SETTING: Population cohort invited between 2001 and 2005 from age-sex registers of 27 Primary Care Trusts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and recruited through 13 National Health Service......-reported data on reproductive factors provided at recruitment were explored using tabular and graphical summaries to examine for differences between the birth cohorts. OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in mean age at menarche and menopause, use of oral contraceptives, change in family size, infertility treatments, tubal...... to reflect the reproductive history of the UK female postmenopausal population of similar age. Since these are risk factors for hormone-related cancers, these trends are important in understanding the changing incidence of these cancers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Standard Randomised Controlled...

  13. Women of an uncertain age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Matthias; Colvin, Christopher; McAtackney, Laura

    2017-01-01

    in order to facilitate a better assessment of sources of this productivity growth, including the relative contribution of men and women. This is done by exploiting the frequency at which age data heap at round ages, widely interpreted as an indicator of a population's basic numeracy skills. Because...... Földvári, van Leeuwen, and van Leeuwen-Li find that gender-specific trends in this measure derived from census returns are biased by who is reporting and recording the age information, any computed numeracy trends are corrected using data from prison and workhouse registers, sources in which women...... ostensibly self-reported their age. The findings show that rural Irish women born early in the nineteenth century had substantially lower levels of human capital than uncorrected census data would otherwise suggest. These results are large in magnitude and thus economically significant. The speed at which...

  14. Religion, male violence, and the control of women: Pakistani Muslim men in Bradford, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, M

    1999-03-01

    This paper examines Pakistani Muslim male violence in the public and private spheres in Bradford, UK. The article also explores the relationship between male violence and ideas of culture and religion. The material used was collected over a 4-year period from students and staff in further and higher education institutions; working women (prostitutes); survivors of domestic violence; police personnel who work with Asian women fleeing domestic violence or forced marriages; and staff of a children's society working with teenage prostitutes. Methodologies included lectures, seminars, focus groups, and interviews. Findings reveal that there is a difference between male and female attitudes towards Islam. Some men are using it to justify violence against women, while women of all ages and backgrounds are using it as a source of strength and to negotiate (with ingenuity and humor) the cultural and religious requirements which men try to impose upon them.

  15. Incidence of and risk factors for Motor Neurone Disease in UK women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Pat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor neuron disease (MND is a severe neurodegenerative disease with largely unknown etiology. Most epidemiological studies are hampered by small sample sizes and/or the retrospective collection of information on behavioural and lifestyle factors. Methods 1.3 million women from the UK Million Women Study, aged 56 years on average at recruitment, were followed up for incident and/or fatal MND using NHS hospital admission and mortality data. Adjusted relative risks were calculated using Cox regression models. Findings During follow-up for an average of 9·2 years, 752 women had a new diagnosis of MND. Age-specific rates increased with age, from 1·9 (95% CI 1·3 – 2·7 to 12·5 (95% CI 10·2 – 15·3 per 100,000 women aged 50–54 to 70–74, respectively, giving a cumulative risk of diagnosis with the disease of 1·74 per 1000 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years. There was no significant variation in risk of MND with region of residence, socio-economic status, education, height, alcohol use, parity, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Ever-smokers had about a 20% greater risk than never smokers (RR 1·19 95% CI 1·02 to 1·38, p = 0·03. There was a statistically significant reduction in risk of MND with increasing body mass index (pfor trend = 0·009: obese women (body mass index, 30 kg/m2 or more had a 20% lower risk than women of normal body mass index (20 to 2(RR 0·78 95% CI 0·65-0·94; p = 0·03. This effect persisted after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. Interpretation MND incidence in UK women rises rapidly with age, and an estimated 1 in 575 women are likely to be affected between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Smoking slightly increases the risk of MND, and adiposity in middle age is associated with a lower risk of the disease.

  16. Women and exercise in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L. Kendall

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with physiological declines, notably a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD and lean body mass, with a concurrent increase in body fat and central adiposity. Interest in women and aging is of particular interest partly as a result of gender specific responses to aging, particularly as a result of menopause. It is possible that the onset of menopause may augment the physiological decline associated with aging and inactivity. More so, a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (an accumulation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose has been shown in middle-aged women during the postmenopausal period. This is due in part to the drastic changes in body composition, as previously discussed, but also a change in physical activity (PA levels. Sarcopenia is an age related decrease in the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fibers that consequently leads to a decline in physical function, gait speed, balance, coordination, decreased BMD, and quality of life. PA plays an essential role in combating physiological decline associated with aging. Maintenance of adequate levels of PA can result in increased longevity and a reduced risk for metabolic disease along with other chronic diseases. The aim of this paper is to review relevant literature, examine current PA guidelines, and provide recommendations specific to women based on current research.

  17. Perceived and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among South Asian women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Whitney Babakus; Duda, Joan L; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-03-16

    Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA) women fail to meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST). There is limited research on SA women's understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as "keeping busy" or "being healthy", and of ST as "lazy" or "resting in old age". Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity), with none able to estimate duration of ST. Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily activities (e.g., walking, housework) and reducing ST in this population.

  18. Urogenital consequences in ageing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, Stergios K; Chrysanthopoulou, Eleftheria L

    2013-10-01

    Various anatomical, physiological, genetic, lifestyle and reproductive factors interact throughout a woman's life span and contribute to pelvic floor disorders. Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, which can result in a variety of disorders, such as pelvic organ prolapse, lower urinary tract symptoms, dysfunctional bowel and bladder evacuation, and sexual dysfunction. The exact mechanisms and pathophysiological processes by which ageing affects pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function are not always clear. In most cases, it is difficult to ascertain the exact role of ageing per se as an aetiological, predisposing or contributing factor. Other conditions associated with ageing that may co-exist, such as changes in mental status, can result in different types of pelvic floor dysfunction (e.g. functional incontinence). Pelvic organ dysfunction may be associated with significant morbidity and affect quality of life. These groups of patients often pose difficult diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas owing to complex medical conditions and concurrent morbidities. In this chapter, we summarise the current evidence on the management of pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on elderly women and the associations between the ageing process and these disorders. Clinicians with an understanding of the affect of ageing on the pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function, and the complex interplay of other comorbidities, will be able to investigate, diagnose and treat appropriately there women. A holistic approach may result in substantial improvements in their quality of life. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  20. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Medicalization of women's third age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufert, P A; Lock, M

    1997-06-01

    Medicalization usually refers to the process whereby the normal processes of pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation and menopause have been claimed and redefined by medicine. Rather than discussing medicalization and menopause in terms of the number of women taking hormones, or the percentage of physicians convinced they should prescribe them, this paper looks at the visual image of the menopausal woman as portrayed in the pharmaceutical literature and in the mass media. Unlike the depressed and sickly looking women shown in the pharmaceutical advertisements in the 1970s, this 1990s version of the menopausal woman is shown glowing with fitness, with well-maintained teeth, hair and skin, far too fit to break a hip, have a heart attack, or witness the slow destruction of their minds by Alzheimer's disease. This image is not to be confused with the reality of being a menopausal woman, yet the two are intimately intertwined, for the image determines how menopausal women see themselves and how they are seen in the wider society. The final section of the paper discusses how health is the new virtue for women as they age as each individual is held responsible for what happens to her body, particularly in terms of the decisions made at the time of menopause.

  2. Health screenings for women ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  3. Health screenings for women ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  4. Gender Stereotypes among Women Engineering and Technology Students in the UK: Lessons from Career Choice Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating…

  5. Aged riverine particulate organic carbon in four UK catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Jessica L.; Tipping, Edward; Bryant, Charlotte L.; Helliwell, Rachel C.; Toberman, Hannah; Quinton, John

    2015-01-01

    The riverine transport of particulate organic matter (POM) is a significant flux in the carbon cycle, and affects macronutrients and contaminants. We used radiocarbon to characterise POM at 9 riverine sites of four UK catchments (Avon, Conwy, Dee, Ribble) over a one-year period. High-discharge samples were collected on three or four occasions at each site. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was obtained by centrifugation, and the samples were analysed for carbon isotopes. Concentrations of SPM and SPM organic carbon (OC) contents were also determined, and were found to have a significant negative correlation. For the 7 rivers draining predominantly rural catchments, PO 14 C values, expressed as percent modern carbon absolute (pMC), varied little among samplings at each site, and there was no significant difference in the average values among the sites. The overall average PO 14 C value for the 7 sites of 91.2 pMC corresponded to an average age of 680 14 C years, but this value arises from the mixing of differently-aged components, and therefore significant amounts of organic matter older than the average value are present in the samples. Although topsoil erosion is probably the major source of the riverine POM, the average PO 14 C value is appreciably lower than topsoil values (which are typically 100 pMC). This is most likely explained by inputs of older subsoil OC from bank erosion, or the preferential loss of high- 14 C topsoil organic matter by mineralisation during riverine transport. The significantly lower average PO 14 C of samples from the River Calder (76.6 pMC), can be ascribed to components containing little or no radiocarbon, derived either from industrial sources or historical coal mining, and this effect is also seen in the River Ribble, downstream of its confluence with the Calder. At the global scale, the results significantly expand available information for PO 14 C in rivers draining catchments with low erosion rates. - Highlights:

  6. Aged riverine particulate organic carbon in four UK catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jessica L., E-mail: jesams@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, Edward, E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bryant, Charlotte L., E-mail: charlotte.bryant@glasgow.ac.uk [NERC Radiocarbon Facility, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Helliwell, Rachel C., E-mail: rachel.helliwell@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH Scotland (United Kingdom); Toberman, Hannah, E-mail: hannahtoberman@hotmail.com [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Quinton, John, E-mail: j.quinton@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    The riverine transport of particulate organic matter (POM) is a significant flux in the carbon cycle, and affects macronutrients and contaminants. We used radiocarbon to characterise POM at 9 riverine sites of four UK catchments (Avon, Conwy, Dee, Ribble) over a one-year period. High-discharge samples were collected on three or four occasions at each site. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was obtained by centrifugation, and the samples were analysed for carbon isotopes. Concentrations of SPM and SPM organic carbon (OC) contents were also determined, and were found to have a significant negative correlation. For the 7 rivers draining predominantly rural catchments, PO{sup 14}C values, expressed as percent modern carbon absolute (pMC), varied little among samplings at each site, and there was no significant difference in the average values among the sites. The overall average PO{sup 14}C value for the 7 sites of 91.2 pMC corresponded to an average age of 680 {sup 14}C years, but this value arises from the mixing of differently-aged components, and therefore significant amounts of organic matter older than the average value are present in the samples. Although topsoil erosion is probably the major source of the riverine POM, the average PO{sup 14}C value is appreciably lower than topsoil values (which are typically 100 pMC). This is most likely explained by inputs of older subsoil OC from bank erosion, or the preferential loss of high-{sup 14}C topsoil organic matter by mineralisation during riverine transport. The significantly lower average PO{sup 14}C of samples from the River Calder (76.6 pMC), can be ascribed to components containing little or no radiocarbon, derived either from industrial sources or historical coal mining, and this effect is also seen in the River Ribble, downstream of its confluence with the Calder. At the global scale, the results significantly expand available information for PO{sup 14}C in rivers draining catchments with low erosion rates

  7. Factors Affecting Age at ASD Diagnosis in UK: No Evidence That Diagnosis Age Has Decreased between 2004 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Denise; Warnell, Frances; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical initiatives have aimed to reduce the age at ASD diagnosis in the UK. This study investigated whether the median age at diagnosis in childhood has reduced in recent years, and identified the factors associated with earlier diagnosis in the UK. Data on 2,134 children with ASD came from two large family databases. Results showed that the age…

  8. A prospective study of social difficulties, acculturation and persistent depression in Pakistani women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, N; Husain, N; Tomenson, B; Creed, F

    2012-06-01

    The reasons for the high prevalence of depressive disorders in women of Pakistani origin living in the UK are not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of life events, chronic social difficulties and acculturation in a population-based sample of British Pakistani women. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of 18- to 65-year-old Pakistani women in UK was carried out. The Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry for diagnosis, the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule for social stress and an acculturation questionnaire were used. Depressive disorder at baseline was associated with older age, social isolation and marked difficulties involving health and close relationships. Depressive disorder at follow-up was associated with severity of depression at baseline, difficulties in close relationships and two aspects of acculturation, especially less acculturation in relation to use of the English language. Lack of acculturation, especially less familiarity with the English language, is an independent predictor of persistence of depression in Pakistani women in UK. This needs to be taken into consideration when planning treatment, which also needs to address the personal difficulties associated with persistent depression. The implication of this work is that women of Pakistani origin with depression should be encouraged to receive help in the use of English as one part of treatment that may prevent relapse.

  9. Breast cancer risk in a screening cohort of Asian and white British/Irish women from Manchester UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D Gareth; Brentnall, Adam R; Harvie, Michelle; Astley, Susan; Harkness, Elaine F; Stavrinos, Paula; Donnelly, Louise S; Sampson, Sarah; Idries, Faiza; Watterson, Donna; Cuzick, Jack; Wilson, Mary; Jain, Anil; Harrison, Fiona; Maxwell, Anthony J; Howell, Anthony

    2018-01-25

    The differences between breast cancer risk factors in white British/Irish and Asian women attending screening in the UK are not well documented. Between 2009-15 ethnicity and traditional breast cancer risk factors were self-identified by a screening cohort from Greater Manchester, with follow up to 2016. Risk factors and incidence rates were compared using age-standardised statistics (European standard population). Eight hundred and seventy-nine Asian women and 51,779 unaffected white British/Irish women aged 46-73 years were recruited. Asian women were at lower predicted breast cancer risk from hormonal and reproductive risk factors than white British/Irish women (mean 10 year risk 2.6% vs 3.1%, difference 0.4%, 95%CI 0.3-0.5%). White British/Irish women were more likely to have had a younger age at menarche, be overweight or obese, taller, used hormone replacement therapy and not to have had children.. However, despite being less overweight Asian women had gained more weight from age 20 years and were less likely to undertake moderate physical activity. Asian women also had a slightly higher mammographic density. Asian age-standardised incidence was 3.2 (95%CI 1.6-5.2, 18 cancers) per thousand women/year vs 4.5 (95%CI 4.2-4.8, 1076 cancers) for white British/Irish women. Asian women attending screening in Greater Manchester are likely to have a lower risk of breast cancer than white British/Irish women, but they undertake less physical activity and have more adult weight gain.

  10. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  11. Predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care at 13 large UK clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUNTINGTON, Susie E; THORNE, Claire; BANSI, Loveleen K; ANDERSON, Jane; NEWELL, Marie-Louise; TAYLOR, Graham P; PILLAY, Deenan; HILL, Teresa; TOOKEY, Pat A; SABIN, Caroline A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care. Methods Data were obtained through the linkage of two separate studies; the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study (UK CHIC), a cohort of adults attending 13 large HIV clinics, and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), a national surveillance study of HIV-positive pregnant women. Pregnancy incidence was measured using the proportion of women in UK CHIC with a pregnancy reported to NSHPC. Generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of pregnancy and assess changes in pregnancy incidence in 2000-2009. Results The number of women accessing care at UK CHIC sites increased as did the number of pregnancies (from 72 to 230). Older women were less likely to have a pregnancy (adjusted Relative Rate (aRR) 0.44 per 10 year increment in age [95% CI [0.41-0.46], ppregnancy increased over the study period (aRR 1.05 [1.03-1.07], ppregnancy rate among women accessing HIV clinical care increased in 2000-2009. HIV-positive women with, or planning, a pregnancy require a high level of care and this is likely to continue and increase as more women of older age have pregnancies. PMID:22713479

  12. Identity, Empathy and "Otherness": Asian Women, Education and Dowries in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2009-01-01

    This article will examine Asian women's views on the practice of dowries in the UK. The research is based on 20 in-depth interviews with Asian women studying for a Social Sciences degree in a "new" (post-1992) university in the southeast of England. All of the interviews were tape-recorded and the data transcribed. The data was analysed…

  13. Adiposity and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: Results from the UK Biobank prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenji; Key, Timothy J; Reeves, Gillian K

    2018-03-23

    Body size is an important modifiable risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. However, it remains unclear whether direct measures of fat mass are better indicators of risk than anthropometric measures, or whether central adiposity may contribute to risk beyond overall adiposity. We analyzed data from 162,691 postmenopausal women in UK Biobank followed from 2006 to 2014. Body size was measured by trained technicians. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks. Analyses were stratified by age at recruitment, region and socioeconomic status, and adjusted for family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at first birth, parity, age at menopause, previous hormone replacement therapy use, smoking, alcohol intake, height, physical activity and ethnicity. We observed 2,913 incident invasive breast cancers during a mean 5.7 years of follow-up. There was a continuous increase in risk of postmenopausal breast cancer with increasing adiposity, across all measures. The point estimate, comparing women in the top (median 37.6 kg) to bottom (median 17.6 kg) quartile of body fat mass was 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.52-1.90). The magnitudes of the associations between per SD increase in BMI and body fat mass with breast cancer risk were similar, suggesting impedance measures of fat were not substantially better indicators of risk than anthropometric measures. After adjusting for body fat mass, the associations between anthropometric measures of central adiposity and breast cancer risk were attenuated. The magnitude of risk, across all measures of adiposity, was greater in women who had been postmenopausal for 12 or more years. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  14. Costs of a healthy diet: analysis from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J; Upmeier, H; Calvert, C; Greenwood, D

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the direct and indirect cost differences associated with eating a 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' diet. Analysis of data from a baseline postal questionnaire for the UK Women's Cohort Study, including a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), supplemented by a telephone interview on a sub-sample. The first 15,191 women who responded to the questionnaire, aged 35-69 years with similar numbers of meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A healthy diet indicator (hdi), with values from 0 (lowest) to 8 (highest) was developed based on the WHO dietary recommendations. Direct monetary cost of the diet was calculated using prices from the 1995 National Food Survey and the Tesco home shopping catalogue. Women in the healthy diet group were almost four times as likely to be vegetarian and have a higher educational level. For direct costs, the difference between the most extreme hdi groups was 1.48 day-1 (equivalent to 540 year-1), with fruit and vegetable expenditure being the main items making a healthy diet more expensive. Forty-nine per cent of the food budget was spent on fruit and vegetables in hdi group 8 compared to 29% in hdi group 0. Interestingly, 52% of those questioned in both extreme hdi groups did not think that it was difficult to eat healthily. To achieve a particularly healthy diet independent predictive factors were spending more money, being a vegetarian, having a higher energy intake, having a lower body mass index (BMI) and being older.

  15. The influence of Facebook in the holiday decision making of Muslim women in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Imran

    2017-01-01

    Muslim consumer segment now represents the Fourth ‘Billion’ segment after China, India, and women overall in all around the world. Muslim population is increasing faster than the other segments in the UK. Muslim women play a significant role in family decision-making. Yet, researchers have neglected this segment. On the other hand, internet plays a vital role in decision-making and likewise, social media is influencing the family decision-making. Furthermore, women have an influential role at...

  16. Challenging social myths and stereotypes of women and aging: heterosexual women talk about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron; Gott, Merryn

    2008-01-01

    Cultural representations of aging and sexuality combine to paint a particular picture of mid and later life for women: menopause is constructed as a time when women either lose or renew their interest in sex, and later life a time when sexual activity no longer assumes importance yet remains vital to healthy aging. This article examines the importance of sexual activity to "older" women, paying particular attention to how they negotiate such representations. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women aged 50 and older recruited from Sheffield, UK. A material-discursive analysis revealed that whilst participants rejected the asexual discourse of aging they accepted it for women older than themselves. They constructed women per se as sexually complex, in comparison to men, making sexual activity "risky business" for women, and positioned their own sexual desire as responsive, either to a man's sexual desire or to their own hormones. Finally, sexual activity was constructed as having psychological and physiological benefits for couples within committed relationships. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for research, theory and clinical practice.

  17. Winged Auxiliaries: Women Pilots in the UK and US during World War Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Helena P.

    2006-05-01

    During World War II women in the US and the UK were given the then unprecedented opportunity to fly military aircraft. Yet while the women flying in the UK soon gained the privileges and status enjoyed by their male colleagues, the American women pilots were expressly denied the same status, rank, pay, and benefits as USAAF pilots. In fact, after an ugly slander campaign against the women pilots' organisation, the US programme was discontinued and the women were sent home before their job was done. The American women pilots were not less dedicated or inherently less capable than the women flying in Britain. Rather, key environmental and organisational differences and above all a failure of leadership accounts for their fate. This paper summarises the differences and their impact. The complete findings of the comparative research on the experiences of women pilots in the US and the UK during WWII will be published by Pen & Sword Books Inc early in 2006 under the title Sisters in Arms.

  18. Women's sexuality: from aging to social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological

  19. Pregnancy outcomes of women with HIV in a district general hospital in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L; Desouza, C; Moorcroft, A; Elgalib, A

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to describe the obstetrical and virological outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women who delivered at a district general hospital in south London in the period from 2008 to 2014. Our review identified 137 pregnancies; most (60%, 63/105) of them were unplanned. The commonest mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (42%, 48/114) followed by emergency Caesarean section (32%, 36/114). Gestational age at delivery was ≥37 weeks in most (84%, 91/106) of the cases. Maternal HIV VL at or closest to delivery was undetectable (1000 copies/mL in 73% (94/129), 90% (116/129) and 6% (8/129) of the pregnancies, respectively. None of the infants were infected with HIV making the rate of MTCT of HIV 0% (zero). Our study shows that favourable virological and obstetrical outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women are achievable in non-tertiary HIV treatment centres. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV has been one of the major public health successes in the last decades. This success was evident by the reduction of MTCT of HIV in the UK from 25.6% in the 1993 to only 0.46% in 2011. Furthermore, many reports from individual providers, mainly from tertiary centres, of HIV care in the UK also showed very low rates MTCT of HIV. What the results of this study add: Our study shows that favourable virological and obstetrical outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women are achievable in non-tertiary HIV treatment centres. The MTCT of HIV rate in our hospital was zero in the period from 2008 to 2014. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Staff caring for pregnant HIV positive women in general hospitals and small-to-medium HIV clinics should liaise closely with each other and utilise the skill-mix within their hospital in order to provide a quality care that is similar to what is achieved in large teaching centres; however, a

  20. Exploring the factors contributing to empowerment of Turkish migrant women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, S Gulfem; Yerin Guneri, Oya

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the role of demographic factors (length of stay, education and language level), perceived discrimination, social support, four acculturation attitudes, and psychological distress in predicting empowerment among Turkish migrant women in the UK. The study sample comprised 248 Turkish migrant women (mean age: 34.38; SD: 7.6) living in London. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess empowerment, social support, acculturation attitude and psychological distress. The study hypothesized that perceived discrimination; acculturation attitudes of separation, assimilation and marginalization; and psychological distress would be negative predictors of empowerment and that social support and an integration acculturation attitude would be positive predictors of empowerment. To some extent, the study findings supported this hypothesis. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated psychological distress to be the most significant predictor of empowerment, with other significant predictors including level of education and social support. More specifically, lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of education and social support appeared to predict greater empowerment. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that level of education and social support may function as protective factors and that psychological distress may function as a risk factor for empowerment in the migration context. The paper discusses the findings of this study in relation to the previous literature and notes their implications for future research and practice.

  1. Exploring How Well UK Coach Education Meets the Needs of Women Sports Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Vinson, Don; Christian, Polly; Jones, Vanessa; Williams, Craig; Peters, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive and equitable processes are important to the development of sports coaching. The aim of this study was to explore how well UK coach education meets the needs of women sports coaches in order to make recommendations to further enhance the engagement of, and support for, aspiring and existing women coaches. The national governing bodies (NGBs) of four sports (Cycling, Equestrian, Gymnastics and Rowing) volunteered to participate and semi-structured interviews using the tenants of Appr...

  2. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  3. Why does fertility remain high among certain UK-born ethnic minority women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Kulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown high total fertility among certain UK-born ethnic minorities, but the reasons behind their high fertility have remained far from clear. Some researchers attribute their elevated fertility levels to cultural factors, whereas others argue that high fertility is the consequence of their poor education and labour market prospects. Objective: This study investigates fertility among the descendants of immigrants in the UK and examines the determinants of high fertility among certain ethnic minority groups. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply multivariate event history analysis. Results: The analysis shows, first, that relatively high second-, third-, and fourth-birth rates are responsible for the elevated total fertility among certain UK-born minorities, especially women of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. There is little variation in the first-birth rates among natives and immigrant descendants. Second, although fertility differences between ethnic minorities and native British women slightly decrease once religiosity and number of siblings are controlled for, significant differences persist. We conclude that cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic groups in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be only minor. Contribution: Cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic minorities in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be negligible.

  4. UK-born ethnic minority women and their experiences of feeding their newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Katherine; Puthussery, Shuby; Harding, Seeromanie; Baron, Maurina; Macfarlane, Alison

    2011-10-01

    to explore the factors that impact on UK-born ethnic minority women's experiences of and decisions around feeding their infant. in-depth semi-structured interviews. 34 UK-born women of Black African, Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Irish parentage and 30 health-care professionals. women and health-care professionals were recruited primarily from hospitals serving large numbers of ethnic minority women in London and Birmingham. despite being aware of the benefits of exclusive breast feeding, many women chose to feed their infant with formula. The main barriers to breast feeding were the perceived difficulties of breast feeding, a family preference for formula feed, and embarrassment about breast feeding in front of others. Reports from women of South Asian parentage, particularly those who lived with an extended family, suggested that their intentions to breast feed were compromised by the context of their family life. The lack of privacy in these households and grandparental pressure appeared to be key issues. Unlike other participants, Irish women reported an intention to feed their infant with formula before giving birth. The key facilitators to breast feeding were the self-confidence and determination of women and the supportive role of health-care professionals. these findings point to common but also culturally specific mechanisms that may hinder both the initiation and maintenance of breast feeding in UK-born ethnic minority women. They signal potential benefits from the inclusion of family members in breast-feeding support programmes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Poisoned Chalice? Why UK Women Engineering and Technology Students May Receive More "Help" than Their Male Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The UK engineering and technology (E&T) sector is male-dominated, with women facing various cultural and structural barriers in entering and developing their careers within it. Existing research in this area has focused on women's recruitment or retaining women in employment, but little has addressed women's transition to industry through the…

  6. Ageing towards 21 as a risk factor for young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, K M

    2012-11-13

    Aims. Youth and young adult suicide has increasingly appeared on international vital statistics as a rising trend of concern in age-specific mortality over the past 50 years. The reporting of suicide deaths in 5-year age bands, which has been the international convention to date, may mask a greater understanding of year-on-year factors that may accelerate or ameliorate the emergence of suicidal thoughts, acts and fatal consequences. The study objective was to identify any year-on-year period of increased risk for youth and young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland. Methods. Collation and examination of international epidemiological datasets on suicide (aged 18-35) for the UK and Ireland 2000-2006 (N = 11 964). Outcome measures included the age distribution of suicide mortality in international datasets from the UK and Ireland, 2000-2006. Results. An accelerated pattern of risk up to the age of 20 for the UK and Ireland which levels off moderately thereafter was uncovered, thus identifying a heretofore unreported age-related epidemiological transition for suicide. Conclusions. The current reporting of suicide in 5-year age bands may conceal age-related periods of risk for suicide. This may have implications for suicide prevention programmes for young adults under age 21.

  7. Nutrition interventions in women in low-income groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S

    2007-02-01

    In the UK the mental and physical health and well-being of millions of women are influenced by living in poverty. Low educational attainment, unemployment, low pay and poor areas of residence exacerbate the challenges of obtaining optimal food choices, dietary intake and healthy eating patterns. Poorer women are more likely to eat low amounts of fruits and vegetables, whole grains and fish, and higher amounts of sugar and sweetened drinks compared with more affluent women. Diet contributes to the health inequalities evident in high rates of diet-related morbidity (including obesity) and mortality (including IHD and stroke) and in maternal and child health considerations (including breast-feeding and family diet practices). There is a dearth of research on effective interventions undertaken with low-income women, reflecting some of the challenges of engaging and evaluating programmes with this 'hard to reach' subpopulation. Intervention programmes from the USA, including WISEWOMAN, the Women's Health Initiative, the American Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program provide models for changing behaviour amongst women in the UK, although overall effects of such programmes are fairly modest. Lack of evidence does not mean that that policy work should be not be undertaken, but it is essential that policy work should be evaluated for its ability to engage with target groups as well as for the behavioural change and health outcomes.

  8. Labour market entries and exits of women from different origin countries in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudja, Yassine; Platt, Lucinda

    2018-01-01

    Labour force participation rates of women differ strongly by ethnic origin. Even though existing research using cross-sectional studies has demonstrated that part of these differences can be attributed to compositional differences in human capital, household conditions and gender attitudes, residual 'ethnic effects' typically remain. To further our understanding of women's labour market behaviour across ethnic groups, we use a large-scale longitudinal study and apply a dynamic perspective to examine how far relevant life-course events in addition to individual characteristics, gender attitudes and religiosity contribute to the explanation of ethnic differences in women's labour force entries and exits in the UK. Our findings show that, adjusting for all these factors, Indian and Caribbean women do not differ from White majority women in their labour force entry and exit probabilities but that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are less likely to enter and more likely to exit the labour market, whereas Black African women have higher entry rates. We also find that relations between life-course events and labour market transitions differ by ethnic group. Most notably, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women's labour market transitions are less sensitive to child-bearing and Caribbean women's transitions less sensitive to partnership changes than other women's. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of undernutrition among women of reproductive age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... child undernutrition, millions of children and women of reproductive age still suffer from ... enough to resolve the issue unless the nutritional status of poor women is also well ..... women in the reproductive age group of India.

  10. Social gradients in health for Pakistani and White British women and infants in two UK birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Eleonora P; Pickett, Kate E; Wright, John

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine social gradients in low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, smoking during pregnancy and maternal health for women and infants of Pakistani origin and White British women and infants in the UK. The sample included women and singleton infants from the Born in Bradford (BiB) study (n = 8181) and the first sweep of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) (n = 8980). Social gradients in health for four measures of socioeconomic status (SES): maternal education, means-tested benefits, financial situation, and occupation of the father were analysed in multivariate regression models adjusting for maternal age and parity. For White British mothers and infants in the MCS sample, social gradients in health were observed for at least three out of four measures of SES for each health outcome (p for trend social gradient in health for Pakistani women was demonstrated with the self-reported measure of financial situation, in relation to mental health (p for trend social gradients in health for Pakistani women and infants and discusses potential explanations for this finding.

  11. Supporting women with postpartum anxiety: exploring views and experiences of specialist community public health nurses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Miriam T; Ayers, Susan; Olander, Ellinor K

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety is common among postpartum women and can have adverse effects on mother's and child's somatic and psychological health if left untreated. In the UK, nurses or midwifes with a specialisation in community public health nursing, also called health visitors (HVs), work with families who have children younger than 5 years of age and are therefore in a key position to identify and support women with postpartum mental health issues. Until recently, postpartum mental health support provided by HVs mainly focused on identifying and managing depression, but the updated clinical guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence also includes guidance regarding screening and psychological interventions for perinatal anxiety. This study therefore aimed to explore HVs' experiences of supporting women with postpartum anxiety and their views on currently available care. Using a qualitative approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 HVs from the UK between May and October 2015. Participants were interviewed in person at their workplace or on the phone/Skype. Using thematic analysis, four main themes emerged: identification and screening issues; importance of training; service usage; and status of current service provision. Women with postpartum anxiety were commonly encountered by HVs in their clinical practice and described as often heavily using their or other related healthcare services, which puts additional strain on HVs' already heavy workload. Issues with identifying and screening for postpartum anxiety were raised and the current lack of perinatal mental health training for HVs was highlighted. In addition, HVs described a current lack of good perinatal mental health services in general and specifically for anxiety. The study highlights the need for HV perinatal mental health training in general and postpartum anxiety specifically, as well as better coverage of specialist mental health services and the need for development

  12. Counseling Services for Women in Marriage Age

    OpenAIRE

    Frischa Meivilona Yendi; Zadrian Ardi; Ifdil Ifdil

    2015-01-01

    Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.

  13. Delivery of chlamydia screening to young women requesting emergency hormonal contraception at pharmacies in Manchester, UK: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Karen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More women are requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC at pharmacies where screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered. The objective of this study was to assess the uptake of free postal chlamydia screening by women under 25 years who requested EHC at pharmacies in Manchester, UK. Methods Six Primary Care Trusts (PCTs that had contracted with pharmacies to provide free EHC, requested the largest EHC providers (≥ 40 doses annually to also offer these clients a coded chlamydia home testing kit. Pharmacies kept records of the ages and numbers of women who accepted or refused chlamydia kits. Women sent urine samples directly to the laboratory for testing and positive cases were notified. Audit data on EHC coverage was obtained from PCTs to assess the proportion of clients eligible for screening and to verify the uptake rate. Results 33 pharmacies participated. Audit data for 131 pharmacy months indicated that only 24.8% (675/2718 of women provided EHC were also offered chlamydia screening. Based on tracking forms provided by pharmacies for the whole of the study, 1348/2904 EHC clients (46.4% who had been offered screening accepted a screening kit. 264 (17.6% of those who accepted a kit returned a sample, of whom 24 (9.1% were chlamydia-positive. There was an increase in chlamydia positivity with age (OR: 1.2 per year; 1.04 to 1.44; p = 0.015. Conclusion Chlamydia screening for EHC pharmacy clients is warranted but failure of pharmacists to target all EHC clients represented a missed opportunity for treating a well defined high-risk group.

  14. Carriage of group B streptococcus in pregnant women from Oxford, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N; Oliver, K; Jones, Y; Haines, A; Crook, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate asymptomatic vagino‐rectal carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women. Methods Women in the final trimester of pregnancy were recruited. A single vagino‐rectal swab was taken, with consent, for culture of GBS. Two microbiological methods for isolation of GBS from vagino‐ractal swabs were compared. The distribution of capsular serotypes of the GBS identified was determined. Epidemiological data for a subset (n = 167) of the pregnant women participating were examined. Results 21.3% were colonised vagino‐rectally with GBS. Risk factors for neonatal GBS disease (maternal fever, prolonged rupture of membranes, and preterm delivery) were present in 34 of 167 women (20.4%), and the presence of these factors correlated poorly with GBS carriage. Capsular serotypes III (26.4%), IA (25.8%), V (18.9%), and IB (15.7%) were prevalent in the GBS isolates. Selective broth culture of vagino‐rectal swabs was superior to selective plate culture, but the combination of both methods was associated with increased detection of GBS (7.5%). An algorithm for the identification of GBS from vagino‐rectal swabs was developed. Conclusions GBS carriage is prevalent in pregnant women in Oxfordshire, UK. The poor correlation between risk factors and GBS carriage requires further investigation in larger groups, given that the identification of these surrogate markers is recommended to guide administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis by the Royal College of Obstetricians of the UK. A selective broth culture detected more GBS carriers than a selective plate culture. PMID:16473927

  15. UK national clinical audit: management of pregnancies in women with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raffe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential for HIV transmission between a pregnant woman and her unborn child was first recognized in 1982. Since then a complex package of measures to reduce risk has been developed. This project aims to review UK management of HIV in pregnancy as part of the British HIV Association (BHIVA audit programme. Methods The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC, a population-based surveillance study, provided data for pregnancies with an expected delivery date from 1/1/13 - 30/6/14. Services also completed a survey on local management policies. Data were audited against the 2012 BHIVA pregnancy guidelines. Results During the audit period 1483 pregnancies were reported and 112 services completed the survey. Use of dedicated multidisciplinary teams was reported by 99% although 26% included neither a specialist midwife nor nurse. 17% of services reported delays >1 week for HIV specialist review of women diagnosed antenatally. Problematic urgent HIV testing had been experienced by 9% of services although in a further 49% the need for urgent testing had not arisen. Delays of >2 h in obtaining urgent results were common. Antiretroviral therapy (ART was started during pregnancy in 37% women with >94% regimens in accordance with guidelines. Late ART initiation was common, particularly in those with a low CD4 count or high viral load. Eleven percent of services reported local policy contrary to guidelines regarding delivery mode for women with a VL <50 copies/mL at ≥36 weeks. According to NSHPC reports 27% of women virologically eligible for vaginal delivery planned to deliver by CS. Conclusions Pregnant women in the UK are managed largely in accordance with BHIVA guidelines. Improvements are needed to ensure timely referral and ART initiation to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  16. Women in senior post-graduate medicine career roles in the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anthony; Eley, Lizzie; Gray, Selena; Irish, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to elicit the views, experiences, career journeys and aspirations of women in senior post-graduate medical education roles to identify steps needed to help support career progression. In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews. UK. Purposive sample of 12 women in a variety of senior leadership roles in post-graduate medical education in the UK. Self reported motivating influences, factors that helped and hindered progress, key branch points, and key educational factors and social support impacting on participants' career in postgraduate medicine. Respondents often reported that career journeys were serendipitous, rather than planned, formal or well structured. Senior women leaders reported having a high internal locus of control, with very high levels of commitment to the NHS. All reported significant levels of drive, although the majority indicated that they were not ambitious in the sense of a strong drive for money, prestige, recognition or power. They perceived that there was an under-representation of women in senior leadership positions and that high-quality female mentorship was particularly important in redressing this imbalance. Social support, such a spouse or other significant family member, was particularly valued as reaffirming and supporting women's chosen career ambition. Factors that were considered to have hindered career progression included low self-confidence and self-efficacy, the so-called glass ceiling and perceived self-limiting cultural influences. Factors indirectly linked to gender such as part-time versus working full time were reportedly influential in being overlooked for senior leadership roles. Implications of these findings are discussed in the paper. Social support, mentorship and role modelling are all perceived as highly important in redressing perceived gender imbalances in careers in post-graduate medical education.

  17. Gestational age, gender and parity specific centile charts for placental weight for singleton deliveries in Aberdeen, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J M; Bhattacharya, S; Horgan, G W

    2013-03-01

    The weight of the placenta is a crude but useful proxy for its function in vivo. Accordingly extremes of placental weight are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes while even normal variations in placental size may impact lifelong health. Centile charts of placental weight for gestational age and gender are used to identify placental weight extremes but none report the effect of parity. Thus the objective was to produce gender and gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight in nulliparous and multiparous women. Data was extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank for all women delivering singleton babies in Aberdeen city and district after 24 weeks gestation. Gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight by gender and parity grouping (n = 88,649 deliveries over a 30 year period) were constructed using the LMS method after exclusion of outliers (0.63% of deliveries meeting study inclusion criteria). Tables and figures are presented for placental weight centiles according to gestational age, gender and parity grouping. Tables are additionally presented for the birth weight to placental weight ratio by gender. Placental weight and the fetal:placental weight ratio were higher in male versus female deliveries. Placental weight was greater in multiparous compared with nulliparous women. We present strong evidence that both gender and parity grouping influence placental weight centiles. The differences at any given gestational age are small and the effects of parity are greater overall than those of gender. In contrast the birth weight to placental weight ratio differs by gender only. These UK population specific centile charts may be useful in studies investigating the role of the placenta in mediating pregnancy outcome and lifelong health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Case-control Studies on the Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Screening: Insights from the UK Age Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; Broeders, Mireille J M; Verbeek, André L M; Duffy, Stephen W; Moss, Sue M

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing breast cancer screening programs can only be evaluated using observational study designs. Most studies have observed a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but design differences appear to have resulted in different estimates. Direct comparison of case-control and trial analyses gives more insight into this variation. Here, we performed case-control analyses within the randomized UK Age Trial. The Age Trial assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women ages 40-49 years. In our approach, case subjects were defined as breast cancer deaths between trial entry (1991-1997) and 2004. Women were ages 39-41 years at entry. For every case subject, five control subjects were selected. All case subjects were included in analyses of screening invitation (356 case subjects, 1,780 controls), whereas analyses of attendance were restricted to women invited to screening (105 case subjects, 525 age-matched controls). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated with conditional logistic regression. We used and compared two methods to correct for self-selection bias. Screening invitation resulted in a breast cancer mortality reduction of 17% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -36%, +6%), similar to trial results. Different exposure definitions and self-selection adjustments influenced the observed breast cancer mortality reduction. Depending on the method, "ever screened" appeared to be associated with a small reduction (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.40, 1.89) or no reduction (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 2.14) using the two methods of correction. Recent attendance resulted in an adjusted mortality reduction of 36% (95% CI: -69%, +31%) or 45% (95% CI: -71%, +5%). Observational studies, and particularly case-control studies, are an important monitoring tool for breast cancer screening programs. The focus should be on diminishing bias in observational studies and gaining a better understanding of the influence of study design on estimates of mortality reduction.

  19. The University of the Third Age in the UK: An Interpretive and Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2006-01-01

    The idea of the University of the Third Age (U3A) in the UK was originated from France. However, the British formed their own model of U3As, which is different from that of French U3As. What are the reasons that the British U3As developed in a different way? The purpose of this article is to interpret and criticize in-depth the reasons why British…

  20. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  1. Correlates of anemia among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, 41.8% of pregnant women and 30.2% of non-pregnant women are anemic. Previous studies which attempted to identify determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age reported conflicting findings. Objective: To assess the correlates of anemia among women of reproductive age in ...

  2. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending Obstetrics And ... prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to ... Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up ...

  3. Understanding and supporting women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a qualitative study in an ethnically diverse UK sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjiconstantinou, Michelle; Mani, Hamidreza; Patel, Naina; Levy, Miles; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Objective Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a lifelong condition. Its symptoms have been linked with psychological consequences, but less attention has been given to the daily implications of living with PCOS. We aimed to explore women?s experiences living with PCOS, and the potential acceptability of group education sessions for this target group. Methods Women with PCOS were recruited from an ethnically diverse UK community. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Analysis was u...

  4. Perceived and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among South Asian Women in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Babakus Curry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA women fail to meet physical activity (PA recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST. There is limited research on SA women’s understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. Methods: 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Results: Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as “keeping busy” or “being healthy”, and of ST as “lazy” or “resting in old age”. Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity, with none able to estimate duration of ST. Discussion: Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily

  5. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    OpenAIRE

    Bień, Agnieszka; Pieczykolan, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Bień Agnieszka, Pieczykolan Agnieszka. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(3):381-391. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.344548 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4289 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © Th...

  6. Counseling Services for Women in Marriage Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frischa Meivilona Yendi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.

  7. The impact of African ethnicity and migration on pregnancy in women living with HIV in the UK: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Shema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pregnancies in women with diagnosed HIV in the UK increased from 80 in 1990 to over 1400 in 2010; the majority were among women born in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a paucity of research on how social adversity impacts upon pregnancy in HIV positive women in the UK; furthermore, little is known about important outcomes such as treatment uptake and return for follow-up after pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. Methods and design This was a two phase mixed methods study. The first phase involved analysis of data on approximately 12,000 pregnancies occurring between 2000 and 2010 reported to the UK’s National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. The second phase was based in London and comprised: (i semi-structured interviews with 23 pregnant African women living with HIV, 4 health care professionals and 2 voluntary sector workers; (ii approximately 90 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV charity; and (iii approximately 40 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in a Pentecostal church. Discussion We have developed an innovative methodology utilising epidemiological and anthropological methods to explore pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. The data collected in this mixed methods study are currently being analysed and will facilitate the development of appropriate services for this group.

  8. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Alcohol appearances (classified as 'alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances') were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of 'alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances' was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including 'alcohol brand appearances', were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people.

  9. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Methods Alcohol appearances (classified as ‘alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances’) were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. Results At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of ‘alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances’ was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including ‘alcohol brand appearances’, were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Conclusion Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people. PMID:22039199

  10. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutrition is one of the fundamental human needs, which allows for the proper functioning of the body. Nowadays, people are increasingly turning attention to the type and quantity of food intake, in order to preserve health and slim. Rigorous adherence to the principles of nutrition only healthy meals can lead to disorder orthorexia nervosa, which can lead to many complications (such as weight loss, vitamin deficiencies and mineral, hormonal disorders, psychological problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders such orthorexia nervosa in women of childbearing age and to check whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders and a global orientation of life of respondents. Material and method. The study included 280 women aged between 18 and 35 years old who voluntarily joined the study. The study used the questionnaire technique, consisting of the author's questionnaire and standardized research tools (ORTO-15 Questionnaire, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29. Results. After conducting these studies found an association between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion, and between type of eating disorder anorexia and bulimia and marital status, and body mass index (BMI. It was also shown that the lower the overall level of sense of coherence and its components is more common in individuals at risk of developing anorexia or bulimia. Conclusion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia marital status and body mass index of women.

  11. Medical and social egg freezing: internet-based survey of knowledge and attitudes among women in Denmark and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Schmidt, Lone; Macklon, Nick

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its use, or the circumstances under which this technique may be considered. An online cross-sectional survey was designed to investigate knowledge and attitudes of women in Denmark and the UK on egg freezing and their potential intentions regarding the procedure. Data was collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and the responses of 973 women were analyzed. In total, 83% of women reported having heard of egg freezing, and nearly all considered it acceptable for medical indications, whilst 89% considered it acceptable for social reasons. Overall, 19% expressed active interest in the procedure, and 27% expressed possible interest. Key factors found to positively influence attitudes to accepting the procedure were reassurance that it would not affect future fertility and greater than 50% chance of achieving a live birth. Characteristics significantly associated with intention to freeze eggs were being single, age under 35 years, childlessness, and a history of infertility. In this group, risk and cost were less important considerations. This study indicates that there is widespread awareness and support of the availability of eggs freezing for reproductive planning. Reassurance regarding its efficacy appears more important than its potential adverse effects on their health or that of future children, or the costs of the procedure. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Women in Professional IT Jobs in the UK: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Glover

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A first aim of this article is to give a current picture of women’s employment in the IT sector in the UK, focusing on occupational sex segregation and on the gender pay gap. This shows that women’s low representation in the sector as a whole and in specific professional roles continues to be a persistent issue. We also review the literature that explains women’s position in IT employment, focusing particularly on new research that points up the importance of the ‘hybrid’ technical/soft skills jobs that employers believe are new opportunities for women. Whilst these may be new opportunities, we question whether they are good opportunities. There are implications, therefore, for both employees and employers.

  13. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40–69 year olds in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Emsley, Richard; Norman, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Davis, Adrian; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Lutman, Mark; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. Design The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. The better-ear unaided speech reception threshold was measured adaptively using the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Self-report data on tinnitus, hearing aid use, noise exposure as well as demographic variables were collected. Results Overall, 10.7% of adults (95%CI 10.5–10.9%) had significant hearing impairment. Prevalence of tinnitus was 16.9% (95%CI 16.6–17.1%) and hearing aid use was 2.0% (95%CI 1.9–2.1%). Odds of hearing impairment increased with age, with a history of work- and music-related noise exposure, for lower socioeconomic background and for ethnic minority backgrounds. Males were at no higher risk of hearing impairment than females. Conclusion Around 1 in 10 adults aged 40 to 69 years have substantial hearing impairment. The reasons for excess risk of hearing impairment particularly for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds require identification, as this represents a serious health inequality. The underutilization of hearing aids has altered little since the 1980s, and is a major cause for concern. PMID:24518430

  14. Women, Work and Age: A Report on Older Women and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentzel, Cathy; Steenland, Sally, Ed.

    Fifty-four percent of all midlife and older American women are in the work force. Like their younger counterparts, most older women work in nonprofessional occupations. Regardless of their age, working women earn less than men. Sixty-five percent of working women aged 45 to 64 are married; 30 percent are widowed, divorced, or separated; and 5…

  15. Dementia, women and sexuality: How the intersection of ageing, gender and sexuality magnify dementia concerns among lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Sue

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the significance of socio-cultural context for the experiences of an individual living with dementia. There is, too, an emergent awareness that dementia is a gendered issue, disproportionately affecting women compared with men. However, little attention has been given as yet to the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women living with dementia. This article addresses this gap in knowledge, exploring the significance of the intersection of ageing, gender and sexuality for lesbian and bisexual women with dementia. It suggests that stigma and social marginalisation associated with dementia and with ageing, gender and sexuality intersect to compound the social exclusion of lesbians and bisexual women. This has implications for early diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, community care policy, which is predicated on heterosexist norms fails to take into account older lesbians and bisexual women's support networks and so is less likely to be attuned to their needs. Residential care provision is perceived by older lesbians and bisexual women as being heteronormative at best and homophobic at worst. Services which do not recognise, validate and support their identities will compound their anxiety, confusion and distress. This may be contrary to Equality and Human Rights legislation and UK social policies. This paper draws upon, and analyses, extracts from a range of authorship, synthesising the material to present novel insights into the significance of gender and sexuality for the experience of dementia and dementia care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and their understanding of and justification for domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harjinder

    2015-01-01

    To date nothing is known about the attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and domestic violence. Issues related to South Asian men and communities have remained largely under the surface due to religious and cultural sensitivity. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes of South Asian men in London and the South East of England toward women and their understanding and justification of domestic violence. More specifically, the research explores a range of cultural and r...

  17. Vitamin D production in UK Caucasian and South Asian women following UVR exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Ohood A; Hart, Kathryn; McCabe, Patrick; Berry, Jacqueline; Francesca, Robertson; Rhodes, Lesley E; Spyrou, Nicholas; Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Lanham-New, Susan

    2016-11-01

    It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D). However ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D production between UK South Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined and controlled exposure to UVR. Seventeen women; 9 white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), 8 South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their own controls. Three blood samples were taken for the measurement of vitamin D status during the run in period (9days, no sunbed exposure) after which, all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (9 days, 3 sun bed sessions, 6, 8 and 8min respectively with approximately 80% body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Despite consistently lower 25(OH)D levels in South Asian women, they were shown to synthesise vitamin D as efficiently as Caucasians when exposed to the same dose of UVR. Interestingly, the baseline level of vitamin D rather than ethnicity and skin tone influenced the amount of vitamin D synthesised. This study have found no ethnic differences in the synthesis of 25(OH)D, possibly due to the baseline differences in 25(OH)D concentration or due to the small population size used in this study. Applying mixed linear model, findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D; baseline level and length of exposure were the critical factors. To confirm that ethnicity and skin tone has no effect on 25(OH)D production, a larger sample size study is required that considers other ethnic groups with highly pigmented skin. Initial vitamin D status influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Taking Stock: Perspectives on Women and Leadership in Higher Education in the UK and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer-Raymo, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Describes presentations and discussions from the seminar "Women and Leadership in Higher Education in the UK and US," jointly sponsored by the Society for Research into Higher Education, the Commission on University Career Opportunity, and Through the Glass Ceiling. Participants agreed that the time has come to replace individual,…

  19. Labour market entries and exits of women from different origin countries in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoudja, Y.; Platt, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of increasing women’s labour force participation (LFP) across Western countries, there remain large differences in LFP for women of different ethnic origins. While existing research has demonstrated that part of these differences can be attributed to compositional differences (age,

  20. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  1. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  2. Life course effects on age at menopause among Bangladeshi sedentees and migrants to the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lorna; Sievert, Lynnette; Begum, Khurshida; Sharmeen, Taniya; Puleo, Elaine; Chowdhury, Osul; Muttukrishna, Shanthi; Bentley, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    To assess how different variables experienced across the life course, but particularly during early life, might affect age at menopause among 174 Bangladeshi migrants to London by comparing them to 157 nonmigrant sedentees and 154 women of European descent in London. Participants were aged 35-59 years, with no exogenous hormone use in the past three months, not pregnant or lactating, with no history of hysterectomy or oophorectomy. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measures were carried out. In addition to mean recalled age at natural menopause, median age was computed by probit analysis. Ages at menopause were examined by bivariate and Cox regression analyses in relation to demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle variables, and in relation to potential exposure to cyclones in early childhood. Ages at menopause were significantly earlier among Bangladeshi sedentees and immigrants compared to Londoners of European origin. Ages at menopause were earlier among sedentees compared to immigrants. Urban birthplace, more infectious diseases during childhood, and lower levels of education increased the risk of an earlier menopause. Changes in environmental conditions during adulthood appeared to modify age at menopause among Bangladeshi immigrants in London compared to women living in Bangladesh; however, Bangladeshi immigrants still experienced an earlier age at menopause compared with their London neighbors of European descent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Interventions that improve maternity care for immigrant women in the UK: protocol for a narrative synthesis systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina Marie Awoko; Evans, Catrin; Morgan, Myfanwy; Bharj, Kuldip Kaur; Eldridge, Jeanette; Hussain, Basharat

    2017-07-12

    A quarter of all births in the UK are to mothers born outside the UK. There is also evidence that immigrant women have higher maternal and infant death rates and of inequalities in the provision and uptake of maternity services/birth centres. The topic is of great significance to the National Health Service because of directives that address inequalities and the changing patterns of migration to the UK. Our main question for the systematic review is 'what interventions exist that are specifically focused on improving maternity care for immigrant women in the UK?' The primary objective of this synthesis is to generate new interpretations of research evidence. Second, the synthesis will provide substantive base to guide developments and implementation of maternity services/birth centres which are acceptable and effective for immigrant women in the UK. We are using a narrative synthesis (NS) approach to identify, assess scientific quality and rigour, and synthesise empirical data focused on access and interventions that enhance quality of maternity care/birth centres for the UK immigrant women. The inclusion criteria include: publication date 1990 to present, English language, empirical research and findings are focused on women who live in the UK, participants of the study are immigrant women, is related to maternity care/birth centres access or interventions or experiences of maternity.In order to ensure the robustness of the NS, the methodological quality of key evidence will be appraised using the Center for Evidence-Based Management tools and review confidence with CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research). Two reviewers will independently screen studies and extract relevant evidence. We will synthesise evidence studying relationships between included studies using a range of tools. Dissemination plan includes: an e-workshop for policymakers, collaborative practitioner workshops, YouTube video and APP, scientific papers and

  4. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-04

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Ppre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females.

  5. Depression in South Asian women living in the UK: a review of the literature with implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Feryad; Cochrane, Ray

    2004-06-01

    Research has shown that South Asian people in the UK underutilize health services compared with White people. Also, where services are accessed, they may not adequately meet cultural and religious needs. In exploring the relationship between the cultural and religious beliefs of South Asian service users about perceptions, beliefs about aetiology, cause and treatment of mental illness, past studies have illustrated a wide range of expectations, experiences, beliefs and attitudes. This article reviews research on depression in South Asian women in the UK, highlighting implications for services.

  6. Going solo: Findings from a survey of women aging without a partner and who do not have children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lambert, Nicky; Long, Ellouise; Brady, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Greater longevity in the UK population has led to the increasing diversity of women experiencing aging in a multitude of ways. Internationally, gender inequalities in aging are still relatively invisible within both government policy and everyday life for particular groups of women. This article explores the concept of women growing older "solo"-by which we mean women who find themselves nonpartnered and aging without children as they move into later life. We report on the findings from a mixed-methods survey of 76 solo women in the UK aged 50 years and over, used to provide a broader overview of the issues and challenges they face as they move into later life. Qualitative data from the survey captured respondents' perspectives about the links between their relationships status and well-being in later life and highlighted specific cumulative disadvantages emerging for some women as a result of their solo lifestyles. We discuss two key themes that were identified, "solo-loneliness" and "meaningful futures," in conjunction with the relevant literature and make suggestions for future research within gender and aging studies that could enhance more positive approaches to solo lifestyles.

  7. Detection of breast diseases in various age groups among women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapnik, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive study among women in various age groups provided data on the detection of dyshormonal and tumorous diseases of the breast which are necessary for organizing preventive measures and identifying groups for screening. Data on the distribution of breast pathology in various age groups are presented. The highest percentage of pathology is marked in women aged 31 to 40, with focal lesions 4 times as many as in the previous age group [ru

  8. Epidemiology of Substance Use in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Wigderson, Sara; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A significant number of women of reproductive age in the U.S. use addictive substances. In 2012 more than 50% reported current use of alcohol, 20% used tobacco products, and approximately 13% used other drugs. Among women, use of these substances is associated with a number of significant medical, psychiatric, and social consequences, and the course of illness may progress more rapidly in women than men. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in women is 19.5% and 7.1%, respectively. In addition, as most addictive substances cross the placenta and have deleterious effects on fetal development, substance use has additional potential adverse consequences for women of reproductive age who may become pregnant. Specific barriers to accessing effective substance use treatment exist for women. The prevalence of substance use and evidence of accelerated illness progression in women highlight the importance of universal substance use screening in women in primary care settings. PMID:24845483

  9. The Mediterranean diet and risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Petra; Cade, Janet E; Evans, Charlotte E L; Hancock, Neil; Greenwood, Darren C

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies investigating associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer is inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess in the UK Women's Cohort Study whether adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced incidence of cancers of the colon and rectum. A total of 35 372 women were followed for a median of 17.4 years. A 10-component score indicating adherence to the Mediterranean diet was generated for each cohort participant, using a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. The Mediterranean diet score ranged from 0 for minimal adherence to 10 for maximal adherence. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to provide adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colon and rectal cancer risk. A total of 465 incident colorectal cancer cases were documented. In the multivariable adjusted model, the test for trend was positive (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.99; Ptrend = 0.03) for a 2-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score. For rectal cancer, a 2-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score resulted in an HR (95% CI) of 0.69 (0.56 to 0.86), whereas a 62% linear reduced risk (HR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.74; Ptrend Mediterranean dietary pattern may have a lower risk of colorectal cancer, especially rectal cancer. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  10. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  11. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Childbearing Age in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...

  13. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Do smoking habits differ between women and men in contemporary Western populations? Evidence from half a million people in the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Huxley, Rachel R; Woodward, Mark

    2014-12-30

    Several studies have shown that smoking may confer a greater excess risk for chronic diseases in women compared with men. The reasons for this excess risk of smoking in women are unclear, yet sex differences in smoking habits may play a role. We, thus, characterised sex differences in smoking habits in a contemporary Western population. Cross-sectional population-based study. UK Biobank Resource. 499,797 (54% women) individuals with data on smoking habits. Women-to-men prevalence ratios in smoking status, and the women-minus-men mean difference in age at smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked daily and age at smoking cessation in 5-year birth cohort bands. The women-to-men ever-smoking ratio ranged from 0.57 in the oldest to 0.87 in the youngest birth cohort. In the oldest cohort, born 1935-1939, women started smoking 1.9 years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1) later than did men, but in those born after 1959 there was no difference in the age at initiation. The oldest women smoked 5.3 (95% CI 4.7 to 5.9) cigarettes per day fewer than did the oldest men, compared with 2.0 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.3) fewer cigarettes smoked per day in the youngest, born 1965-1969. Among quitters, women born before 1945 were, on average, 1.5 years older than their male contemporaries, but this differential was 1 year or less among people born after 1949. Differences in smoking behaviour between women and men have decreased over time. Even past differentials are unlikely to explain the increased susceptibility to smoking-related chronic disease in women compared with men that has previously been observed. Future studies are required to determine whether sex differences in the physiological and biological effects of smoking are responsible for the differential impact of smoking on health in women and men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Women entering clinical psychology: Q-sort narratives of career attraction of female clinical psychology trainees in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Martyn; Nash, Jen

    2011-01-01

    The great majority of the UK clinical psychology workforce is female, and this fact prompted an examination of the various ways clinical psychology might be seen as attractive to women – a neglected research topic. Female clinical psychology trainees from a variety of training programmes Q-sorted statements of potential job attractors. The process of analysis is outlined, before most of the article is devoted to explicating the five narratives of attraction generated: making a difference, wai...

  16. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20–29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:25954770

  17. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  18. Mortality Risk for Women on Chronic Hemodialysis Differs by Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish M Sood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports have demonstrated similar survival for men and women on hemodialysis, despite women's increased survival in the general population. Objectives: To examine the effect of age on mortality in women undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Design: A retrospective cohort study using an administrative data registry, the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry (CORR from Jan. 2001 and Dec. 2009. Setting: Canada. Patients: 28,971 (Women 11,792 (40.7%, Men 17,179 (59.3% incident chronic hemodialysis patients who survived greater than 90 days on dialysis. Measurements: All-cause mortality. Methods: Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models were employed to determine the independent association between sex, age and likelihood of all-cause mortality with renal transplantation as the competing outcome. Results: During the study period, 6060 (51.4% of women and 8650 (50.4% of men initiating dialysis died. Younger women experienced higher mortality (Age 85: Women 66%, Men 70.2%, HR 0.83 95% CI 0.71–0.97 compared to men. This relationship persisted after accounting for the competing risk of transplantation. Limitations: The cause of death was unknown. Conclusions: Women's survival on chronic hemodialysis varies by age compared to men with a significantly higher mortality in women younger than 45 years old and lower mortality in woman older than 75 years of age.

  19. A Lie More Disastrous than the Truth: Asylum and the identification of trafficked women in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Stepnitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact that nationality can have on a person’s experience of being identified as a victim of trafficking in the UK. Responses to individuals and disparities in rates of recognition depending on nationality are cause for great concern. The rhetoric and the response to women who have experienced trafficking varies considerably depending upon the citizenship, residency and documentation status of the individual, particularly highlighting the differential treatment of trafficking cases of British women, European Union nationals, and third-country (non UK, non EU nationals, the majority of whom are also asylum seekers. This differential treatment is played out in multiple ways, many of which result in women’s inability to realise procedural and substantive rights. The article examines the use of official “identification” mechanisms that place women into the administrative category of “victim”, and the central role of the asylum system in all areas of UK anti-trafficking responses.

  20. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people.

  1. Aging and Identity: Meanings of Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey that focus on reflections on the construction of identity in elderly women. Interviews were conducted by semi-structured form with six elderly women and the data were analyzed based on the Comprehensive Review of Phenomenological Base. Not reduce the subject to biological, genetic, social allows us to develop these projects and achievements in this time of life where the experience can lead to a better well-being and quality of life.

  2. The nutritional status of women in the first trimester of pregnancy attending an inner-city antenatal department in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gail; Brooke, Zoe; Doyle, Wendy; Costeloe, Kate

    2005-09-01

    We have previously found high rates of poor iron and folate status in women who had delivered a low birthweight baby (LBW) in an ethnically diverse inner-city area of the UK. However, little was known of the nutritional status in the local general obstetric population. We therefore investigated biochemical measures of nutritional status in the first trimester of the first pregnancy. Routine blood samples collected at the antenatal booking clinic were analysed for haemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, red cell folate (RCF) (n = 100) and erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficient (ETKAC) for thiamin status (n = 90). We found 9% of women in our sample had a low Hb level, 10% had a low serum ferritin and only one had a low RCF. This is a substantially lower number of women with biochemical deficiencies than we found previously in women three months after delivering a LBW baby. However, 34% had low thiamin status. Thiamin status was negatively correlated with gestational age at birth (r = -0.407, p nutritional status were observed between ethnic and socio-economic groups. Hb levels differed between ethnic (p = 0.001) and socio-economic groups (p = 0.02), with Africans and women in manual occupations/unwaged having the lowest Hb levels. RCF levels also differed between groups (p nutrition particularly in ethnic minorities and low income groups who are most at risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW.

  3. Cost effectiveness of pegaptanib for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowacz, Sorrel E; Roskell, Neil; Kelly, Steven; Maciver, Fiona M; Brand, Chris S

    2007-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of vision loss in the elderly and results in significant economic and humanistic burden. The selective vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, pegaptanib (Macugen) is indicated for patients with neovascular AMD. Guidance is needed regarding the cost effectiveness of treatment, any variation between sub-populations of differing clinical characteristics and the optimum duration of treatment. To estimate the cost effectiveness of pegaptanib versus best supportive care (BSC) for AMD from the perspective of the UK government, and to evaluate the impact of patient characteristics and differing treatment discontinuation scenarios. A cohort of 1000 patients aged >45 years with a best-corrected visual acuity (VA) in their better-seeing eye of age, gender, lesion type or lesion size as covariates. Mortality rates were adjusted for the age, gender and VA of the population. Cost effectiveness was expressed as the incremental cost (IC) per vision-year saved and IC/QALY. Uncertainty was explored by probabilistic and univariate sensitivity analysis. Costs (year 2005 values) and outcomes were discounted at 3.5% per anum. In the base-case analysis, treatment was targeted to patients with a VA of 6/12 to 6/95 and discontinued after 2 years, or earlier if VA fell below 6/95 or by > or =6 lines. The IC/QALY was estimated as 8023 pounds(upper 95% CI 20,641 pounds). Cost effectiveness varied by age (age age > or =75 years = 11,657 pounds/QALY) and by pre-treatment VA (6/12-6/95 = 8023 pounds/QALY; 6/12-6/60 = 6664 pounds/QALY; 6/12-6/24 = 1920 pounds/QALY). Gender and lesion type or size had little effect. Cost effectiveness was not sensitive to precise rules for treatment discontinuation, but was maximised if treatment was discontinued in patients no longer likely to benefit. The results suggest that pegaptanib treatment is likely to be cost effective across all groups studied, and marginally more cost effective in

  4. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The decision-making process for senior cancer patients: treatment allocation of older women with operable breast cancer in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Jenna L.; Richards, Paul; Zaman, Osama; Ward, Sue; Collins, Karen; Robinson, Thompson; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Reed, Malcolm W.; Wyld, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Up to 40% of women over 70 years with primary operable breast cancer in the UK are treated with primary endocrine therapy (PET) as an alternative to surgery. A variety of factors are important in determining treatment for older breast cancer patients. This study aimed to identify the patient and tumor factors associated with treatment allocation in this population. Prospectively collected data on treatment received (surgery vs. PET) were analysed with multivariable logistic regression using the variables age, modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), activities of daily living (ADL) score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, HER2 status, tumour size, grade and nodal status. Data were available for 1,122 cancers in 1,098 patients recruited between February 2013 and June 2015 from 51 UK hospitals. About 78% of the population were treated surgically, with the remainder being treated with PET. Increasing patient age at diagnosis, increasing CCI score, large tumor size (5 cm or more) and dependence in one or more ADL categories were all strongly associated with non-surgical treatment (P<0.05). Increasing comorbidity, large tumor size and reduced functional ability are associated with reduced likelihood of surgical treatment of breast cancer in older patients. However, age itself remains a significant factor for non-surgical treatment; reinforcing the need for evidence-based guidelines

  6. The influence of age perception on women consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Mumel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Demographic changes of inhabitants are a factor changing increasingly the situation in Europe and other developed parts of the world. People live longer and are more vital than in the past. The ageing of population affects many areas of everyday life. The number of older persons grows and their characteristics are essentially different than the characteristics of past generations. Those were the reasons for the authors’ interest in the perception of the psychological age of women older than 50. They also focused on the differences between a group of women who see themselves as younger than their actual age and a group of women who feel older. The third field of interest was how that influence on their behavior as a consumer. A total of 225 women were included in the research. To acquire the informations we use a questionnaire, which includes questions about the chronological age against the perceived age and questions about 23 values, 31 free time activities and 15 sports activities. Results show that more than a half of the women feel younger than they really are, 40% feel as old as they are and less than 5% feel older than their actual age. More than a half of the interviewed women think they look 10 years younger. Most of the women think that a person is old when he/she is over 70.

  7. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  8. Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zaytsev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Ukraine, about 17 thousands of newborns are at risk of vertical infection with hepatitis B and C. Identification of infected women at the stage of family planning is the best way to prevent infection in newborns, and therefore it must be performed strictly in accordance with established norms. In case of detection of hepatitis, further tactics depend on the variant of the virus: in case of hepatitis C, pre-pregnancy treatment is preferable. In case of hepatitis B — pregnancy with subsequent simultaneous vaccination of the newborn. Antiviral therapy is possible in women with high viral load to prevent intrauterine infection. Similar tactics should be followed in case of in vitro fertilisation too. The text of the lecture is illustrated by clinical examples. The lecture is intended for infectious disease physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists.

  9. Arterial hypertension in women at different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco-Romero, José

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is associated to co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal failure, entities that decrease life span. Peruvians suffer from arterial hypertension with characteristics similar to those of the general population. Early detection and treatment of hypertension should benefit them with years of quality of life. The occurrence of arterial hypertension in women from childhood through menopause, including reprodu...

  10. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W; Rupp, Claudia I; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B; Pope, Harrison G; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "subthreshold ED" by the presence of either (1) binge eating with loss of control or (2) purging behavior, without requiring any of the other usual DSM-IV criteria for frequency or severity of these symptoms. Of the 715 (48%) responders, 33 [4.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-6.4%] reported symptoms meeting full DSM-IV criteria for an ED [bulimia nervosa = 10; binge eating disorder = 11; eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 12]. None displayed anorexia nervosa. Another 34 women (4.8%; CI: 3.4-6.6%) displayed subthreshold ED. These women showed levels of associated psychopathology virtually equal to the women with full-syndrome diagnoses. ED appear common in middle-aged women, with a preponderance of binge eating disorder and EDNOS diagnoses as compared to the "classical" diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Interestingly, middle-aged women with even very broadly defined subthreshold ED showed distress and impairment comparable to women with full-scale ED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  12. Alloantibodies, Anti-D, Childbearing age, Women, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative phenotype rates among Cameroonian women of reproductive age (15 – 44 years), in order to evaluate the importance of. D alloimmunization. Analysis of the haematology laboratory records from January 2006 to December 2007 ...

  13. The UK Netball Superleague: A case study of franchising in elite women's sport organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, L; Killick, L

    2012-01-01

    This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(5), 545 - 567, 2012, copyright Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/16184742.2012.734525. This paper draws on theories of franchising in examining the emergence of the UK Netball Superleague (UK NSL) in 2005. The focus of the paper is to explore the development of an empowered franchise framework as part of England Netball's elite performance strat...

  14. Sexual Problems Among Older Women by Age and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Rostant, Ola S; Pelon, Sally

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence of sexual problems by age and race among older women in the United States and to examine quality of life correlates to sexual dysfunction among non-Hispanic white and African American older women. A cross-sectional study using self-report surveys was conducted among community-dwelling U.S. women, aged 60 years and over. A total of 807 women aged 61-89 years were included. Self-administered questionnaires assessed sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with life, depressive symptomatology, and self-rated health. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of the sample was 66 years. Two-thirds of the sample had at least one sexual dysfunction; the most common for both African American and non-Hispanic white women were lack of interest in sex and vaginal dryness. Prevalence varied by age for each of the sexual dysfunctions. The odds of experiencing sexual dysfunction varied with age and race. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, African American women had lower odds of reporting lack of interest in sex or vaginal dryness. Poor self-rated health, depressive symptomatology, and lower satisfaction with life were associated with higher odds of having some sexual dysfunction. Improved understanding of how sexual dysfunction affects women across multiple age ranges and racial/ethnic groups can assist providers in making recommendations for care that are patient centered. The associations that we identified with quality of life factors highlight the need to assess sexual health care in the aging female population.

  15. Why some women look young for their age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gunn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  16. State of inertia: psychological preparation of single Australian and UK baby boomer women for retirement housing change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanidis, Foula Z; Robinson, Linda J; Reid, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The transition into retirement is an important life phase that presents significant challenges in respect to well-being, lifestyle, and consumption choices. This article examines the consumption context of housing after retirement, in particular for the low-resourced cohort of single baby boomer women. Utilizing an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model, we examine the relationship between intention and actual behavior, in this case financial advice seeking, as an important component of the psychological preparedness of single female baby boomer women. Our analysis showed both Australian and UK single baby boomer women display different behaviors in terms of seeking advice and their mental preparedness to adjust to a change in their living arrangements. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and further research.

  17. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-08-31

    To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a 'direct approach' method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra 'stress' in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother-baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the key to the success of a clinical and epidemiological study involving

  18. Indications for breast imaging in women under age 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.J.; Jackson, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Many women under age 35 years undergo breast imaging, and the vast majority of studies are normal or compatible with benign disease. In our series of 649 patients aged 13 - 34, the only significant indicators were a palpable mass or infection. In the 383 patients with either of these indications, mammographic and/or US findings were normal in 53%, compatible with benign disease in 14%, and suggestive of malignancy in 33%. Biopsy performed in 80 of these women revealed breast cancer in five (6%). None of the 266 women with low-yield indications (pain, modularity, galactorrhea, fibrocystic disease, screening) had significant imaging findings or clinical or surgical evidence of breast cancer

  19. [Comparative biochemistry of process of ageing in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakotnykh, V S; Berezina, D A; Borovkova, T A; Gavrilov, I V

    2014-01-01

    In the research of a number of biochemical indicators in 858 men and 899 women aged from 20 till 70 years divided into 6 compared groups depending on age and gender clear distinctions in the dynamics of the components of the lipid status, status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of the blood system, the content of middlemolecular peptides are revealed. Simultaneous determination of the biological age of the subjects also revealed a distinct gender differencies testifying to lower rate of aging of men, despite the probability of earlier, in comparison with women, development of dislipidemia and atherosclerosis. Association of the received gender distinctions both with changes of level of estrogen in women due to menopause and with the peculiarities of stressful impacts on male and female organism in different age periods is supposed.

  20. Aging of Indian women in India: the experience of older women in formal care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M; Jamuna, D

    2011-01-01

    The feminization of aging is a process that has begun in India but is not occurring uniformly throughout India. Older women are more likely to be widowed, poor, and suffer vulnerability to adverse outcomes like poor health. With the changing social landscape of India, middle-income older women are increasingly opting for 'pay and stay homes', an emerging type of old age home in India. Majority of the 97 women residents of 'pay and stay' homes reported being widowed (68%), and 25% were childless. Childlessness and widowhood were important considerations in the decision to relocate to an old age home. Older women reported higher degrees of psychological closeness and contact with daughters than sons, and the overall social network size was small. High prevalence of diabetes rates among older women carries implications for potential functional disability. Strong advocacy measures for empowering older women in India should be a priority policy directive.

  1. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-05-01

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P =0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P =0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P =0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R

    2007-08-01

    Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.

  3. Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Elks, Cathy E; Murray, Anna; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-06-18

    Early puberty timing is associated with higher risks for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease in women and therefore represents a potential target for early preventive interventions. We characterised the range of diseases and other adverse health outcomes associated with early or late puberty timing in men and women in the very large UK Biobank study. Recalled puberty timing and past/current diseases were self-reported by questionnaire. We limited analyses to individuals of White ethnicity (250,037 women; 197,714 men) and to disease outcomes with at least 500 cases (~ 0.2% prevalence) and we applied stringent correction for multiple testing (corrected threshold P puberty timing was associated with higher risks for angina, hypertension and T2D. Furthermore, compared to the median/average group, earlier or later puberty timing in women or men was associated with higher risks for 48 adverse outcomes, across a range of cancers, cardio-metabolic, gynaecological/obstetric, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuro-cognitive categories. Notably, both early and late menarche were associated with higher risks for early natural menopause in women. Puberty timing in both men and women appears to have a profound impact on later health.

  4. Oral penicillin prescribing for children in the UK: a comparison with BNF for Children age-band recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sonia; Ismael, Zareen; Murray, Macey L; Barker, Charlotte; Wong, Ian CK; Sharland, Mike; Long, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Background The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) recommends dosing oral penicillins according to age-bands, weight-bands, or weight-based calculations. Because of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity, age-band-based prescribing could lead to subtherapeutic dosing. Aim To investigate actual oral penicillin prescribing by GPs in the UK with reference to the current BNFC age-band recommendations. Design and setting Descriptive analysis of UK prescriptions in the 2010 IMS Disease-Analyzer database (IMS-DA). Method A detailed database analysis was undertaken of oral penicillin prescriptions for 0–18 year olds from the 2010 IMS-DA. The prescription analysis included all available data on formulation, strength (mg), prescription quantity unit, package size, prescribed quantity, and volume. Results Considering amoxicillin alone, no infants (aged penicillins for children in UK primary care, with very few children being prescribed the current national recommended doses. There is an urgent need to review dosing guidelines, in relation to the weights of children today. PMID:24686886

  5. Why some women look young for their age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely u...

  6. Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.O.; Spéder, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction techniques

  7. Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.C.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A. Jr.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.; Spéder, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction

  8. Physical activity and sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old, treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1, 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ≤ 26.55. Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9% of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6% and moderately active (66.7% females (p = 0.002. Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain and total FSFI score (20.9, indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8 and sedentary (15.6 counterparts (p <0.05. Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women.

  9. Grannies, elders, and friends: aging Aboriginal women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Cyndy; Davey, Caitlin J

    2015-01-01

    Based on a research project in Toronto, Canada, this article highlights the strengths and resiliency of 12 female Aboriginal Elders and seniors as they age together. For these women, being actively involved in their families and the Aboriginal community gives them a solid grounding in who they are, what their roles are and how they contribute to the whole. Of particular significance is the support and friendship the women offer each other through their commonalities, activities, and sense of humor.

  10. No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinyuan; Bath, Sarah C; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-14

    Concern has been expressed recently that Se may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this has not been tested in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) in pregnant women. We took advantage of having stored plasma samples from the Se in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) RCT of Se supplementation in pregnancy to test the effect of Se supplementation on a marker of insulin resistance in UK pregnant women. Because our blood samples were not fasted, we measured plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised marker of insulin resistance that gives valid measurements in non-fasted samples, as diurnal variability is minor and there is no noticeable effect of food intake. In SPRINT, 230 primiparous UK women were randomised to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation until delivery. We hypothesised that supplementation with Se at a nutritional level would not exacerbate the fall in adiponectin concentration that occurs in normal pregnancy, indicating the lack of an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Indeed, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change in adiponectin from 12 to 35 weeks (P=0·938), nor when the analysis was restricted to the bottom or top quartiles of baseline whole-blood Se (P=0·515 and 0·858, respectively). Cross-sectionally, adiponectin concentration was not associated with any parameter of Se status, either at 12 or 35 weeks. It is reassuring that a nutritional dose of Se had no adverse effect on the concentration of adiponectin, a biomarker of insulin resistance, in pregnant women of modest Se status.

  11. [Sexuality of aging couples--from women's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Chineko

    2005-09-01

    The Sexuality Study Group (chairperson: Chineko Araki) has researched the sexuality of middle-aged to elderly men and women who were having problems with their spouse, and suggestions for an improved sexual life. According to the result of the survey, the problem seemed to lie in the gap between men and women; men want sexual intercourse with women, while many women are satisfied with emotional affection. Discontinuance of intercourse is mainly caused by the loss of women's interest in sex. The responses to 'What kind of sexual relationship do you want to have with your spouse?' and other questions showed that whether women want to have sexual intercourse or not is not simply caused by a physical problem such as decrease of sexual desire or pain during intercourse, but is affected by various factors such as the affection to the spouse, physical and mental satisfaction by intercourse and a different way of thinking about sex. Also the survey showed even though both men and women wanted to have a 'casual conversation' or 'showing affection daily', in actual life they lacked having conversations and had little physical contact except for sex. For aging couples to keep matured sexual relations, it is more desirable to build the couples' relationship with casual conversation and physical contact, and also enjoy slow sex, such as pillow talk or caressing one another and not focusing on sex only.

  12. [Prevalence of anemia in reproductive-age Mexican women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    To update the prevalence of anemia and its trend in Mexican women of childbearing age over the past 13 years using information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006 (ENSANUT 2012 and ENSANUT 2006, respectively) and from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN 99). Data came from three national probabilistic surveys, representative at regional and rural / urban level. Hemoglobin (Hb) in women was measured using a HemoCue photometer and classified as anemia according to the WHO criteria. Frequencies and CI95% were estimated for each survey (ENSANUT 2012, ENSANUT 2006 and ENN 99) as well as percentage changes in anemia prevalence among pregnant and non-pregnant women in this survey sequence. The national prevalence of anemia in 2012 in non-pregnant women was 11.6% and in pregnant women was 17.9%. Between 1999 and 2012, a 10 percentage point (pp) decreasing in anemia prevalence was observed in the first ones and a 13.5 pp in the second ones. Although it has declined in the past 13 years, anemia in women of childbearing age remains as a serious public health problem. It is considered necessary to design strategies to prevent iron deficiency and for the early detection of anemia in women.

  13. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunjak, Blaženka; Sabol, Ivan; Vojnović, Gordana; Fistonić, Ivan; Erceg, Andrea Babić; Peršić, Zdenka; Grce, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    To determine the incidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age and to estimate antibiotic susceptibility of ureaplasma isolates. This study included 424 ureaplasma positive women of 1,370 tested women who visited gynecological practices during 2010. Cervicovaginal or urethral swab specimens from each patient were obtained for cultivation and molecular typing by RT-PCR. Ureaplasma spp. was identified by cultivation in 424 (34.4 %) cases, of which 79.0 % were from women with symptoms and 21.0 % from women without symptoms. Among ureaplasma positive women, 121 (28.5 %) were pregnant. Genotyping was successful in 244 strains, and the majority of samples were identified as UP (92.6 %). Among genotyped isolates, there were 79.5 % from symptomatic and 20.5 % from asymptomatic women; 29.9 % from pregnant and 70.1 % from non-pregnant women. There was no difference in the incidence of ureaplasma type regarding symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility of 424 ureaplasma isolates identified by cultivation showed that all strains were susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, clarithromycin and pristinamycin, but there was lower susceptibility to quinolone antibiotics, i.e., 42.9 and 24.5 % isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. This study shows that UP was the most frequent isolated ureaplasma species (92.6 %). Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, quinolones are not the best choice for the treatment of ureaplasma infections, while macrolides and tetracyclines are still effective.

  15. Pregravid preparation of fertile aged women with infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolskyi Vl.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to develop and assess the effectiveness of the pregravid training methods for the fertile aged women with infertility. Patients and methods. The study involved 50 fertile aged women with infertility, who were divided into groups: Group I — with primary infertility and group II — with secondary infertility. Bacteriological studies were conducted with the aim of evaluation of the species and quantitative composition of the microflora of the women's vagina after the treatment course of autonomic disorders of the nervous system. According to the obtained results about a state of microbiocenosis urogenital organs at the first stage of treatment women with inflammation of genital organs had received basic treatment which was developed especially for women with such diseases and the effectiveness of which has been proven; the second stage of included application of Api-Norm preparation in the form of vaginal suppositories and for sexual partners of these women — Api-Norm in the form of rectal suppositories. Statistical analysis of the obtained results of research was carried out by the use of standard computer packages «Data Analysis» Microsoft Excel for Windows 2007. The values of the arithmetic mean are — the value (M, the average error of the mean value (m, the level of reliability of differences (p. Evaluation of the reliability of the obtained data is carried out by the conventional manner by means of t&test. Reliability was considered established if its reliability was equal to at least 95% (0.05. Results. The obtained data are pointed on the excess of diagnostic levels of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the vast majority of women. It is noted that qualitative and quantitative indicators of pathogenic microflora in women with secondary infertility are higher than diagnostic levels and more common than in women with primary infertility, which may certifies about the presence of chronic inflammatory diseases of the

  16. Dependency of cardiovascular risk on reproductive stages and on age among middle-aged Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Ruan, X; Mueck, A O

    2017-10-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular risk in middle-aged Chinese women living in the same community and the impact of reproductive aging and age. This was a cross-sectional study in the Yuetan Community of Beijing. Data on lifestyle habits, prevalence and treatment of chronic diseases with significance for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development were collected by interview. CVD risk factors were assessed by physical examination and laboratory tests. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham 10-year risk score. STRAW +10 criteria were used for the stages of reproductive aging. A total of 536 women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. The incidences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes were 32.6%, 45.7%, 65.5%, 37.9% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjustment, the incidence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age and with reproductive aging. Dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance were only associated with age. Abdominal obesity was related neither to age nor to reproductive aging. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 1% to 24.8%; 11.6% of women had a moderate or high Framingham 10-year risk score. CVD risk factors were frequent and more than 10% of the women were at moderate or high risk of developing cardiovascular disease within the next 10 years. To our knowledge, this was demonstrated for the first time in middle-aged Chinese women. Thus, women should maintain a healthy lifestyle and physicians should monitor them to prevent CVD.

  17. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  18. Age at Menarche and the Menstrual Pattern of Igbo Women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    1209 women of reproductive age ... reproductive life. For many women ... result in work-related economic adversity. In many ... of Southeast Nigeria, and none for the women of Ebonyi State .... women, may be attributed to the delicate balance.

  19. Changes in spinal mobility with increasing age in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einkauf, D K; Gohdes, M L; Jensen, G M; Jewell, M J

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine changes in spinal mobility for women aged 20 to 84 years. Anterior flexion, right and left lateral flexion, and extension were measured on 109 healthy women. The modified Schober method was used to measure anterior flexion. Standard goniometry was used to measure lateral flexion and extension. The results of the study indicated that spinal mobility decreases with advancing age. The most significant (p less than .05) differences occurred between the two youngest and the two oldest age categories. Data gathered in this study indicate that physical therapists should consider the effects of age on spinal mobility when assessing spinal range of motion. A simple, objective method for measuring spinal mobility is presented. Suggestions for future research are given.

  20. [Melatonin secretion in women of advanced reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, K S; Rapoport, S I; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    The patient's age is a key factor determining success of in vitro fertilization. The ovarian reserve and oocyte quality are known to decrease with age. Much attention has been given recently to the role of epiphysis and its hormone, melatonin, in synchronization of daily and seasonal biorhythms in anti-stress protection and neuroregulation of reproductive processes. The aim of our work was to study melatonin levels in infertile women of reproductive age. We also measured sex hormones, anti-Mullerian hormone, FSH, and LH in blood and melatonin sulfate in urine at 8 points (RIA). Women of advanced reproductive age showed markedly reduced melatonin secretion due to functional disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Results of the study suggest the necessity of prescription of exogenous melatonin to the patients included in assisted reproduction programs for the improvement of their efficacy.

  1. [Gait characteristics of women with fibromyalgia: a premature aging pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Suelen M; Leite, Neiva; de Souza, Ricardo M; Homann, Diogo; Osiecki, Ana C V; Stefanello, Joice M F; Rodacki, André L F

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a condition which involves chronic pain. Middle-aged individuals with fibromyalgia seem to exhibit changes in gait pattern, which may prematurely expose them to a gait pattern which resembles that found in the elderly population. To determine the 3D spatial (linear and angular) gait parameters of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia and compare to elderly women without this condition. 25 women (10 in the fibromyalgia group and 15 in the elderly group) volunteered to participate in the study. Kinematics was performed using an optoelectronic system, and linear and angular kinematic variables were determined. There was no difference in walking speed, stride length, cadence, hip, knee and ankle joints range of motion between groups, except the pelvic rotation, in which the fibromyalgia group showed greater rotation (P<0.05) compared to the elderly group. Also, there was a negative correlation with pelvic rotation and gluteus pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05), and between pelvic obliquity and greater trochanter pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05) in the fibromyalgia group. Middle-aged women with fibromyalgia showed gait pattern resemblances to elderly, women, which is characterized by reduced lower limb ROM, stride length and walking speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of 29...... died, but were at least 70 years old, were studied. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between tertiles of telomere length and maternal age at last childbirth, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS:: Age at birth of the last child...... in the first tertile. CONCLUSIONS:: These findings show an association between longer leukocyte telomere length and a later maternal age at birth of last child, suggesting that extended maternal age at last childbirth may be a marker for longevity....

  3. Understanding age-induced cortical porosity in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina Møller; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; van der Eerden, Bram C J

    2018-01-01

    of a histomorphometric analysis of sections of iliac bone specimens from 35 women (age 16-78 years). Firstly, the study shows that the aging-induced cortical porosity reflects an increased pore size rather than an increased pore density. Secondly, it establishes a novel histomorphometric classification of the pores...... initiation of the subsequent bone formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Content analysis of UK newspaper and online news representations of women's and men's 'binge' drinking: a challenge for communicating evidence-based messages about single-episodic drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C; Emslie, C; Mason, O; Fergie, G; Hilton, S

    2016-12-27

    In the UK, men's alcohol-related morbidity and mortality still greatly exceeds women's, despite an increase in women's alcohol consumption in recent decades. New UK alcohol guidelines introduce gender-neutral low-risk alcohol consumption guidance. This study explores how UK newspaper and online news represent women's and men's 'binge' drinking to identify opportunities to better align reporting of harmful drinking with evidence. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 308 articles published in 7 UK national newspapers and the BBC News website between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Articles associated women with 'binge' drinking more frequently than men, and presented women's drinking as more problematic. Men were more frequently characterised as violent or disorderly, while women were characterised as out of control, putting themselves in danger, harming their physical appearance and burdening men. Descriptions of female 'binge' drinkers' clothing and appearance were typically moralistic. The UK news media's disproportionate focus on women's 'binge' drinking is at odds with epidemiological evidence, may reproduce harmful gender stereotypes and may obstruct public understandings of the gender-neutral weekly consumption limits in newly proposed alcohol guidelines. In order to better align reporting of harmful drinking with current evidence, public health advocates may engage with the media with a view to shifting media framing of 'binge' drinking away from specific groups (young people; women) and contexts (public drinking) and towards the health risks of specific drinking behaviours, which affect all groups regardless of context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Barriers to contraceptive uptake among women of reproductive age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, despite huge resources committed to family planning programs by stakeholders, contraceptive use has been very low. This study aimed at unraveling the barriers to the use of modern contraceptives among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Ise-Ekiti community, Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. Methods: ...

  6. Prevalence of Hypertension Among Women of Child Bearing Age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hypertension Among Women of Child Bearing Age in Zambia. PE Chowa, C Lin, F Goma, J South-Paul. Abstract. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy account for 12 to 20 percent of the total maternal deaths in the world. Some of these disorders are precipitated by pre-existing chronic hypertension of which ...

  7. Assessing menopausal status in women aged 40 - 49 using depot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Determining symptoms of menopause in older users of hormonal injectable contraceptives may be challenging, owing to method-induced amenorrhoea, suppression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and vasomotor symptoms. Objective. To investigate menopausal symptoms in women aged 40 - 49 using ...

  8. Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Goode-Null, Susan K

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico. An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1 years, and the majority were employed as saleswomen in small businesses. Symptom frequencies were collected by open-ended interviews and with a structured symptom list that queried symptom experience during the two weeks prior to interview. In response to open-ended questions, "dolores de huesos" (bone pain) was volunteered by 47% of respondents as a symptom associated with menopause, second only to hot flashes (53%). From the structured symptom list, 55.8% and 55.6% reported back pain and joint stiffness during the two weeks prior to interview. Women with back pain and joint stiffness were less likely to report being active during their leisure time (p<.01). The results of backwards stepwise logistic regressions indicate that women with back pain were more likely to be older, with less education, a higher BMI, and ate less meat. Women with joint pain were more likely to be post-menopausal, with less education, more children, a higher BMI, and were likely to drink milk and coffee more than once/week but less than once/day. While menopause is not necessarily a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain, it is important to recognize the pervasiveness of this complaint among women of menopausal age.

  9. A qualitative study of women's lived experience after deinfibulation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Faezeh

    2013-02-01

    to explore women's experiences of deinfibulation and its aftermath. a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with data collection via audio-recording and field notes. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) method for qualitative data analysis. recruitment for the study was carried out in an African Well Women Clinic in London, United Kingdom. there were nine women participants of Somali and Eritrean origin who had Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) type III previously and underwent deinfibulation between January 2008 and September 2009. key themes identified were the cultural meaning and social acceptability of deinfibulation; the consequences of deinfibulation within marital relationships; feelings about the appearance of genitalia post deinfibulation and thoughts on reinfibulation. marital factors and stability of the relationship influence the experience of deinfibulation. Those women who said they had discussed deinfibulation with their husband in advance, and that he had agreed to the procedure, reported less problems afterwards. Single women who had deinfibulation before marriage may face more difficulties in terms of social acceptability within their community. sensitivity to social consequences of deinfibulation is important as well as recognition that these consequences vary. When deinfibulation is carried out for medical purposes some women may appreciate the offer of an official letter from a health-care practitioner confirming the medical nature of the procedure. The data suggests that deinfibulated women may dislike the new appearance of their genitalia; therefore, the practicality of performing a concurrent minor cosmetic surgery with deinfibulation procedure may need to be examined. The need for further research conducted in women's primary language is pressing and should explore issues such as the situation of single women, men's knowledge of the complications

  10. Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Preimplantation development of embryos in women of advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chaplia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the influence of genetic component on the early embryo development, the retrospective study of morphokinetic characteristics of 717 embryos subjected to preimplantation genetic testing was conducted. Blastomere biopsy for FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening of 7 chromosomes was performed on the third day of culture, while embryo developmental potential and morphological features at the cleavage and blastulation stage were studied regarding maternal age particularly in the group of younger women and patients older than 36. Results of genetic testing revealed that euploid embryos rate gradually decreased with maternal age comprising 39.9% in young women group and 25.3% of specimen belonging to elder patients. At the cleavage stage, morphological characteristics of aneuploid and euploid embryos didn’t differ significantly regardless of the age of patients that could be accounted for the transcriptional silence of embryo genome till the third day of its development. However, in case of prolonged culture chromosomally balanced embryos rarely faced developmental arrest (in 7.9% and formed blastocysts half more frequently compared to aberrant embryos (respectively 75.6 versus 49.8%. Nevertheless, no substantial difference was found between blastocyst formation rate among embryos with similar genetic component regardless of the maternal age. Taking into consideration high rate of chromosomally unbalanced embryos specific to patients of advanced maternal age, the relative proportion of aneuplouid blastocysts was significantly higher in this group of embryos. Thus, without genetic screening there is a possibility of inaccurate selection of embryos for women of advanced reproductive age for transfer procedure even in case of prolonged culture. Consequently, increase of aneuploid embryos frequency associated with permanent preimplantation natural selection effectiveness along with the postimplantation natural selection failure

  12. Assessment of self-esteem in mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Mendoza, Marcela; Leimberg, María L; Martinez, María A; Vallarino, Varinia; Hidalgo, Luis

    2010-05-01

    To assess self-esteem and affecting factors in a middle-aged Ecuadorian female population using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). This was a cross-sectional study in which 149 women (40-59 years) were requested to fill out the RSES and a general socio-demographic form containing personal and partner data. Mean age of sample was 47.6+/-5.5 years, a 67.8% had less than 12 years of schooling and 33.6% were postmenopausal. At the moment of the survey 2.7% were on hormone therapy, and 2% were taking psychotropic drugs. Mean total RSES score was 26.6+/-3.1 (median 26, range 17-35). A 35.6% and 18.1% of women respectively presented total RSES scores below 26 (median) and 25 (25th percentile) suggesting lower self-esteem. Total scores did not differ when comparing older age, menopausal phases or time since the menopause. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with lower parity and an unhealthy partner were related to lower total RSES scores (below the 25th percentile) suggesting lower self-esteem. In this mid-aged series lower self-esteem was not related to the aging process per se yet to socio-demographic female/male aspects. More research is needed in this regard that incorporates other sociological aspects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Awareness on Breast Self Examination among Reproductive Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Shrestha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast self-examination (BSE is an inspection by a woman of her breasts to detect breast problem and cancer. The objective of the study was to identify awareness on breast self-examination among the reproductive age women.Materials & Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to find out the awareness on Breast Self-Examination among Reproductive Age Group Women in Kusunti, Lalitpur. 50 women (20 to 45 years were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Semi structured interview questionnaire was used for data collection.Results: This study showed that more than three fourth respondents (78% said breast cancer is growth of extra lump in breast.  More than three fourth respondents (82% said diagnosis of breast cancer in early stage by BSE and only 10% of respondents had knowledge about diagnosing by mammogram. Nearly three fourth (72% of the respondents had knowledge about meaning of BSE. More than half of the respondents (60% got the information from health workers. One fourth of the respondents (32% said that they don’t know about palpation in circular motion.Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is concluded women have awareness on BSE but least only know how to perform it in step wise and majority of women neglects in practicing in period basis. It is recommended that further awareness program should be conducted to fulfill the gap on BSE.

  14. Life events and difficulties and their association with antenatal distress in White and South Asian women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traviss, Gemma D; Meer, Shaista; West, Robert M; House, Allan O

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms of distress during pregnancy are common and often go unnoticed. There is a well-established relation between life events and depression. The current study aims to explore the association between life events and difficulties, and symptoms of emotional and somatic distress during pregnancy in White and South Asian women in the UK. 100 pregnant women attending routine antenatal appointments were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS). We investigated the frequency and type of events experienced in the year prior to conception and during pregnancy, as predictors for somatic and emotional distress, measured using the GHQ-28. Non-severe stressors accounted for over 90 % of those reported, half of which (43-53 %) were health and reproduction-related. Somatic symptoms were associated with the number of non-severe events, and number of children and emotional symptoms were associated with non-marked difficulties. There was little evidence of an association between severe events and distress. Ethnicity had little effect on any associations although South Asian women were at slightly higher odds of experiencing emotional symptoms, which appear to be buffered by social support. In routine antenatal care it is important to assess both emotional and somatic symptoms. Health professionals need to be sensitive to the health, social, cultural and environmental circumstances of women during pregnancy and ensure appropriate support is in place, particularly for multi-parous women. Regression models explained a small but significant amount of the variance in distress symptoms. Further work is necessary to explore other contributory factors and also the mechanisms through which stressors have their effect.

  15. Women entering clinical psychology: Q-sort narratives of career attraction of female clinical psychology trainees in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Martyn; Nash, Jen

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of the UK clinical psychology workforce are women, and this fact prompted an examination of the various ways clinical psychology might be seen as attractive to women--a neglected research topic. Female clinical psychology trainees from a variety of training programmes Q-sorted statements of potential job attractors. The process of analysis is outlined before most of the article is devoted to explicating the five narratives of attraction generated: making a difference, waiting for what I want, idealising challenge, identifying with distress and acknowledging power and privilege. Two super-ordinate 'stories' spanning the narratives are suggested--an over-riding attraction to the profession and a rebuttal of the suggestion that this attraction may be based on any overtly gendered grounds. In the absence of previous empirical data of women's attraction to clinical psychology, the small but significant contribution to understanding the profession made by the analysis is acknowledged--as is the need for further research to confirm and develop the findings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What is the cost of a healthy diet? Using diet data from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michelle A; Hulme, Claire; Clarke, Graham P; Edwards, Kimberley L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-11-01

    A healthy diet is important to promote health and well-being while preventing chronic disease. However, the monetary cost of consuming such a diet can be a perceived barrier. This study will investigate the cost of consuming a range of dietary patterns. A cross-sectional analysis, where cost of diet was assigned to dietary intakes recorded using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. A mean daily diet cost was calculated for seven data-driven dietary patterns. These dietary patterns were given a healthiness score according to how well they comply with the UK Department of Health's Eatwell Plate guidelines. This study involved ∼35 000 women recruited in the 1990s into the UK Women's Cohort Study. A significant positive association was observed between diet cost and healthiness of the diet (p for trend >0.001). The healthiest dietary pattern was double the price of the least healthy, £6.63/day and £3.29/day, respectively. Dietary diversity, described by the patterns, was also shown to be associated with increased cost. Those with higher education and a professional or managerial occupation were more likely to consume a healthier diet. A healthy diet is more expensive to the consumer than a less healthy one. In order to promote health through diet and reduce potential inequalities in health, it seems sensible that healthier food choices should be made more accessible to all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    ) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either RPACA or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of RPACA were all negative; i.e., an increase in RPAC is associated with lower BMD, consistent......Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled...... for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (RPACA) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO...

  19. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Baker, Tameka M; Bohren, Kurt M; Badaloo, Asha; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2015-05-01

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indian women of childbearing age are producing less arginine and/or catabolizing more arginine and therefore have less available for anabolic pathways than do Jamaican and American women. Thirty healthy women aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y from the United States, India, and Jamaica (n = 10/group) were given 6 h primed, constant intravenous infusions of guanidino-¹⁵N₂-arginine, 5,5-²H₂-citrulline, ¹⁵N₂-ornithine, and ring-²H₅-phenylalanine, in addition to primed, oral doses of U-¹³C₆-arginine in both the fasting and postprandial states. An oral dose of deuterium oxide was also given to determine fat-free mass (FFM). Compared with American women, Indian and Jamaican women had greater ornithine fluxes (μmol · kg fat FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting and postprandial states (27.3 ± 2.5 vs. 39.6 ± 3.7 and 37.2 ± 2.0, respectively, P = 0.01), indicating greater arginine catabolism. However, Jamaican women had a higher endogenous arginine flux than did Indian and American women in the fasting (66.1 ± 3.1 vs. 54.2 ± 3.1 and 56.1 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.01) and postprandial (53.8 ± 2.2 vs. 43.7 ± 4.9 and 42.8 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.06) states. As a consequence, Indian women had lower arginine bioavailability (μmol · kg FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting state (42.0 ± 2.6) than did American (49.9 ± 1.3, P = 0.045) and Jamaican (55.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.004) women, as well as in the postprandial state (40.7 ± 3.5 vs. 51.8 ± 1.2 and 57.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.001). Compared with American and Jamaican women, Indian women of childbearing age have a decreased arginine supply because of increased arginine catabolism without an

  20. Women in the Construction Industry in the U.K.: a Cultural Discord?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagilhole, Barbara M.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Neale, Richard H.

    The construction industry is the most male dominated of all industrial sectors in the United Kingdom. This article reports on a study that explored women's and men's experiences of working in the industry, focusing on how the cultural aspects of the workplace environment impinged upon women's career development. We interviewed more than 80 male and female construction professionals from large construction organizations, and compared their career accounts in order to establish the aspects of the workplace culture that had a gender-differentiated impact on progression. We found that construction organizations formed competitive "power" cultures where women's contributions were marginalized and their careers impeded through a combination of inflexible work practices and discriminatory behavior. These barriers to women's careers were maintained in small project teams by autonomous male operational managers. Their locus of control embraced recruitment, promotion, and staff development, which allowed them to sustain a workplace culture intolerant of nontraditional entrants. We conclude that this cultural environment is likely to remain problematic for women unless it can be changed in a way that values their contribution. This requires a radical shift in middle management attitudes, a departure from current organizational human resource management systems, and a wider acceptance of the need for cultural change within the industry.

  1. The age-gender-status profile of high performing athletes in the UK taking nutritional supplements: Lessons for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naughton Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6% and vitamin C (70.7% were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%, whey protein (31.7%, echinacea (30.9%, iron (29.9% and caffeine (23.7%. Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously

  2. Risk of myocardial infarction in men and women with type 2 diabetes in the UK: a cohort study using the General Practice Research Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulnier, H.E.; Seaman, H.E.; Raleigh, V.S.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Colhoun, H.M.; Lawrenson, R.A.; Vries, de C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Our primary aim was to establish reliable and generalisable estimates of the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) for men and women with type 2 diabetes in the UK compared with people without diabetes. Our secondary aim was to investigate how the MI risk associated with diabetes

  3. Magpie Trial in the UK: methods and additional data for women and children at 2 years following pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Nina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Magpie Trial, a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for women with pre-eclampsia. This paper describes methods used for follow up in the UK, and presents additional data collected. Methods In the UK 774 women and their 827 children were included; excluded were women discharged without a surviving child and families who opted out. General practitioners were sent a questionnaire when the child was around 18 months old. When the child was two years, or older, questionnaires asking about the health of the women and children were posted to families. A sample of families was offered a home visit, during which the child was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Results Of the women, 12 were lost to follow up and three died. Of the children, 12 were lost to follow up, 5 were excluded and 19 died. General practitioners returned 688/759 (91% questionnaires, as did 619/759 (82% women. Responses were largely comparable. 32 women had serious morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia. 30% of children were reported to have been admitted to hospital. There were no clear differences between the randomised groups in the child's behaviour, women's fertility or use of health service resources. Conclusion Data presented here provide further reassurance about the longer term safety of magnesium sulphate when used for women with pre-eclampsia. Postal questionnaires in the UK to assess the longer term health and wellbeing of women and children recruited to trials are feasible, and can achieve a high response rate. Responses from families and general practitioners were comparable Trial registration Trial registration number of the Magpie Trial [ISRCTN86938761

  4. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-08-05

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  5. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  6. The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three g...

  7. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars)

  8. Chronic pelvic pain in women of reproductive and post-reproductive age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, A A; Bhattacharya, S; Druce, K L; Jones, G T; Macfarlane, G J

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies on chronic pelvic pain (CPP) have focused on women of reproductive age. We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in adult women and the differences in associated factors among women of reproductive age and older women. In addition, to determine whether distinct subgroups existed among CPP cases. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among 5300 randomly selected women aged ≥25 years resident in the Grampian region, UK. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine pregnancy-related and psychosocial factors associated with CPP. To identify subgroups of CPP cases, we performed cluster analysis using variables of pain severity, psychosocial factors and pain coping strategies. Of 2088 participants, 309 (14.8%) reported CPP. CPP was significantly associated with being of reproductive age (odds ratios (OR) 2.43, 95% CI 1.69-3.48), multiple non-pain somatic symptoms (OR 3.58 95% CI 2.23-5.75), having fatigue (OR mild 1.74 95% CI 1.24-2.44, moderate/severe 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.63) and having depression (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.09-2.38). CPP was less associated with multiple non-pain somatic symptoms in women of reproductive age compared to older women (interaction OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.92). We identified two clusters of CPP cases; those having little/no psychosocial distress and those having high psychosocial distress. CPP is common in both age groups, though women of reproductive age are more likely to report it. Heightened somatic awareness may be more strongly associated with CPP in older women. There are distinct groups of CPP cases characterized by the absence/presence of psychosocial distress. Heightened somatic awareness may be more strongly associated with CPP in women of post-reproductive years compared to women of reproductive years. Two subgroups of CPP cases can be differentiated by the absence/presence of psychosocial distress suggesting that stratified management approach may be more efficient.

  9. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorean Nabukalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods: Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo were determined for females (aged 15–49 years resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown. Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95%CI was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1, peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1 and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.410.9. Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.211.1, accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR, 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05, self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15, and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82; external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62 CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, CI: 1.79–3.75. Conclusion: HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment

  10. Perceptions of safety and exposure to violence in public places among working age adults with disabilities or long-term health conditions in the UK: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Krnjacki, L; Llewellyn, G; Vaughan, C; Kavanagh, A

    2016-06-01

    To examine perceptions of safety and exposure to violence in public places among working age adults with and without disabilities in the UK and to assess the extent to which any between-group differences may be moderated by gender and socio-economic situation. Cross-sectional study. Secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 3 (2011-13) of Understanding Society. Data were extracted on a subsample of 5069 respondents aged 16 to 64 years (28% of whom had a disability/long-term health condition) who were administered a questionnaire module addressing experiences of harassment. Between-group comparisons were made on four self-reported indicators of safety. Respondents with disabilities/long-term health conditions were significantly more likely to have been attacked (adjusted OR 2.30, 95%CI 1.17-4.50, P condition are at significantly increased risk of exposure to interpersonal violence, particularly if they are living in poverty or are women. As such, there is a clear need to develop interventions that are targeted to the particular circumstances and needs of these high risk groups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence for Cognitive Aging in Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

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    Arun S Karlamangla

    Full Text Available Although cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive aging starts in midlife, few longitudinal studies have documented within-individual declines in cognitive performance before the seventh decade. Learning from repeat testing, or practice effects, can mask the decline in younger cohorts. In women, the menopause transition also affects test performance and can confound estimates of underlying decline. We designed this study to determine if, after controlling for practice effects, the menopause transition, and the symptoms associated with it, there is evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women. We used data from a longitudinal observational study in 2,124 participants from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Outcomes examined were scores on annual tests of processing speed, verbal episodic memory (immediate and delayed, and working memory. To reduce the impact of practice effects and of the menopause transition, we used the third cognition testing visit as the baseline. Average age at this baseline was 54 years, and the majority of the women were postmenopausal; half the cohort was 2 or more years beyond the final menstrual period. There were 7,185 cognition assessments with median follow-up time of 6.5 years. In mixed effects regression, adjusted for practice effects, retention, menopause symtoms (depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep disturbance, and covariates, scores on 2 of 4 cognition tests declined. Mean decline in cognitive speed was 0.28 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20 to 0.36 or 4.9% in 10 years, and mean decline in verbal episodic memory (delayed testing was 0.02 per year (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.03 or 2% in 10 years. Our results provide strong, longitudinal evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women, with substantial within-woman declines in processing speed and memory. Further research is needed to identify factors that influence decline rates and to develop interventions that slow cognitive aging.

  12. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

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    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  13. A golden age or a false dawn? Energy efficiency in UK competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.

    1998-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets may affect the prospects for energy efficiency in a variety of ways. Downward pressure on prices will reduce incentives for efficiency and the end of a supply monopoly makes more difficult mandating demand side management programmes. On the other hand, the removal of price controls could end some regulatory disincentives, and liberalisation enables suppliers to market energy efficiency bundled with energy units. The overall effects of liberalisation for energy efficiency are therefore complex. This paper focuses on the effects of liberalisation on those characteristics of energy markets which underpin long-term energy inefficiency. These barriers to energy efficiency have been shown to arise from fundamental features of traditional utility markets - notably centralisation, commoditization and the complexity of demand side investment. The extent to which these will be altered in liberalised markets in the UK is considered. It is concluded that some important market imperfections are not addressed by competition in the supply of energy commodities. However, more fundamental changes may in the longer term encourage more differentiation in supply markets, in which there could be higher priority for energy efficiency. The policy measures which might encourage the process are discussed. (author)

  14. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  15. Health Behavioral Patterns Associated with Psychologic Distress Among Middle-Aged Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found cultural characteristics of middle-aged Korean women in psychologic distress. Health care providers should consider marital satisfaction, self-actualization, nutrition, and interpersonal relations, in particular, among Korean middle-aged women.

  16. Mortality in Danish women: age, period and cohort analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    smokers throughout their adult life, suggesting that these smoking habits may be an important factor for their increased mortality. Study aim 3 The analysis of causes of death suggested an increased risk for deaths associated with the respiratory system and from causes traditionally associated....... Conclusion This study has shown that examination of total mortality trends in relation to age, period and cohort is a powerful exploratory tool for understanding changes in mortality and thus life expectancy. The analysis of differences in mortality trends among women in Denmark, Norway and Sweden...

  17. A comparative study of mid-life, women nurses working in the NHS and UK care homes.

    OpenAIRE

    Durant, Lesley.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the working lives of mid-life (aged 40-55) women who are currently working as nurses. The research focuses on why these mid-life nurses demonstrate occupational and organisational commitment, and compares the NHS and care home sectors. The research explores how the differences in organisational structure, culture and context of these two sectors influence nurses' work orientation, job satisfaction and their motivation to continue nursing, incorporating sociological perspe...

  18. Risk factors for urinary incontinence among women aged 60 or over with hypertension in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Ming Chang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: UI can be a frequent and annoying problem for aged women. In women with H/T, UI is significantly related to risk factors such as age, DM, BMI, and urinary diseases. In addition, BMI is considered a key risk factor for H/T. Therefore, effective control of BMI would help in controlling H/T and UI in aged women.

  19. The Implications of Contractual Terms of Employment for Women and Leadership: An Autoethnographic Study in UK Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vicary

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue leadership, usually one must first gain permanency in an organization, in contractual terms. Based on an autoethnographic study by a female academic in a UK higher education institution, the article illustrates that temporary forms of employment, should they be protracted, can stifle leadership aspirations due to lack of career progression opportunities and lead to a sense of alienation from the target community of practice, and even to personal difficulties, such as feelings of isolation and poor self-esteem. The article discusses theoretical and practical implications for women’s leadership arising from the findings and makes recommendations for improvements in practice in the higher education sector. The findings and recommendations from this study will also be relevant to other organizational contexts where casual or temporary, fixed term, zero-hours non-permanent forms of employment are common.

  20. The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A; Fuhrmann, Delia; Borgeest, Gesa Sophia; Simpson-Kent, Ivan L; Henson, Richard N A

    2018-01-01

    Background:  Fluid intelligence declines with advancing age, starting in early adulthood. Within-subject declines in fluid intelligence are highly correlated with contemporaneous declines in the ability to live and function independently. To support healthy aging, the mechanisms underlying these declines need to be better understood. Methods:  In this pre-registered analysis, we applied latent growth curve modelling to investigate the neural determinants of longitudinal changes in fluid intelligence across three time points in 185,317 individuals (N=9,719 two waves, N=870 three waves) from the UK Biobank (age range: 39-73 years). Results:  We found a weak but significant effect of cross-sectional age on the mean fluid intelligence score, such that older individuals scored slightly lower. However, the mean longitudinal slope was positive, rather than negative, suggesting improvement across testing occasions. Despite the considerable sample size, the slope variance was non-significant, suggesting no reliable individual differences in change over time. This null-result is likely due to the nature of the cognitive test used. In a subset of individuals, we found that white matter microstructure (N=8839, as indexed by fractional anisotropy) and grey-matter volume (N=9931) in pre-defined regions-of-interest accounted for complementary and unique variance in mean fluid intelligence scores. The strongest effects were such that higher grey matter volume in the frontal pole and greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiations were associated with higher fluid intelligence scores. Conclusions:  In a large preregistered analysis, we demonstrate a weak but significant negative association between age and fluid intelligence. However, we did not observe plausible longitudinal patterns, instead observing a weak increase across testing occasions, and no significant individual differences in rates of change, likely due to the suboptimal task design

  1. Sex differences in macronutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations: findings from the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, E; Peters, SAE; Woodward, M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise sex differences in macronutrient intakes and adherence to dietary recommendations in the UK Biobank population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Setting: UK Biobank Resource. Participants: 210 106 (52.5% women) individuals with data on dietary behaviour. Main outcome measures: Women-to-men mean differences in nutrient intake in grams and as a percentage of energy and women-to-men ORs in non-adherence, adjusting for age, socioeconomic ...

  2. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  3. The Menstrual Disorders in Women of Reproductive Age with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh.U. Akhmedova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this article, the authors present the results of studies on reproductive health features in 25 women with obesity seeking medical help for infertility. Objective: to study the nature of menstrual disorders in women of childbearing age with obesity. Materials and methods. We have studied the features of reproductive health in 25 obese women seeking medical assistance for infertility in the Republican specialized scientific and practical centre of endocrinology in 2014–2015, who were included in the first study group. The second group consisted of 25 women with normal weight-for-stature values and without menstrual disorders. All the patients underwent the following tests, including complete blood count, blood biochemistry, radioimmunoassays of the blood hormones (prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, insulin, estradiol, progesterone, free testosterone, thyroxine, anti-Műllerian hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries with folliculometry on 11–14th days of the menstrual cycle. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland. Results. In the history of the patients in both groups, diseases of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal diseases were most common among somatic pathology. Among gynecological diseases, in both groups the most frequent disorders were chronic urogenital infection, candida vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Emphasis is placed on the data about the presence of hormone-dependent proliferative diseases in women with overweight: cervical pseudoerosions, endocervicosis, uterine fibroids, a history of endometriosis. The analysis of biochemical parameters in the first study group found increased triglycerids levels 3.0 mmol/L — in 34 %. The first group of patients had low values of the average parameters of LH, FSH, free and total testosterone (normogonadotropic hypogonadism against normoprolactinemia. The

  4. Strength training and body composition in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrup, Rachelle; Tucker, Larry A; LE Cheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2018-01-01

    Strength training is a sound method to improve body composition. However, the effect of age, diet, menopause, and physical activity on the relationship between strength training and body composition in women remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the intricacies of the relationship between strength training and body composition in 257 middle-age women and to quantify the effect of these factors on the association. The study was cross-sectional. Five variables were used to index strength training participation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by 7-day weighed food records, and physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. There were 109 strength trainers in the sample. For each day per week of strength training, body fat was 1.3 percentage points lower (F=14.8, Pdevote to strength training, the lower their body fat and the higher their fat-free mass tend to be. A significant portion of the differences in body composition seems to result from lifters participating in more physical activity than non-lifters. Menopause status also contributes significantly to the relationship.

  5. Fertility preservation in reproductive age women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Cancer may be detected at any age and could affect children, and reproductive age women as well. In recent years, cancer treatment has become less destructive and more specific. As a result, survival rates and quality of life following successful treatment have continuously improved. Cancer treatment typically involves surgery, chemo- or radiation therapy, or the combinations of these. These interventions often adversely affect the function of the reproductive organs. Chemo- and radiation therapy are known to be gonadotoxic. Survivors of oncologic therapy are typically rendered infertile primarily due to the loss of ovarian function. There are, however, several medical, surgical, and assisted reproductive technology options that could be and should be offered to those diagnosed with cancer and wish to maintain their fertility. Embryo cryopreservation has been available for decades and has been successfully applied for fertility preservation in women diagnosed with cancer. Recent advances in cryobiology have increased the efficacy of not just embryo but even oocyte and ovarian tissue freezing-thawing. Oocyte vitrification just like embryo cryopreservation requires the use of stimulation but does not require the patient to be in a stable relationship or accept the use of donor sperm. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation does not require stimulation and, following successful transplantation, provides the patient with the most eggs but is currently still considered experimental. This paper summarizes the various fertility-sparing medical, surgical and assisted reproductive technology options. It reviews the current status of embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and discusses their risks and benefits.

  6. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence

  7. Ice formation and development in aged, wintertime cumulus over the UK : observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I.; Bower, K. N.; Choularton, T. W.; Dearden, C.; Crosier, J.; Westbrook, C.; Capes, G.; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Williams, P.; Trembath, J.; Cui, Z.; Blyth, A.

    2011-11-01

    In-situ high resolution aircraft measurements of cloud microphysical properties were made in coordination with ground based remote sensing observations of Radar and Lidar as part of the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses And InfluenceS on the Earth's climate (APPRAISE) project. A narrow but extensive line (~100 km long) of shallow convective clouds over the southern UK was studied. Cloud top temperatures were observed to be higher than ~-8 °C, but the clouds were seen to consist of supercooled droplets and varying concentrations of ice particles. No ice particles were observed to be falling into the cloud tops from above. Current parameterisations of ice nuclei (IN) numbers predict too few particles will be active as ice nuclei to account for ice particle concentrations at the observed near cloud top temperatures (~-7 °C). The role of biological particles, consistent with concentrations observed near the surface, acting as potential efficient high temperature IN is considered important in this case. It was found that very high concentrations of ice particles (up to 100 L-1) could be produced by powerful secondary ice particle production emphasising the importance of understanding primary ice formation in slightly supercooled clouds. Aircraft penetrations at -3.5 °C, showed peak ice crystal concentrations of up to 100 L-1 which together with the characteristic ice crystal habits observed (generally rimed ice particles and columns) suggested secondary ice production had occurred. To investigate whether the Hallett-Mossop (HM) secondary ice production process could account for these observations, ice splinter production rates were calculated. These calculated rates and observations could only be reconciled provided the constraint that only droplets >24 μm in diameter could lead to splinter production, was relaxed slightly by 2 μm. Model simulations of the case study were also performed with the WRF (Weather, Research and Forecasting) model and ACPIM (Aerosol Cloud and

  8. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of estrogen deficiency on the lipid profile in women in different age periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyfeld I.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate influence of estrogen deficiency on lipid profile in women of different age. Material and Methods. 189 women with normal body weight: 44 women with premature menopause (aged <40 years, 69 women with early menopause (aged 40-45 years, and 76 women with natural menopause (aged 46-55 years have been studied. In all women identification of clinical status has been performed during clinical examination. Results. It is shown that increasing age associated with increasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL (p<0.05. We have not observed a significant association between age and level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL (p=0.117. According with increased age, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP increases from initial -0.17±0.09 (M±o to 0.09±0.47 (p<0.05 in women with premature menopause, and to 0.14±0.21 (p<0.05 in other women. Final level of AIP was similar between women aged 40-45 years and women aged 46-55 years (p=0.084. Conclusion. Lipid metabolism disorders were assessed in 73.5% of women with estrogen deficiency. According to the age factor the rate of women with normal lipid metabolism decreases (x2=10,165, p=0.026.

  10. Do cycle disturbances explain the age-related decline of female fertility? Cycle characteristics of women aged over 40 years compared with a reference population of young women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, P. van; Scheffer, G.J.; Broekmans, F.J.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Jong, F.H. de; Looman, C.W.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Velde, E.R. te

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cause of declining fertility with age, in women who still have regular menstrual cycles, is not clear. METHODS: Follicle development, endometrial growth and hormonal patterns were evaluated in cycles of older women (aged 41-46 years; n = 26) who previously were normally fertile, and

  11. Experiences of Women Who Underwent Predictive BRCA 1/2 Mutation Testing Before the Age of 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Kate; Murray, Alexandra; McAllister, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This qualitative interview study focuses on the experiences of a sample of British female BRCA 1/2 carriers who had predictive testing before the age of 30, which is the minimum age for breast screening in the UK. Following appropriate informed consent procedures participants were recruited through the Cancer Genetics Service for Wales. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with seven participants, transcribed in full and analyzed using thematic analysis. The motives for testing and perceived advantages described by participants were similar to those identified in previous studies with older participants, such as increased awareness and knowledge and feeling more in control. However some of the perceived disadvantages were specific to younger women, including feeling pressured to make important life decisions earlier than they would have liked, such as about family planning and risk reducing surgery. Participants also reported feeling abandoned or forgotten because of lack of ongoing clinical contact, or feeling "stuck waiting" for screening to begin. However, none felt that these disadvantages were a reason to regret having testing. Findings in this small study suggest that having BRCA 1/2 predictive testing can have positive outcomes for young women even though they may be unable to access interventions such as breast screening. However it may be helpful to encourage young women during pre-test counseling to explore the decisions and choices they may face. These young women could benefit from ongoing support and follow up and increased interaction with healthcare professionals.

  12. Screening methods(clinical breast examination and mammography to detect breast cancer in women aged 40–49 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Takkar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The study findings are in agreement with the recommendations of the World Health Organization, US preventive task force and UK guidelines that recommend screening mammography in women starting at 50 years.

  13. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of life and sexuality issues in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, M H

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life may decrease after menopause. Hormone replacement therapy remains the first-line and most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms and improvement of low quality of life due to estrogen deficiency. The decrease of health-related quality of life in women suffering from cardiovascular disease may be superimposed on the decrease of quality of life induced by menopause itself. Postmenopausal women with acute cardiovascular disease have a significantly higher probability of death than men of the same age. Quality of life predicts long-term mortality. A myocardial infarction does not automatically interdict sexual activity. The Princeton guidelines classify patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases in three categories. Most patients belong to the low-risk category. In general, these patients can be safely encouraged to initiate or resume sexual activity or to receive treatment for sexual dysfunction. Patients at intermediate (or indeterminate) levels of risk should further receive cardiologic evaluation to be classified into either the low- or high-risk group. Patients in the high-risk category have to be stabilized by specific treatment for their cardiac condition before resumption of sexual activity, or initiation of treatment for sexual dysfunction.

  15. Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPhail, A.P.; Bothwell, T.H.; Torrance, J.D.; Derman, D.P.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Charlton, R.W.; Mayet, F.G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The iron status of 320 Indian women living in Chatsworth, Durban, who had volunteered for iron absorption studies, was assessed using a number of measurements. These included radio-iron absorption, the transferrin saturation, the serum ferritin concentration and the haemoglobin concentration. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin concentration smaller than 12 g/dl, with two or more abnormal measurements of iron status) was 14,4%. A further 26% had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l) and 8,4% also had evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l and transferrin saturation below 16%). A profile of iron status based on the cumulative frequency distribution of iron stores showed that the sample with calculated median iron stores of 150 mg and lower and upper 10 percentiles of -355 mg and 655 mg respectively, was significantly more iron deficient than a sample of women studied in Washington State, USA. Of interest was the observation that all measurements of iron status were better in the older age groups, presumably as a result of the cessation of menstruation. In addition, there was evidence that the duration of menstruation, as volunteered in a brief history, had a significant effect on several measurements of iron status. This was particularly true of the serum ferritin concentration and radio-iron absorption, both of which reflect the size of the iron stores

  16. Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrach Dare

    Full Text Available There is a general perception that smoking protects against weight gain and this may influence commencement and continuation of smoking, especially among young women.A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from UK Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between smoking and obesity; defined as body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2. Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.The study comprised 499,504 adults aged 31 to 69 years. Overall, current smokers were less likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.81-0.86. However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years. Former smokers were more likely to be obese than both current smokers (adjusted OR 1.33 95% CI 1.30-1.37 and never smokers (adjusted OR 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.15. Among smokers, the risk of obesity increased with the amount smoked and former heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than former light smokers (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% 1.56-1.64, p<0.001. Risk of obesity fell with time from quitting. After 30 years, former smokers still had higher risk of obesity than current smokers but the same risk as never smokers.Beliefs that smoking protects against obesity may be over-simplistic; especially among younger and heavier smokers. Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions should include weight management support.

  17. What do women want in breast reconstruction? Age-adhered surgery or rejuvenation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Henseler

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The majority of women desire to recreate their own natural and ptotic breast shape in reconstructive surgery without contralateral adjusting surgery. Younger women with smaller breasts and women of all ages with a family history of breast cancer more frequently prefer an operation on only the involved side. Women opted for good rather than excellent breast symmetry.

  18. Clinical Application of the UK Working Party′s Criteria for the Diagnosis of Atopic Dermatitis in the Chinese Population by Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study indicates a modest ability among Chinese dermatologists to apply the UK Working Party's diagnostic criteria for AD, especially in patients aged <4 years and ≥10 years. Since there is no gold standard for AD diagnosis, it is important to determine how AD is identified when evaluating a diagnostic tool.

  19. Association between sleep and overweight/obesity among women of childbearing age in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests of the relationship between sleep and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) among women have been inconsistent. Few studies reporting such associations have focused on women of childbearing age. This paper investigates this association among Canadian women of childbearing age. Data were from the Canadian...

  20. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

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    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  1. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men. Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019; fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  2. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Karen; Hart, Graham J

    2010-12-30

    Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men). Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019); fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p participation in the study. Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  3. The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Fuhrmann, Delia; Henson, Richard N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Fluid intelligence declines with advancing age, starting in early adulthood. Within-subject declines in fluid intelligence are highly correlated with contemporaneous declines in the ability to live and function independently. To support healthy aging, the mechanisms underlying these declines need to be better understood. Methods: In this pre-registered analysis, we applied latent growth curve modelling to investigate the neural determinants of longitudinal changes in fluid intelligence across three time points in 185,317 individuals (N=9,719 two waves, N=870 three waves) from the UK Biobank (age range: 39-73 years). Results: We found a weak but significant effect of cross-sectional age on the mean fluid intelligence score, such that older individuals scored slightly lower. However, the mean longitudinal slope was positive, rather than negative, suggesting improvement across testing occasions. Despite the considerable sample size, the slope variance was non-significant, suggesting no reliable individual differences in change over time. This null-result is likely due to the nature of the cognitive test used. In a subset of individuals, we found that white matter microstructure (N=8839, as indexed by fractional anisotropy) and grey-matter volume (N=9931) in pre-defined regions-of-interest accounted for complementary and unique variance in mean fluid intelligence scores. The strongest effects were such that higher grey matter volume in the frontal pole and greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiations were associated with higher fluid intelligence scores. Conclusions: In a large preregistered analysis, we demonstrate a weak but significant negative association between age and fluid intelligence. However, we did not observe plausible longitudinal patterns, instead observing a weak increase across testing occasions, and no significant individual differences in rates of change, likely due to the suboptimal task design. Finally

  4. A qualitative systematic review of published work on disclosure and help-seeking for domestic violence and abuse among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femi-Ajao, Omolade; Kendal, Sarah; Lovell, Karina

    2018-03-07

    Domestic violence and abuse has been recognised as an international public health problem. However, the pervasiveness of the problem is unknown due in part to underreporting, especially among women from ethnic minority populations. In relation to this group, this review seeks to explore: (1) the barriers to disclosure; (2) the facilitators of help-seeking; and (3) self-perceived impacts of domestic violence. We systematically identified published qualitative studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK. Data analysis was completed using thematic analysis approach. 562 papers were identified and eight papers from four studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Barriers to disclosure include: Immigration status, community influences, problems with language and interpretation, and unsupportive attitudes of staff within mainstream services. Facilitators of help-seeking were: escalation of abuse and safety of children. Self-perceived impact of abuse includes: shame, denial, loss of identity and lack of choice. There is an on-going need for staff from domestic violence services to be aware of the complexities within which women from ethnic minority populations experience domestic violence and abuse.

  5. Perspectives of UK Pakistani women on their behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes: qualitative study using the theory domain framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin

    2014-07-08

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a debilitating disease, highly prevalent in UK South Asians, and preventable by lifestyle intervention. The 'New life, New you' (NLNY) physical activity (PA) and dietary intervention for T2D prevention was culturally adapted to better engage minority ethnic populations and tested for feasibility. To investigate Pakistani female participants' perspectives of their behaviour change and of salient intervention features. A community-based 8-week programme of group delivered PA sessions with behavioural counselling and dietary advice, culturally adapted for ethnic minority populations, in an area of socioeconomic deprivation. Participants to NLNY were recruited through screening events in community venues across the town. Interviews were conducted with 20 Pakistani female NLNY participants, aged 26-45 (mean 33.5) years, from different parts of town. Within the a priori Theoretical Domains Framework (intentions and goals, reinforcement, knowledge, nature of the activity, social role and identity, social influences, capabilities and skills, regulation and decision, emotion and environment), we identified the importance of social factors relating to participants' own PA and dietary behaviour change. We also identified cross-cutting themes as collateral benefits of the intervention including participants' 'psychological health'; 'responsibility' (for others' health, especially family members included in the new PA and diet regimes) and 'inclusion' (an ethos of accommodating differences). Our findings suggest that culturally adapted interventions for Pakistani women at risk of T2D, delivered via group PA sessions with counselling and dietary advice, may encourage their PA and dietary behaviour change, and have collateral health and social benefits. The NLNY intervention appeared to be acceptable. We plan to evaluate recruitment, retention and likely effect of the intervention on participant behaviour prior to definitive evaluation. Published by the

  6. The role of alcohol in constructing gender & class identities among young women in the age of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Jemma; Emslie, Carol; Sweeting, Helen; Lyons, Antonia

    2018-05-04

    Research suggests young women view drinking as a pleasurable aspect of their social lives but that they face challenges in engaging in a traditionally 'masculine' behaviour whilst maintaining a desirable 'femininity'. Social network sites such as Facebook make socialising visible to a wide audience. This paper explores how young people discuss young women's drinking practices, and how young women construct their identities through alcohol consumption and its display on social media. We conducted 21 friendship-based focus groups (both mixed and single sex) with young adults aged 18-29 years and 13 individual interviews with a subset of focus group respondents centred on their Facebook practices. We recruited a purposive sample in Glasgow, Scotland (UK) which included 'middle class' (defined as students and those in professional jobs) and 'working class' respondents (employed in manual/service sector jobs), who participated in a range of venues in the night time economy. Young women's discussions revealed a difficult 'balancing act' between demonstrating an 'up for it' sexy (but not too sexy) femininity through their drinking and appearance, while still retaining control and respectability. This 'balancing act' was particularly precarious for working class women, who appeared to be judged more harshly than middle class women both online and offline. While a gendered double standard around appearance and alcohol consumption is not new, a wider online audience can now observe and comment on how women look and behave. Social structures such as gender and social class remain central to the construction of identity both online and offline. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality.

  8. "It pains me because as a woman you have to breastfeed your baby": decision-making about infant feeding among African women living with HIV in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Shema; Elford, Jonathan; Tookey, Pat; Anderson, Jane; de Ruiter, Annemiek; O'Connell, Rebecca; Pillen, Alexandra

    2016-08-01

    UK guidance advises HIV-positive women to abstain from breast feeding. Although this eliminates the risk of postnatal vertical transmission of HIV, the impact of replacement feeding on mothers is often overlooked. This qualitative study examines, for the first time in the UK, decision-making about infant feeding among African women living with HIV. Between 2010 and 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with 23 HIV-positive African women who were pregnant or had recently given birth. We recruited participants from three HIV antenatal clinics in London. Women highlighted the cultural importance of breast feeding in African communities and the social pressure to breast feed, also describing fears that replacement feeding would signify their HIV status. Participants had significant concerns about physical and psychological effects of replacement feeding on their child and felt their identity as good mothers was compromised by not breast feeding. However, almost all chose to refrain from breast feeding, driven by the desire to minimise vertical transmission risk. Participants' resilience was strengthened by financial assistance with replacement feeding, examples of healthy formula-fed children and support from partners, family, peers and professionals. The decision to avoid breast feeding came at considerable emotional cost to participants. Professionals should be aware of the difficulties encountered by HIV-positive women in refraining from breast feeding, especially those from migrant African communities where breast feeding is culturally normative. Appropriate financial and emotional support increases women's capacity to adhere to their infant-feeding decisions and may reduce the emotional impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Body image, aging, and identity in women over 50: The Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeier, Sara M; Runfola, Cristin D; Sala, Margarita; Gagne, Danielle A; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of 1,849 women over age 50 to capture the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that women at middle age have about their bodies and the experience of aging. Via an open-ended question online survey, four primary themes emerged: (a) the physical and psychological experience of aging; (b) the injustices, inequities, and challenges of aging; (c) the importance of self-care; and (d) a plea for recognition of the need to maintain a contributory role in society. Results highlight the complexities of women's psychological and physical aspects of aging and point toward important topics worthy of further study in this growing population.

  10. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  11. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  12. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1 psychological benefit, (2 physical benefit, and (3 social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  13. Environmental Intolerance, Symptoms and Disability Among Fertile-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuokko, Aki; Karvala, Kirsi; Lampi, Jussi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Pasanen, Markku; Voutilainen, Raimo; Pekkanen, Juha; Sainio, Markku

    2018-02-08

    The purpose was to study the prevalence of environmental intolerance (EI) and its different manifestations, including behavioral changes and disability. Fertile-aged women ( n = 680) of the Kuopio Birth Cohort Study were asked about annoyance to 12 environmental factors, symptoms and behavioral changes. We asked how much the intolerance had disrupted their work, household responsibilities or social life. We chose intolerance attributed to chemicals, indoor molds, and electromagnetic fields to represent typical intolerance entities. Of the respondents, 46% reported annoyance to chemicals, molds, or electromagnetic fields. Thirty-three percent reported symptoms relating to at least one of these three EIs, 18% reported symptoms that included central nervous system symptoms, and 15% reported behavioral changes. Indicating disability, 8.4% reported their experience relating to any of the three EIs as at least "somewhat difficult", 2.2% "very difficult" or "extremely difficult", and 0.9% "extremely difficult". Of the latter 2.2%, all attributed their intolerance to indoor molds, and two thirds also to chemicals. As the number of difficulties increased, the number of organ systems, behavioral changes and overlaps of the three EIs also grew. EI is a heterogeneous phenomenon and its prevalence depends on its definition. The manifestations of EI form a continuum, ranging from annoyance to severe disability.

  14. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  15. The Time Bounded Glass Ceiling and Young Women Managers: Career Progress and Career Success--Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ruth; Altman, Yochanan

    2000-01-01

    A study of 130 male and 91 female managers found that more younger women than men were in senior roles. Younger women achieved seniority faster than women over 35. However, once younger women have broken the glass ceiling at lower levels, they encounter new barriers at higher levels. (SK)

  16. Prenatal lead, cadmium and mercury exposure and associations with motor skills at age 7 years in a UK observational birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Emond, Alan M; Lingam, Raghu; Golding, Jean

    2018-08-01

    Lead and mercury are freely transferred across the placenta, while cadmium tends to accumulate in the placenta. Each contributes to adverse neurological outcomes for the child. Although prenatal heavy metal exposure has been linked with an array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, its association with the development of motor skills in children has not been robustly studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury, measured as maternal blood concentrations during pregnancy, and motor skills, measured as subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) at age 7 years in a large sample of mother-child pairs enrolled in a UK observational birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC). Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC were analysed for lead, cadmium and mercury. In a complete case analysis (n = 1558), associations between prenatal blood concentrations and child motor skills assessed by Movement ABC subtests of manual dexterity, ball skills and balance at 7 years were examined in adjusted regression models. Associations with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were also investigated. The mean prenatal blood levels were: lead 3.66 ± 1.55 μg/dl; cadmium 0.45 ± 0.54 μg/l; mercury 2.23 ± 1.14 μg/l. There was no evidence for any adverse associations of prenatal lead, cadmium or mercury exposure with motor skills measured at age 7 years with Movement ABC subtests in adjusted regression models. Further, there were no associations with probable DCD. There was no evidence to support a role of prenatal exposure to heavy metals at these levels on motor skills in the child at age 7 years measured using the Movement ABC. Early identification of symptoms of motor skills impairment is important, however, to enable investigation, assessment and treatment. Copyright

  17. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  18. Women and substance abuse: gender, age, and cultural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S

    2009-01-01

    Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.

  19. Trends in Gender Equality in the UK, 1968 to 2012: Four Barriers to ¡®Equal Pay¡¯ for Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Tattam; John Simister

    2014-01-01

    This paper disaggregates the pay gap between men and women into four possible ¡®barriers¡¯: access to paid work; part-time versus full-time jobs; entrance into higher-paid jobs; and similar pay for equivalent work. UK data from 1968 to 2012 are analyzed, to investigate these possible barriers. All four barriers have persisted for decades, and all four ¡®barriers¡¯ tend to work in favour of men. There is evidence of progress in gender equality since 1968 ¨C for example, the 1970 ¡®Equal Pay Ac...

  20. Women as Academic Administrators in the Age of Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Marian Lief

    1978-01-01

    Data indicate that, once academic women select or are selected for administrative careers, quantitative opportunities are available to those who seem to be approximately equivalent to men. However, if qualitative measures are assessed, it becomes clear that women administrators do not fare as well as men. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of the attitude toward aging in women aged 50 years or more with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Souza Orlandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the attitudes toward aging in women aged 50 years or more with HIV / AIDS, through the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ. This is a descriptive cross-sectional. All ethical guidelines were followed. Among the areas assessed by the AAQ, the domain Physical Changes was presented the worst perceptions about aging, indicating how difficult it is to grow old with an incurable and stigmatizing disease such as HIV / AIDS.

  2. Differences in research funding for women scientists: a systematic comparison of UK investments in global infectious disease research during 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Atun, Rifat

    2013-12-09

    There has not previously been a systematic comparison of awards for research funding in infectious diseases by sex. We investigated funding awards to UK institutions for all infectious disease research from 1997 to 2010, across disease categories and along the research and development continuum. Systematic comparison. Data were obtained from several sources for awards from the period 1997 to 2010 and each study assigned to-disease categories; type of science (preclinical, phases I-III trials, product development, implementation research); categories of funding organisation. Fold differences and statistical analysis were used to compare total investment, study numbers, mean grant and median grant between men and women. 6052 studies were included in the final analysis, comprising 4357 grants (72%) awarded to men and 1695 grants (28%) awarded to women, totalling £2.274 billion. Of this, men received £1.786 billion (78.5%) and women £488 million (21.5%). The median value of award was greater for men (£179 389; IQR £59 146-£371 977) than women (£125 556; IQR £30 982-£261 834). Awards were greater for male principal investigators (PIs) across all infectious disease systems, excepting neurological infections and sexually transmitted infections. The proportion of total funding awarded to women ranged from 14.3% in 1998 to 26.8% in 2009 (mean 21.4%), and was lowest for preclinical research at 18.2% (£285.5 million of £1.573 billion) and highest for operational research at 30.9% (£151.4 million of £489.7 million). There are consistent differences in funding received by men and women PIs: women have fewer funded studies and receive less funding in absolute and in relative terms; the median funding awarded to women is lower across most infectious disease areas, by funder, and type of science. These differences remain broadly unchanged over the 14-year study period.

  3. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  4. Job tasks, computer use, and the decreasing part-time pay penalty for women in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsayed, A.E.A.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the UK Skills Surveys, we show that the part-time pay penalty for female workers within low- and medium-skilled occupations decreased significantly over the period 1997-2006. The convergence in computer use between part-time and full-time workers within these occupations explains a

  5. Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…

  6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    OpenAIRE

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity...

  7. Survivors in a Male Preserve: A Study of British Women Academics' Experiences and Perceptions of Discrimination in a UK University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagilhole, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    A study of 43 British women university faculty suggested that, in general, women faculty are small minorities, feel isolated and excluded, feel their authority challenged by male students, and pressure themselves to perform better than men. Women faculty tend to have fewer support systems, role models or mentors, and have difficulty with work…

  8. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness.

  10. The relationship between stressors and mental health among Japanese middle-aged women in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junko; Takeda, Fumi; Kishi, Kaori; Monma, Takafumi

    2017-04-27

    In middle age, some people may become mentally or emotionally unstable. Additionally, in Japan, mood disorders, such as depressive symptoms, occur mostly among middle-aged women (i.e., aged 40-49 years). However, few studies have examined stressors related to mental health. In the present study, we developed a stressor scale for middle-aged women and examined stressors correlated with middle-aged women's mental health. In January 2015, an anonymous, self-administered survey was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected women aged 45 through 64 years living in Tokyo, Japan. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 329 women (32.9 percent). Factor analysis identified the following stressor categories: "relationship with my husband," "uneasiness about old age," "health concerns," "work-life balance," and "relationship with my friends." "Uneasiness about old age" and "health concerns" were correlated negatively with participants' mental health. Improving middle-aged women's health requires interventions that relieve stressors resulting from age-related problems and promote a positive image of old age.

  11. [OVARIAN RESERVE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF IVF IN WOMEN OF VARIOUS AGE GROUPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadyan, A; Totoyan, E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a comparative assessment of ovarian reserve parameters and the effect of these indices on the features of follicle and oogenesis in women of different age groups. A retrospective analysis of IVF results was conducted in 101 patients aged 21 to 49 years. All patients were divided into 4 groups according to age: I group up to 30 y.o. - 45 women, II group - 31-35 y.o - 14 women, III group - 36-40 y.o. - 26 women, IV Group - 41 or more - 16 women. A low ovarian reserve was found in the majority (84,6%) of women in group III and in all women in group IV. It was found that the lowest total dose of rFSH / hMG was used in women aged 21-30 years and 31-35 years, and in women in the age range of 36-40 years, the consumption of drugs was significantly higher and tended to further increase in the age group 41 аnd more years. A large consumption of rFSH/hMG is necessary to overcome the growing FSH level in the process of aging of the reproductive system and the reduced AMH level. However, at the same time, compared age groups had significant differences in the number of oocytes and embryos obtained. With age, a significant reduction in the number of mature oocytes and embryos obtained after follicle puncture and fertilization has been identified. The most promising in terms of pregnancy were the I and II groups. With age, the frequency of pregnancy decreased. The number of pregnancies was statistically lower in the III age group compared to groups I and II. In the IV group, no cases of pregnancy were recorded. Thus, it can be concluded that age is a statistically significant factor affecting the success of infertility treatment by IVF.

  12. Association of dietary factors with presence and severity of tinnitus in a middle-aged UK population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby McCormack

    Full Text Available The impact of dietary factors on tinnitus has received limited research attention, despite being a considerable concern among people with tinnitus and clinicians. The objective was to examine the link between dietary factors and presence and severity of tinnitus.This study used the UK Biobank resource, a large cross-sectional study of adults aged 40-69. 171,722 eligible participants were asked questions specific to tinnitus (defined as noises such as ringing or buzzing in the head or ears. Dietary factors included portions of fruit and vegetables per day, weekly fish consumption (oily and non-oily, bread type, cups of caffeinated coffee per day, and avoidance of dairy, eggs, wheat and sugar. We controlled for lifestyle, noise exposure, hearing, personality and comorbidity factors.Persistent tinnitus, defined as present at least a lot of the time, was elevated with increased: (i fruit/vegetable intake (OR = 1.01 per portion/day, (ii bread (wholemeal/wholegrain, OR = 1.07; other bread, 1.20 and (iii dairy avoidance (OR = 1.27. Persistent tinnitus was reduced with: (i fish consumption (non-oily, OR = 0.91; oily, 0.95, (ii egg avoidance (OR = 0.87 and (iii caffeinated coffee consumption (OR = 0.99 per cup/day. Reports of “bothersome” tinnitus (moderate-severe handicap reduced with wholemeal/wholegrain bread intake (OR = 0.86 [corrected].Reports of less frequent transient tinnitus increased with dairy avoidance (OR = 1.18 and decreased with caffeinated coffee (OR = 0.98 per cup/day and brown bread (OR = 0.94.This is the first population study to report the association between dietary factors and tinnitus. Although individually dietary associations are mostly modest, particular changes in diet, such as switching between foodstuffs, may result in stronger associations. These findings offer insights into possible dietary associations with tinnitus, and this may be useful when discussing management options in

  13. Female sexual dysfunction in women of reproductive age group in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Family Practice ... real physical, psychological, social, spiritual and cultural problem in Nigeria, yet greatly understudied. ... dysfunction is a significant problem that affects a substantial number of women in this environment.

  14. Dynamics of extra-genital pathology formation in exposed to radiation women of the reproductive age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.; Pivina, L.M.; Kenzhina, L.B.; Ryzhenkova, O.N.; Mansarina, A.E.; Bajbusinov, O.N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an extra-genital sickness rate analysis in exposed women of reproductive age that live on territories adjacent to the Semipalatinsk test site, for the period from 1963 to 2000. The average dose of women exposed to radiation is more than 0.5 Sv. Significant exceeding of age-specific standardized factor for the period from 1963 to 1990 was found. Among nosologic classes, representing exceeding of age-specific standardized factors in women of reproductive age, there were revealed diseases of blood circulation system, blood and hematopoietic organs, endocrine system, nervous system and sense organs. (author)

  15. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P menopause, those who had early menopause (age menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  16. Age at natural menopause in women on long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Tomasz; Hajdyla-Banas, Iwona; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Niewegłowska, Dorota; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Ludwin, Artur; Knafel, Anna; Ludwin, Inga

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the natural menopause ages of healthy women with those of women with methotrexate (MTX)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to specifically assess the effect of disease onset and activity and the use of MTX on the age of the last menstruation. We performed a retrospective review of medical records to identify the ages at which menopause occurred in women with premenopausal RA treated with MTX and in women with postmenopausal onset, irrespective of therapy. Natural menopause ages were also compared between participants with and without RA. Women with premenopausal onset of RA underwent menopause at a significantly younger age than did healthy women (P Menopause also occurred at younger ages in participants with postmenopausal disease onset than in healthy controls (P = 0.012). The study suggested that menopause age was positively correlated with the age at which RA was diagnosed (R = 0.51; P menopause (P = 0.008). The age at which menopause occurs in a patient with RA depends on the patient's age at the time of disease onset and its duration, but is not influenced by MTX treatment.

  17. Validation of a short food frequency questionnaire specific for iodine in U.K. females of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, E; Lean, M E J

    2014-12-01

    Widespread subclinical iodine insufficiency has recently been reported in Europe, based on urinary iodine using World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization criteria, in particular among young women. Although urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a useful measurement of the iodine status in a population, it does not provide an insight into the habitual iodine intake of this population. This is compounded by the fact that very few iodine-specific food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) have been validated so far. The present study aimed to develop and validate a new, simple, rapid survey tool to assess dietary iodine exposure in females of childbearing age. Iodine was measured in a duplicate 24-h urine collection. Iodine intake was measured with duplicate 4-day semi-quantitative food diaries and the FFQ. Correlation, cross-classification and Bland-Altman analyses were used to estimate agreement, bias and the reliability of the method. The triangular (triad) method was used to calculate validity coefficients. Forty-three women, aged 19-49 years, took part in the validation of the 17-items FFQ. Median (interquartile range) UIC was 74 (47-92) μg L(-1) , which is indicative of mild iodine insufficiency. The FFQ showed good agreement with food diaries with respect to classifying iodine intake (82% of subjects were classified in the same or adjacent quartile). The FFQ was moderately correlated with the food diaries (rs  = 0.45, P = 0.002) and urinary excretion in μg L(-1) (rs  = 0.34, P = 0.025) but not in μg day(-1) (P = 0.316). The validity coefficients were 0.69, 0.66 and 0.52 for the food diaries, FFQ and urinary iodine excretion, respectively. The FFQ provides a rapid and reliable estimate of dietary iodine exposure to identify those population subgroups at risk of iodine deficiency. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Functional abilities in aging women with Rett syndrome - the Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Stahlhut, Michelle; Larsen, Jane Lunding

    2017-01-01

    though the syndrome causes severe psychomotor disability, women with RTT can live long into adulthood. PURPOSE: We aim to describe what to expect from aging women with RTT regarding some of the basic functional abilities that are used in daily activities and that could have an impact on quality of life...... that can be difficult to recognize. Implications for rehabilitation 3/4 of aging RTT women are household ambulators - daily training of motor functions and focus on assisting the initiation of movements are needed lifelong to maintain walking ability and participation in daily activities More than half...... in these women. METHODS: A team of two medical doctors, a physiotherapist and an educational psychological adviser, performed clinical evaluations of 27 women with RTT in Denmark above 30 years of age and confirmed MECP2 mutation. RESULTS: We found that 63% of the women were able to walk outside their homes...

  19. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  20. The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on >500,000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138,098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.

  1. The Effect of Functional Hearing Loss and Age on Long- and Short-term Visuospatial Memory: Evidence from the UK Biobank Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerker eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task, with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.

  2. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-11-01

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  3. Chemotherapy in Old Women with Breast Cancer: Is Age Still a Predictor for Under Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresse, Mégane; Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Bendiane, Marc-Karim; Retornaz, Frédérique; Rousseau, Frédérique; Rey, Dominique; Giorgi, Roch

    2017-05-01

    Breast cancer affects mostly older women but there are no guidelines especially devoted to adjuvant chemotherapy for this population. In this context, this study was carried out in a population-based cohort of French elderly women with breast cancer, to check adherence to the existing national guidelines according to the women's age, taking into account the evolution of the situation over time for women requiring chemotherapy. Between October 2006 and December 2008, all consecutive women included in the French Health registry for a biopsy-proven primary nonmetastatic breast cancer, aged 65-80 years at diagnosis, and living in South Eastern France, were asked to participate in a cohort study. Medical information was collected from physicians. The study population was restricted to the 223 women who were recommended adjuvant chemotherapy according to national guidelines. Those who received chemotherapy were compared to those who did not receive this treatment. Among these 223 women 55% had received chemotherapy. Only three women refused the treatment. Less than 8% have had a geriatric assessment before treatment decision and only two were proposed to participate in a clinical trial. After adjustment for comorbidity score, tumor characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics, and year of diagnosis, increasing patient age was independently associated with decreased guideline concordance for adjuvant chemotherapy. Women aged 75-80 years received chemotherapy more than four times less often than women aged 65-74 years. However, the percentage of women who received chemotherapy increased from 33% to 58% between 2006 and 2008, in parallel with the setting up of Onco-Geriatric Coordination Units in the area. In France, chronological age remains a barrier to receive chemotherapy for older breast cancer women but the establishment of a formal collaboration between oncologists and geriatricians seems to be an effective way to improve care delivery in this population.

  4. Increased Working Memory-Related Brain Activity in Middle-Aged Women with Cognitive Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; McDonald, Brenna C.; R.Naylor, Magdalena; Pfaff, Ashley C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests may be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50–60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as th...

  5. Selective review of age-related needs of women with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V; Gupta, Rina

    2015-04-01

    Recognizing that needs differ between men and women with schizophrenia and that they vary over time, this review attempts to categorize the needs that are relevant to younger and to older women. This is a selective literature review focusing on topic areas the two authors determined to be most germane to women with schizophrenia. Articles were selected on the basis of currency, comprehensiveness, and study design. Particular attention was paid to the voices of the women themselves. There is considerable overlap between the needs of younger and older women with schizophrenia, but as a general rule, younger women require preventive strategies to stop the escalation of illness while older women require recovery interventions to regain lost hopes and abilities. There is clinical utility in cataloguing the needs of younger and older women with schizophrenia and conceptualizing interventions according to gender and age rather than viewing needed services along purely diagnostic lines.

  6. Prospective Relationships Between Physical Activity and Optimism in Young and Mid-aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women. 9688 young women (born 1973-1978) completed self-report surveys in 2000 (age 22 to 27), 2003, 2006, and 2009; and 11,226 mid-aged women (born 1946-1951) completed surveys in 2001 (age 50-55) 2004, 2007, and 2010, as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equation models (with 3-year time lag) were used to examine the relationship between PA and optimism in both cohorts. In both cohorts, women reporting higher levels of PA had greater odds of reporting higher optimism over the 9-year period, (young, OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 3.85-6.59; mid-age, OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 4.76-7.00) than women who reported no PA. Odds were attenuated in adjusted models, with depression accounting for a large amount of this attenuation (young, OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.57-2.55; mid-age, OR = 1.64 95% CI: 1.38-1.94). Physical activity can promote optimism in young and mid-aged women over time, even after accounting for the negative effects of other psychosocial indicators such as depression.

  7. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  8. Contraceptive Uptake among Women of Reproductive Age in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND. Family planning reduces the number of unintended and unwanted pregnancies and thereby saving women from high risk pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Despite the persistent advocacy urging the use of modern contraceptive methods for family planning, the fertility rates in most sub-.

  9. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…

  10. Mirror on the wall: a study of women's perception of facial features as they age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Billur; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Kaya, Basar; Sibar, Serhat; Yavuzer, Reha

    2012-05-01

    Facial aesthetic treatments are among the most popular cosmetic procedures worldwide, but the factors that motivate women to change their facial appearance are not fully understood. The authors examine the relationships among the facial areas on which women focus most as they age, women's general self-perception, and the effect of their personal focus on "beauty points" on their perception of other women's faces. In this prospective study, 200 women who presented to a cosmetic surgery outpatient clinic for consultation between December 2009 and February 2010 completed a questionnaire. The 200 participants were grouped by age: 20-29 years, 30-39, 40-49, and 50 or older (50 women in each group). They were asked which part of their face they focus on most when looking in the mirror, which part they notice most in other women (of different age groups), what they like/dislike most about their own face, and whether they wished to change any facial feature. A positive correlation was found between women's focal points and the areas they dislike or desire to change. Younger women focused mainly on their nose and skin, while older women focused on their periorbital area and jawline. Women focus on their personal focal points when looking at other women in their 20s and 30s, but not when looking at older women. Women presenting for cosmetic surgery consultation focus on the areas that they dislike most, which leads to a desire to change those features. The plastic surgeon must fully understand patients' expectations to select appropriate candidates and maximize satisfaction with the outcomes.

  11. Older women in an aging world: achieving health across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonita, R; Howe, A L

    1996-01-01

    This article, based on a report (Women, aging and health: achieving health across the life span) prepared for the WHO Global Commission on Women's Health under the guidance of WHO's Aging and Health Programme, presents demographic data that clearly demonstrate the need for recognition of the health of aging women as a global issue of major public health concern. The authors show that, while female life expectancy at birth is significantly different in developed and developing countries (because of high infant and maternal mortality in the latter), these differences tend to decrease for women in developing countries who reach middle age. The authors review the various facets of the "gender transition" brought about by demographic and epidemiological transitions, drawing attention to contrasts between the situation in developing countries in Asia and Latin America and that in Eastern Europe, for example. The role of older women as care-givers is discussed, as is the likelihood of a future increase in the proportion of older women living alone in the developing world (a factor which renders them particularly vulnerable in many socioeconomic and health respects). Suggestions are made on methodologies for monitoring health trends in aging women, and on the role of WHO in this respect. A basic goal for global strategies relating to the health of older women is formulated: reduction of the inequities in life expectancy between developed and developing countries.

  12. Changes in Hair Mercury Levels Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Following an Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Michelle; Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke; Anderson, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Describe mercury exposures among women of childbearing age before and after an educational intervention. Women age 18 to 45 were recruited to participate in an educational intervention concerning fish consumption. Fish consumption habits and total mercury concentration in hair were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Regression models examined associations between mercury, fish consumption, and demographics. Overall, 234 women completed the study. On average, mercury concentrations increased by 0.01 ppm (parts per million) following the intervention, despite declines in fish consumption; however, women in the 90th percentile for mercury at baseline decreased concentrations significantly while maintaining high rates of fish consumption. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with fish consumption and certain demographic characteristics. The intervention reached individuals most at-risk. Healthcare providers should discuss fish consumption habits with women to encourage consumption of low-risk fish, and identify women needing education and counseling.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaghaz kanani R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.

  14. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D You need calcium to help maintain healthy, strong bones throughout your life. Adults up to age 50 need 1,000 mg (milligrams) of calcium every day. Women over age 50 and men over age 70 should increase their intake to ...

  15. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  16. Work after age 65: A prospective study of Australian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tazeen; Forder, Peta M; Tavener, Meredith; Vo, Kha; Byles, Julie

    2017-06-01

    This study describes hours in paid work for Australian men and women aged over 65, focusing on associations between work and education. Data were analysed separately for men and women, from baseline and first follow-up surveys of the 45 and Up Study. Generalised estimating equation models were used to identify associations between work, education and other factors over time. The odds of doing paid work increased with higher education level and decreased with time, age, poorer physical function and having health conditions (high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke and breast cancer). Un-partnered women were more likely to work in later life than partnered women. This study quantifies the importance of education and health factors in determining continued participation of Australian men and women in paid work in later life. These factors need to be considered for policies aiming to increase workforce participation beyond 65 years of age. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  17. Job tasks, computer use, and the decreasing part-time pay penalty for women in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed, A.E.A.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the UK Skills Surveys, we show that the part-time pay penalty for female workers within low- and medium-skilled occupations decreased significantly over the period 1997-2006. The convergence in computer use between part-time and full-time workers within these occupations explains a large share of the decrease in the part-time pay penalty. However, the lower part-time pay penalty is also related to lower wage returns to reading and writing which are performed more intensively b...

  18. Analysis and comparison of breast density according to age on mammogram between Korean and Western women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyung; Kim, Mi Hye; Oh, Ki Keun

    2000-01-01

    To compare changes in breast parenchymal density among diverse age groups in asymptomatic Korean women with those of Western women, and to evaluate the effect of different patterns of breast parenchymal density on the sensitivity of screening mammography in Korean women. We analyzed the distribution of breast parenchymal density among diverse age groups in 823 asymptomatic Korean women aged 30-64 who underwent screening mammography between January and December 1998. On the basis of ACR BI-RADS breast composition, four density patterns were designated: patterns 1 and 2 related to fatty mammograms, and patterns 3 and 4 to dense mammograms. We compared the results with those for western women. In Korean women, the frequency of dense mammogram was 88.1% (30-34 years old), 91.1% (35-39), 78.3% (40-44), 61.1% (45-49), 30.1% (50-54), 21.1% (55-59), and 7.0% (60-64). Korean women in their 40s thus showed a higher frequency of dense mammograms, but this frequency decreased abruptly between the ages of 40 and 54. In Western women, however, there was little difference between 40 and 54-year-olds: the figures were 47.2% (40-44 years), 44.8% (45-49), and 44.4% (50-54). Because the frequency of their dense mammograms shows little change between Western women in their forties and in their fifties, it is clear that between these two age groups, mammographic sensitivity is only slightly different. Because the frequency of dense mammograms is much greater among Korean women in their forties than among Western women of the same age, and among korean women this frequency decreases abruptly, it appears, however, that the mammographic sensitivity of korean women is less among those in their forties than among those in their fifties. It is therefore thought that mammography combined with ultrasonography may increase screening sensitivity among Korean women under 50, who have a relatively higher incidence of breast cancer in the younger age groups than do Western women. (author)

  19. Bone and heart abnormalities of subclinical hyperthyroidism in women below the age of 65 years

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged < 65 years. Forty-eight women with SCH were evaluated. The control group consisted of 48 euthyroid volunteers. The mean symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women wit...

  20. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%),...

  1. The Economic Legacy of Divorced and Separated Women in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn McDonald; A. Leslie Robb

    2003-01-01

    Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or the nature of this poverty. Like any other group of older Canadians, unattached women are not a homogenous population. The category of 'unattached' includes the separated, divorced, widowed and ever single, all of whom face different ...

  2. Serum dioxin levels and age at menopause in women of Seveso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Warner, M.; Marks, A. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Samuels, S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Bicocca, Desio-Milano (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In the present investigation, we examine the relationship of TCDD and age of onset of menopause in a population of women residing near Seveso, Italy in 1976, at the time of a chemical plant explosion. These women, who participated in the Seveso Women's Health Study, were exposed to the highest levels of TCDD known in residential populations. Serum specimens collected near the time of the explosion allowed for individual estimates of exposure.

  3. KNOWLEDGE OF EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    Singh; Himabindu; Shrivastava

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND As per data from WHO, 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurred globally in 2008, out of which 47,000 women died from abortionrelated complications, contributing to 13% of global maternal mortality. (1) Emergency contraceptive can be used after intercourse to prevent pregnancy in case of unprotected intercourse, contraceptive failure or sexual assault. A considerable proportion of these abortions can be prevented by the timely use of emergency contraception. OBJECTIVE...

  4. Sexual Assault, Sexual Harassment, and Physical Victimization during Military Service across Age Cohorts of Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carolyn J; Gray, Kristen E; Katon, Jodie G; Simpson, Tracy L; Lehavot, Keren

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to sexual and physical trauma during military service is associated with adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Little is known about their prevalence and impact in women veterans across age cohorts. Data from a 2013 national online survey of women veterans was used to examine associations between age and trauma during military service, including sexual assault, sexual harassment, and physical victimization. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression, adjusting for service duration and demographic factors. In secondary analyses, the moderating role of age in the relationship between trauma and self-reported health was examined. The sample included 781 women veterans. Compared with the oldest age group (≥ 65), all except the youngest age group had consistently higher odds of reporting trauma during military service. These differences were most pronounced in women aged 45 to 54 years (sexual assault odds ratio [OR], 3.81 [95% CI, 2.77-6.71]; sexual harassment, OR, 3.99 [95% CI, 2.25-7.08]; and physical victimization, OR, 5.72 [95% CI, 3.32-9.85]). The association between trauma during military service and self-reported health status also varied by age group, with the strongest negative impact observed among women aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64. Compared with other age groups, women in midlife were the most likely to report trauma during military service, and these experiences were associated with greater negative impact on their self-reported health. Providers should be aware that trauma during military service may be particularly problematic for the cohort of women currently in midlife, who represent the largest proportion of women who use Department of Veterans Affairs health care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Age at menopause: imputing age at menopause for women with a hysterectomy with application to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Colditz, Graham A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Age at menopause, a major marker in the reproductive life, may bias results for evaluation of breast cancer risk after menopause. Methods We follow 38,948 premenopausal women in 1980 and identify 2,586 who reported hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy, and 31,626 who reported natural menopause during 22 years of follow-up. We evaluate risk factors for natural menopause, impute age at natural menopause for women reporting hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy and estimate the hazard of reaching natural menopause in the next 2 years. We apply this imputed age at menopause to both increase sample size and to evaluate the relation between postmenopausal exposures and risk of breast cancer. Results Age, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, pregnancy history, body mass index, history of benign breast disease, and history of breast cancer were each significantly related to age at natural menopause; duration of oral contraceptive use and family history of breast cancer were not. The imputation increased sample size substantially and although some risk factors after menopause were weaker in the expanded model (height, and alcohol use), use of hormone therapy is less biased. Conclusions Imputing age at menopause increases sample size, broadens generalizability making it applicable to women with hysterectomy, and reduces bias. PMID:21441037

  6. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-01-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this

  7. Social Roles in the Lives of Middle-Aged and Older Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lerita M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored participation in and impact of social roles on psychological and physical health of middle-aged and older Black women. Found that few such women participated in the three roles of parent, spouse, and employee simultaneously. Of these three roles, only employment showed a significant relationship to well-being, having a positive impact on…

  8. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. Recent findings The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The

  9. Age differences in women's tendency to gossip are mediated by their mate value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massar, K.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Rempt, S.

    In the current study it was investigated whether age differences in women's tendency to gossip exist, and whether these could be accounted for by self-reported mate value. It was expected that younger women would report a higher tendency to gossip after reading a scenario in which a romantic rival

  10. The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Robb, A. Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians,…

  11. Working women worldwide. Age effects in female labor force participation in 117 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Keune, M.; Steinmetz, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effects of economic conditions, families, education, and gender ideologies on the labor force participation rates of women in eleven age groups in 117 countries. We find that participation rates of young and older women are partly explained by sector sizes and the

  12. Subtle disorders of the menstrual cycle in subfertile and aging women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, P. van

    2001-01-01

    Why do some women fail to become pregnant although they have regular menstrual cycles? Why does female fertility decrease with age? In this thesis, several groups of women have been investigated. We examined the growth of ovarian follicles by ultrasound, and we followed the concentrations of some

  13. Alcohol Consumption Among Ghanaian Women of Child Bearing Age – What are the Correlates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nketiah-Amponsah Edward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the demographic and socio-economic correlates of alcohol consumption and drinking frequency among Ghanaian women aged 15-49 years. The study utilizes the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data, which remains the most recent DHS for studying the phenomenon in Ghana. Using logistic regression, our findings indicate that alcohol consumption among Ghanaian women is influenced by age, education, and wealth status. In addition, while health insurance ownership significantly affects alcohol consumption among urban women, employment status is reported to be a significant determinant among rural women. Results from the ordered logistic regression show that age, wealth status, pregnancy status, and place of residence are significant predictors of alcohol drinking frequency among Ghanaian women. Moreover, while secondary educational attainment is significant among urban women, primary educational attainment is significant among rural women. The study concludes that the predictors of alcohol consumption and drinking frequency among women of childbearing age in Ghana vary by place of residence (i.e., rural vs urban.

  14. Food insecurity and socio-demographic characteristics in two UK ethnic groups: an analysis of women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Small, Neil; Doherty, Bob; Pickett, Kate E

    2018-03-01

    The use of foodbanks has risen sharply in the UK; however, the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is undeveloped. This study contributes to the field by analysing socio-demographic risk factors for food insecurity in a female, ethnically diverse population. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort were matched with data on food insecurity from the nested BiB1000 study (N = 1280). Logistic regression was used to model food insecurity in relation to ethnicity and socio-demographic factors. Food insecurity, reported by 13.98% of the sample, was more likely among White British than Pakistani women (crude Odds Ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% CI: 1.37; 2.74, adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.57; 3.59). In fully adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with a range of socio-economic measures, particularly the receipt of mean-tested benefits (adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.41; 3.15) and perception of financial insecurity (adjusted OR 8.91, 95% CI: 4.14; 19.16 for finding it difficult/very difficult compared to living comfortably). The finding that food insecurity prevalence may be higher than previously thought and that food insecurity is highly associated with socio-economic status, notably benefit receipt, is a cause for concern necessitating an urgent policy response.

  15. The moral experience of illness and its impact on normalisation: Examples from narratives with Punjabi women living with rheumatoid arthritis in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Tessa; Calnan, Michael; Kumar, Kanta

    2015-11-01

    The moral component of living with illness has been neglected in analyses of long-term illness experiences. This article attempts to fill this gap by exploring the role of the moral experience of illness in mediating the ability of those living with a long-term condition (LTC) to normalise. This is explored through an empirical study of women of Punjabi origin living with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the UK. Sixteen informants were recruited through three hospitals in UK cities and interviews conducted and analysed using a grounded theory approach. The intersection between moral experience and normalisation, within the broader context of ethnic, gender and socioeconomic influences, was evident in the following: disruption of a core lived value (the centrality of family duty), beliefs about illness causation affecting informants' 'moral career', and perceived discrimination in the workplace. The data illustrate the importance of considering an ethnic community's specific values and beliefs when understanding differences in adapting to LTCs and changing identities. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. Season of birth and the risk of hip fracture in danish men and women aged 65+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Heitmann, Berit L; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    calculated fracture rates and relative risks. The analysis covered 541,109 men and 691,522 women. In women, we observed a small but statistically significant difference between fracture rates by season of birth for all age intervals expect the youngest (age 65-69). A similar pattern was seen in men...... an epidemiological analysis of hip fracture rates as a function of season of birth, age, and sex. We retrieved information on all hip fractures in the 9-year period between 1997 and 2005 in all men and women aged 65-95, excluded hip fractures that occurred in current and recent prednisolone users, and subsequently......, but this was only statistically significant in the two oldest age groups (age 85-89 and 90-95). These findings suggest that vitamin D availability in the first and second trimester of intrauterine life could have a small but lasting impact on bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Further studies...

  17. Age-specific prevalence of human papilloma virus infection among Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarolo-Anthony, Sally N; Famooto, Ayo O; Dareng, Eileen O; Olaniyan, Olayinka B; Offiong, Richard; Wheeler, Cosette M; Adebamowo, Clement A

    2014-06-27

    Inconsistent trends in HPV prevalence by age have been described in Africa. We examined the age prevalence pattern and distribution of 37 HPV-DNA types among urban Nigerian women. The study population was a sample of 278 women who presented to cervical cancer screening programs in Abuja, Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer was collected and samples of cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from all participants. Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test® was used to characterize prevalent HPV and log-binomial regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and the prevalence of HPV infection. The mean age (SD) of the women enrolled was 38 (8) years. The overall prevalence of HPV was 37%. HPV 35 was the most prevalent HPV type in the study population. Among women age ≤ 30 years, 52% had HPV infection compared to 23% of those women who were older than 45 years (p = 0.006). We observed a significant linear association between age and the prevalence of HPV infections. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (1.17, 4.34) for any HPV infection, 3.83 (1.23, 11.94) for Group 1 HPV (definite carcinogens), and 2.19 (0.99, 4.84) for Group 2a or 2b HPV (probable or possible carcinogens) types, among women aged 18-30 years, compared to women who were older than 45 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was highest among younger women and decreased steadily with age among this population of urban Nigerian women.

  18. Age at menarche and age at natural menopause in East Asian women: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Wei; Long, Jirong; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Park, Sue K; Ye, Xingwang; Noh, Dong-Young; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Yiqin; Chung, Seokang; Lin, Xu; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-12-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) are complex traits with a high heritability. Abnormal timing of menarche or menopause is associated with a reduced span of fertility and risk for several age-related diseases including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. To identify novel genetic loci for AM or ANM in East Asian women and to replicate previously identified loci primarily in women of European ancestry by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we conducted a two-stage GWAS. Stage I aimed to discover promising novel AM and ANM loci using GWAS data of 8073 women from Shanghai, China. The Stage II replication study used the data from another Chinese GWAS (n = 1230 for AM and n = 1458 for ANM), a Korean GWAS (n = 4215 for AM and n = 1739 for ANM), and de novo genotyping of 2877 additional Chinese women. Previous GWAS-identified loci for AM and ANM were also evaluated. We identified two suggestive menarcheal age loci tagged by rs79195475 at 10q21.3 (beta = -0.118 years, P = 3.4 × 10 -6 ) and rs1023935 at 4p15.1 (beta = -0.145 years, P = 4.9 × 10 -6 ) and one menopausal age locus tagged by rs3818134 at 22q12.2 (beta = -0.276 years, P = 8.8 × 10 -6 ). These suggestive loci warrant a further validation in independent populations. Although limited by low statistical power, we replicated 19 of the 98 menarche loci and 5 of the 20 menopause loci previously identified in women of European ancestry in East Asian women, suggesting a shared genetic architecture for these two traits across populations.

  19. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  20. NCHS - Birth Rates for Unmarried Women by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes birth rates for unmarried women by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1970. National data on births by Hispanics...

  1. Mammography use among women aged 18-39 years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; White, Mary C; Sabatino, Susan A; Febo-Vázquez, Isaedmarie

    2018-04-01

    Recommendations for breast cancer screening using mammography target asymptomatic women aged ≥ 40 years who are not at increased risk for breast cancer. Evidence is not available to demonstrate benefits of screening with mammography at younger ages, and little is known about mammography use among younger women. This study described mammography use among women aged 18-39 years. We analyzed data from the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth, an in-person survey of a nationally representative sample of the U.S. household population. We estimated the prevalence of ever receiving a mammogram and examined reasons for the first mammograms among women aged 18-39 years without personal cancer history (n = 8324). We classified the first mammogram as a screening examination if it was performed either as part of a routine exam or because of family history of cancer. Among women aged 18-39 years, 14.3% (95% CI 13.2-15.4) reported ever having a mammogram. Prevalence of mammography use was highest among women aged 35-39 years (31.0%, 95% CI 27.8-34.5), and was higher among non-Hispanic black women than in other race/ethnicity groups. Women with a family history of breast cancer reported a higher prevalence of mammography use than women without this family history. For both women with and without a family history of breast cancer, about half of all first mammograms were performed for screening reasons. Among U.S. women aged 18-39 years with no personal cancer history, one in seven reported having received a mammogram. Women with no family history of breast cancer were as likely as those with a family history to initiate breast cancer screening with mammography before age 40. Our findings provide evidence that supports further research to examine factors that prompt young women to receive screening mammograms.

  2. Complex exercise rehabilitation program for women of the II period of age with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Olga, Kozyreva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a complex exercise program integrating Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs in order to examine the effects of it on the human body with the subjects for women of the II period of mature age with metabolic syndrome. The subjects of this study are 60 II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome living in G City, and the experimental group conducted Taekwon-aerobic exercise, European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball e...

  3. Aging in community and local NGOs: Empowering marginalized older women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjeong

    2017-10-23

    This article is based on an embedded case study of selected older people's self-help groups in urban South Korea, which aim to assist community-dwelling older adults, particularly poor and marginalized women, to age in their community and remain active and contributing members. The study highlights the importance of the role and capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as partner organizations. Implications are important for other aging societies, particularly in Asia, where older women have been often confined by patriarchal oppression.

  4. CAPABILITY OF PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION PREVENTION IN GIRLS AND WOMEN OF VARIOUS AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Ch. Shakhtakhtinskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at one of the critical issues in modern medicine — human papilloma virus infection. The prevalence of this infection in the world and the possibility of primary prevention in females of various age groups are highlighted in details. It provides the results of vaccine prevention against the human papilloma virus in Russian in girls and women aged 9 to 26 years.Key words: papilloma virus infection, cervical cancer, women, girls, vaccinal prevention.

  5. Hysterosalpingographic (HSG pattern of infertility in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe R Onwuchekwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a complex disorder with significant medical, psychological and economic problems. Aims: The aim of the study is to evaluate the structural abnormalities of the uterus and fallopian tubes in infertile women as elucidated by hysterosalpingography. Setting and Design: A retrospective study, conducted at the Radiology and Obstetric and Gynaecologic Departments of a tertiary health care institution. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of all consecutive patients in whom hysterosalpingographic (HSG was performed for infertility between July 2013 and June 2015 in the Department of Radiology. For the biodata, indications for the investigation and the HSG findings were obtained. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA for Windows, version 20 software. Results: A total of 299 patients were evaluated. Of these, 250 were for infertility with primary and secondary infertility constituting 18.4 and 81.6%, respectively. Seventy percent of the cases for infertility had abnormalities on the HSG. Normal uterine cavity was found in 123 (49.2% cases. Uterine filling defects were the most common uterine abnormality. Fallopian tube occlusion, loculated contrast material spillage and hydrosalpinx were more common on the right, and bilateral tubal occlusion was seen only in 11.2%. All cases of intravasation were associated with either unilateral or bilateral fallopian tube blockage or irregularity of the uterus. Conclusion: There was a high incidence of tubal disease in the women presenting with infertility. This was commonly as a result of infection and inflammatory process. This study showed that HSG is very vital in detecting birth canal pathologies; hence, the facility for this important procedure, especially fluoroscopy, should be made available in the health centres for adequate assessment of the women with infertility.

  6. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  7. "You get old. You get invisible": Social isolation and the challenge of communicating with aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkner, Tammy J; Weare, Andrea M; Tully, Melissa

    2017-04-04

    Social isolation is a problem facing many older women. Isolation can contribute to poor health as adults age without social support. Increased and tailored communication offers service organizations more opportunities to provide social support to these adults. This research examines perceptions of aging to explore communication behaviors, barriers, and opportunities for improved communication and service provision for aging women. Using data from focus groups and interviews, this study finds that participants from community organizations rely on word of mouth and traditional media to communicate with their aging constituents, despite opportunities to use digital communication and to develop communication plans for this population.

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with severe mental illness: inequalities by ethnicity and age. Cross-sectional analysis of 588 408 records from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, J; Ashworth, M; Dewey, M E; Gaughran, F; Hull, S; Morgan, C; Nazroo, J; Petersen, I; Schofield, P; Stewart, R; Thornicroft, G; Prince, M J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether the association of severe mental illness with Type 2 diabetes varies by ethnicity and age. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from an ethnically diverse sample of 588 408 individuals aged ≥18 years, registered to 98% of general practices (primary care) in London, UK. The outcome of interest was prevalent Type 2 diabetes. Relative to people without severe mental illness, the relative risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with severe mental illness was greatest in the youngest age groups. In the white British group the relative risks were 9.99 (95% CI 5.34, 18.69) in those aged 18-34 years, 2.89 (95% CI 2.43, 3.45) in those aged 35-54 years and 1.16 (95% CI 1.04, 1.30) in those aged ≥55 years, with similar trends across all ethnic minority groups. Additional adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions only marginally attenuated the associations. Assessment of estimated prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in severe mental illness by ethnicity (absolute measures of effect) indicated that the association between severe mental illness and Type 2 diabetes was more marked in ethnic minorities than in the white British group with severe mental illness, especially for Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals with severe mental illness. The relative risk of Type 2 diabetes is elevated in younger populations. Most associations persisted despite adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions. Ethnic minority groups had a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the presence of severe mental illness. Future research and policy, particularly with respect to screening and clinical care for Type 2 diabetes in populations with severe mental illness, should take these findings into account. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  9. Reproductive history, socioeconomic status and disability in the women aged 65 years or older in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Belgin; Ege, Emel; Koçoğlu, Deniz; Arslan, Selda Y; Bilgili, Naile

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are an important physiological and emotional phenomenon in their lives for most women and studies have shown that this process may have a significant impact on their health at later ages. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between functional disabilities in women over the age of 65 and their reproductive history and socioeconomic status. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 543 women aged 65 or over. A general questionnaire and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were used to collect data with face-to-face interview in home visits. Of the women 79.2% have disability. First childbirth was experienced at the average age of 19.6+/-3.3 and the average age at which the women experienced their last delivery was 32.5+/-6.3. Parity was 4.1+/-1.7. Advanced age, being widowed and illiterate, less income, being outside of the middle class and having more than four children are important determinants for later life disability. The study highlights the importance of focusing not just on the short-term effects of childbearing and socioeconomic factors, but also of taking into account the possibility of long-term effects on disability in older women.

  10. Nutritional Status of Settler and Indigenous Women of Reproductive Age Group in Khagrachari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monoarul Haque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health is closely related with nutritional status of a country. Women are regarded as the nerve centers of the families and society, maternal nutrition and health is considered as the most important regulator of human fetal growth. Objective: This study was conducted with a view to assess the nutritional status of settler and indigenous women of reproductive age group (15--49 years in Khagrachari district. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the purposively selected Panchari thana of Khagrachari district in Bangladesh from 01 May to 31 August 2013. A total of 200 reproductive aged women were interviewed. Among them 100 were indigenous and 100 were settlers. Their anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for Asian people. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29.8 ± 11.1 years and maximum were in the age group of 15--24 years. Among the indigenous subjects Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Boisnu were 20.5%, 20.5%, 6.5% and 2.5% respectively. Among 100 indigenous reproductive aged women 17 were underweight; but among settlers 19 were underweight. Forty nine settler women were normal and in case of indigenous women 46 were normal. But regarding overweight indigenous women went ahead than settler women and obesity was found equal in both groups. Mean difference of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC was significantly different (p<0.005 between the groups. Conclusion: This study provided a vivid picture of the nutritional status of the settler and indigenous reproductive aged women.

  11. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie C; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Lombard, Catherine B; Harrison, Cheryce L

    2017-06-08

    Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban ( n = 149) and rural ( n = 394) women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264). Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD) 80,000 vs. urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  12. Age at diagnosis in women with non-metastatic breast cancer: Is it related to prognosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieldin, N.H.; Abo-Elazm, O.M.; Bilal, D.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Salem, S.E.; Gouda, E.; Elmongy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary objective was to verify whether breast cancer patients aged less than 40 years at diagnosis have poorer prognosis than older patients. Secondary to assess prognostic factors influencing disease free survival. Methods: 941 women were diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer at NCI, Cairo in 2003. Epidemiologic, clinico-pathological characteristics, treatment modalities and disease free survival were compared among the two age groups. Prognostic factors were evaluated for association with disease-free survival. Results: One hundred-eighty-one patients (19.2%) were younger than 40 years and 760 (80.8%) were older. Older women presented with higher rates of comorbidities and younger women presented with more hormone non-responsive tumors. Young women presented with larger tumors pT4 = 13.8% compared to 8.6% in older women, yet not significant. Young women were treated with more conservative surgery, more adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy while older women with more radical mastectomies and more hormonal treatment. Recurrence rates were significantly higher among young women 44,2% compared to 34.5% in older women. Five year disease free survival in young women was 38.9% ± 4.6% compared to 48.6% ± 2.5% with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 95% Cl (0.91-1.64),p = 0.19. Multivariate analyses identified positive axillary lymph nodes (pN2-pN3), larger tumor size (pT3-pT4), hypertension, lobular carcinoma type and lack of adjuvant systemic treatment as independent factors associated with poor DFS. Conclusion: Young women were not found to have poorer prognosis, yet they presented with more ER negative tumors. Most of women presented with advanced stage and young women had higher recurrence rates.

  13. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and incidence rates of autism in the UK: time trend from 2004–2010 in children aged 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brent; Jick, Hershel; MacLaughlin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To update UK studies begun in the early 1990s on the annual prevalence and incidence rates of autism in children; undertaken in response to a March 2012 press release, widely covered by the media, from the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) reporting that the autism prevalence rate in 2008 in 8-year-old US children was 1 in 88, a 78% increase from a CDC estimate in 2004. This finding suggested a continuation of the dramatic increase in children diagnosed as autistic, which occurred in the 1990s. Design Population study using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods Annual autism prevalence rates were estimated for children aged 8 years in 2004–2010 by dividing the number diagnosed as autistic in each or any previous year by the number of children active in the study population that year. We also calculated annual incidence rates for children aged 2–8 years, by dividing the number newly diagnosed in 2004–2010 by the same denominators. Results Annual prevalence rates for each year were steady at approximately 3.8/1000 boys and 0.8/1000 girls. Annual incidence rates each year were also steady at about 1.2/1000 boys and 0.2/1000 girls. Conclusions Following a fivefold increase in the annual incidence rates of autism during the 1990s in the UK, the incidence and prevalence rates in 8-year-old children reached a plateau in the early 2000s and remained steady through 2010. Whether prevalence rates have increased from the early 2000s in the USA remains uncertain. PMID:24131525

  15. Work and women's well-being: religion and age as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noraini M

    2008-12-01

    Religion has been found to moderate the stress-strain relationship. This moderator role, however, may be dependent on age. The present study tested for the three-way interaction between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of women's well-being, and predicted that work experience and religiosity will combine additively in older women, while in younger women religiosity is predicted to moderate the relationship between work experience and well-being. In a sample of 389 married Malay Muslim women, results of the regression analyses showed significant three-way interactions between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of well-being (measured by distress symptoms and life satisfaction). While in younger women the results were in line with the predictions made, in the older women, both additive and moderator effects of religiosity were observed, depending on the well-being measures used. These results are discussed in relation to the literature on work and family, with specific reference to women's age, religion, as well as the issue of stress-strain specificity.

  16. The pregnancy question: a survey regarding the establishment of whether females of childbearing age are or may be pregnant prior to radiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine departments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.; Arscott, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the UK, the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 state that 'the written procedure for medical exposures shall include...procedures for making enquiries of females of childbearing age to establish whether the individual is or may be pregnant...'. Despite the importance of this question and the potential for causing great distress and anxiety if an examination involving ionising radiation is performed on a pregnant patient, the guidance available is vague and there is no universally accepted procedure on when and how to ask this difficult question. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the procedure for enquiring about possible pregnancy varies from department to department. To investigate this further, we devised a questionnaire to send out to diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine departments across the UK. Questions asked related to the department's written procedure, the examinations for which the question would be asked, the age of women asked and the recording of whether the question was asked and the outcome. Responses were received from over 300 individuals from 66 different hospitals. The majority (73.5%) were from X-ray departments, 14.0% were from nuclear medicine and the remaining 12.5% included computed tomography, neuroradiology, angiography and cardiac catheter labs. 97.0% have a written procedure, 1.2% do not, 0.9% do not know and 0.9% gave no response. Of the responses from X-ray departments, 17% ask the question for all examinations, while 83% ask for examinations of specific body regions. Several body regions were stated and were divided into 9 categories with the main one being diaphragm to knees (45%). Nuclear medicine departments ask for all examinations. With regard to establishing the 'childbearing age', 5% state that for younger and older patients they ascertain whether the female has started/stopped menstruation before asking the pregnancy question (no age range given), and 95% state an age range of the females

  17. Study protocol: quantitative fibronectin to help decision-making in women with symptoms of preterm labour (QUIDS) part 2, UK Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Lisa M; Boyd, Kathleen Anne; Morris, Rachel K; Jackson, Lesley; Chandiramani, Manju; David, Anna L; Khalil, Asma; Shennan, Andrew; Hodgetts Morton, Victoria; Lavender, Tina; Khan, Khalid; Harper-Clarke, Susan; Mol, Ben; Riley, Richard D; Norrie, John; Norman, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors. Methods and analysis The study will evaluate the Rapid fFN 10Q System (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA) which quantifies fFN in a vaginal swab. In QUIDS part 2, we will perform a prospective cohort study in at least eight UK consultant-led maternity units, in women with symptoms of preterm labour at 22+0 to 34+6 weeks gestation to externally validate a prognostic model developed in QUIDS part 1. The effects of quantitative fFN on anxiety will be assessed, and acceptability of the test and prognostic model will be evaluated in a subgroup of women and clinicians (n=30). The sample size is 1600 women (with estimated 96–192 events of preterm delivery within 7 days of testing). Clinicians will be informed of the qualitative fFN result (positive/negative) but be blinded to quantitative fFN result. Research midwives will collect outcome data from the maternal and neonatal clinical records. The final validated prognostic model will be presented as a mobile or web-based application. Ethics and dissemination The study is funded by the National Institute of Healthcare Research Health Technology Assessment (HTA 14/32/01). It has been approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (16/WS/0068). Version Protocol V.2, Date 1 November 2016. Trial registration number ISRCTN41598423 and CPMS: 31277. PMID:29674373

  18. Women's Longitudinal Patterns of Smoking during the Pre-Conception, Pregnancy and Postnatal Period: Evidence from the UK Infant Feeding Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available An understanding of women's longitudinal patterns of smoking during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period and the factors associated with these patterns could help better inform smoking cessation services and interventions.Latent class analysis (LCA was used to empirically identify women's smoking patterns in a sample of 10,768 mothers from the 2010 UK Infant Feeding Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with these patterns.LCA identified five distinct smoking patterns during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period: "non-smokers" (74.1% of women; "pregnancy-inspired quitters" (10.2%; "persistent smokers" (10.1%; "temporary quitters" (4.4%; and postnatal quitters (1.1%. Smoking patterns varied markedly according to socio-demographic variables and parity. After adjusting for these variables, mothers who lived during pregnancy with a partner who smoked were more likely to be temporary quitters (aOR 2.64, 95% CI 1.74-3.99 or persistent smokers (aOR 3.32, 95% CI 2.34-4.72 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers who lived during pregnancy with someone else other than a partner who smoked were more likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.38-3.97 or postnatal quitters (aOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.07-8.24 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers given information on how their partner could stop smoking if they lived during pregnancy with a smoking partner were less likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65 than pregnancy-inspired quitters.Health professionals should ask about smoking at every opportunity, and refer women who self-report as current smokers to an evidence based smoking cessation service.

  19. Successful ageing amongst elderly women living independently in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This qualitative study explores successful ageing among a group of old ... were 3 million in 2011 Stats SA) and those above 65 years were reported to have grown ... Alpaslan (2011), with students as fieldworkers, gave a baseline overview of elderly ... life experiences (Wagnild 2003), a theoretical approach that has been ...

  20. Ethnic and genetic factors of iron status in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Background: African Americans are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) but also have higher serum ferritin (SF) concentrations than those of the general population. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study was a multicenter study of ethnically diverse participants that tested for the hemochromatosis ( HFE ) C282Y genotype and iron status. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of ID (SF concentration ≤15 μg/L) and elevated iron stores (SF concentration >300 μg/L) in HEIRS women of reproductive age (25-44 y). Design: The HEIRS Study was a cross-sectional study of iron status and HFE mutations in primary care patients at 5 centers in the United States and Canada. We analyzed data for women of reproductive age according to whether or not they were pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of the study. Results: ID was present in 12.5% of 20,080 nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 19.2% of 1962 pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P iron stores were shown in 1.7% of nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 0.7% of pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P = 0.001). HFE C282Y homozygosity had the most marked independent association with elevated iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women (OR >49.0; P iron stores in both groups of women (OR >2.0; P iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women. Conclusions: Both ID and elevated iron stores are present in women of reproductive age and are influenced by ethnicity and HFE C282Y. Efforts to optimize iron status should keep these findings in view. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03276247. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. In vitro fertilization in women under 35: counseling should differ by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, K C; Dodge, L E; Wu, L H; Penzias, A S; Malizia, B A; Sakkas, D; Hacker, M R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF), including cumulative live birth rate, among women age at their first fresh-embryo, non-donor IVF cycle from January 1995 through December 2012 at a single center was conducted. A competing-risk regression model was used to estimate the cumulative probability and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of the first live birth in up to 6 cycles during the study period with IVF cycle number as the time metric. Among 7243 women who underwent 16,792 cycles, there were 163 (2.3 %) women groups, the cumulative live birth rate after 6 cycles was significantly lower than that of women 25 to age following their first IVF cycle. This indicates that there are underlying factors in couples with a female age that should lead to different treatment counseling when they attempt IVF.

  2. Cost of fertility treatment and live birth outcome in women of different ages and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shilpi; McLernon, David J; Scotland, Graham; Mollison, Jill; Wordsworth, Sarah; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2014-10-10

    What is the impact of different age and BMI groups on total investigation and treatment costs in women attending a secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic? Women in their early to mid-30s and women with normal BMI had higher cumulative investigation and treatment costs, but also higher probability of live birth. Female age and BMI have been used as criteria for rationing publically funded fertility treatments. Population-based data on the costs of investigating and treating infertility are lacking. A retrospective cohort study of 2463 women was conducted in a single secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic in Aberdeen, Scotland from 1998 to 2008. Participants included all women living in a defined geographical area referred from primary care to a specialized fertility clinic over an 11-year period. Women were followed up for 5 years or until live birth if this occurred sooner. Mean discounted cumulative National Health Service costs (expressed in 2010/2011 GBP) of fertility investigations, treatments (including all types of assisted reproduction), and pregnancy (including delivery episode) and neonatal admissions were calculated and summarized by age (≤ 30, 31-35, 36-40, >40 years) and BMI groupings (years, with 694 (55.1%) of these being natural conceptions. The live birth rate was highest among women in the youngest age group (64.3%), and lowest in those aged >40 years (13.4%). Overall live birth rates were generally lower in women with BMI >30 kg/m(2). The total costs of investigations were generally highest among women younger than 30 years (£491 in those with normal BMI), whilst treatment costs tended to be higher in 31-35 year olds (£1,840 in those with normal BMI). Multivariate modelling predicted a cost increase associated with treatment which was highest among women in the lowest BMI group (across all ages), and also highest among women aged 31-35 years. The increase in the predicted probability of live birth with exposure to treatment was consistent

  3. Factors associated with educational mobility in mid-age Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Leigh R; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-02-01

    The educational mobility of mid-age women is rarely studied. We analysed the baseline socio-economic position (SEP) and health factors associated with obtaining further education in 4117 mid-age Australian women between 1996 and 2010 (aged 45-50 at baseline, 62-67 at follow-up) from a population-based study. Women either unemployed or working part-time at baseline had higher odds of a stable low and middle education over time (ORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.86) versus educational mobility. Apart from obesity, characteristics that may signal an unhealthy lifestyle in early mid-life were not useful indicators of women's future educational mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, K; Beyene, Y; Nachtigall, R D

    2013-02-01

    What do older women understand of the relationship between age and fertility prior and subsequent to delivering their first child? Women who were first-time parents over the age of 40 did not accurately perceive the relationship between age and fertility prior to conceiving with IVF. While increases in women's age at their first birth have been most pronounced in relatively older women, the rapidity of fertility decline is not appreciated by most non-infertility specialist physicians, the general public or men and women who are delaying childbearing. Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2011 with 61 self-selected women who were patients in one of two fertility clinics in the USA. All participants had delivered their first child following IVF when the woman was 40 years or older. The data include women's responses to the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions 'What information did you have about fertility and age before you started trying to get pregnant?' and 'What did you learn once you proceeded with fertility treatment?' Of the women, 30% expected their fertility to decline gradually until menopause at around 50 years and 31% reported that they expected to get pregnant without difficulty at the age of 40. Reasons for a mistaken belief in robust fertility included recollections of persistent and ongoing messaging about pregnancy prevention starting in adolescence (23%), healthy lifestyle and family history of fertility (26%), and incorrect information from friends, physicians or misleading media reports of pregnancies in older celebrity women (28%). Participants had not anticipated the possibility that they would need IVF to conceive with 44% reporting being 'shocked' and 'alarmed' to discover that their understanding of the rapidity of age-related reproductive decline was inaccurate'. In retrospect, their belated recognition of the effect of age on fertility led 72% of the women to state that they felt 'lucky' or had

  5. Hydatidiform mole: age-related clinical presentation and high rate of severe complications in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Giorgia; Giorgione, Veronica; Gentile, Cinzia; Bergamini, Alice; Pella, Francesca; Almirante, Giada; Candiani, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate differences in clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole between women ≥40 years and younger women. Retrospective study. A tertiary referral unit in northern Italy. Three hundred and sixty-five women with hydatidiform mole were divided into group A (Clinical presentation between groups A and B was analyzed, also considering partial hydatidiform mole and complete hydatidiform mole. Differences in clinical presentation according to woman's age. In group B the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole at ≥12 gestational weeks was more frequent (p presented with vaginal bleeding (p clinical features of hydatidiform mole in women ≥40 years are different from those seen in younger women. Failures in the early detection of hydatidiform mole in older women may expose them to a higher rate of severe complications. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Ethnicity as a determinant of ovarian reserve: differences in ovarian aging between Spanish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Carlos; Banker, Manish; Mahajan, Nalini; Herrero, Leyre; Meseguer, Marcos; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate differences in ovarian reserve markers (antimüllerian hormone [AMH] and antral follicle count [AFC]) in Indian and Spanish women. Cross-sectional study. In vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Infertile Spanish (n=229) and Indian (n=236) women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF from January to October 2012. None. Data on ovarian reserve markers and results after ovarian stimulation were collected. The mean age of women undergoing their first or second IVF cycle was significantly higher in Spanish than in Indian women (37.5±3.3 years vs. 31.5±3.8 years). Despite this 6-year age gap, AFCs were similar (9.5±4.7 vs. 9.9±4.6), as were day 3 FSH levels (7.5±4.5 IU/L vs. 6.9±2.3 IU/L). AMH levels were slightly lower in Spanish women (1.6±1.7 ng/mL vs. 2.5±1.6 ng/mL). Multivariate regression analysis showed that being Indian decreased AFC by 2.3, such that AFC in Indian women was similar to that in Spanish women 6.3 years older (95% confidence interval 3.39-1.10). Similar ovarian reserve markers and ovarian response were observed in women with a 6-year age difference in favor of the Spanish, suggesting ethnic differences in ovarian aging. Further research is needed to understand whether these differences are genetically induced or are caused by other variables, such as nutrition. Our results may help clinicians to counsel infertile women when discussing assisted reproductive technology outcomes according to age and ethnic background. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ageism and sexism at work: the middle-aged women of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K L

    2000-01-01

    Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemployment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial segregation and wage differentials, which in turn left them vulnerable to unemployment and poverty. Rampant age and sex discrimination in the workplace is due to a number of factors: traditional values and cultural devaluation of women's work and need for education, economic restructuring and labor importation, a legal vacuum, inefficient retraining policy, and the weak position of women in the labor movement. The postcolonial government under Tung Chee Hwa is heavily influenced by business interests. Women in the age group of 30-39 and above are hardest hit. They are not targeted as special groups of trainees who require special assistance. Given the limited concern for gender development on the part of the new government, the prospect for women workers does not look good.

  8. Women's attitudes to beauty, aging, and the place of cosmetic procedures: insights from the QUEST Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger-Martin, Agnès; Cohen-Letessier, Anny; Taïeb, Maryna; Azoulay, Elisabeth; du Crest, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The quest for beauty has been a constant theme in human history since the earliest civilizations. The QUEST Observatory, an online observational study, investigated how women continue the pursuit of beauty in the 21st century by examining women's perceptions of facial attractiveness and the strategies they adopt to combat the effects of time on their faces. To investigate women's attitudes toward beauty, aging, and the place of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and anti-aging skincare. An in-depth questionnaire was developed by experts in dermatology, esthetic medicine, and social anthropology as the basis for this online, observational study. A nationally representative sample of 1000 French women aged between 25 and 70 years took part in the study. The main criteria for beauty were identified as a natural look, self-confidence, and attractive skin. A woman is considered to be at the peak of beauty in her mid-thirties just before early signs of facial aging begin to appear. Approximately 50% of women contemplate cosmetic procedures, but less than 10% go ahead. Confidence in the practitioner and good postprocedure follow-up are as influential as efficacy, safety, and cost in decisions about cosmetic procedures. The QUEST Observatory sheds valuable light on factors that affect women's choices regarding strategies for anti-aging and cosmetic procedures. These findings will help esthetic practitioners to better understand their patients and to meet their expectations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Age-related differences in dual task performance: A cross-sectional study on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo R; Magistro, Daniele; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica E

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous performances of motor and attention-demanding tasks are common in activities of everyday life. The present cross-sectional study examined the changes and age-related differences on mobility performance with an additional cognitive or motor task, and evaluated the relative dual-task cost (DTC) on the motor performance in young, middle-aged and older women. A total of 30 young (mean age 25.12 ± 3.00 years), 30 middle-aged (mean age 47.82 ± 5.06 years) and 30 older women (mean age 72.74 ± 5.95 years) were recruited. Participants carried out: (i) single task: Timed Up & Go Test; (ii) cognitive dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while counting backwards by three; (iii) manual dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while carrying a glass of water. A repeated measures anova with between-factor as age groups and within-factor as tasks was carried out to assess the effect of aging on the performance of mobility tasks. DTC was calculated as ([performance in single-task - performance in dual-task] / performance in single task) × 100%. One-way ancova were carried out to compare the DTC among the three age groups. A significant interaction between age groups and task (F 4,172  = 6.716, P performance under dual-task condition compared with young and middle-aged groups. Furthermore, DTC differences in cognitive task were observed in older women compared with younger and middle-aged women (F 2,86  = 7.649, P task. Dual-task conditions might affect mobility performance differently across the lifespan, and could be particularly challenging in older women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 315-321. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  11. The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)

  12. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Zylicz, S.A.; Pieters, S.; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  13. Age at Menarche and the Menstrual Pattern of Igbo Women of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines the age at menarche and menstrual pattern of an Igbo population in 12 randomly selected rural communities of Ebonyi State. Information on recalled ages at menarche, menstrual flow duration and cycle length was collected using a semi structured questionnaire over three months. 1209 women of ...

  14. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido A.; Zylicz, Staś A.; Pieters, Sara; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Fernández, Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  15. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  16. A grounded theory of successful aging among select incarcerated older Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Heizel Mae; Lozano, Carl James; Valdez, Les Paul; Manzarate, Rowena; Lumawag, Fortuna Angelli Jolyn

    Across the literature, impairment and disability among the older people have been associated with a decline in meeting their special needs. Failure in meeting such needs may cause deterioration of function and threaten successful aging. Accordingly, successful aging studies were carried out among males, in health care institutions, and in communities. In spite of these, the process by which successful aging is experienced by incarcerated older women remains to be a blank spot in research. This study purports to describe the process by which incarcerated older Filipino women experience successful aging. Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 15 purposively selected incarcerated older Filipino from a Philippine penal institution exclusive for women. Further, data gathered was reduced to field text and was analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Finally, truthfulness and trustworthiness of the findings were established through member checking. The study generated "The Road to Success Model". Interestingly, five phases relative to successful aging emerged, namely: Struggling, Remotivating, Reforming, Reintegrating and Sustaining. These phases describe how select incarcerated older Filipino women undergo transformation towards successful aging. Similar to a road, each phase is considered a station where one must pass through in order to get to the destination. Findings of the study serve as an impetus for structural and procedural changes in prison, with a view to providing an environment conducive to successful aging and appropriate recognition to the older prisoner's efforts to achieve successful aging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel H. Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups.

  18. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Edomwonyi Obasohan, MEd, MBA, MSc; 1

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confi dence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion.

  19. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  20. Decision making and counseling around mammography screening for women aged 80 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A; Ramanan, Radhika A; McCarthy, Ellen P; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2006-09-01

    Despite uncertain benefit, many women over age 80 (oldest-old) receive screening mammography. To explore decision-making and physician counseling of oldest-old women around mammography screening. Qualitative research using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Twenty-three women aged 80 or older who received care at a large academic primary care practice (13 had undergone mammography screening in the past 2 years) and 16 physicians at the same center. We asked patients and physicians to describe factors influencing mammography screening decisions of oldest-old women. We asked physicians to describe their counseling about screening to the oldest-old. Patients and/or physicians identified the importance of physician influence, patient preferences, system factors, and social influences on screening decisions. Although physicians felt that patient's health affected screening decisions, few patients felt that health mattered. Three types of elderly patients were identified: (1) women enthusiastic about screening mammography; (2) women opposed to screening mammography; and (3) women without a preference who followed their physician's recommendation. However, physician counseling about mammography screening to elderly women varies; some individualize discussions; others encourage screening; few discourage screening. Physicians report that discussions about stopping screening can be uncomfortable and time consuming. Physicians suggest that more data could facilitate these discussions. Some oldest-old women have strong opinions about screening mammography while others are influenced by physicians. Discussions about stopping screening are challenging for physicians. More data about the benefits and risks of mammography screening for women aged 80 or older could inform patients and improve provider counseling to lead to more rational use of mammography.

  1. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  2. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Marta; Goni, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; Zazpe, Itziar; García, Aquilino; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. This cross-sectional survey involved 4,471 Spanish women at childbearing-age that were planning a pregnancy. Information was collected through a questionnaire by community health professionals. The profile of childbearing-age recruited women planning a pregnancy were in her early thirties (31.4 ± 4.8 years) and 72.5% were seeking for her first baby. They had a good self-perception of their nutritional and health status and followed a balanced diet. Interestingly, primiparae women had lower risk of health complications but they were greater consumers of tobacco and alcohol (p pregnancies underlying modifiable or preventable factors. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (Pperiodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (Pperiodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

  4. Clinical presentation of urinary tract infection (UTI) differs with aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinzon, Zeev; Shabat, Shay; Peisakh, Alexander; Berner, Yitshal

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated UTI is among the most common health problems seen in general practice and typically affects immunocompetent, anatomically normal women. The aim of this study was to explore the difference in clinical presentation in acute, uncomplicated UTI in otherwise healthy community dwelling, premenopausal (Pre-M) and postmenopausal (Post-M) women. A UTI was defined as uropathogen of more than 10(3)cfu/ml in midstream urine culture. Symptoms of UTI were divided to three: during voiding, local symptoms, and generalized symptoms. A total of 196 women aged a minimum of 45 years with diagnosis of UTI were studied. The patients were divided into two groups: Pre-M (n=102, mean age 48.14 years) and Post-M (n=94, mean age 69.21 years). The predominant complaints in Pre-M women were local symptoms. The clinical presentations showed more severity in the Post-M group than in Pre-M women, predominantly generalized unspecific symptoms and storage symptoms. Advanced age positively correlated with urgency of urination, painful voiding, urinary incontinence, sexual activity, low-back pain, lower abdominal pain and negatively correlated with frequency, painful and burning of urination and bladder pain. Our study showed that clinical presentation of UTI in Pre-M and Post-M women is different. The differences are presented not only by the voiding itself and by local symptoms but also by unspecified generalized symptoms that is especially important in elderly patients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Effect of women's age on embryo morphology, cleavage rate and competence-A multicenter cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2017-01-01

    This multicenter cohort study on embryo assessment and outcome data from 11,744 IVF/ICSI cycles with 104,830 oocytes and 42,074 embryos, presents the effect of women's age on oocyte, zygote, embryo morphology and cleavage parameters, as well as cycle outcome measures corrected for confounding.......0001) with increasing age. Maternal age had no effect on cleavage parameters or on the morphology of the embryo day 2 post insemination. Interestingly, initial hCG value after single embryo transfer followed by ongoing pregnancy was increased with age in both IVF (p = 0.007) and ICSI (p = 0.001) cycles. For the first...... time, we show that a woman's age does impose a significant footprint on early embryo morphological development (3PN). In addition, the developmentally competent embryos were associated with increased initial hCG values as the age of the women increased. Further studies are needed to elucidate...

  6. Diet and bone mineral density study in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry shows a negative association with a traditional English dietary pattern and a positive association with wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Skinner, Jane; Guile, Geoffrey R; Cassidy, Aedín; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of diet on bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial, mainly because of difficulties in isolating dietary factors from the confounding influences of age, lifestyle, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to use a novel method to examine the relation between BMD and diet. A co-twin control study design with linear regression modeling was used to test for associations between BMD and habitual intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and alcohol plus 5 previously identified dietary patterns in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry. This approach exploited the unique matching of twins to provide an estimate of an association that was not confounded by age, genetic background, or shared lifestyle. In >2000 postmenopausal women (BMD data on 1019, 1218, and 1232 twin pairs at the hip neck, hip, and spine, respectively), we observed a positive association between alcohol intake (from wine but not from beer or spirits) and spine BMD (P = 0.01) and a negative association with a traditional 20th-century English diet at the hip neck (P = 0.01). Both associations remained borderline significant after adjustment for mean twin-pair intakes (P = 0.04 and P = 0.055, respectively). Other dietary patterns and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and protein were unrelated to BMD. Our results showed that diet has an independent but subtle effect on BMD; wine intake was positively associated with spine BMD, whereas a traditional (20th-century) English diet had a negative association with hip BMD.

  7. Contraceptive methods and use by women aged 35 and over: A qualitative study of perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiscella Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 30% of the pregnancies in women aged 35 and over are unintended. This paper compares perceptions about contraceptive methods and use among women with and without an unintended pregnancy after turning age 35. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. They were all 35 to 49 years old, regularly menstruating, sexually active, not sterilized, not desiring a pregnancy in the near future, and at least 3 months postpartum. We purposely sampled for women who had had at least one unintended pregnancy after age 35 (n = 9 and women who did not (n = 8. We assessed partnership, views of pregnancy and motherhood, desired lifestyle, perceived advantages and disadvantages of using and obtaining currently available well-known reversible contraceptives in the U.S. ''We also assessed contraceptive methods used at any time during their reproductive years, including current method use and, if appropriate, circumstances surrounding an unintended pregnancy after age 35.'' Each interview was taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Analysis focused on partnership, views of pregnancy, motherhood, desired lifestyle and perceived advantages and disadvantages of various reversible contraceptive methods. Results The women without an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1 use contraceptive methods that helped treat a medical condition, (2 consider pregnancy as dangerous, or (3 express concerns about the responsibilities of motherhood. The women who experienced an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1 report unstable partnerships, (2 perceive themselves at lower risk of pregnancy, or (3 report past experiences with unwanted contraceptive side effects. There was a greater likelihood a woman would choose a contraceptive method if it was perceived as easy to use, accessible, affordable and had minimal side effects. Conclusions Women's perspective

  8. Contraceptive methods and use by women aged 35 and over: A qualitative study of perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Emily M; Chin, Nancy P; Fielding, Stephen L; Fiscella, Kevin; Dozier, Ann

    2011-02-16

    More than 30% of the pregnancies in women aged 35 and over are unintended. This paper compares perceptions about contraceptive methods and use among women with and without an unintended pregnancy after turning age 35. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. They were all 35 to 49 years old, regularly menstruating, sexually active, not sterilized, not desiring a pregnancy in the near future, and at least 3 months postpartum. We purposely sampled for women who had had at least one unintended pregnancy after age 35 (n = 9) and women who did not (n = 8). We assessed partnership, views of pregnancy and motherhood, desired lifestyle, perceived advantages and disadvantages of using and obtaining currently available well-known reversible contraceptives in the U.S. ''We also assessed contraceptive methods used at any time during their reproductive years, including current method use and, if appropriate, circumstances surrounding an unintended pregnancy after age 35.'' Each interview was taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Analysis focused on partnership, views of pregnancy, motherhood, desired lifestyle and perceived advantages and disadvantages of various reversible contraceptive methods. The women without an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1) use contraceptive methods that helped treat a medical condition, (2) consider pregnancy as dangerous, or (3) express concerns about the responsibilities of motherhood. The women who experienced an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1) report unstable partnerships, (2) perceive themselves at lower risk of pregnancy, or (3) report past experiences with unwanted contraceptive side effects. There was a greater likelihood a woman would choose a contraceptive method if it was perceived as easy to use, accessible, affordable and had minimal side effects. Women's perspective on contraceptive use after age 35 varies. Public health

  9. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (ppostural control performance (ppostural control shown by these women.

  10. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-10-01

    Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6-79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6-8 h/day, 11.5% slept 5h or less, and 8.7% slept 9h or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around 7 h/day (6.5-7.4h/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of these associations so that recommendations can be developed to reduce sleep

  11. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI?>25?kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ?25?kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference?>85?cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ?85?cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health ...

  12. The meaning of home for ageing women living alone: An evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arro; Heale, Roberta; Pilon, Roger; Lavoie, Anne Marise

    2018-05-01

    The concept of home to women ageing should be visited in the light of ongoing cultural, political, temporal and disciplinary evolutions. In part, to compliment policies increasing focus on supporting older adults to age in place and a growing attention on the home as a place where healthcare is designed and provided. The following concept analysis utilises Rodgers' evolutionary method to inductively analyse literature in order to elicit the meaning and experience of home among older women who are ageing at home. Literature was collected over an 18-month period during 2014-2015 and the sample was made up of 49 articles. The analysis led to the concept of home among women ageing in communities to be defined by four attributes. These attributes are home as (i) a resource, (ii) an attachment, (iii) the precariousness of maintaining and sustaining home and (iv) a cultural expectation. This analysis of the meaning and experience of home among women ageing at home has shed light on the needs for this group of women, while highlighting the need to continue to further clarify and define the concept through research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Menopause-related symptoms in middle-aged women residing in the Zaragoza Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo Ramón; Martínez-Dearth, Rebeca; López-Baena, María Teresa; Ornat-Clemente, Lía

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess menopausal symptoms and related sociodemographic conditions in middle-aged women from the Spanish province of Zaragoza. This was a cross-sectional study in which 241 women (40-59 years old) from the Zaragoza province completed the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data to assess symptoms associated with the menopause. The most prevalent symptoms were musculoskeletal, followed by hot flushes and perspiration. Somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms were more severe in post-menopausal women. Somatic and urogenital symptoms worsen with age, body mass index, age at menopause, and partner age. Multiple linear regression analysis (MA) for somatic symptoms was related with the menopausal status, psychiatric treatment, problems with sexual relationships, and history of gender violence. The MA for psychological symptoms was associated with menopausal status, psychiatric treatment and a history of gender violence. The MA for urogenital symptoms was associated with menopausal status, problems with sexual relationships, urinary incontinence and partner alcohol abuse. A history of gender violence was reported by 11.6% of the women. In this sample of middle-aged women, menopausal symptoms were related to menopausal status, and other factors associated with their partner factors, including gender violence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in fertile age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Andrea; Centini, Gabriele; Lazzeri, Lucia; Zupi, Errico

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common gynecological disease and represents one of the most frequent reasons for hospital admission to a specialist unit, often requiring further surgical treatment. Following the so-called PALM-COEIN system we will attempt to further clarify the surgical treatments available today. The first group (PALM) is characterized by structural lesions, which may be more appropriately treated by means of surgical management. Although hysterectomy remains the definitive and decisive choice, there are many alternative techniques available. These minimally invasive procedures offer the opportunity for a more conservative approach. Precise and accurate counseling facilitates better patient selection, based on the patient's desires, age and disease type, allowing treatment to be individually tailored to each woman.

  15. Intraabdominal pressure in women during CrossFit exercises and the effect of age and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Laura Faye; Doersch, Karen M; Reyes, Michelle; Kuehl, Thomas J; Danford, Jill M

    2018-07-01

    To determine intraabdominal pressure (IAP) in women during CrossFit and to determine whether parity, age, or CrossFit experience affects IAP during CrossFit exercises, we evaluated 10 women: 5 experienced and active CrossFitters and 5 who were not regularly engaged in CrossFit. A Laborie urodynamics abdominal pressure probe with the Goby wireless system measured IAP during 10 repetitions of 13 different CrossFit exercises. Women had a mean age of 36 years. A significant difference was found between mean peak IAP of the 5 parous vs the 5 nulliparous women ( P = 0.009). Experience with CrossFit did not affect mean peak IAP achieved with exercise. In some exercises, there was a significant change in IAP as participants progressed through repetitions ( P = 0.003 for back squats and 0.04 for sit-ups). Participants achieved IAP values that were markedly higher than those previously published.

  16. Counseling middle-aged women about physical activity using the stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Jennifer S; Sheahan, Sharon L

    2002-11-01

    To discuss application of the Stages of Change theoretical framework and provide clinical tips on exercise adherence among midlife women. Included is a checklist to assist the nurse practitioner (NP) in effectively delivering the message. Review of the current scientific literature on exercise adherence and the Stages of Change model. Middle-aged women comprise a unique population. Determining the woman's readiness for change using the Stages of Change model, NPs can routinely include appropriate exercise recommendations in their practices. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to promote healthy behaviors by counseling women in midlife about adopting an active lifestyle. Exercise counseling is an essential component of healthcare, especially among middle-aged women who are experiencing physical, emotional, and social changes.

  17. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kay; Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-06-24

    To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). General practices in Thames Valley, UK. 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks' duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the need for an adolescent pertussis booster vaccination in the United Kingdom. UK

  18. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan

  19. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  1. The impact of sent-down movement on Chinese women's age at first marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shige Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chinese women's age at first marriage increased for more than three years on average during the short period between 1970 and 1979. Demographers attributed it to the 'later, longer, fewer' family planning policy of the 1970s whereas some sociologists suggested that the 'send-down' movement in 1968-1978, which mobilized over 17 million urban youths and sent them to the countryside, may also have played a role. Methods: Using newly available high-quality national representative sample survey data, we estimated the effect of being sent-down on women's age at first marriage. We then conducted counterfactual simulations to decompose the total increase in women's age of marriage between 1970 and 1979 into a component attributed to the send-down and a residual component attributed to other factors. Results: Our results suggest that being sent-down delayed Chinese women's age at first marriage by 1.2 years. For urban women, this accounts for 13.3 percent of the total increase in their age at first marriage between 1970 and 1979. For urban and rural women together, the overall contribution of send-down to the increase in their age of marriage is less than one percent. Conclusions: On one hand, the send-down policy did not play an important role in the demographic transition process in China. On the other hand, for the 17 million sent-down youths, being forced to leave home and settle in a harsh and unfamiliar rural environment at very young ages marked a hard transition to adulthood and inevitably disrupted their normal life course. Delayed marriage, as revealed by this study, may be just tip of the iceberg.

  2. Evidence for age-related performance degradation of (241)Am foil sources commonly used in UK schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, R; Page, R D; Cole, P R

    2014-06-01

    The characteristics of alpha radiation have for decades been demonstrated in UK schools using small sealed (241)Am sources. There is a small but steady number of schools who report a considerable reduction in the alpha count rate detected by an end-window GM detector compared with when the source was new. This cannot be explained by incorrect apparatus or set-up, foil surface contamination, or degradation of the GM detector. The University of Liverpool and CLEAPSS collaborated to research the cause of this performance degradation. The aim was to find what was causing the performance degradation and the ramifications for both the useful and safe service life of the sources. The research shows that these foil sources have greater energy straggling with a corresponding reduction in spectral peak energy. A likely cause for this increase in straggling is a significant diffusion of the metals over time. There was no evidence to suggest the foils have become unsafe, but precautionary checks should be made on old sources.

  3. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (adjusted hazard ratio for women in lowest versus highest LCn3FA intake group: 1.91 [95% CI: 1.26-2.90]). Restricting the sample to women who had consistently reported similar frequencies of fish intake across 3 different dietary assessment......Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk...... of cardiovascular disease in a large prospective cohort of young women (mean age at baseline: 29.9 years [range: 15.7-46.9]). Exposure information on 48 627 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort was linked to the Danish National Patients Registry for information on events of hypertensive, cerebrovascular...

  4. Chronic disease risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M

    2011-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.

  5. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFIsexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (psexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on education and counseling in this subject. PMID:27141546

  6. Prediction of endometriosis by transvaginal ultrasound in reproductive-age women with normal ovarian size

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer H. Said; Amal Z. Azzam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To predict endometriosis by transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in reproductive-age women with normal ovarian size. Design: Prospective study. Setting: El-Shatby Maternity Hospital, Alexandria University. Patients: 125 Women with symptoms suggestive of endometriosis and with normal ovarian size during TVS. Interventions: Patients were subjected to high frequency ultrasound and evaluated for the presence of ultrasound signs of endometriosis (TVS-based soft markers). All patien...

  7. Age, Stigma, Adherence and Clinical Indicators in HIV-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Katryna; Higgins, Melinda; Zuñiga, Julie Ann; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2015-01-01

    Stigma has become a gendered phenomenon that affects increasing numbers of HIV-infected women worldwide. This study examined the role of age as a possible moderator of the relationship between stigma and antiretroviral therapy adherence, CD4% and viral load among 120 HIV-infected women. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Keeping Healthy and Active with Risk Reduction and Medication Adherence (KHARMA) Project, an National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded randomized control...

  8. Anaemia in women of reproductive age in Tanzania : A study in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Massawe, Siriel Nanzia

    2002-01-01

    The overall aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age and to investigate the underlying causes, as well as assess the effectiveness of antenatal care (ANC) interventions for anaemia prevention. Consecutive pregnant women booking for ANC (n=2235) were screened for anaemia, followed up and screened again late in pregnancy. Basic ANC interventions included iron and folate supplementation, malaria chemoprophylaxis and referral of severe anaemia cas...

  9. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  10. Residential environmental risks for reproductive age women in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyjack, David; Soret, Samuel; Chen, Lie; Hwang, Rhonda; Nazari, Nahid; Gaede, Donn

    2005-01-01

    Published research suggests there is an association between maternal inhalation of common ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including an increased risk for preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, small head circumference, low birth weight, and increased rate of malformations. The air pollutants produced by indoor combustion of biomass fuels, used by 50% of households worldwide, have been linked to acute lower respiratory infections, the single most important cause of mortality in children under the age of 5. This report describes a hypothesis-generating study in West Wollega, Ethiopia, conducted to assess airborne particulate matter concentrations in homes that combust biomass fuels (biomass homes). Respirable suspended particulate matter was measured in biomass homes and nonbiomass homes using NIOSH method 0600. Measured airborne particulate concentrations in biomass homes were up to 130 times higher than air quality standards. These findings, in part, confirm that exposure to indoor air pollutants are a major source of concern for mother/child health. Midwives are encouraged to raise awareness, contribute to research efforts, and assist in interventions.

  11. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The paradox of impossible beauty: body changes and beauty practices in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Chevé, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and understand the experience of aesthetic body changes in women between 65 and 75 years old. To approach the issue, 29 in-depth interviews were conducted in Marseille in 2011. Following a brief review of contemporary Western aesthetics, we will examine the marks of time women perceive as stigmatizing and analyze beauty practices that aim to conceal or repair them. The last part of this article will be devoted to the experience of the aesthetic body and in particular show how aging can paradoxically have a beneficial effect on some women.

  13. Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS and performance impairment (PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.

  14. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-12-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this intervention. We conducted a qualitative study in a Dutch university medical center and held in-depth interviews with women on the waiting list for oocyte banking. We recorded the interviews, transcribed them verbatim and used thematic analysis. All women were financially independent and lived in single-person urban households. They opted for oocyte banking because they wished to share parenthood with a future partner rather than becoming a single parent. This strong desire was key in their interpretation of all aspects of the intervention. Women set aside information about the limited success rates and potential risks, as they were optimistic about their own prognosis, thought that the chances for success were equally likely as the chances it would fail, and because of "anticipatory regret". They perceived oocyte banking as a "helping hand" to achieve shared parenthood. Although women found the costs of the intervention high, they were willing to invest their money to increase their chances for shared parenthood. Oocyte banking allows women to circumvent age-related fertility decline. The prospect of potential shared parenthood overrules the perceived health risks and burden. Health professionals should take this into account when informing potential users of oocyte banking. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Middle-aged women's preferred theory-based features in mobile physical activity applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA). Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred. Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application. Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middle-aged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.

  16. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  17. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  18. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.......1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20.......7 ± 1.9 and 2.4 ± 2.9 %, respectively, in SOC, with a greater (P soccer training with sedentary middle-aged women caused marked increases in bone...

  19. Effect of tobacco smoke on the oral health of U.S. women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Hiroko; Kumar, Jayanth V; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T; Billings, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    To determine the oral health status of US women of childbearing age and to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke on their oral health. Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were evaluated for women 15-44 years of age. The association of exposure to tobacco smoke with untreated caries, mean DMFS, gingivitis, and periodontitis were examined in bivariate and regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. The prevalence of untreated caries was 25%, for gingivitis 49%, and for periodontitis 6%. After adjusting for potential confounders, self-reported current smoking was a strong independent risk indicator for untreated caries, periodontitis, and to a lesser extent for greater DMFS count. Women with detectable cotinine levels below 15 ng/mL presented with an increased risk for gingivitis. Independent factors associated with increased risk for untreated caries were being Black, having less than a high school education, Medicaid or no health insurance, previous live births, and infrequent and episodic dental visits. Characteristics associated with gingivitis were being Mexican-American, obese, pregnant, and having infrequent dental visits. Older age, no insurance, and the last dental visit for treatment were independently associated with periodontitis. Dental caries and periodontitis were prevalent among certain subgroups of women of reproductive age. Smoking was found to be a significant risk indicator for various negative oral health outcomes. Barriers to accessing to dental care that were manifested by untreated caries among Black women, mothers, and Medicaid beneficiaries must be better understood.

  20. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  1. Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p = 0.027), menopausal status (p = 0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p = 0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p = 0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p = 0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p = 0.016) or night cream (p = 0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations. PMID:21179450

  2. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akter Shamima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (13 years was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30. Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend P for trend = 0.01, but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02. However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions.

  3. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  4. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149 and rural (n = 394 women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD, 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264. Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013 and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043. Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  5. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  6. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Tadayon Najafabady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orgasmic dysfunction in women is characterized by persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Research has shown that almost two thirds of women have concerns about their sexual relationship. Sexual dysfunction has many problems for couples; some researchers found that up to 67% of divorces related to sexual disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and related factors of anorgasmia among reproductive age Iranian women. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2006-7 in Hesarak, Karaj, Iran. A total of 1200 women were randomly recruited to the study. Sexual satisfaction questions were prepared according to the Enrich Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. Orgasms were assessed according to the relevant questions in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11; Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, was 26.3%. There was a significant difference between the anorgasmic and normal orgasm groups regarding the women's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage and education during puberty (p<0.05. Some psychological factors, e.g. anxiety, fatigue, pain, feeling of guilt, anti-masculine feelings and embarrassment in sexual relationships were higher in the anorgasmic group (p<0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia in Hesarak is high and most of the anorgasmic women were highly unsatisfied with their sexual relationship compared to the normal orgasm group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, is high and some socio-demographic and psychological factors have a strong relationship with anorgasmia.

  7. Employment, work hours and weight gain among middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, N; Hauck, K; Hollingsworth, B

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the influence of employment and work hours on weight gain and weight loss among middle-aged women. Quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the influence of employment and hours worked on percentage weight change over 2 years across the entire distribution of weight change in a cohort of middle-aged women. A range of controls was included in the models to isolate the effect of work status. A total of 9276 women aged 45-50 years at baseline who were present in both the 1996 and 1998 surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The women were a representative sample of the Australian population. Being out of the labour force or unemployed was associated with lower weight gain and higher weight loss than being employed. The association was stronger at low to moderate levels of weight gain. Among employed women, working regular (35-40), long (41-48) or very long (49+) hours was associated with increasingly higher levels of weight gain compared with working part-time hours. The association was stronger for women with greater weight gain overall. The association between unemployment and weight change became insignificant when health status was controlled for. Employment was associated with more weight gain and less weight loss. Among the employed, working longer hours was associated with more weight gain, especially at the higher levels of weight gain where the health consequences are more serious. These findings suggest that as women work longer hours they are more likely to make lifestyle choices that are associated with weight gain.

  8. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cigarette Smoking Among Working Women of Reproductive Age-United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; England, Lucinda J

    2016-05-01

    Employers play a vital role in promoting and supporting tobacco use cessation among tobacco-using workers. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a preventable cause of complications in pregnancy and adverse infant health outcomes. To estimate cigarette smoking prevalence and attempts to quit among working women of reproductive age in different industries and occupations using a nationally representative survey. The 2009-2013 National Health Interview Survey data for women of reproductive age (18-49 years) who were working in the week prior to the interview (n = 30855) were analyzed. Data were adjusted for nonresponse and weighted to produce nationally representative estimates. During 2009-2013, among working women of reproductive age, an estimated 17.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.7-17.8) and 12.9% (95% CI: 12.4-13.4) were current and former cigarette smokers, respectively. Of women who smoke daily, 44.5% (95% CI: 42.5-46.5) had made a quit attempt for more than 1 day in the year before the interview. Cigarette smoking prevalence was highest among women working in the construction industry (29.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-35.7) and in construction and extraction occupations (34.6%; 95% CI: 23.4-45.9). Among working women who were pregnant at the time of the interview, 6.8% (95% CI: 4.4-9.2) and 20.4% (95% CI: 16.9-24.0) were current and former cigarette smokers, respectively. Cigarette smoking prevalence varies by industry and occupation. Intensifying tobacco control efforts in high prevalence industries and occupations could result in higher cessation rates and improvements in health among women of reproductive age. This study identified discrepancies in cigarette smoking among women of reproductive age across industries and occupations. In the absence of smoke-free local and state laws, employer-established smoke-free policies and workplace cessation programs are important for achieving reduction of tobacco use among women and for protecting other workers' health

  10. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  11. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average ± standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 ± 1.0 cm and 54% ± 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 ± 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  12. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  13. Temporal trend of anemia among reproductive-aged women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Som, Suparna; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    Anemia is one of the major leading nutritional deficiencies in India, and the most vulnerable groups are preschool and adolescent children and pregnant and lactating women. The main objective of the study is to determine the temporal trend of anemia among reproductive-aged women of age 15-49 years. The study uses data from second and third rounds of the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS-2, 1998-1999, and NFHS-3, 2005-2006), conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences. The dependent variable was the status of anemia of women. The determining variables were type of residence, age group, religion and castes, educational status, marital status, and household standard of living index. Anemia was most prevalent in the east zone for both the periods. The changes at the all India level were not much, but the north-east zone improved very well, whereas the south zone deteriorated drastically. The occurrence of severely anemic women in India varied between 1% and 2%. The highest prevalence rates were observed among women who were 15 to 24 years of age, illiterate, from non-Christian scheduled tribes (STs), unmarried, and whose standard of living was low. Rates of anemia have increased over time except in the case of Buddhists, Parsees, Jains, and the STs. From the viewpoint of our study, illiteracy and low standard of living may be the main causes of anemia among women in India. It is also necessary to take appropriate steps to curb anemia in women in their early adulthood. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  15. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  16. Social dimensions of health across the life course: Narratives of Arab immigrant women ageing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Jordana; Keating, Norah; Ogilvie, Linda; Hunter, Kathleen F

    2018-04-01

    The increase in ethnically and linguistically diverse older adults in Canada necessitates attention to their experiences and needs for healthy ageing. Arab immigrant women often report challenges in maintaining health, but little is known about their ageing experiences. This interpretive descriptive study uses a transnational life course framework to understand Arab Muslim immigrant women's experiences of engaging in health-promoting practices as they age in Canada. Women's stories highlight social dimensions of health such social connectedness, social roles and social support that are constructed and maintained within different migration contexts across the life course. Barriers and facilitators to healthy ageing in this population centred around five themes: (i) the necessity of staying strong, (ii) caring for self while caring for others, (iii) double jeopardy of chronic illnesses and loneliness, (iv) inadequate support within large social networks and (v) navigating access to health-supporting resources. The findings point to transnational connections and post-migration social support as major influencers in creating facilitators and barriers to healthy ageing for Arab Muslim immigrant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An evaluation of mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting courses for pregnant women and prospective fathers/partners within the UK NHS (MBCP-4-NHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Sian; Crane, Catherine; Dymond, Maret; Krusche, Adele

    2018-05-26

    An evaluation of mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting courses for pregnant women and prospective fathers/partners within the UK NHS (MBCP-4-NHS). To explore the usefulness within the National Health Service (NHS) of a brief (four week, ten hour) course based upon the Mindfulness Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) programme (Duncan and Bardacke, 2010) described here as MBCP-4-NHS. The National Maternity Review (2016) and report of The Independent Mental Health Taskforce to the NHS (2016a, 2016b) in England highlight the need for significant investment into perinatal mental health services, with the Government pledging funding to improve such services through a range of measures. Whilst the field of mindfulness during the perinatal period is in need of well controlled trials and studies exploring the mechanisms of action (Hall et al., 2016) the limited research to date supports the potential for mindfulness based interventions in pregnancy and the need for further scientific study in this area (Dhillon et al., 2017; Shi and Macbeth, 2017). Particularly because it may broaden women's repertoire of coping strategies with the potential to improve the developmental trajectory of both parents and infants (Dunn et al., 2012; Duncan and Bardacke, 2010; Vieten and Astin, 2008). However, most of the studies to date have involved lengthy courses of around 8-9 weeks (24 h) duration, which may not be feasible or economical within a UK NHS setting and therefore, would be unlikely to be adopted as routine practice. An initial pilot study to discover if MBCP-4-NHS is acceptable and feasible within NHS maternity services, comparing maternal and paternal pre and post intervention self-report measures of mental health to begin to explore the effectiveness of this intervention. NHS antenatal education classes held in children's centres for expectant parents across Oxfordshire. All expectant parents receiving Oxfordshire maternity services between October 2014 and January 2015

  18. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  19. Facilitating communication about sexual health between aging women and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Lewinson, Terri D W

    2015-04-01

    Many women experience changes in sexual health as they age, and discussing these changes with health care providers is an essential component of optimal health management. The purpose of this study was to understand aging women's perspectives about communicating with providers about sexual health. We used the integrative model of behavioral prediction as a theoretical lens to explore women's attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived self-efficacy that promote or inhibit the likelihood of communicating about sexual health. In this theory-based qualitative study, we interviewed 28 community-dwelling older women in the Midwestern United States. Through thematic analysis, we identified both positive and negative attitudes about communicating with providers. Women seemed most inclined to discuss sexual health if they perceived that important patient-provider conditions, such as trust and rapport, were in place. Despite situational obstacles and perceived norms, these women held strong beliefs about their abilities to discuss sexual health topics with providers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Small for gestational age birth outcomes in pregnant women with perinatally acquired HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Jennifer; Sigel, Keith M; Chen, Katherine T; Rodriguez-Caprio, Gabriela; Posada, Roberto; Shust, Gail; Wisnivesky, Juan; Abrams, Elaine J; Sperling, Rhoda S

    2012-04-24

    To compare small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight in children born to women with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) vs. those with behaviorally acquired HIV (BAH). Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a live born at a single hospital in New York City from January 2004 to April 2011. We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, antiretroviral therapy (ART), mode of HIV acquisition, and pregnancy outcomes on study participants. We compared rates of these exposures among participants by method of HIV acquisition. Generalized Estimating Equation was applied to evaluate the effect of HIV acquisition type on SGA birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 87 live births evaluated, 17 were born to 14 women with PAH. Overall, 20 (23%) were SGA. Eight of these SGA neonates were born preterm. Live births to women with PAH were more likely to be born SGA in our unadjusted analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 4.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-12.41). After adjusting for mother's age, substance use during pregnancy, nadir CD4 cell count during pregnancy, viral suppression at delivery, and second-line ART use during pregnancy, this relationship persisted with an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% CI = 1.03-31.61). In comparison to infants born to women with BAH, infants born to women with PAH were at high risk for compromised intrauterine growth. Future studies are warranted to determine possible causal mechanisms.

  1. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  2. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in women of reproductive age at a family health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula von; Sá, Lana Cristina Evangelista Ferreira; Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira da; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2017-03-31

    Trichomonas vaginalis is considered the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection, and its occurrence exceeds that of gonococcal and chlamydia infections. This parasite has been identified as responsible for the increased risk of transmission of HIV and has also been associated with prostate and cervical cancer. Many carriers of T. vaginalis are asymptomatic and, when experiencing a health problem, they most often have nonspecific symptoms. The aim of this research was to estimate the presence of T. vaginalis and the associated factors in women of childbearing age at a primary health care clinic in the Federal District of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with consecutive sampling of an outpatient population of women of childbearing age (excluding minors and pregnant women). The women answered a questionnaire and were examined. After vaginal pH measurement and whiff testing, a vaginal secretion sample was obtained for inoculation in TYM, a specific T. vaginalis culture medium. The presence of T. vaginalis was identified in 16% of the sample. Fewer lifetime sexual partners and consistent condom use were identified as factors of protection against the infection. Complaints of dyspareunia were proportionally higher among women with positive cultures for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection was high in the sample studied. The infection was positively associated with the number of lifetime sexual partners, and consistent condom use was a protective factor. Vaginal complaints were more common among women with T. vaginalis, but only dyspareunia had significant association.

  3. Links Between Education and Age at Marriage among Palestinian Women in Israel: Changes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  4. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Masliak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  5. Attitudes of women after the age of 50 towards preventive screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórzyńska, Hanna; Krawczyk-Suszek, Marlena; Kulik, Teresa B; Pacian, Anna; Stefanowicz, Agata; Skowronek, Anna

    2017-12-23

    Prevention is one of the major branches of the health sector. The National Health Programme encompasses main risk factors, elimination of which may lead to a reduced incidence of illnesses in the society. At the same time, the criteria of selecting people eligible for preventive screening are established according to risk groups determined by sex, as well as age in the population of women. The perimenopausal and menopausal period contributes to occurrence of numerous systemic diseases and to an increased risk of illnesses, especially cancers. The objective of the research was to evaluate the performance of preventive screening tests of women after 50 aimed at early detection of cervical and breast cancer. Furthermore, the research estimated frequency of pathological lesions detected and regularity of their monitoring. The research covered 150 women after 50 years of age. The database was statistically examined with STATISTICA software. A low percentage of the respondents, in comparison to the risk increasing with age, had a Pap test (61.3%) and mammography (51.3%) in the last two years. In the case of women whose latest Pap test or mammography showed abnormalities and was the basis for diagnosing pathological lesions, 69.2% of them were under regular medical supervision if abnormalities were identified by a Pap test and 68.7% if lesions were detected in breast structure. In the examined group we observed a small percentage of women undergo Pap tests and mammography. Furthermore, medical recommendations regarding early detection of cancers are frequently ignored and disregarded by patients.

  6. Low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia between 1981 and 2010 in Chilean women of childbearing age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Ríos-Castillo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status among Chilean women of childbearing age between 1981 and 2010. Materials and methods. Calculation of the prevalence of anemia and iron status was based on multiple cross-sectional iron absorption studies performed in 888 women during this period of time. All studies included measurements of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, zinc protoporphyrin, percentage of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. Data were grouped by decade (1981-1990,1991-2000, and 2001-2010. Results. Prevalence of anemia for these decades was 9, 6 and 10%, respectively (p=NS. Iron deficiency anemia was the main cause of anemia in all periods (55, 85 and 75%, respectively; p=NS. A high prevalence of women with normal iron status was observed for all periods (64, 69, and 67, respectively; p=NS. Prevalence of iron deficiency without anemia in 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 was 7, 20 and 12%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Finally, prevalence of iron depleted stores was 20, 6 and 10%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Conclusions. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Chilean women of childbearing age was mild between 1981 and 2010. More than 60% of childbearing age women presented normal iron status in all periods. However, prevalence of iron depleted stores was moderate during 1981-1990, and was mild during 1991-2000 and 2001-2010.

  7. Corpus luteum mimics a pelvic lesion on FDG PET in women of childbearing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.W.; Sim, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the nature of incidental single pelvic lesion on F-18 FDG PET scan in the women of childbearing age, further investigation were done. Methods: Three women who had a single round hypermetabolic lesion in the pelvic cavity on FDG PET were further investigated through follow up PET scan or MRI scan. The purposes of PET scan were routine follow up of breast cancer after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for a patient and cancer screening for two women. The ages were 39, 45, and 48 years old respectively. The last menstrual periods (LMP) were 21, 22 and 24 days before PET examinations. The size and peak SUVs (standard uptake values) of lesions are presented. Results: The lesion in pelvic cavity disappeared in a patients with breast cancer on a follow up PET scan 2 months and 1 week later. The lesions in two women were proved to be corpus luteum cysts on MRI examination on the same day of PET examination. Conclusion: Single pelvic lesion in women of childbearing age should be ruled out a normal corpus luteum cyst. Also, schedule of PET imaging should be adjusted according to her menstrual period

  8. Beliefs about menopause of general practitioners and mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K; Hunter, M S; White, P

    1994-12-01

    Recent general population studies suggest that experience of the normal menopause transition is relatively unremarkable for the majority of women, but negative stereotyped beliefs about menopause remain pervasive. This study explored GPs' beliefs and opinions about menopause in general, and compared the GPs' beliefs with those of their mid-aged female patients. All GPs at five general practices (n = 24) and 101 45-year-old women registered at the same practices took part. Large proportions of both groups believed that most women experience somatic and psychological difficulties during menopause. GPs expressed more negative beliefs than patients but were also more likely to express positive/neutral beliefs. Some causal attributions of menopausal problems were shared by the two groups, but they differed on others. When both GPs and patients hold negative social stereotypes about menopause, problems of mid-aged women may be misattributed to menopause. Health information on menopause may be biased towards negative images of menopause and of aging women.

  9. Prevalence of hormone replacement therapy in a sample of middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Jeune, B

    1988-01-01

    A survey based on a postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of Danish women aged 40-59 yr living on the island of Fünen (n = 401, response rate = 79%) revealed that the overall prevalence of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was 16%, the highest rate being in the 50-54 age group (21......%). Among post-menopausal women the rate was 21% and it was highest of all (37%) in those who had undergone an artificial menopause. The median age at the start of treatment was 44.3 yr among the artificial menopause and 48.9 yr among the natural menopause subjects. About half of the women were treated...... with natural oestrogen alone and over a third with cyclic natural oestrogen in combination with progestogens. Almost one-third of the women had consulted their doctor about climacteric complaints and two-thirds of these were current or past users of HRT. The women had ambiguous feelings towards HRT...

  10. A Novel Inexpensive Use of Smartphone Technology for Ecological Momentary Assessment in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer; Buman, Matthew; Hooker, Steven; Todd, Michael; de Vreede, Gert-Jan

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available mobile and Internet technologies present a promising opportunity to feasibly conduct ecological momentary assessment (EMA). The purpose of this study was to describe a novel EMA protocol administered on middle-aged women's smartphones via text messaging and mobile Internet. Women (N = 9; mean age = 46.2 ± 8.2 y) received 35 text message prompts to a mobile survey assessing activity, self-worth, and self-efficacy over 14 days. Prompts were scheduled and surveys were administered using commercial, Internet-based programs. Prompting was tailored to each woman's daily wake/sleep schedule. Women concurrently wore a wrist-worn accelerometer. Feasibility was assessed via survey completion, accelerometer wear, participant feedback, and researcher notes. Of 315 prompted surveys, 287 responses were valid (91.1%). Average completion time was 1.52 ± 1.03 minutes. One participant's activity data were excluded due to accelerometer malfunction, resulting in complete data from 8 participants (n = 252 [80.0%] valid observations). Women reported the survey was easily and quickly read/completed. However, most thought the accelerometer was inconvenient. High completion rates and perceived usability suggest capitalizing on widely available technology and tailoring prompting schedules may optimize EMA in middle-aged women. However, researchers may need to carefully select objective monitors to maintain data validity while limiting participant burden.

  11. Prevention of congenital Chagas disease by Benznidazole treatment in reproductive-age women. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics...

  13. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The

  14. Validation of the Diagnostic Score for Acute Lower Abdominal Pain in Women of Reproductive Age

    OpenAIRE

    Jearwattanakanok, Kijja; Yamada, Sirikan; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin; Smuthtai, Waratsuda; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2014-01-01

    Background. The differential diagnoses of acute appendicitis obstetrics, and gynecological conditions (OB-GYNc) or nonspecific abdominal pain in young adult females with lower abdominal pain are clinically challenging. The present study aimed to validate the recently developed clinical score for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age. Method. Medical records of reproductive age women (15–50 years) who were admitted for acute lower abdominal pain were collec...

  15. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  16. Harm to offspring of women of childbearing age employed in the the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report evaluates risk arising from employing women of childbearing age in occupations where exposure to ionizing radiation is likely. It was assumed that about seven percent of women employed in the nuclear industry would give birth to a child in a given year, and that the period of unrecognized pregnancy is 60 days. Using data on risk factors per rem, critical periods for individual end points, and the proportion of women pregnant per year, the risk of harm to offspring was calculated. The forms of harm considered were failure to implant, mental retardation, and induction of cancer. Calculated risk factors were applied to exposure data from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station from 1981. The maximum harm that can be expected to be produced as a result of exposure of 100 women as mechanical maintenance workers under these conditions would be three cases of either congenital malformation or cancer per 100 years

  17. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  18. WOMEN'S AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE AND LONG-TERM ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN EGYPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Crandall, AliceAnn; Cheong, Yuk Fai

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 calls on nations to promote gender equality and to empower women and girls. SDG5 also recognizes the value of women's economic empowerment, entailing equal rights to economic resources and full participation at all levels in economic decisions. Also according to SDG5, eliminating harmful practices-such as child marriage before age 18-is a prerequisite for women's economic empowerment. Using national data for 4,129 married women 15-43 years who took part in the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS 1998-2012), we performed autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether women's first marriage in adulthood (at 18 years or older, as reported in 2006), was positively associated with their long-term post-marital economic empowerment, measured as their engagement in market work and latent family economic agency in 2012. Women's first marriage in adulthood had positive unadjusted associations with their market work and family economic agency in 2012. These associations persisted after accounting for market work and family economic agency in 2006, pre-marital resources for empowerment, and cumulative fertility. Policies to discourage child marriage may show promise to enhance women's long-term post-marital economic empowerment.

  19. What kind of sexual dysfunction is most common among overweight and obese women in reproductive age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiepoor, S; Khalkhali, H R; Sadeghi, E

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sexual health and determine what kind of sexual dysfunction is most common among overweight and obese women in reproductive age from Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted. The data of 198 women who referred to health centers during 2014-2015 in Iran were collected through convenient sampling. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, female sexual function and sexual satisfaction indexes. Participants' heights and weights were recorded in centimeters and kilogram. Data were analyzed applying descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, regression logistic analysis and χ 2 . P-valuessexual dysfunction, and 69.7% had dissatisfaction and low satisfaction. According to our evaluations, orgasm dysfunction had the most frequency; on the other hand, desire dysfunction and pain dysfunction had the lowest frequency among overweight and obese women, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, we have shown that BMI affected on sexual satisfaction, but there was not significant differences between BMI and sexual function. This article concludes that all women especially women with overweight and obesity should be counseled about health outcomes related to sexual activity. This article concludes that all women especially women with overweight and obesity should be counseled about health outcomes related to sexual activity.

  20. The prevalence of PFS and prevalence and characteristics of reported food allergy; a survey of UK adults aged 18-75 incorporating a validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skypala, I J; Bull, S; Deegan, K; Gruffydd-Jones, K; Holmes, S; Small, I; Emery, P W; Durham, S R

    2013-08-01

    Pollen-food syndrome (PFS), a food allergy affecting pollen-sensitized individuals, is likely to be the most prevalent food allergy in adults, estimated to affect 50-90% of people allergic to birch tree pollen. A validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire (PFSDQ2) was used to determine the prevalence of PFS and also to characterize those who report reactions to foods. Five UK General practices each sent the PFSDQ2 by post to 2000 patients aged 18-75 years randomly selected from their practice database. The validated questionnaire was accompanied by an additional set of questions to ascertain the demographic of the population, the foods involved and the age of onset. There were 3590 subjects who returned completed questionnaires, with an average return rate from each practice of 36% (range 22-47%). Of these, 73 were diagnosed with PFS according to the questionnaire (PFS+ve) giving a population prevalence of 2%. A further 482 subjects reported reactions to foods but did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for PFS. The greatest prevalence of PFS was in the Croydon (SE England) urban practice (4.1%) and the lowest in the Aberdeen (Scotland) urban practice (0.8%) (P < 0.001).The most frequently reported trigger foods were apples, hazelnuts and kiwifruit and the majority of those with PFS first experienced symptoms below the age of 20 years. PFS+ve subjects were also more likely to be female and have a higher socio-economic status than those who did not report reactions to foods. The UK prevalence of PFS was 2%, although this varied according to the location of the practice population. The majority of PFS+ve subjects first reported symptoms in their teens. The reported age of onset has important implications for the diagnosis of primary and cross-reactive peanut and tree nut allergies in teenagers and young adults. The continuing rise in aeroallergen sensitization is likely to result in an increased frequency of PFS presenting in both primary and secondary care. © 2013

  1. Bone and heart abnormalities of subclinical hyperthyroidism in women below the age of 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women with SCH showed a significant increase in serum markers of bone formation and resorption. In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the femoral neck but not in the lumbar spine in patients before menopause, whereas a lower BMD was observed at both sites in postmenopausal patients. SCH is not completely asymptomatic in women aged < 65 years, and is associated with heart abnormalities and with increased bone turnover and reduced BMD even before menopause.

  2. Effect of an Integrated Health Management Program Based on Successful Aging in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Okhee; Cha, Hye Gyeong; Chang, Soo Jung; Cho, Hyun-Choul; Kim, Hee Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an integrated health management program (IHMP) based on successful aging in older women. A single group pretest and posttest research design was employed, with a sample of 33 older Korean women over 60 years registered in a public health center. The intervention, including exercise, health education, and social activities, was performed 3 hr per week for 12 weeks. Demographic characteristics, body composition, physical fitness, biomarkers, depression, and social support were measured. Data were analyzed with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test, statistical significance levels were set at p test (p < .001) were significantly improved. Systolic blood pressure (p < .003), diastolic blood pressure (p = .030), and blood cholesterol (p = .011) were significantly decreased. Depression (p = .043) was significantly decreased, and social support (p < .001) was significantly increased. Adopting and maintaining an IHMP can be useful to promote physical, psychological, and social functioning that lead to successful aging in older Korean women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  4. Employment situation and risk of death among middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Ai; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the health effects of employment situation among women, taking social and economic conditions into consideration. The objective of this research was to investigate the association of employment situation (full-time or part-time employee and self-employed) with mortality risk in women over a 20-year follow-up period. Additionally, we examined whether the association between employment situation and mortality in women differed by education level and marital status. We investigated the association of employment situation with mortality among 16,692 women aged 40-59 years enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for total deaths by employment situation were calculated after adjustment for age, disease history, residential area, education level, marital status and number of children. We also conducted subgroup analysis by education level and marital status. Multivariate HRs for mortality of part-time employees and self-employed workers were 1.48 (95% CI, 1.25 to 1.75) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.72), respectively, with reference to women working full-time. Subgroup analysis by education level indicated that health effects in women according to employment situation were likely to be more evident in the low education-level group. Subgroup analysis by marital status indicated that this factor also affected the association between employment situation and risk of death. Among middle-aged Japanese women, employment situation was associated with mortality risk. Health effects were likely to differ by household structure and socioeconomic conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Motivational Factors in Women Seeking Augmentation Mammoplasty Across Different Age Groups: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf, Matan; Wiser, Itay; Klein, Dov; Heller, Lior

    2018-02-19

    Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most common esthetic procedures worldwide. A wide range of motivations leads women to undergo this procedure, among them socioeconomic status and age group. The aim of this study was to identify the motivation spectrum for augmentation mammoplasty through different age groups. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey given to Israeli women seeking augmentation mammoplasty consults in a hospital and private clinic settings, using a 17-item Motivation for Augmentation questionnaire. Three motivation domains were examined: appearance, sexuality and social. Study participants were divided into three age groups: 18-29, 30-39 and over 40 years. A total of 101 women participated in the study. Motivations were rated similar among all age groups. Appearance and sexuality domains were rated significantly higher compared with the social domain throughout all age groups (3.28 ± 0.91 and 3.15 ± 1.03 vs. 1.88 ± 1.16, p age. The desire to improve one's appearance and sexuality is more prominent than improving social and work status. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Association between triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Huerín, Melina

    2016-01-01

    The triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio, as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, may be associated to presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to explore this association. Women (last menstrual period≥2 years) in primary prevention up to 65 years of age were recruited. Association between the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and presence of carotid plaque, assessed by ultrasonography, was analyzed. ROC analysis was performed, determining the precision of this ratio to detect carotid plaque. A total of 332 women (age 57±5 years) were recruited. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio was 2.35±1.6. Prevalence of carotid plaque was 29%. Women with carotid plaque had higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios (3.33±1.96 vs. 2.1±1.2, P<.001) than women with no carotid plaque. A positive relationship was seen between quintiles of this ratio and prevalence of carotid plaque (p<.001). Regardless of other risk factors, women with higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios were more likely to have carotid plaque (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.20-1.79, P<.001). The area under the curve of the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio to detect carotid plaque was .71 (95% confidence interval .65 to .76), and the optimal cut-off point was 2.04. In postmenopausal women in primary prevention, insulin resistance, estimated from the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, was independently associated to a greater probability of carotid plaque. A value of such ratio greater than 2 may be used for assessing cardiovascular risk in this particular group of women. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Adoption experiences of women and men and demand for children to adopt by women 18-44 years of age in the United States, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jo

    2008-08-01

    This report presents national estimates of the prevalence of adoption for men and women 18-44 years of age, the demand for children to adopt by women, and women's preferences for characteristics of the adopted child. Analysis is based on data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. This survey interviewed a nationally representative sample of women and men 15-44 years of age in their households. Results are weighted to produce national estimates of the characteristics of men and women who have adopted children, lifetime and current demand for adoption by women, and the characteristics of children preferred by women when they are considering adoption. Adoption remains rare in the United States. Among all women aged 18-44 in 2002, only 1.1% had adopted a child and 1.6% were currently seeking to adopt. Women were more likely to be currently seeking to adopt, to have ever sought to adopt, and to have actually adopted a child if they had used infertility services or had impaired fecundity. Older women and women who were in their second or later marriage were also more likely to have adopted a child. Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were more likely to be currently seeking to adopt compared with non-Hispanic white women. More men than women have adopted children in their lifetimes. Among adopters, 17% of women and 6% of men were never married. Adopting a child has been and remains a relatively rare event in the United States. Adoption is a mechanism by which adults legalize their parental relationship to nonbiological children as well as a means to bring children into families. Studies examining adoption should include men as well as women and persons of all marital statuses.

  8. [Risk factors of endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma in women aged 45 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wang, S; Li, Z F; Zhu, L; Leng, J H; Lang, J H

    2017-05-25

    Obiective: To explore the risk factors of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older in China. Methods: The medical records of total 1 038 women aged 45 years and older with a surgicopathological diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1994 to December 2014 were reviewed. Histology evaluation determined ovarian endometriosis with ( n =30) or without ( n =1 008) ovarian cancer. Results: (1) There were 30 (2.9%, 30/1 018) cases confirmed as having EAOC. Clear cell carcinoma (63.3%, 17/30) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (23.3%, 7/30) were commonly observed subtypes and 70.0% of EAOC patients were at stage Ⅰ. (2) Compared women with ovarian endometriosis in the same age group, patients with EAOC were older (50.8 vs 48.5 years, P =0.002). There were more in postmenopausal status at diagnosis of EAOC ( P 0.05). Conclusions: For women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older, the subgroup of patients characterized by postmenopausal status and ovarian endometrioma (≥8 cm) have a higher risk of EAOC. Active intervention or intensive follow-up should be considered for this population group, especially for those concurrent with endometrial disorders.

  9. Aging well--the role of minimally invasive aesthetic dermatological procedures in women over 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Payne, Christopher Rowland

    2010-03-01

    The western world is getting older. Aging well has become the new target of preventative medicine. Aesthetic dermatology can contribute to this quest. Females over 65 represent an important and growing group of consumers of cosmetic procedures. In this group, there is a paucity of scientific evaluation of aesthetic procedures. To review the use of minimally invasive procedures for facial rejuvenation in women over 65. Drawing from both the literature and personal experience, the opportunities, modifications, and limitations of minimally invasive techniques for facial rejuvenation in older women are considered. In this older age group, dermal fillers, chemical and laser peels, and nonablative photorejuvenation remain useful and can each be used as stand-alone treatments. In this age group, botulinum toxin (BTX) injections are more often used in combination with other procedures. With respect to aesthetic procedures, women over 65 are different from younger women. More scientific investigation is necessary to better meet needs of this growing part of the population. Available data suggest that aesthetic dermatology can make a major contribution to the complex matter of aging well.

  10. Use of computer technologies in physical education of women of the first mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tomilina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates with use of information technologies. Material & Methods: the experience of development and deployment of computer technologies in the process of physical education of women of mature age was systematized by means of the analysis of scientific and methodical and special literature and the best pedagogical and coach's practices, which is presented in mass media. The ways of application of computer programs were revealed, and the computer program ‘’Pilates’’ was developed by means of programming in the system Visual Basic. Results: the computer program ‘’Pilates’’, which consists of directory, settlement and recreational blocks, is offered for the purpose of improvement of the process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates and increase in their motivation to classes by physical exercises. Conclusions: it is revealed that application of the computer programs has the positive effect in practice of physical education of women of the first mature age. The computer program ‘’Pilates’’ is submitted.

  11. Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom : Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon-Dugin, Frances E.

    2017-01-01

    Re-Creation in the Age of Wisdom: Involuntary Job Transition in Women over 50 Frances Elizabeth Lyon-Dugin A large share of our time with each other is centered around employment or ‘work’, however we define it. A time of transition between jobs, especially when a job is lost through no choice of

  12. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem...

  13. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking

  14. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  15. [Quantitative and qualitative changes in the sex chromatin of diabetic women of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiumov, E G; Dmitrieva, E N

    1975-01-01

    There was revealed a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of occurrence of sex chromatine (SC) in the patients (female) suffering from diabetes mellitus aged from 15 to 65 years before the treatment in comparison with the healthy women. After the compensation of the carbohydrate metabolism there was noted its further reduction in the patients aged from 25 to 65 years. In 15-65-year women who contracted diabetes mellitus there was an increase in the circular form of the SC bodies looking like thickenings of the nuclear membrane; SC bodies of round shape enlarged as well in women aged from 25 to 65 years. Oval, triangular and semicircular forms decreased in all the age groups. After the compensation of the carbohydrate metabolism the content of the SC bodies of various shapes remained the same as at the beginning of the disease without returning to the normal level. The area of the SC bodies enlargement was statistically significant in women who fell ill with diabetes mellitus.

  16. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  17. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent...

  18. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  19. Diagnosis of uterus endometriosis in women of reproductive age using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertsalova, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    The results of complex clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of 103 women of reproductive age with uterus endometriosis are discussed. Uterus endometriosis and myoma can have similar clinical picture, which makes their differential diagnosis difficult. MRI is the method allowing to reveal significant difference between the diseases

  20. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  1. Mercury and selenium concentrations in hair samples of women in fertile age from Amazon riverside communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, M.C.N.; Mueller, R.C.S.; Sarkis, J.E.; Vieira, J.L.F.; Oikawa, T.; Gomes, M.S.V.; Guimaraes, G.A.; Nascimento, J.L.M. do; Silveira, L.C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate mercury and selenium concentrations in hair samples of reproductive age women from riverside communities of the Tapajos River basin. We studied 19 pregnant and 21 non-pregnant women, 13 to 45 years old, living in the region for at least 2 years, and having a diet rich in fish. The analysis of Se and total Hg were performed in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil) by using a Varian AA220-FS atomic absorption spectrometer with a flow injection system. There were no differences between the two groups - pregnant and non-pregnant - concerning age (23.80 ± 6.92 and 26.60 ± 9.60 years old, respectively) and residential time (20.21 ± 8.30 and 22.20 ± 10.90 years, respectively). The geometric means and ranges for total Hg concentration were similar (p > 0.05): 8.25 μg/g (1.51-19.43) in pregnant and 9.39 μg/g (5.25-21.00) in non-pregnant women, respectively. Total Hg concentrations were also similar in different gestational stages. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05, Student t test) in relation to Se concentration: 0.61 μg/g (0.40-2.33) in pregnant and 2.46 μg/g (0.92-5.74) in non-pregnant women, respectively. We concluded that Hg exposure levels in reproductive age women were only slightly higher than a provisional tolerable weekly intake of MeHg would provide, that Hg concentration in maternal hair samples was independent of gestational age, and that low Se concentration in pregnant women indicates high mineral consumption by fetal organism to satisfy their metabolic requirements raised during pregnancy, including as a protective mechanism for Hg cytotoxic effects

  2. Utility of microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural women of reproductive age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Deepa Lokwani; Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-03-01

    Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae.

  3. [Survey on menopausal age and menstruation span in women in Pudong district of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Feng, You-ji; Shu, Hui-min; Lu, Tian-mei; Zhu, Hong-mei; Yang, Bin-lie; Xiong, Miao

    2010-06-01

    To investigate natural spontaneous menopausal age, menstruation span and their relationship with menarche age and parity in Pudong district of Shanghai. From Jan 2007 to Jul 2008, 15 083 spontaneous menopause women undergoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire included menarche age, parity, spontaneous menopausal age and menstruation span. Those women were divided into four groups based on age, which were group of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing difference between menopausal age and menstruation span. Multiple factor regressions was used to analyze the relationship between menarche age, parity and menopausal age and menstruation span. (1) Spontaneous menopausal age: the minimum was 29 years old, the maximum was 61 years old, and the mean age was (50.6 ± 3.7) years old. The mean spontaneous menopause age were (50.9 ± 3.4), (50.7 ± 3.7), (50.0 ± 4.1), (49.6 ± 4.0) years in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menopausal age were observed, which the difference of 1.36 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (2) Menstruation span: the mean of menstruation span was (34.3 ± 4.1) years, which the minimal age of 12 years and maximal age of 48 years were recorded. (34.6 ± 3.8), (34.3 ± 4.1), (33.9 ± 4.6), (33.2 ± 4.5) were observed in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menstruation span were observed, which the difference of 1.41 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (3) The impact of menarche age on menopausal age and menstruation span: there was no correlation between menarche age and menopausal age (r = 0.02); however, menstruation span was found to be negatively correlated with the menarche age (r = -0.43). (4) The impact

  4. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mary E; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A

    Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers' involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000-2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (pinvolvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes.

  5. Prudence, pleasure, and cognitive ageing: Configurations of the uses and users of brain training games within UK media, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Broer, Tineke; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Deary, Ian

    2017-08-01

    The use of 'brain training' games is often regarded as relating to wider ideals of self-improvement and youthfulness. Hence, use is intertwined with discourses of 'active' ageing. This paper analyzes how the use and users of brain training games were configured in the UK media, from 2005 to 2015, and examines how notions of active ageing relate to these representations. Game users were rarely constructed solely as gamers, and were more often presented as prudent individuals focused on a serious goal. This configuration related to assumed and enjoined motivations for brain training; specifically, users were commonly framed as seeking to enhance cognition and limit/delay cognitive decline. Scientific evidence about brain training was often deployed to explain how games might work; sometimes, however, it was used to undermine the utility of games and assert the significance and cognitive health-benefits of other activities. A minority of texts explicitly critiqued ideals of self-improvement, arguing that game playing was important for its own sake. Yet, even the pleasure associated with gaming was occasionally instrumentalized as a mechanism for ensuring prudent life choices. The analysis casts fresh light on how debates around health, ageing, and science correspond to configurations of technology uses and users. It presents evidence of the widespread cultural circulation of enjoiners regarding self-care and healthy ageing within British society. However, the paper also provides indications of the limits to such imperatives: discourses of pleasure co-exist with and perhaps supplant logics of prudence in (accounts of) practices ostensibly aimed at ageing 'well'. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Age at marriage is rising for Asian women and men, according to new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, A

    1992-09-01

    The social transformations in Asia are described: delayed age at marriage and the proportions marrying. Policy implications are ascertained. The norm for female age at marriage has risen from 15 years to 17-18 years in south Asia, and from 18 years to 24 years and older in east Asia. Men's marriage age has also risen but not as much. Concurrent changes have occurred with fertility declines and small family sizes and lower population growth, with changing roles for women, and with emergent youth subcultures and increased prevalence of premarital sexual behavior. The number of singles is rising and expected to continue to rise. Examples are given of marriage age changes for Nepal and Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Korea, and regional totals. Southeast Asian countries experienced less dramatic changes, and changes primarily in the 20-24 year old group (from 30% to 74% of single women). Change for men has been less regular and with less magnitude. In Southeast Asia, the rise in marriage age for men has risen only 1-2 years compared with women. East Asia patterns vary by country, i.e., South Korean increases of 6 years, Taiwanese increases of 4 years, and 2 years in Japan. Single males have been common in South and Southeast Asia, while in East Asia married male teens 25 years are rare. Marriage timing for men is not as closely associated as for women with social and cultural change. Downturns for men follow momentous, temporary disruptions such as happen during wars and periods of migration, while women's patterns are more reflective of structural change. The trend for never marrying is on the increase, particularly for men in Japan (1.1% in the 1920s to 18% in the early 1980s for men 50 years). Women not ever marrying are increasing in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hong Kong. Never marrying is common in urban or educated populations, i.e., Singapore, Thailand, and Philippines. The implications are a longer gap between successive generations and a shorter period of

  7. Mammography use among women ages 40-49 after the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lauren D; Jarlenski, Marian P; Wu, Albert W; Bennett, Wendy L

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force changed its recommendation regarding screening mammography in average-risk women aged 40-49 years. To evaluate the effects of the 2009 recommendation on reported mammogram use in a population-based survey. Secondary data analysis of data collected in the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Women ages 40-74 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC who were not pregnant at time of survey and reported data on mammogram use during the 2006, 2008, or 2010 survey. Mammogram use was compared between women ages 40-49 and women ages 50-74 before and after the recommendation. We performed a difference-in-difference estimation adjusted for access to care, education, race, and health status, and stratified analyses by whether women reported having a routine checkup in the prior year. Reported prevalence of mammogram use in the past year among women ages 40-49 and 50-74 was 53.2 % and 65.2 %, respectively in 2008, and 51.7 % and 62.4 % in 2010. In 2010, mammography use did not significantly decline from 2006-2008 in women ages 40-49 relative to women ages 50-74. There was no reduction in mammography use among younger women in 2010 compared to older women and previous years. Patients and providers may have been hesitant to comply with the 2009 recommendation.

  8. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Saka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 141-146

  10. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfiye Deger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 141-146

  11. Contraceptive use and the role of contraceptive counseling in reproductive-aged women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Morse, Christopher B; Schanne, Allison; Loren, Alison; Domchek, Susan M; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-07-01

    Few data on contraceptive choices in women with cancer exist. Contraception is challenging for women with cancer, particularly those with breast cancer, who are limited to nonhormonal methods. This study characterized contraceptive use during cancer treatment in a group of reproductive-aged women with a recent cancer diagnosis and assessed the impact of contraceptive counseling on the methods they selected. Cross-sectional, survey study of reproductive-aged women at a large tertiary care health system with a recent cancer diagnosis. A total of 107 women completed the survey. Eighty-two women reported 101 contraceptive choices. Twenty-seven percent (27/101) of all methods selected were Tier I/II, and 35% (35/101) were Tier III/IV. Only 4 used an intrauterine device (IUD). Among women reporting sexual activity after diagnosis, 19 (27%) of 71 reported using Tier I/II methods, 21 (30%) of 71 reported using Tier III/IV methods, 16 (23%) of 71 reported abstinence and 10 (14%) of 71 reported using no method. Factors significantly associated with Tier I/II use in the multivariable model included not having a college degree [odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.92, p=.038], intercourse during treatment (OR 5.92, 95% CI 1.48-23.66, p=.012) and non-breast cancer (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.03-12.64, p=.046). Report of contraceptive counseling was positively associated with Tier I/II contraceptive use during cancer treatment (OR 6.92, 95% CI 1.14-42.11, p=.036). Reproductive-aged women diagnosed with cancer underutilized Tier I/II contraceptive agents, especially IUDs. Contraceptive counseling by physicians increases contraceptive use, particularly methods most effective at preventing pregnancy. The study uniquely described the contraceptive practices of over 100 women with cancer. The study sample commonly reported abstinence and use of contraceptive methods with high failure rates. Our data suggest that contraceptive counseling from a health care provider may

  12. Age at menopause and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyanurak, Pongrak; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Wilawan, Kittisak; Lueanyod, Aksorn; Thongpaeng, Parawee; Chatvong, Duangjai; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Saeloo, Siriporn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith

    2012-07-01

    There are limited data for age at menopause (AM) and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Asian women. We investigated AM and menopause-related symptoms in HIV-infected Thai women. HIV-infected Thai women 40 years or older who did not receive any hormone therapy in the 8-week period preceding the study were enrolled. Participants completed the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life survey for their symptoms in the past 30 days. Menopause was defined as having the last menstrual period more than 1 year ago. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with menopause. Two hundred sixty-eight HIV-infected women were enrolled; their median age was 44.6 (41.8-48.7) years, and the ratio of their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classifications (A:B:C) was 53%:34%:13%; 95% were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count was 575 (437-758) cells/μL, and 93% had HIV-RNA of less than 1.7log10 copies/mL. Among the 55 women who had reached menopause, the mean (SD) AM was 47.3 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) AM in our study was earlier than the previous report of 49.5 (3.6) years in non-HIV-infected Thai women (difference, -2.2 y; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.2, P menopause were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classification B or C (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.03, P = 0.04), and no sexual act in the past month (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0, P = 0.01). No associations of later age of menarche, parity, marital status, educational level, income, body mass index, CD4 count, and HIV-RNA with menopause were found. AM in HIV-infected Thai women was 47.3 years, which is significantly earlier than the findings of a previous AM report on non-HIV-infected women. Postmenopausal HIV-infected women had more vasomotor and sexual symptoms. More studies are needed to investigate the cause and appropriate interventions for

  13. Relationship between parity and bone mass in postmenopausal women according to number of parities and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Behzad; Heidari, Parnaz; Nourooddini, Haj Ghorban; Hajian-Tilaki, Karim Ollah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of multiple pregnancies on postmenopausal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Diagnosis of osteoporosis (OP) was confirmed by World Health Organization criteria. Women were stratified according to number of parity as 7 parity groups as well as in age groups of or = 65 years. BMD values and frequency of OP were compared across the groups according to age. Multiple logistic regression analysis with calculation of adjusted odds ratio (OR) was used for association. A total of 264 women with mean age of 63 +/- 8.7 and mean menopausal duration of 15.8 +/- 10.2 years were studied. LS-OP and FN-OP were observed in 28% and 58.3% of women, respectively. There were significant differences in BMD values across different parity groups at both sites of LS and FN (p = 0.011 and p = 0.036, respectively). Parity 4-7 (vs. 7 significantly decreased LS-BMD and FN-BMD as compared with 0-7 parity (p = 0.006 and p = 0.009, respectively). Parity > 7 increased the risk of LS-OP by OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03-3.1, p = 0.037) and FN-OP by OR = 1.67 (95% CI 0.97-2.8, p = 0.063). In addition, women with high parity had lower BMD decline at LS and FN by age (> or = 65 vs. 7 is associated with spinal trabecular bone loss in younger postmenopausal women as well as an osteoprotective effect against age-related bone loss, which counteracts the early negative effect. Therefore, parity should not be considered as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F; Northington, Gina M; Kaye, Elise M; Bogner, Hillary R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. One hundred forty-three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause, and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994, whereas 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among the women with surgical menopause, the women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than the women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years since menopause. Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

  15. The influence of age on posterior pelvic floor dysfunction in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, S M; Rodrigues, L V; Furtado, D C; Regadas, F S P; Olivia da S Fernandes, G; Regadas Filho, F S P; Gondim, A C; de Paula Joca da Silva, R

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of risk factors is particularly useful to prevent or manage pelvic floor dysfunction but although a number of such factors have been proposed, results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of aging on the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders in women with obstructed defecation syndrome evaluated using echodefecography. A total of 334 patients with obstructed defecation were evaluated using echodefecography in order to quantify posterior pelvic floor dysfunction (rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse, paradoxical contraction or non-relaxation of the puborectalis muscle, and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele). Patients were grouped according to the age (Group I = patients up to 50 years of age; Group II = patients over 50 years of age) to evaluate the isolated and associated incidence of dysfunctions. To evaluate the relationship between dysfunction and age-related changes, patients were also stratified into decades. Group I included 196 patients and Group II included 138. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, rectocele associated with intussusception, rectocele associated with mucosal prolapse and 3 associated disorders was higher in Group II, whereas anismus was more prevalent in Group I. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele was found to increase with age. Conversely, anismus decreased with age. Aging was shown to influence the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders (rectocele, intussusception, mucosa prolapse and enterocele/sigmoidocele), but not the incidence of anismus, in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

  16. Oxidative Stress Function in Women over 40 Years of Age, Considering Their Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Mota, Maria Paula; Santos, Zirlene; Soares, Jorge; Pereira, Ana; Fonseca, Sandra; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aging is dependent on biological processes that determine the aging of the organism at the cellular level. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging might explain some of the age-related changes in cell macromolecules. Moreover, exposome and lifestyle may also induce changes in cell damage induced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to analyze the related redox changes in lymphocyte function of healthy women over 40 years old. Three groups: younger (YG: 40-49 years), middle aged (MAG: 50-59 years), and older (OG: ≥60 years) were evaluated on anthropometric variables, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, lifestyle habits, perceived stress, DNA damage, malondialdehyde, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Physical activity and cardiovascular fitness were significantly higher in YG and MAG as compared to the OG. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly with group age. Frequency and total amount of alcohol intake were lower in the OG and higher in the MAG. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in oxidative stress parameters. Only alcohol consumption was associated with the higher DNA FPG-sensitive sites, and only in the YG ( p  stress parameters measured in the healthy women over the age of 40 who took part in the study. Conscious lifestyle behaviors (decrease in alcohol and smoking habits) could have impaired the expected age-related oxidative stress increase.

  17. Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p < 0.001). Women with enrollment versus newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p < 0.0001). Risks did not increase with age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. © 2014 UICC.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness and age-related arterial stiffness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán-Méndez, Cristina; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Vargas-Hitos, José A; Sáez-Urán, Luis M; Rosales-Castillo, Antonio; Morillas-de-Laguno, Pablo; Gavilán-Carrera, Blanca; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to examine the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with arterial stiffness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus; (ii) to assess the potential interaction of cardiorespiratory fitness with age on arterial stiffness in this population. A total of 49 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean age 41.3 [standard deviation 13.8] years) and clinical stability during the previous 6 months were included in the study. Arterial stiffness was assessed through pulse wave velocity (Mobil-O-Graph® 24 hours pulse wave velocity monitor). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with the Siconolfi step test and the 6-minute walk test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with pulse wave velocity in crude analyses (P fitness × age interaction effect on pulse wave velocity, regardless of the test used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (P fitness was associated with a lower increase in pulse wave velocity per each year increase in age. The results of this study suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness might attenuate the age-related arterial stiffening in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and might thus contribute to the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in this population. As the cross-sectional design precludes establishing causal relationships, future clinical trials should confirm or contrast these findings. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  20. Women with epilepsy in childbearing age: Pregnancy-related knowledge, information sources, and antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Latica; Sruk, Ana; Bielen, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Pregnancy-related issues in epilepsy (PRIE) are essential for management of epilepsy in women. We conducted a study among women with epilepsy (WWE) aged 15-45years about their knowledge, sources, and needs for information regarding PRIE, which included their current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) usage. Women with epilepsy, visitors of Croatian Association for Epilepsy webpage, were offered an online questionnaire, and 200 responses were analyzed. The mean number of correct answers about PRIE was 3.5 out of 5. Main predictors of knowledge on PRIE were a prior consultation with a neurologist and higher usage of books/brochures. A prior neurologist consultation on PRIE was stated by 45% of subjects. As the preferred future mode of being informed on PRIE, majority of women (61%) chooses their neurologist, 22% written materials distributed by a neurologist, and only 13% Internet. Levetiracetam was the most commonly used AED (34.5%). Valproate was used by 26%, and of those 59% stated no previous consultation on PRIE with their neurologist. In summary, we believe our study shows that knowledge of PRIE among WWE in their childbearing age is unsatisfactory, as are the neurologist consultation rates about PRIE. Our results demonstrate that, despite modern technologies, educational activities should be based on neurologist consultations and providing the patients with appropriate written materials. This is especially true for the relatively large proportion of women still taking valproate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  3. Clinical and immunological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups

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    Kutdusova A.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and immunological features of the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups. Materials and methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 148 women aged 17 to 65 years old have been investigated. Patients have been divided into two groups: group I included 101 patients with normal menstrual rhythm, group II included 47 female patients with menopause. In 57 women (36 from group I, 21 — from group II the content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ — sub-populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been determined. Results: In compared groups significant differences in structure and frequency of complications of the disease have been revealed. Unidirectional tendency to increase significantly reduced absolute rates of investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in dynamics of the disease has been identified. It also has been stated that by the time of early convalescence in case of severe form of HFRS the indices did not reach the standard level. In an older group of women deeper damage and long-term recovery of immune system have been marked. Conclusion: According to the results of clinical and immunological studies the research work has revealed that in young women the response of the immune system to HFRS has developed faster and stronger than that in patients during the menopause period.

  4. Personality traits and abnormal glucose regulation in middle-aged Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Gustavsson, J Petter; Hilding, Agneta; Granath, Fredrik; Ekbom, Anders; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2012-01-01

    To examine associations between personality and abnormal glucose regulation. This cross-sectional study comprised 2152 men and 3143 women (43-66 years). Oral glucose tolerance test identified 316 men and 213 women with previously unknown impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG+IGT, or type 2 diabetes. Personality traits antagonism (low agreeableness), impulsivity (low conscientiousness), hedonic capacity (high extraversion), negative affectivity (high neuroticism) and alexithymia (low openness) were measured by a self-report inventory. Based on distribution of scores, responses were divided into "low" (1 SD). Middle groups were considered reference groups. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. In men, OR for low antagonism was 0.3 (CI 0.2-0.6) (age- and multi-adjusted models) while in women, neither high nor low antagonism was associated to abnormal glucose regulation. Men and women with high hedonic capacity had ORs 0.5 (0.3-0.9) and 0.6 (0.4-1.0), respectively (age- and multi-adjusted models). The other scales illustrated no significant associations. No elevated risk of abnormal glucose regulation was observed for deviating scores on personality scales. Instead, reduced risks were indicated in men with low antagonism, and in men and women with high hedonic capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

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    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  7. Gender differences in the associations between age trends of social media interaction and well-being among 10-15 year olds in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Cara L; Kelly, Yvonne J; Sacker, Amanda

    2018-03-20

    Adolescents are among the highest consumers of social media while research has shown that their well-being decreases with age. The temporal relationship between social media interaction and well-being is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in social media interaction and two well-being measures are related across ages using parallel growth models. Data come from five waves of the youth questionnaire, 10-15 years, of the Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study (pooled n = 9859). Social media interaction was assessed through daily frequency of chatting on social websites. Well-being was measured by happiness with six domains of life and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Findings suggest gender differences in the relationship between interacting on social media and well-being. There were significant correlations between interacting on social media and well-being intercepts and between social media interaction and well-being slopes among females. Additionally higher social media interaction at age 10 was associated with declines in well-being thereafter for females, but not for males. Results were similar for both measures of well-being. High levels of social media interaction in early adolescence have implications for well-being in later adolescence, particularly for females. The lack of an association among males suggests other factors might be associated with their reduction in well-being with age. These findings contribute to the debate on causality and may inform future policy and interventions.

  8. Bayesian mapping of HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Rwanda.

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    François Niragire

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda.

  9. Health insurance, alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bayesian mapping of HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N O; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda.

  11. Predictive Risk Factors for Impaired Quality of Life in Middle-Aged Women with Urinary Incontinence

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    Youn-Jung Son

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Urinary incontinence (UI has substantial and important impacts on quality of life (QoL. The purpose of this study was to identify the associated risk factors of QoL in middle-aged women with UI. Methods The participants were 127 women aged 40-64 years who experienced UI. Data were collected from October to November, 2008 using a self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed through t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, and multiple linear regression with SPSS ver. 16.0 program. Results The distribution of UI severity was mild 18.1%, moderate 40.2% and severe 41.7%. In univariate analysis, differences in the score for QoL according to participants' characteristics were statistically significant on the type of delivery, number of births and severity of UI. In multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment of other variables, the most powerful predictor of QoL is severity of UI. Number of births was also significant predictor. These two variables explained 25% of variance in QoL of women with UI. Conclusions UI is highly prevalent and causes suffering and impaired QoL among middle-aged women, but it stands beyond our attention. The results of this study suggest that women with moderate to severe UI should be screened for QoL by health care providers regularly. Further research is needed to determine comprehensive factors including psychosocial factors predicting the QoL for incontinent women.

  12. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltadze, Ketevan; Barbakadze, Ludmila

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection). At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  13. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

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    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  14. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  15. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiery Va

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality.We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009 and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009, two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09. Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13 and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86 in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88 and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54 mortality.Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  16. Effect of Trospium Chloride on Cognitive Function in Women Aged 50 and Older: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Dumond, Julie B; Bowling, J Michael; Khandelwal, Christine M; Wu, Jennifer M; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel I

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of trospium chloride on cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated for overactive bladder (OAB). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2013 to April 2015. Women aged 50 years or older seeking treatment for OAB were randomized to either trospium chloride XR 60 mg daily or placebo. Baseline cognitive function was assessed via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Mini Mental Status Exam, Mini Mental Status X, Digit Span, Trails A, Trails B, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive function was reassessed at week 1 and week 4. A priori power analysis determined that 21 subjects were needed per group. Although 59 women were enrolled and randomized (28 trospium and 31 placebo), 45 completed assessment (21 trospium and 24 placebo). Mean age was 68 years, 78% were white, and 44% had previously taken OAB medication. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in HVLT-R total score between trospium and placebo groups at week 4 (P = 0.29). There were also no differences based on the other cognitive tests. There was a correlation between age and the following week-4 tests: HVLT-R total score (r = -0.3, P = 0.02), HVLT-R total recall subscale (r = -0.4, P = 0.007), Trails A (r = 0.4, P = 0.002), and Trails B (r = 0.4, P = 0.004). A linear regression model found that HVLT-R total score decreased by 0.372 points for each increased year of age. In women aged 50 years and older, there were no changes in cognitive function between those taking trospium and placebo. Cognitive function was correlated with age.

  17. Physical activity in middle-aged women and hip fracture risk: the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Bucht, G; Björnstig, U; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Pettersson, U

    2011-02-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we demonstrate that middle-aged women who were active with walking or in different physical spare time activities were at lower risk of later sustaining a hip fracture compared to more sedentary women. In middle-aged women participating in the Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study, we investigated whether physical activity is associated with a subsequent decreased risk of sustaining a hip fracture. The UFO study is a nested case-control study investigating associations between bone markers, lifestyle, and osteoporotic fractures. We identified 81 female hip fracture cases that had reported lifestyle data before they sustained their fracture. Each case was compared with two female controls who were identified from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total cohort of 237 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 5.0 years, and mean age at fracture was 65.4 ± 6.4 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, weight, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects who were regularly active with walking or had a moderate or high frequency of physical spare time activities (i.e. berry/mushroom picking and snow shovelling) were at reduced risk of sustaining a hip fracture (OR 0.14; 95% CI; 0.05-0.53 for walking and OR 0.19; 95% CI; 0.08-0.46, OR 0.17, 95% CI; 0.05-0.64 for moderate and high frequency of spare time activities, respectively) compared to more sedentary women. An active lifestyle in middle age seems to reduce the risk of future hip fracture. Possible mechanisms may include improved muscle strength, coordination, and balance resulting in a decreased risk of falling and perhaps also direct skeletal benefits.

  18. Effects of early age at natural menopause on coronary heart disease and stroke in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2017-08-15

    Menopause is identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease because of the change of estrogen. The objective of the study was to explore the associations between early age at natural menopause (menopause at an age≤45years) and the presence of CHD and stroke. The study subjects were from the first follow-up survey of the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study. A total of 16,515 postmenopausal women were included for the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between age at natural menopause (≤45, 45-52, >52years) and the presence of CHD and stroke adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive history and metabolic factors. In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-year delay in menopausal age, the prevalence of CHD and stroke was reduced by 3% (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and 5% (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), respectively. Women with early menopause (≤45years) had a higher prevalence of CHD (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.57) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Similarly, women with early menopause (≤45years) was associated with higher prevalence of stroke (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.30) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Early age at natural menopause is significantly associated with the presence of CHD and stroke among Chinese women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Estimation of natural age of menopause in Iranian women: A meta-analysis study

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    Abdolreza Rajaeefard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mean age of menopause have been reported at the age of 51 in the world and regarding the increase in life expectancy in many countries more than a third of the life time of women i s in menopause period. The importance of menopause is due to its relationship with various diseases and quality of life. The present study was conducted to estimate the average natural age of menopause in women based on a meta-analysis study. Material and Methods: In a meta-analysis study on all the existing articles in the natural age o f menopause in Iran, 21 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. Begg and Egger tests fo r publication bias and Cochrane test were used to determine the heterogeneity among samples. ???? estimate of mean calculated based on Random effect model in Stata11 software. Results: The publication bias assumption was rejected by Begg and Egger tests with significant value s equal to 0.174 and 0.446 respectively. There was a heterogeneity among samples (Q=4626.3, df=20 , P<0.001. So based on random effect model the mean age of menopause was calculated as 48.183 with 95 % CI=47.457-48.91. Conclusion: The average age of natural menopause in Iranian women is favorable to some places of Middle East, but is less compared with developed countries and the world mean. Because of the importance of this period in women, educational programs seem to be necessary.

  20. [Consensus of diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-González, Carlos; Aguilera-Pérez, Jesús Rafael; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Barquera-Cervera, Simón; Díaz-Polanco, Araceli; Fernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Medina-García, Catalina; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya Guadalupe; Pantoja-Millán, Juan Pablo; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Pimentel-Nieto, Dian; Reyes-Rodríguez, Eduardo Armando; Romero-Zazueta, Alejandro; Ruiz-Padilla, Claudia Lorena; Vergara-López, Alma; Vidrio-Velázquez, Maricela; Villagordoa-Mesa, Juan; Zúñiga-González, Sergio Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The development of obesity is complex and multifactorial, with genetic, biological, environmental and lifestyle of each individual etiology. The different changes in metabolism of women, amongst other factors, lead to disorganization in the distribution of lipids, which gathered in large quantities within the viscera, increases cardiovascular mortality and it is a major determinant factor of the metabolic syndrome. To homologate and to apply concepts of evidence-based clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium. The experts' consensus was done by specialized physicians properly endocrinologists, gynecologists, surgeons, psychologists, nutrition specialists, physical activity and public health, according to their expertise and clinical judgment. The recommendations were based in diagnostic criteria aside from the level of evidence of previously established treatment guidelines, controlled clinical trials and standardized guides for women in reproductive age and climacterium with obesity. The establishment of a nutritional intervention amongst other aspects of lifestyle is the first-line in the treatment of obesity. Current pharmacological treatments offer modest results in efficiency and security in weight reduction so these must go along with real changes in lifestyle in order to obtain better results in the short and long term. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in our country, especially in women in reproductive age, compels us to pose and work in prevention strategies as well as diverse therapeutic plans favoring safe weight loss and results in the long term.

  1. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  2. THE PREVALENCE OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICATORS AMONG MEN AND WOMEN OF OLDER AGES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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    G. A. Muromtseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of ECG ischemic disorders assessed by theMinnesota code on a sample of people over 50 years, depending on gender, age and employment.Material and methods. The results of a survey of a representative sample of the unorganized population of 13 regions, participants of the ESSE-RF program in 2012-2014, were included into the study (n=8334 people; men - 2784, women - 5550. Analysis of the prevalence of ECG changes was carried out by the Minnesota code in groups of 50-54, 55-59 and 60-64 years old, depending on gender and employment (employed and unemployed.Results. Pathological changes were recorded on the ECG more often in men compared to women – Q(QS-wave (5% vs 1.9%, atrial fibrillation (2.1% vs 0.8%; p<0.01, conduction abnormalities (2.7% vs 1.6%; p<0.002 with a maximum in 60-64 years old (4.4% vs 2.6%; p<0.01, respectively. ST segment depression and the T wave abnormalities (myocardial ischemia occurred more often in women than in men (6.9% vs 5.1%, respectively; p<0.001, with a significant increase of these changes in women after 60 years old. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities increases with age. Significant rise of ECG-changes prevalence was found in men at the age of 55-59 years (pathological QQS, myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy; and in women – at 60-64 years (myocardial ischemia, atrial fibrillation, conduction abnormalities. Almost two-fold increase in the incidence of arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities was found in men and women aged 60-64 years, regardless of employment status.Conclusion. Given the poor prognosis of ischemic ECG abnormalities, even their low prevalence indicates to unfavorable epidemiological situation among people around retirement age (55-64. These results emphasize the need for practitioners to careful attention to the ECG-abnormalities with poor prognosis in patients pre-retirement and retirement age. They may also be useful for practical public health as a

  3. [Hepatitis B prevalence among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Liu, J Y; Lyu, J J; Yan, B Y; Feng, Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy. Methods: The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95 % CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95 % CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95 %CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95 % CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95 % CI: 41.63%-53.47%). Conclusion: HBV infection among

  4. Health benefits of Tai Chi exercise: improved balance and blood pressure in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Everard W; Sykes, Kevin S; Tang, Wai K

    2004-03-01

    Tai Chi has been widely practiced as a Chinese martial art that focuses on slow sequential movements, providing a smooth, continuous and low intensity activity. It has been promoted to improve balance and strength and to reduce falls in the elderly, especially those 'at risk'. The potential benefits in healthy younger age cohorts and for wider aspects of health have received less attention. The present study documented prospective changes in balance and vascular responses for a community sample of middle-aged women. Seventeen relatively sedentary but healthy normotensive women aged 33-55 years were recruited into a three times per week, 12-week Tai Chi exercise programme. A further 17 sedentary subjects matched for age and body size were recruited as a control group. Dynamic balance measured by the Functional Reach Test was significantly improved following Tai Chi, with significant decreases in both mean systolic (9.71 mmHg) and diastolic (7.53 mmHg) blood pressure. The data confirm that Tai Chi exercise can be a good choice of exercise for middle-aged adults, with potential benefits for ageing as well as the aged.

  5. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32, medium (33-38, and positive (39-48. One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI 26.55. Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02, lubrication (p< 0.0001, orgasm (p= 0.002 and satisfaction (p= 0.002 were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on

  6. Factors influencing contraceptive use and non-use among women of advanced reproductive age in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanke, Bola Lukman

    2017-01-07

    Factors influencing contraceptive use and non-use among women of advanced reproductive age have been insufficiently researched in Nigeria. This study examines factors influencing contraceptive use and non-use among women of advanced reproductive age in Nigeria. Secondary data were pooled and extracted from 2008 and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS). The weighted sample size was 14,450 women of advanced reproductive age. The dependent variable was current contraceptive use. The explanatory variables were selected socio-demographic characteristics and three control variables. Analyses were performed using Stata version 12. Multinomial logistic regression was applied in four models. Majority of the respondents are not using any method of contraceptive; the expected risk of using modern contraceptive relative to traditional method reduces by a factor of 0.676 for multiparous women (rrr = 0.676; CI: 0.464-0.985); the expected risk of using modern contraceptive relative to traditional method reduces by a factor of 0.611 for women who want more children (rrr = 0.611; CI: 0.493-0.757); the relative risk for using modern contraceptive relative to traditional method increases by a factor of 1.637 as maternal education reaches secondary education (rrr = 1.637; CI: 1.173-2.285); the relative risk for using modern contraceptive relative to traditional method increases by a factor of 1.726 for women in richest households (rrr = 1.726; CI: 1.038-2.871); and the expected risk of using modern contraceptive relative to traditional method increases by a factor of 1.250 for southern women (rrr = 1.250; CI: 1.200-1.818). Socio-demographic characteristics exert more influence on non-use than modern contraceptive use. The scope, content and coverage of existing BCC messages should be extended to cover the contraceptive needs and challenges of women of advanced reproductive age in the country.

  7. Drinking pattern and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Jensen, Majken K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To address the prospective association between alcohol drinking pattern and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study conducted between 1993 and 2003. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 26 909 men and 29 626 women aged 55-65 years. MEASUREMENTS: We obtained risk...... estimates for all-cause mortality for different levels of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake adjusted for life-style factors, including diet. FINDINGS: During follow-up, 1528 men and 915 women died. For the same average consumption of alcohol, a non-frequent intake implied a higher risk of death than...

  8. Comparison of pain threshold and duration of pain perception in men and women of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Leonel de Nazaré

    Full Text Available Introduction Pain is a sensory and emotional experience that occurs with the presence of tissue injury, actual or potential. Pain is subjective, and its expression is primarily determined by the perceived intensity of the painful sensation, called the pain threshold. Objective To evaluate whether there are differences in pain threshold (LD and time to pain perception (TPED between the gender in different age groups and to analyze the correlation between age and pain threshold in each gender. Methods and procedures Participants were 60 volunteers divided into 6 groups (n = 10 each according to gender and age (18–33, 34–49, and 50–64 years. The evaluation of perception and pain tolerance was performed by immersing the container with one hand in water at a temperature of 0 °C–2 °C; the latency to withdrawal of the hand from ice water was measured in seconds and was considered a measure of LD. The TPED was reported by each participant as the start time of the painful stimulus. Results We found differences between the LD for G1 (men aged between 18 and 33 years and G2 (women aged 18 to 33 years with greater LD for G1 (p = 0.0122 and greater LD for women (p = 0.0094; for other comparisons of LD and TPED, there were no differences (p > 0.05 for all comparisons. Low correlation was found between age progression with increased LD and the TPED only in men (p = 0.01 and r = 0.45 and p = 0.05 and r = 0.34, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that women have a higher pain threshold than men especially when these groups are aged between 18 and 33 years, and in men increasing age correlates with increased TPED and LD.

  9. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  10. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijal, Renee S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived