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Sample records for aged mammalian ovaries

  1. The phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome ameliorates with aging

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    Brown, Zoe A.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Fong, Sharon Lie; Valkenburg, Olivier; Birnie, Erwin; de Jong, Frank H.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of aging on the features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Retrospective longitudinal follow-up study. Setting: Tertiary care center. Patient(s): Patients with PCOS, diagnosed according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria, who visited the outpatient clinic on c

  2. The mechanism of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

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    Yaba Aylin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common and complex endocrine disorder affecting 5-10% of women in reproductive age that is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo- or anovulation and infertility. However the pathophysiology of PCOS still remains unknown. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a central component that regulates various processes including cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and angiogenesis. mTOR signaling cascade has recently been examined in ovarian follicles where it regulates granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation. mTOR functions as two complexes, mTOR complex 1 and 2. Therefore, we hypothesized that mTORC1 and/or 2 may have important role in proliferation of theca and granulosa cells in PCOS. In the present study, we sought to determine the mTOR signaling pathway in PCOS mouse ovary. We designed 3 groups: Control (C, no treatment, PCOS (P, The injection of DHEA (6 mg/100 g BW in 0.1 ml of sesame oil (s.c for 20 consecutive days, Vehicle (V, daily (s.c sesame oil alone injection. Our results showed that mTORC1 and mTORC2-mediated signaling may play a role in PCOS mouse ovary. These findings provide evidence that mTORC1 and mTORC2 may have responsibility in increased ovarian follicular cell proliferation and growth in PCOS. Consequently, these results suggest that the mTOR signaling pathways (mTORC1 and mTORC 2 may create new clinical strategies to optimize developmental competence of PCOS should target correction of the entire follicle growth, oocyte development process and anovulatory infertility in PCOS.

  3. Novel Action of FSH on Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary Induces Postnatal Oogenesis and Primordial Follicle Assembly.

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    Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Adult mammalian ovary has been under the scanner for more than a decade now since it was proposed to harbor stem cells that undergo postnatal oogenesis during reproductive period like spermatogenesis in testis. Stem cells are located in the ovary surface epithelium and exist in adult and menopausal ovary as well as in ovary with premature failure. Stem cells comprise two distinct populations including spherical, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs which express nuclear OCT-4 and other pluripotent and primordial germ cells specific markers) and slightly bigger ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs with cytoplasmic OCT-4 which are equivalent to spermatogonial stem cells in the testes). These stem cells have the ability to spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro and on exposure to a younger healthy niche. Bone marrow may be an alternative source of these stem cells. The stem cells express FSHR and respond to FSH by undergoing self-renewal, clonal expansion, and initiating neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are relatively quiescent and were recently reported to survive chemotherapy and initiate oogenesis in mice when exposed to FSH. This emerging understanding and further research in the field will help evolving novel strategies to manage ovarian pathologies and also towards oncofertility. PMID:26635884

  4. Novel Action of FSH on Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary Induces Postnatal Oogenesis and Primordial Follicle Assembly

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    Deepa Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian ovary has been under the scanner for more than a decade now since it was proposed to harbor stem cells that undergo postnatal oogenesis during reproductive period like spermatogenesis in testis. Stem cells are located in the ovary surface epithelium and exist in adult and menopausal ovary as well as in ovary with premature failure. Stem cells comprise two distinct populations including spherical, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs which express nuclear OCT-4 and other pluripotent and primordial germ cells specific markers and slightly bigger ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs with cytoplasmic OCT-4 which are equivalent to spermatogonial stem cells in the testes. These stem cells have the ability to spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro and on exposure to a younger healthy niche. Bone marrow may be an alternative source of these stem cells. The stem cells express FSHR and respond to FSH by undergoing self-renewal, clonal expansion, and initiating neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are relatively quiescent and were recently reported to survive chemotherapy and initiate oogenesis in mice when exposed to FSH. This emerging understanding and further research in the field will help evolving novel strategies to manage ovarian pathologies and also towards oncofertility.

  5. A new model of development of the mammalian ovary and follicles.

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    Katja Hummitzsch

    Full Text Available Ovarian follicular granulosa cells surround and nurture oocytes, and produce sex steroid hormones. It is believed that during development the ovarian surface epithelial cells penetrate into the ovary and develop into granulosa cells when associating with oogonia to form follicles. Using bovine fetal ovaries (n = 80 we identified a novel cell type, termed GREL for Gonadal Ridge Epithelial-Like. Using 26 markers for GREL and other cells and extracellular matrix we conducted immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy and chronologically tracked all somatic cell types during development. Before 70 days of gestation the gonadal ridge/ovarian primordium is formed by proliferation of GREL cells at the surface epithelium of the mesonephros. Primordial germ cells (PGCs migrate into the ovarian primordium. After 70 days, stroma from the underlying mesonephros begins to penetrate the primordium, partitioning the developing ovary into irregularly-shaped ovigerous cords composed of GREL cells and PGCs/oogonia. Importantly we identified that the cords are always separated from the stroma by a basal lamina. Around 130 days of gestation the stroma expands laterally below the outermost layers of GREL cells forming a sub-epithelial basal lamina and establishing an epithelial-stromal interface. It is at this stage that a mature surface epithelium develops from the GREL cells on the surface of the ovary primordium. Expansion of the stroma continues to partition the ovigerous cords into smaller groups of cells eventually forming follicles containing an oogonium/oocyte surrounded by GREL cells, which become granulosa cells, all enclosed by a basal lamina. Thus in contrast to the prevailing theory, the ovarian surface epithelial cells do not penetrate into the ovary to form the granulosa cells of follicles, instead ovarian surface epithelial cells and granulosa cells have a common precursor, the GREL cell.

  6. Molecular aging of the mammalian vestibular system.

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    Brosel, Sonja; Laub, Christoph; Averdam, Anne; Bender, Andreas; Elstner, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Dizziness and imbalance frequently affect the elderly and contribute to falls and frailty. In many geriatric patients, clinical testing uncovers a dysfunction of the vestibular system, but no specific etiology can be identified. Neuropathological studies have demonstrated age-related degeneration of peripheral and central vestibular neurons, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In contrast, recent studies into age-related hearing loss strongly implicate mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death of cochlear hair cells. While some data suggest that analogous biological pathomechanisms may underlie vestibular dysfunction, actual proof is missing. In this review, we summarize the available data on the molecular causes of vestibular dysfunction. PMID:26739358

  7. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis

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    Hengxi Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated and 84 (downregulated genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates.

  8. Detection, characterization, and spontaneous differentiation in vitro of very small embryonic-like putative stem cells in adult mammalian ovary.

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    Parte, Seema; Bhartiya, Deepa; Telang, Jyoti; Daithankar, Vinita; Salvi, Vinita; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect, characterize, and study differentiation potential of stem cells in adult rabbit, sheep, monkey, and menopausal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of putative stem cells (PSCs) of variable size were detected in scraped OSE, one being smaller and other similar in size to the surrounding red blood cells in the scraped OSE. The smaller 1-3 μm very small embryonic-like PSCs were pluripotent in nature with nuclear Oct-4 and cell surface SSEA-4, whereas the bigger 4-7 μm cells with cytoplasmic localization of Oct-4 and minimal expression of SSEA-4 were possibly the tissue committed progenitor stem cells. Pluripotent gene transcripts of Oct-4, Oct-4A, Nanog, Sox-2, TERT, and Stat-3 in human and sheep OSE were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The PSCs underwent spontaneous differentiation into oocyte-like structures, parthenote-like structures, embryoid body-like structures, cells with neuronal-like phenotype, and embryonic stem cell-like colonies, whereas the epithelial cells transformed into mesenchymal phenotype by epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 3 weeks of OSE culture. Germ cell markers like c-Kit, DAZL, GDF-9, VASA, and ZP4 were immuno-localized in oocyte-like structures. In conclusion, as opposed to the existing view of OSE being a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells, mammalian ovaries harbor distinct very small embryonic-like PSCs and tissue committed progenitor stem cells population that have the potential to develop into oocyte-like structures in vitro, whereas mesenchymal fibroblasts appear to form supporting granulosa-like somatic cells. Research at the single-cell level, including complete gene expression profiling, is required to further confirm whether postnatal oogenesis is a conserved phenomenon in adult mammals.

  9. Evaluation of ovary dose for woman of childbearing age woman with breast cancer in tomotherapy

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    Lee, Soo Hyeong; Park, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Jong Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate unwanted scattered dose to ovary by scattering and leakage generated from treatment fields of Tomotherapy for childbearing woman with breast cancer. The radiation treatments plans for left breast cancer were established using Tomotherapy planning system (Tomotherapy, Inc, USA). They were generated by using helical and direct Tomotherapy methods for comparison. The CT images for the planning were scanned with 2.5 mm slice thickness using anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson-Rando phantom, The Phantom Laboratory, USA). The measurement points for the ovary dose were determined at the points laterally 30 cm apart from mid-point of treatment field of the pelvis. The measurements were repeated five times and averaged using glass dosimeters (1.5 mm diameter and 12 mm of length) equipped with low-energy correction filter. The measures dose values were also converted to Organ Equivalent Dose (OED) by the linear exponential dose-response model. Scattered doses of ovary which were measured based on two methods of Tomo helical and Tomo direct showed average of 64.94±0.84 mGy and 37.64±1.20 mGy in left ovary part and average of 64.38±1.85 mGy and 32.96±1.11 mGy in right ovary part. This showed when executing Tomotherapy, measured scattered dose of Tomo Helical method which has relatively greater monitor units (MUs) and longer irradiation time are approximately 1.8 times higher than Tomo direct method. Scattered dose of left and right ovary of childbearing women is lower than ICRP recommended does which is not seriously worried level against the infertility and secondary cancer occurrence. However, as breast cancer occurrence ages become younger in the future and radiation therapy using high-precision image guidance equipment like Tomotherapy is developed, clinical follow-up studies about the ovary dose of childbearing women patients would be more required.

  10. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

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    Longo Dan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR. Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months, whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  11. Ovarian Aging-Like Phenotype in the Hyperandrogenism-Induced Murine Model of Polycystic Ovary

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    Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are prominently similar symptoms, effectors, and commonalities in the majority of characteristics between ovarian aging and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Despite the approved role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PCOS and aging, to our knowledge, the link between the PCO(S and aging has not been investigated yet. In this study we investigated the possible exhibition of ovarian aging phenotype in murine model of PCO induced by daily oral administration of letrozole (1 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days in the female Wistar rats. Hyperandrogenization showed irregular cycles and histopathological characteristics of PCO which was associated with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO and reactive oxygen species (ROS and decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC in serum and ovary. Moreover, serum testosterone, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels, and ovarian matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 were increased in PCO rats compared with healthy controls, while estradiol and progesterone diminished. Almost all of these findings are interestingly found to be common with the characteristics identified with (ovarian aging showing that hyperandrogenism-induced PCO in rat is associated with ovarian aging-like phenotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides evidence regarding the phenomenon of aging in PCO.

  12. Age and body mass related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Macut Đuro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is considered a metabolic disorder closely related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperinsulinemia and unfavorable lipid profile, all increasing the risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess age and body mass index (BMI related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in 90 women with PCOS. The cut-off age point was 30 years and for BMI 27.8 kg/m2. In all patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, metabolic parameters comprising values of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and basal lipid values were determined. Significant increase in blood pressure (BP indices, basal insulin values and insulin resistance (IR assessed by HOMA model were observed with aging and the increase of BMI, while the parameters of glucose metabolism, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated only with aging. However, the correlation between the indices of arterial blood pressure, and lipid and glucose metabolism parameters occurred only in patients over 30 years of age, pointing to the causative relation and the consequent deterioration of IR and lipid profile with aging, influencing cardiovascular function in women with PCOS.

  13. Age determination and reproduction of female Fin Whales Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), with special regard to baleen plates and ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht-Cock, van C.N.

    1965-01-01

    1. From Antarctic female Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, a collection, consisting of baleen plates and the parts of these plates embedded in the gum, ovaries, and a number of earplugs was examined, in order to determine the age of these animals and to get a better insight in some characteristics

  14. Centriole Age Underlies Asynchronous Primary Cilium Growth in Mammalian Cells

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    Anderson, Charles T; Stearns, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that are present in most mammalian tissues and play important roles in development and disease [1]. They are required for the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) [2-4] and PDGF [5] signalling pathways. Primary cilia grow from the older of the two centrioles of the centrosome, referred to as the mother centriole. In cycling cells the cilium typically grows in G1 and is lost before mitosis, but the regulation of its growth is poorly understood. Centriole ...

  15. [Effects of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase b/bone morphogenetic protein-15 pathway on the follicular development in the mammalian ovary].

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    Wu, Yan-qing; Chen, Li-yun; Zhang, Zheng-hong; wang, Zheng-chao

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, ovarian follicle is made of an oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells and theca cells. Follicular growth and development is a highly coordinated programmable process, which guarantees the normal oocyte maturation and makes it having the fertilizing capacity. The paracrine and autocrine between oocytes and granulosa cells are essential for the follicular development to provide a suitable microenvironment. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase /protein kinase B is one of these important regulatory signaling pathways during this developmental process, and bone morphogenetic protein-15 an oocyte-specific secreted signal molecule, which regulates the follicular development by paracrine in the mammalian ovary. The present article overviewed the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / protein kinase B signaling during the follicular development based on our previous investigation about protein kinase B /forkhead transcription factor forkhead family of transcription factors -3a, and then focused on the regulatory effects of bone morphogenetic protein-15, as a downstream signal molecule of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / forkhead family of transcription factors -3a pathway, on ovarian follicular development, which helped to further understand the molecular mechanism regulating the follicular development and to treat ovarian diseases like infertility.

  16. [C-AMP concentration in various organs of female rats and in human ovaries with aging (author's transl)].

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    Arima, M

    1982-02-01

    The change in 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) concentration was observed in various organs of rats in gonadal cycle in adult group and with aging (30, 70, 100, 120 weeks), and in human ovaries with aging. 1) The average c-AMP concentration of ovaries of rats showed a significant change with estrus cycle and was higher in the following sequence: proestrus, diestrus II, diestrus I and estrus phase. This tendency was also seen in hypothalamus and pituitary, but was not statistically significant, 2) The average c-AMP concentration in tissues began to decline significantly from 70 weeks in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, and from 80 weeks in ovaries. However, on the other hand the concentrations in pituitary, liver and adrenal declined markedly from 100 weeks. 3) The c-AMP in ovaries of 80 weeks rats by pregnant mare serum (PMS) road increased by 0.5-fold in concentration, and by 0.6-fold in whole tissue relative to that of 30 weeks rats. 4) A significant difference in serum LH and FSH level between ovarian artery and vein was not found in cycling mature group, non-cycling climacteric group and post-menopausal group of women. 5) Both average concentrations and total values of c-AMP in ovaries of non-cycling climacteric and post-menopausal women were lower than those of mature cycling women. This fact may imply a different response by ovarian tissues such as corpus luteum, follicle and other tissues to gonadotropin. From these results of c-AMP in tissues, it is concluded that the decline of ovarian function with aging of rats was relatively earlier than pituitary, although being delayed compared with hypothalamus, and were the ovarian function in humans declined in the premenopausal period.

  17. Age-related differences in features associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in normogonadotrophic oligo-amenorrhoeic infertile women of reproductive years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bili; B. Imani; M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of age on clinical, endocrine and sonographic features associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertile women of reproductive years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Four hundred and seve

  18. Aging women with polycystic ovary syndrome who achieve regular menstrual cycles have a smaller follicle cohort than those who continue to have irregular cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, Mariet W.; Kwee, Janet; Korsen, Ted J.M.; Rekers-Mombarg, Lyset T.M.; Schoemaker, Joop

    2003-01-01

    To examine whether follicle loss due to ovarian aging is responsible for the occurrence of regular menstrual cycles in aging women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the size of the FSH-sensitive follicle cohort was estimated by the exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone ovarian reserve test (EF

  19. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P;

    2012-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15......-49 years) with PCOS were divided into 4 subgroups according to age: group 1 (15-19 years, n=42), group 2 (20-29 years, n=180), group 3 (30-39 years, n=187), group 4 (40-49 years, n=37) and underwent clinical evaluation (Ferriman-Gallwey score, BMI, waist, blood pressure), hormone analyses (sex hormones......, fasting lipids, insulin, glucose), transvaginal ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) (n=234), and ACTH tests (n=201). BMI, waist, Ferriman-Gallwey score, blood pressure, and lipid profile were higher in older vs. younger age groups whereas androgen levels were lower. Measures of insulin...

  20. Ovarian Aging-Like Phenotype in the Hyperandrogenism-Induced Murine Model of Polycystic Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar; Shojaei Saadi, Habib A; Maziar Gooshe; Amir Hosein Abdolghaffari; Maryam Baeeri; Mohammad Abdollahi

    2014-01-01

    There are prominently similar symptoms, effectors, and commonalities in the majority of characteristics between ovarian aging and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite the approved role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PCOS and aging, to our knowledge, the link between the PCO(S) and aging has not been investigated yet. In this study we investigated the possible exhibition of ovarian aging phenotype in murine model of PCO induced by daily oral administration of letrozole (1 mg...

  1. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of female infertility. It affects 5-10% of reproductive-age women. ... Related Links Established Drug Bests Newcomer in Treating Female Infertility Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Overview Polycystic Ovary Syndrome ...

  2. Mechanisms of skeletal muscle aging: insights from Drosophila and mammalian models

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    Fabio Demontis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of aged humans and other mammals is the debilitating, progressive loss of skeletal muscle function and mass that is known as sarcopenia. Age-related muscle dysfunction occurs to an even greater extent during the relatively short lifespan of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Studies in model organisms indicate that sarcopenia is driven by a combination of muscle tissue extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and that it fundamentally differs from the rapid atrophy of muscles observed following disuse and fasting. Extrinsic changes in innervation, stem cell function and endocrine regulation of muscle homeostasis contribute to muscle aging. In addition, organelle dysfunction and compromised protein homeostasis are among the primary intrinsic causes. Some of these age-related changes can in turn contribute to the induction of compensatory stress responses that have a protective role during muscle aging. In this Review, we outline how studies in Drosophila and mammalian model organisms can each provide distinct advantages to facilitate the understanding of this complex multifactorial condition and how they can be used to identify suitable therapies.

  3. Effects of Ages of Donors and Conditions of Preserving Ovaries on Porcine Oocytes Maturation in vitro and Efficiency of Parthenogenetic Activation

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    XING Feng-ying; WU Zhong-hong; ZENG Shen-ming; LIU Guo-shi; ZHU Shi-en; ZHANG Zhong-cheng; CHEN Xue-jin

    2004-01-01

    Effects of different ages of donors and different conditions of preserving ovaries on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and efficiency of parthenogenetic activation were studied. The experiments included: 1) effects of different temperatures (22, 30, 37, 38.5and 40℃) of preserving ovaries on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and developmental potential; 2) effects of periods of preserving ovaries on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and development in vitro; 3) effects of different ages of donors on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and developmental potential. The results of the experiment showed:1) There were no statistical differences (p>0.05) of the parthenogenetic cleavage rate (79.64% vs 76.18%) and blastocyst rate (18.11% vs 33.82%) between oocytes from ovaries preserved at 38.5℃ and those preserved at 37℃. When the preserving temperature was increased to 40℃, the cleavage rate (21.68%) and the blastocyst rate (0) were great significantly lower than those at 37℃(p<0.01). The cleavage rate (80.79% vs 76.18%) and blastocyst rate (29.61% vs 33.82%) were not different between 30 and 37℃(p> 0.05). When the preserving temperature was decreased to 22℃, the rate of cleavage was not different,but the rate of blastocyst was significantly lower, compared with that at 37℃; 2) The cleavage and blastocyst rates of the porcine oocytes collected after slaughter 2 or 6h were not different (p>0.05); 3) The cleavage rate of oocytes from gilts and sows after maturation was not different, but the blastocyst rate of the sow group was significantly higher than that of gilt group (p< 0.05). The blastocyst cell number of sows and gilt showed no difference (p>0.05).

  4. Ovary fibroma

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    María del Pilar Estrada Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ovary fibroma is a solid tumor of very low frequency, scarcely from 1 to 4 % of all benign neoplasms in that gonad. The condition can be asymptomatic or with scarce manifestations, at the time it has been confused with malignant lesions. This is the case of a postmenopausal woman with an increase of volume of her lower right abdomen; at palpation, an immotile and hard tumoral mass of about 10 cm in diameter was found. To the vaginal touch, the volume increase, predominantly solid, was located in the right annex. The ultrasound reported a bladder slightly out of its place. The abdominal computed tomography showed that the colon and the bladder were compressed and moved up to the left by the lesion. The patient underwent surgery and the biopsy informed an ovary fibroma, as well as other disorders of that side of the uterus and the ovary.

  5. The expression of hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN channels in the rat ovary are dependent on the type of cell and the reproductive age of the animal: a laboratory investigation

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    Page Carly

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that levels of hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels 1 to 4 (HCN1-4 are linked to the reproductive age of the ovary. Methods Young, adult, and reproductively aged ovaries were collected from Sprague-Dawley rats. RT-PCR and western blot analysis of ovaries was performed to investigate the presence of mRNA and total protein for HCN1-4. Immunohistochemistry with semiquantitative H score analysis was performed using whole ovarian histologic sections. Results RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of mRNA for HCN1-4. Western blot analysis revealed HCN1-3 proteins in all ages of ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemistry with H score analysis demonstrated distinct age-related changes in patterns of HCN1-3 in the oocytes, granulosa cells, theca cells, and corpora lutea. HCN4 was present only in the oocytes, with declining levels during the reproduction lifespan. Conclusion The evidence presented here demonstrates cell-type and developmental age patterns of HCN1-4 channel expression in rat ovaries. Based on this, we hypothesize that HCN channels have functional significance in rat ovaries and may have changing roles in reproductive aging.

  6. Regulation of lifespan by chemosensory and thermosensory systems: findings in invertebrates and their implications in mammalian aging

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    Dae-Eun eJeong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors that dynamically change in nature influence various aspects of animal physiology. Animals are equipped with sensory neuronal systems that help them properly sense and respond to environmental factors. Several studies have shown that chemosensory and thermosensory neurons affect the lifespan of invertebrate model animals including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Although the mechanisms by which these sensory systems modulate lifespan are incompletely understood, hormonal signaling pathways have been implicated in sensory system-mediated lifespan regulation. In this review, we describe findings regarding how sensory nervous system components elicit physiological changes to regulate lifespan in invertebrate models, and discuss their implications in mammalian aging.

  7. NON EPITHELIAL TUMORS OF OVARY

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    Rajani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non epithelial tumors of ovary are uncommon tumors and may generate difficulty in establishing a diagnosis. Small cell carcinoma (SCC of the female genital tract and primary lymphoma of ovary is even rarer, constituting less than 1% of all gynecologic malignancies. These tumors have poor prognosis. In the present study an effort was made to review these tumors in our Institute. AIMS: To know the prevalence, age distribution, clinical presentation and morphological appearance of these tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyzed 34 cases of non - epithelial tumors of ovary received in the department of pathology during a period of three years. Specimens were grossed, routinely processed under standardized conditions for paraffin embedding and stained with hematoxylin and eosin using standard procedures. Special stains and Immunohistochemistry was done where ever necessary. RESULTS: A total of ovarian tumors received during this period were 136. Non epithelial tumors of ovary constituted 34/136 (25%, of the ovarian neoplasms. Germ cell tumors constituted 23/34(67.64% followed by sexcord stromal tumors 7/34 (20.58%. Among the rare tumors we encountered a case of small cell carcinoma, primary lymphoma of ovary and 2 cases of Krukenberg tumors of ovary 2/34 (5.88%. CONCLUSION: Small cell carcinoma and primary lymphoma are morphologically similar to sex cord stromal tumors and germ cell tumors, may pose significant problems in establishing the correct diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry is a must to diagnose these lesions as they have grave prognosis.

  8. FDA-approved drugs that protect mammalian neurons from glucose toxicity slow aging dependent on cbp and protect against proteotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lublin

    Full Text Available Screening a library of drugs with known safety profiles in humans yielded 30 drugs that reliably protected mammalian neurons against glucose toxicity. Subsequent screening demonstrated that 6 of these 30 drugs increase lifespan in C. elegans: caffeine, ciclopirox olamine, tannic acid, acetaminophen, bacitracin, and baicalein. Every drug significantly reduced the age-dependent acceleration of mortality rate. These protective effects were blocked by RNAi inhibition of cbp-1 in adults only, which also blocks protective effects of dietary restriction. Only 2 drugs, caffeine and tannic acid, exhibited a similar dependency on DAF-16. Caffeine, tannic acid, and bacitracin also reduced pathology in a transgenic model of proteotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. These results further support a key role for glucose toxicity in driving age-related pathologies and for CBP-1 in protection against age-related pathologies. These results also provide novel lead compounds with known safety profiles in human for treatment of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetic complications.

  9. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Its Role in Early Neural Development and in Adult and Aged Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Lombó, Carla; Gonsebatt, María E

    2016-01-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms. This protein is an important energy sensor that is present throughout our lifetime its role must be precisely described in order to develop therapeutic strategies and prevent diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to present our current understanding of the functions of mTOR in neural development, the adult brain and aging. PMID:27378854

  10. Structural characterization and anti-aging activity of a novel extracellular polysaccharide from fungus Phellinus sp. in a mammalian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Guo, Dan Dan; Peterson, Eric Charles; Dun, Ying; Li, Dan Yang

    2016-08-10

    Little is known about the chemical structure of purified extracellular polysaccharides from Phellinus sp., a fungal species with known medicinal properties. A combination of IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and NMR were performed for the structural analysis of a purified extracellular polysaccharide derived from Phellinus sp. culture, denoted as SHP-1, along with an evaluation of the anti-aging effect in vivo of the polysaccharide supplementation. The structure of SHP-1 was established, with a backbone composed of →2,4)-α-d-glucopyranose-(1→ and →2)-β-d-mannopyranose-(1→ and two terminal glucopyranose branches. Biochemical analysis from mammalian animal experiments demonstrated that SHP-1 possesses the ability to enhance antioxidant enzyme activities, such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in serum of d-galactose-aged mice, while reducing lipofuscin levels, another indicator of cell aging, indicating a potential association with anti-aging activities in a dose dependent manner. This compound had a favourable influence on immune organ indices, and a marked amelioration ability of histopathological hepatic lesions such as necrosis, karyolysis and reduced inflammation and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes. These results suggest that SHP-1 has strong antioxidant activities and a significant protective effect against oxidative stress or hepatotoxicity induced by d-galactose in mice and it could be developed as a food ingredient or a pharmaceutical to prevent many age-associated diseases such as major depressive disorder and hepatotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antioxidant effects of a novel purified exopolysaccharide derived from Phellinus sp. PMID:27405813

  11. serum hormone level and ovary size during the process of ovary aging%卵巢功能衰退过程中血清激素和卵巢大小的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范燕燕; 林守清; 何仲; 王艳红; 姜颖; 张颖; 陈凤领

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of hormone level and ovarian size during the process of ovary aging staged according to STRAW system. Methods Prospective community-based cohort study was conducted. Altogether 219 women aged 30 to 54 years old and meeting the request of STRAW system were recruited through convenience sampling, and they were required to keep menstrual diary. The average follow-up period was 2. 5 years. Serum FSH and estradial ( E2 ) were detected at any day for women at - 1 stage or + 1 stage and during the menstrual cycle day 4 to 8 for those at other stages. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed to measure ovarian length and width, and therefore calculated ovarian area. Results The highest frequency of ovarian no echo structure ( diameter≧1. 4cm ) was at - 1 stage. For women with no echo structure < 1. 4cm at baseline, there were significantly differences in FSH at different reproductive aging stages (x2= 52.06, P <0.05 ). Significant differences in E2 , width, length and area were found between - 1 stage and - 2 stage or - 1 stage and -4/ -3 stage ( P = 0. 000 ). Longitudinal analysis showed that FSH increased significantly ( t/Z was - 4. 07 and - 4. 53 respectively, both P <0. 05 ) and ovarian width decreased significantly ( t value was 2. 46 and 3. 70, respectively, both P <0. 05 ) when reproductive aging stage changed from -2 to - 1 or from - 1 to +1. The significant decrease of E2( Z = - 2. 95 ), ovarian length ( t = 2. 64 ) and area ( t = 3. 13 ) was only found when stage changed from - 1 to +l(P<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of abnormal development of ovarian follicle increases in menopausal transition period. When stage changes from early transition stage ( - 2 stage ) to early postmenopause ( + 1 stage ), FSH increases gradually, and E2 , ovarian width and area decrease gradually. The ovarian length shortens later. The process of reproductive aging accelerates when menopause approaches.%目的 按照STRAW分期法对卵巢功

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, Ricardo; Carmina, Enrico; Chen, ZiJiang; Dunaif, Andrea; Laven, Joop S E; Legro, Richard S; Lizneva, Daria; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara; Teede, Helena J; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of women of reproductive age worldwide. The condition is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) - with excessive androgen production by the ovaries being a key feature of PCOS. Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is evident in the vast majority of affected individuals. PCOS increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications, venous thromboembolism, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events and endometrial cancer. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, based primarily on the presence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and PCOM. Treatment should be tailored to the complaints and needs of the patient and involves targeting metabolic abnormalities through lifestyle changes, medication and potentially surgery for the prevention and management of excess weight, androgen suppression and/or blockade, endometrial protection, reproductive therapy and the detection and treatment of psychological features. This Primer summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms and pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and prevention, management and future investigational directions of the disorder.

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, Ricardo; Carmina, Enrico; Chen, ZiJiang; Dunaif, Andrea; Laven, Joop S E; Legro, Richard S; Lizneva, Daria; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara; Teede, Helena J; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of women of reproductive age worldwide. The condition is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) - with excessive androgen production by the ovaries being a key feature of PCOS. Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is evident in the vast majority of affected individuals. PCOS increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications, venous thromboembolism, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events and endometrial cancer. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, based primarily on the presence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and PCOM. Treatment should be tailored to the complaints and needs of the patient and involves targeting metabolic abnormalities through lifestyle changes, medication and potentially surgery for the prevention and management of excess weight, androgen suppression and/or blockade, endometrial protection, reproductive therapy and the detection and treatment of psychological features. This Primer summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms and pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and prevention, management and future investigational directions of the disorder. PMID:27510637

  14. Japanese medaka: a non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying sex and age-related bone metabolism in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admane H Shanthanagouda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In human, a reduction in estrogen has been proposed as one of the key contributing factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rodents are conventional models for studying postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the major limitation is that ovariectomy is needed to mimic the estrogen decline after menopause. Interestingly, in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes, we observed a natural drop in plasma estrogen profile in females during aging and abnormal spinal curvature was apparent in old fish, which are similar to postmenopausal women. It is hypothesized that estrogen associated disorders in bone metabolism might be predicted and prevented by estrogen supplement in aging O. latipes, which could be corresponding to postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In O. latipes, plasma estrogen was peaked at 8 months old and significantly declined after 10, 11 and 22 months in females. Spinal bone mineral density (BMD and micro-architecture by microCT measurement progressively decreased and deteriorated from 8 to 10, 12 and 14 months old, which was more apparent in females than the male counterparts. After 10 months old, O. latipes were supplemented with 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, a potent estrogen mimic at 6 and 60 ng/mg fish weight/day for 4 weeks, both reduction in spinal BMD and deterioration in bone micro-architecture were significantly prevented. The estrogenic effect of EE2 in O. latipes was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four key estrogen responsive genes in the liver. In general, bone histomorphometric analyses indicated significantly lowered osteoblasts and osteoclasts numbers and surfaces on vertebrae of EE2-fed medaka. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate osteoporosis development associated with natural drop in estrogen level during aging in female medaka, which could be attenuated by estrogen treatment. This small size fish is a unique alternative non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying estrogen-related molecular

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Its Characteristics among Reproductive-Aged Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a clustering of factors known to increase the risk forcardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the mostcommon endocrine disorder among reproductive-aged women, is also closely linked to MetS. Limitedinformation is available pertaining to the prevalence of MetS in Iranian PCOS women; therefore thisstudy assesses the frequency of MetS and its components among PCOS women from Tabriz, Iran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 200 women withPCOS who referred to the only specialty and subspecialty gynecological center in Northwestern Iran.PCOS was diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria. This study defined clinical and biochemicalparameters for MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III(NCEP ATP III criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with descriptive-analytical methodsusing SPSS software version 16.Results: MetS was identified in 39.5% of PCOS women. The frequencies of individual componentsof MetS among studied subjects were: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C<50 mg/dL (99.5%, waist circumference(WC ≥88cm (65%, triglycerides (TG ≥150 mg/dL(98%, andblood pressure≥130/85 mmHg(34%.There were no fasting glucose concentrations≥110 mg/dL. Thefrequency of MetS increased with body mass index (BMIas follows: normal (5.4%, overweight(41.5% and obese (85.7% women (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The PCOS women in this study had a high frequency of MetS and its individualcomponents, particularly decreased HDL-C and increased triglyceride levels. These data can usefulfor lifestyle modification programs.

  16. [Diagnostics of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazúrová, Ivica; Figurová, Jana; Lazúrová, Zora

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age and the most frequent cause of menstruation cycle disorders. It is marked by a hyperandrogenic state (clinical and/or biochemical) and ovulatory dysfunction (anovulation and/or ultrasonographic finding of polycystic ovaries), which are also criteria for its diagnosis according to Androgen Excess and PCOS Society. The syndrome has multiple phenotypic expressions, among them besides the above characteristics also a metabolic syndrome, primarily obesity and insulin resistance. Diagnosing of PCOS may be rather exacting in clinical practice and it remains to be a diagnosis per exclusionem, following elimination of other causes of hyperandrogenic state and chronic oligo-anovulation. It requires a close cooperation between a gynecologist and endocrinologist and with regard to frequent metabolic complications also with an internist, diabetologist and possibly cardiologist. PMID:27124971

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Roumimper, Hailey; Oberfield, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a familial heterogeneous disorder affecting 6% to 10% of reproductive-age women. The use of criteria developed for adult women is problematic for the adolescent girl because the clinical features associated with PCOS are normal pubertal events. The recent consensus statement on PCOS in adolescents stated that hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea need to persist for at least 2 years to consider the diagnosis of PCOS. Although insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and obesity are often associated with PCOS, these features are not considered valid diagnostic criteria. Recent genomewide association studies implicate genetic loci involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:27241968

  19. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Carmen Imma; Nori, Stefania Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms an...

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy; Mortada, Rami; Porter, Samuel

    2016-07-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patient presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to having multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Guidelines from the Endocrine Society recommend using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis, which mandate the presence of two of the following three findings- hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries-plus the exclusion of other diagnoses that could result in hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction. It is reasonable to delay evaluation for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent patients until two years after menarche. For this age group, it is also recommended that all three Rotterdam criteria be met before the diagnosis is made. Patients who have marked virilization or rapid onset of symptoms require immediate evaluation for a potential androgen-secreting tumor. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is individualized based on the patient's presentation and desire for pregnancy. For patients who are overweight, weight loss is recommended. Clomiphene and letrozole are first-line medications for infertility. Metformin is the first-line medication for metabolic manifestations, such as hyperglycemia. Hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for irregular menses and dermatologic manifestations. PMID:27419327

  1. [Cystic formations of ovaries in women: clinical and morphological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cystic formations of ovaries are an urgent problem of medicine due to the high incidence of these diseases in women, the difficulties of differential diagnosis and a high percentage of diagnostic and tactical mistakes leading to disruption of reproductive function. Objective: to identify the clinical and morphological features of cystic formations of ovaries in women of Kharkiv region on the basis of the analysis of archival material. Methods. The material of this study was archival materials of pathological anatomy department of The Municipal Health Care Institution «Regional Clinical Hospital – The Center of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine» during 2013 y. 354 cases of histological examination of surgical material – deleted fragments of ovaries due to cystic formations or ovaries in complex with uterus and fallopian tubes due to leiomyoma of uterus – were analyzed. The slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were studied on the microscope «Olympus BX-41». Digital data were processed using statistical methods of investigation. Results. 1. It was established that in women of Kharkiv region among all cystic formations of ovaries tumor-like processes (in order of frequency of occurrence – yellow bodies cysts, follicular cysts, simple cysts, endometrial cysts occur 5.5 times more frequently in comparison with tumor processes (in order of frequency of occurrence – dermoid cysts, cystadenomas, cystadenocarcinoma. 2. Tumor and tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries occur 4.6 times more frequently in right ovary in comparison with the left. 3. Tumor and tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries were characterized by a certain age. Tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries were typical for younger women (average age of women – 31.03±0.49 year and tumor cystic formations – for older women (average age of women – 37.70±1.53 years. Among all tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries yellow bodies cysts were typical

  2. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of female sex hormones. This may lead to menstrual cycle changes, cysts in the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant, and other health changes. In PCOS, mature eggs are not released from the ovaries. Instead, they can form very small cysts in the ovary. These changes can contribute to infertility. Common symptoms of PCOS include Menstrual disorders, Infertility, High levels of testosterone and Metabolic syndrome. Obesity, sedentary life style with inadequate physical activity, stress, junk food consumption are thought to be contributing factors in addition to genetic origin. In recent years many of the girls and women are suffering from PCOS because of wrong eating habits, stressful living conditions and lack of physical activity. Weight loss has been the major recommendation by physicians for women with PCOS. Lifestyle modifications including stress reduction, moderate exercise, and group support, along with a decrease in total calorie intake and avoiding junk food consumption have had positive results. A decrease of only 5% of total body weight is associated with decreased insulin levels, increased fertility, reduced hirsutism and acne, and lower testosterone levels. Whole grains, fruits and vegetables with foods containing protein and natural fat along with vitamins and minerals are beneficial.

  3. Obesity and hormonal status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome is commonly associated with hyperandrogenism and anovulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on hormonal status in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Material and methods The study was performed at the Ward of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the General Hospital in Subotica. A retrospective investigation comprised 39 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome . All patients were in the fertile age-range: 18-38 years. Following ultrasonographic examination and anamnestic data, patients underwent hormonal analyses of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone, prolactin and insulin obtained from the pooled serum sample. Results Values of testosterone and insulin in the group of obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were significantly higher than in normal weight patients. Patients with normal body weight index had significantly increased levels of LH in regard to those with increased body weight index. Values of FSH, prolactin and LH/FSH ratio were not significantly different in both groups of polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Increased values of insulin were recorded in 43% of obese and 18.2% of normal weight patients. Conclusion Analysis of investigated results confirmed that obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance have been a special clinical entity, whereas an open question remains whether obesity is directly connected with polycystic ovary syndrome or it is only an additional factor interfering with metabolic and hormonal status of genetically predisposed and phenotypically indoctrinated women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  4. Mammalian pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinic...

  6. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific gen...

  7. Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Rosalbino; Raffone Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR). The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two ...

  8. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findi...

  9. Mixed malignant germ cell tumor of ovary

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    Sviračević Branko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumours of germ origin. In adolescent patients under 20 years of age diagnosed to have ovarian tumour, these tumours originate from germ cells in about 70% of cases. Depending on the stage of the disease, medical treatment and age, the death rate ranges from 25% to 84%. A special group of germ tumours are mixed germ cells tumours built of two or more different types of germ tumours. Case report. This paper gives a diagnostic-therapeutic procedure and the clinical picture with the course and outcome of the decease in a nineteen-year old patient with a mixed malignant germ tumour (dysgerminoma, choriocarcinoma, immature teratoma found in one of the ovaries. It also deals with the appearance and development, some characteristics and histological build of the tumours diagnosed in this case. Conclusion. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and develop in female population under 30 years of age. They are characterized by a high degree of malignity. They are resistant to cytostatic treatment, they spread very quickly with the lethal outcome. The course of the disease is not characteristic and is usually masked under some other acute gynaecological disease. The definitive diagnosis is made after laparotomy and pathohistological analysis of the tumour tissue.

  10. Ovary and uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, Roger G

    2008-12-01

    Ovarian and uterine transplantation are procedures gaining more attention again because of potential applications in respectively fertility preservation for cancer and other patients and, more tentatively, women with uterine agenesis or hysterectomy. Cryopreservation of tissue slices, and possibly whole organs, is providing opportunities for banking ovaries for indefinite periods before transplanting them back to restore fertility. The natural plasticity of this organ facilitates grafting to different sites where they can be revascularized and rapidly restore the normal physiology of secretion and ovulation. Ischemic damage is a chief limitation because many follicles are lost, at least in avascular grafts, and functional longevity is reduced. Nevertheless, grafts of young ovarian tissue, even after cryopreservation, can be highly fertile in laboratory rodents and, in humans, autografts have functioned for up to 3 years before needing replacement. Transplantation by vascular anastomosis provides potentially longer function but it is technically much more demanding and riskier for the recipient. It is the only practicable method with the uterus, and has enabled successful pregnancies in several species, but not yet in humans. Contrary to claims made many years ago, neither organ is privileged immunologically, and allografts become rapidly rejected except in hosts whose immune system is deficient or suppressed pharmacologically. All in all, transplantation of these organs, especially the ovary, provides a broad platform of opportunities for research and new applications in reproductive medicine and conservation biology.

  11. Mixed malignant germ cell tumor of ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Sviračević Branko; Sedlar Srđan; Malobabić Dragan; Ćuk Dragomir

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumours of germ origin. In adolescent patients under 20 years of age diagnosed to have ovarian tumour, these tumours originate from germ cells in about 70% of cases. Depending on the stage of the disease, medical treatment and age, the death rate ranges from 25% to 84%. A special group of germ tumours are mixed germ cells tumours built of two or more different types of germ t...

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, M; Naver, Klara; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this multicenter study is to evaluate the relative impact of insulin resistance (IR) and body mass index (BMI) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on (1) Key hemodynamic/thrombogenic variables, (2) Oocyte quality and early embryo development, (3......) Fetal growth, placental function and adverse obstetric outcome. Secondary objective: To establish a PCOS database and biobank facilitating future basic and interventional research related to PCOS. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study at four University Hospitals in Denmark. Population...... inclusion: About 200 women fulfilling the Rotterdam Criteria and 100 women without PCOS recruited from 2010 to 2012. Methods: The impact of PCOS, as well as the impact of IR and BMI on the hormonal, metabolic and hemostatic key variables will be analyzed combining conventional, molecular techniques...

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes J; Faber, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of insulin resistance and body mass index (BMI) on inflammatory and hemostatic variables associated with long-term risk of...... cardiovascular disease in women with PCOS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 149 premenopausal women with PCOS were recruited consecutively from April 2010 to February 2012 at three Danish University Hospitals. The study was conducted at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark. PCOS...... measures were the biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor antigen. RESULTS: Normal weight insulin-resistant PCOS women were characterized by abdominal obesity and elevated levels of plasma PAI-1. Overweight/obese insulin-resistant PCOS women...

  14. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  15. Health-related Quality of Life in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carazo Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequent endocrine and metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. Its characteristic signs and symptoms are menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, acne, hirsutism, obesity and infertility. Polycystic ovary syndrome has major effects on long-term health, which can lead to psychological morbidity and decreased quality of life. This paper reviews the current literature on polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life; in addition, it assesses how some clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome affect the quality of life of women who suffer this disorder.

  16. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...... and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the c...

  17. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Evliyaoğlu, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi factorial heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism Diagnosis is based on clinical or laboratory evidence of nbsp; hyperandrogenism nbsp; For diagnosis at least two of the three Rotterdam criteria oligo anovulation clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism polycystic ovaries nbsp; should be ensured Clinical symptoms usually begin around menarche nbsp; Oligomenorrhea amenorrhea hirsutism acne alopecia can be ass...

  19. [Polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2015-10-01

    For diagnosing of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) it is currently recommended to follow the ESHRE criteria. For diagnosis according to them two of the following three symptoms are sufficient: 1. morphology of polycystic ovaria, 2. clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or laboratory proof of hyperandrogenemia, and 3. oligo-anovulation. PCOS is a complex disorder in whose pathogenesis genetic and environmental effects interact. It is not a gynecological disorder alone, the syndrome is accompanied by insulin resistance which leads to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (4 times and twice, independently of BMI). Also gestational DM occurs more frequently. Dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, elevated CRP and homocysteine levels, endothelial dysfunction and greater intima-media thickness are also more frequent. It is not quite clear, however, whether women with PCOS suffer cardiovascular events more frequently as well. More often than is accidental PCOS is associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders, further with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and with the sleep apnoea syndrome - especially in obese women. Therapeutic measures include non-pharmacological methods - lifestyle adjustments focused on weight reduction in obese individuals, cosmetic measures for dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism, in particular laser and pharmacotherapy (combined hormonal contraceptives and antiandrogens). Menstrual irregularities can be treated with contraceptives or cyclical administration of gestagens, also metformin can be used. PMID:26486483

  20. [Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, A; Fernandez, H

    2007-09-01

    Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female hormonal disorders. Its multiple components--reproductive, metabolic, neoplasic and cardiovascular--have a major impact on the public health. Androgen excess and resistance to insulin, probably from genetic origin, are responsible for most of the clinical symptomatology. Resistance to insulin seems to be accompanied by a greater risk of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, lipidic anomalies and can involve the development of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, sleep apnea syndrome is more progressively described in PCOS. Infertility, menses disorders and hirsutism often push these patients to consult their physician. A better understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms led to the emergence of new therapeutic options increasing the sensitivity to insulin. Besides the pregnancy wishes, cares aim to attenuate the marks of the hyper-androgenism (hormonal treatment and cosmetic) and to correct cardiovascular, respiratory and gynaecological risk factors. In case of infertility by anovulation, cares must be performed by trained experts to minimize the risk of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. A gradation from loose weight to clomiphene citrate ovulation induction, ovarian drilling, low dose gonadotropin, in vitro fertilisation, or in vitro maturation of oocytes should bring back good reproduction potential.

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (Tp); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of Tp were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Bayar, Ulku; Erdem, L. Oktay; Barut, Aykut; Gundogdu, Sadi; Kaya, Erdal

    2004-07-01

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (T{sub p}); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of T{sub p} were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome : preconception, pregnancy and offspring health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, M.A. de

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, with a reported population incidence between 6-15%. PCOS is a heterogeneous reproductive disorder, which is diagnosed when at least two out of the three following criteria are present: oligo- or anov

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Obesity, and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joham, Anju E; Palomba, Stefano; Hart, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to one in five reproductive-aged women. It is underpinned by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism and is associated with metabolic, reproductive, and psychological features. Women with PCOS have higher rates of obesity and central adiposity compared with women without PCOS, and weight strongly influences prevalence and clinical severity of PCOS. Women with PCOS may have subfertility and women should be aware of factors affecting fertility, in particular the impact of obesity and age. Once pregnant, women with PCOS have significantly increased risk of pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, premature delivery, and delivery by cesarean section. The offspring of women with PCOS may have increased risk of congenital abnormalities and hospitalization in childhood. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk and screen, prevent, and manage accordingly. PMID:26854709

  5. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome - literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek, Michał; Abdalla, Nebil; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-factorial disease. Its etiopathogenesis has not been elucidated in detail. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of child-bearing age. This disease entity is primarily characterized by disrupted ovulation and hyperandrogenism, but the clinical picture can be diversified and symptom intensity can vary. Currently, the sonographic assessment of ovaries is one of the obligatory criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus (2003) and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society (2006). This criterion is determined by the presence of ≥12 follicles within the ovary with a diameter of 2-9 mm and/or ovarian volume ≥10 cm(3). Such an ultrasound image in one gonad only is sufficient to define polycystic ovaries. The coexistence of polycystic ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome is confirmed in over 90% of cases irrespective of ethnic factors or race. However, because of the commonness of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in healthy women, the inclusion of this sign to the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome is still questioned. The development of new technologies has an undoubted influence on the percentage of diagnosed polycystic ovaries. This process has caused an increase in the percentage of polycystic ovary diagnoses since the Rotterdam criteria were published. It is therefore needed to prepare new commonly accepted diagnostic norms concerning the number of ovarian follicles and the standardization of the technique in which they are counted. The assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone levels as an equivalent of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries is a promising method. However, analytic methods have to be standardized in order to establish commonly accepted diagnostic norms. PMID:26807298

  6. Metabolic effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yejin; Kim, Hae Soon; Lee, Hye-Jin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS. Methods Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those...

  7. Cell lineage analysis of the mammalian female germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Reizel

    Full Text Available Fundamental aspects of embryonic and post-natal development, including maintenance of the mammalian female germline, are largely unknown. Here we employ a retrospective, phylogenetic-based method for reconstructing cell lineage trees utilizing somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites, to study female germline dynamics in mice. Reconstructed cell lineage trees can be used to estimate lineage relationships between different cell types, as well as cell depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote. We show that, in the reconstructed mouse cell lineage trees, oocytes form clusters that are separate from hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, both in young and old mice, indicating that these populations belong to distinct lineages. Furthermore, while cumulus cells sampled from different ovarian follicles are distinctly clustered on the reconstructed trees, oocytes from the left and right ovaries are not, suggesting a mixing of their progenitor pools. We also observed an increase in oocyte depth with mouse age, which can be explained either by depth-guided selection of oocytes for ovulation or by post-natal renewal. Overall, our study sheds light on substantial novel aspects of female germline preservation and development.

  8. Cell lineage analysis of the mammalian female germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizel, Yitzhak; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Adar, Rivka; Elbaz, Judith; Jinich, Adrian; Chapal-Ilani, Noa; Maruvka, Yosef E; Nevo, Nava; Marx, Zipora; Horovitz, Inna; Wasserstrom, Adam; Mayo, Avi; Shur, Irena; Benayahu, Dafna; Skorecki, Karl; Segal, Eran; Dekel, Nava; Shapiro, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of embryonic and post-natal development, including maintenance of the mammalian female germline, are largely unknown. Here we employ a retrospective, phylogenetic-based method for reconstructing cell lineage trees utilizing somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites, to study female germline dynamics in mice. Reconstructed cell lineage trees can be used to estimate lineage relationships between different cell types, as well as cell depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote). We show that, in the reconstructed mouse cell lineage trees, oocytes form clusters that are separate from hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, both in young and old mice, indicating that these populations belong to distinct lineages. Furthermore, while cumulus cells sampled from different ovarian follicles are distinctly clustered on the reconstructed trees, oocytes from the left and right ovaries are not, suggesting a mixing of their progenitor pools. We also observed an increase in oocyte depth with mouse age, which can be explained either by depth-guided selection of oocytes for ovulation or by post-natal renewal. Overall, our study sheds light on substantial novel aspects of female germline preservation and development.

  9. Ultrastructure and function of follicle cell in the ovary of Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulrich Welsch; 方永强

    1997-01-01

    The ultrastructure of follicle cells in the ovary at different developmental stages of Branchiostoma has been observed in detail with a transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that only one kind of follicle cell exists with structural features related to steroid hormone biosynthesis: (i) oval or round mitochondria with tubules; (ii) smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum; (iii) several large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm; (iv) a well de-veloped Golgi complex and tubular rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, as can be found in mammalian theca interna cells. In addition, as steroid hormone synthesizing cells, they obviously play an important role in the phagocytosis of relict gametes and cellular debris and may have a nutritive function for the oocytes. They can produce abundant secre-tory granules in stages III-IV ovaries. In mature ovaries they transform into flat epithelial cells with numerous micro-filaments which may play a role in ovulation.

  10. Development and aging of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the mammalian brain: what are the impacts on female reproductive function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eFranceschini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prominent role of the G protein coupled receptor GPR54 and its peptide ligand kisspeptin in the progression of puberty has been extensively documented in many mammalian species including humans. Kisspeptins are very potent GnRH secretagogues produced by two main populations of neurons located in two ventral forebrain regions, the preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus (ARC. Within the last two years a substantial amount of data has accumulated concerning the development of these neuronal populations and their timely regulation by central and peripheral factors during fetal, neonatal and peripubertal stages of development. This review focuses on the development of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the brain of female mouse, rat, sheep, monkey and humans. The notion that this system represents a major target through which signals from the environment early in life can re-program reproductive function will also be discussed.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells: Towards a bioengineered heparin

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Jong Youn; Gasimli, Leyla; Bo YANG; Datta, Payel; Zhang, Fuming; Glass, Charles A.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Sharfstein, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is the most widely used pharmaceutical to control blood coagulation in modern medicine. A health crisis that took place in 2008 led to a demand for production of heparin from non-animal sources. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, commonly used mammalian host cells for production of foreign pharmaceutical proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, are capable of producing heparan sulfate (HS), a related polysaccharide naturally. Since heparin and HS share the same biosynthetic pathway...

  12. Sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrawati B. Gargade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing stromal tumor is rare benign ovarian sex cord stromal tumour which occurs predominantly in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with irregular menstruation and pelvic pain. She underwent panhysterectomy as USG revealed a solid and cystic 15 cm right ovarian tumour with increased vascularity with raised CA125. Hysterectomy specimen revealed a benign sclerosing stromal tumour of right ovary. We present this rare case to emphasis the awareness of benign sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary in young female to avoid unnecessary extensive surgery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2037-2040

  13. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner. PMID:15380144

  14. Primary Nongestational Choriocarcinoma of the Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMM Shariful Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor. It can be of gestational or nongestational in origin. The gestational type can arise from an ovarian pregnancy or can be of metastatic origin from uterine choriocarcinoma. The nongestational type is a very rare germ cell neoplasm. It is important to distinguish between two types of choriocarcinomas as nongestational origin is highly malignant and has worse prognosis than gestational type. But it is very difficult to differentiate by routine histological examination. Nongestational choriocarcinoma has been found to be resistant to single agent chemotherapy. It occurs usually around 13 years of age and is mainly confined to females under 20. Here we report a case of primary pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary in an unmarried girl of 14 years, diagnosed in 2001 and treated successfully with surgery and combination chemotherapy and remained disease-free till last reporting in September 2013.

  15. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2013-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5-7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success.

  16. Metformin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Maha Yousef Soliman

    2007-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility due to anovulation, affects 4–7% of women). Etiology of PCOS remains largely unknown, familial aggregation of cases suggests genetic susceptibility to the disorder. Though genes involved remain unknown, recent evidence points to a gene of the insulin receptor. Genes implicated in ovarian follicular development may also play a role. A fundamental aspect of the syndrome seems to be a defect in insulin metabolism....

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Buggs, Colleen; Rosenfield, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome of variable combinations of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism or acne, and obesity. It can be diagnosed in adolescence and has early childhood antecedents. PCOS is the single most common endocrine cause of anovulatory infertility and a major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome and, in turn, development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in women. Thus, it appears that PCOS increases a woman’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefor...

  18. Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Huei Peng; Ting-Chang Chang; Swei Hsueh

    2003-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary is a rare ovarian disease with prevalence of 1.5%to 6% of ovarian stromal tumors. We present a 24-year-old woman with irregular menstruationfor 6 months and a self-palpable lower abdominal mass. Enucleation of the left ovariantumor was undertaken. Gross examination showed a soft elastic tumor with a smooth outersurface and diffusely white edematous stroma with scattered yellowish nodular areas on thecut surface. Histologic study showed that the cellular n...

  19. Calcitriol attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in a murine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Cao, Jia-Tian; Liang, Yan; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Lin, Xian-Hua; Li, Xiao-Cui; Tan, Ya-Jing; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhou, Cheng-Liang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex reproductive and metabolic disorder affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women, and is well associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. However, there are few data concerning the direct association of PCOS with cardiac pathologies. The present study aims to investigate the changes in cardiac structure, function, and cardiomyocyte survival in a PCOS model, and explore the possible effect of calcitriol administration on these changes. PCOS was induced in C57BL/6J female mice by chronic dihydrotestosterone administration, as evidenced by irregular estrous cycles, obesity and dyslipidemia. PCOS mice progressively developed cardiac abnormalities including cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, myocardial apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction. Conversely, concomitant administration of calcitriol significantly attenuated cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improved cardiac function. Molecular analysis revealed that the beneficial effect of calcitriol was associated with normalized autophagy function by increasing phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase and inhibiting phosphorylation levels of mammalian target of rapamycin complex. Our findings provide the first evidence for the presence of cardiac remodeling in a PCOS model, and vitamin D supplementation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of PCOS-related cardiac remodeling.

  20. Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Rosalbino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR. The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two different polyalcohol myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. In particular, while data on myo-inositol and restored ovulation were consistent, data on D-chiro-inositol were not . Recently, a comparative study, proposed a D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary of PCOS patients hypothesizing that only myo-inositol has a specific ovarian action. In the present study we aim to further study the role played by D-chiro-inositol at ovarian level. Methods A total of 54 women, aged Results Total r-FSH units increased significantly in the two groups that received the higher doses of DCI. The number of immature oocytes was significantly increased in the three groups that received the higher doses of DCI. Concurrently, the number of MII oocytes was significantly lower in the D group compared to placebo group. Noteworthy, the number of grade I embryos was significantly reduced by DCI supplementation. Conclusions Indeed, increasing DCI dosage progressively worsens oocyte quality and ovarian response.

  1. The effects of polycystic ovary syndrome on gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktun, Hale Lebriz; Yorgunlar, Betul; Acet, Mustafa; Aygun, Banu Kumbak; Karaca, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the inter-relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes mellitus, and demonstrate maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a case-control study in 1360 pregnant women who received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age. Among all diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, 150 pregnant women had received a polycystic ovary syndrome, and 160 women who did not have polycystic ovary syndrome were designated as controls. The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was 26.3% and 12% in the case and control groups, respectively. Preeclampsia was seen at an incidence of 12% and 6% in case and in control groups, respectively. The difference in neonatal hypoglycemia between the two groups was statistically significant, with an incidence of 17% and 5% in the case and in control groups, respectively. This study demonstrated that the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome along with gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension by 2.4 fold, preeclampsia by 2 fold and neonatal hypoglycemia by 3.2 fold, compared to gestational diabetes mellitus alone.

  2. Women's Health Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Veltman-Verhulst, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of unknown etiology which affects approximately 12% of women. Principal features of PCOS are anovulation resulting in irregular or absent menstruation, excessive androgens (male sex hormones) and ovaries with multiple follicles (polycystic ovaries). PCOS has been associated with a variety of health complications of reproductive, metabolic, and psychological nature. Although PCOS is predominantly diagnosed in women of reproductiv...

  3. THYROID PATHOLOGY IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Dumăchiţǎ-Şargu; Voichiţa Mogoş; Florentina Pricop

    2010-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined by a chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism, in the presence of polycystic ovaries and the absence of the other causes. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of thyroid pathology in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This study is a retrospective one and was made from January 2003 to December 2009 in the Endocrinology Clinic of “Saint Spiridon” Hospital and included a number of 483 ...

  4. Relationship between serum cystatin C and polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Gholamhosseinian, Ahmad; Musavi, Fatemeh; Mashrouteh, Mahdieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes an increased risk of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Also, cystatin C serum levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients. Objective: To investigate the relationship between cystatin C in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: 35 women with PCOS were compared to 35 women with healthy matched age and body mass index. They all underwent tests to determine plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP)...

  5. Relationship between serum cystatin C and polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Gozashti; Ahmad Gholamhosseinian; Fatemeh Musavi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes an increased risk of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Also, cystatin C serum levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients. Objective: To investigate the relationship between cystatin C in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: 35 women with PCOS were compared to 35 women with healthy matched age and body mass index. They all underwent tests to determine plasma levels of C-reactive prot...

  6. Lipid Parameters in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Ioan IUHAS; Nicolae COSTIN; Mihu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the lipid profile in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: a retrospective review of the medical records of female patients addressing for a consultation in a private healthcare network in Cluj-Napoca between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Patients with complete lipid profile and without previous treatment were included in the PCOS group. PCOS was diagnosed using Rotterdam criteria for PCOS. Healthy female patients matched for age ...

  7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Çakır; Erman Çakal; Mustafa Özbek; Mustafa Şahin; Tuncay Delibaşı

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease...

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Çakır

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 33-7

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min; Chae, Soo Jin; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Yoon, Sang Ho; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate: the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and the relationship between vitamin D status and clinical or metabolic features in this group. Methods We recruited 38 women with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria. A total of 109 premenopausal control women were matched with patients based on age and body mass index. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations less than 20 ng/mL were classified as frank vitamin D deficiency....

  10. Expression and clinical significance of the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway during the development and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Zhenghong; Wang, Zhaokai; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wang, Qing; Su, Jingqian; Wang, Zhengchao

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major health problem in reproductive-aged women worldwide, but the precise pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our previous study revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a mediated endothelin (ET)-2 signaling plays an important role in ovulation in rats. Therefore, the present study used a PCOS rat model to test the hypotheses that HIF-1a signaling is expressed and inhibited in ovaries during PCOS formation and that the HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling pathway is a target of dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) in the clinical treatment of PCOS. First, the development of a PCOS model and the effect of DMBG treatment were examined through ovarian histology and serum hormone levels, which were consistent with previous reports. Second, HIF-1a and ET-2 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed decreased HIF-1a/ET-2 expression in the ovaries of PCOS rats, whereas DMBG treatment reversed the protein decreases and improved the PCOS symptoms. Third, to understand the molecular mechanism, HIF-1a/ET-2 mRNA expression was also examined. Interestingly, HIF-1a mRNA increased in the ovaries of PCOS rats, while ET-2 mRNA decreased, indicating that HIF-1a protein degradation may be involved in POCS development and treatment. Finally, HIF prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity was examined to further clarify the contribution of HIF-1a signaling to the development and treatment of PCOS. The results suggested that the inhibition of HIF-1a/ET-2 signaling may be caused by increased PHD activity in PCOS. DMBG-treated PCOS may further activate HIF-1a signaling at least partly through inhibiting PHD activity. Taken together, these results indicate that HIF-1a signaling is inhibited in a PCOS rat model through increasing PHD activity. DMBG treatment improved PCOS by rescuing this pathway, suggesting that HIF-1a signaling plays an important role in the development and treatment of PCOS. This HIF-1a-mediated ET-2 signaling pathway

  11. Identification of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in the Ovary of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Lin; Tao Du; Jia Huang; Li-Li Huang; Dong-Zi Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. The patients often develop insulin resistance (IR) or hyperinsulinemia despite manifesting anovulation and signs of hyperandrogenism. The cause and effect relationship of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia (HA) is still debated. Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) have recently been shown to play a role in regulation of ovarian function. Our current study focused on the altered expressi...

  12. STATINS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

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    P. S. Patel*, T. D. Goswami, A. D. Sharma and B. S. Arora

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors with intrinsic antioxidant properties, exert profound and broad-reaching effects on various types of tissues. By blocking an early step of the mevalonate pathway, statins inhibit proliferation of several cell types including vascular smooth muscles, hepatocytes, and several neoplastic cell lines. The pleiotropic effects of statins may be due to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. Some common treatments lifestyle changes, insulin-sensitizing agents.

  13. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a normal population according to the Rotterdam criteria versus revised criteria including anti-Müllerian hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, M P; Bentzen, J G; Pinborg, A;

    2014-01-01

    -anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries (AFC ≥ 12 and/or ovarian volume >10 ml). However, with the advances in sonography, the relevance of the AFC threshold in the definition of polycystic ovaries has been challenged, and AMH has been proposed as a marker of polycystic ovaries...... ovaries with a significant age-related decrease from 69.0% in women .... However, future studies are needed to validate AMH threshold levels, and AMH Z-score may be appropriate to adjust for the age-related decline in the AFC. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): None. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable....

  14. Psammocarcinoma of ovary with serous cystadenofibroma of contralateral ovary: a case report

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    Aggarwal Pallavi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Psammocarcinoma of ovary is a rare serous neoplasm characterized by extensive formation of psammoma bodies, invasion of ovarian stroma, peritoneum or intraperitoneal viscera, and moderate cytological atypia. Extensive medlar search showed presence of only 28 cases of psammocarcinoma of ovary reported till date. Case presentation We herein report a case of psammocarcinoma of ovary with serous cystadenofibroma of contralateral ovary in a 55 year old Asian Indian female. Conclusion To the best of author's knowledge, ours is the rare case describing coexistence of this very rare malignant serous epithelial tumor with a benign serous cystadenofibroma of contralateral ovary.

  15. Women's Health Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of unknown etiology which affects approximately 12% of women. Principal features of PCOS are anovulation resulting in irregular or absent menstruation, excessive androgens (male sex hormones) and ovaries with multiple follicles (polycy

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: MRI evaluation of parameters of the ovaries for the diagnosis of polycystic ovaries in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: an MRI of the pelvis was performed in 51 patients with PCOS and 50 healthy volunteers. The volume and maximum diameter of the bigger ovary, the number of follicles, and the maximum diameter and volume of the biggest follicle of the bigger ovary were determined in relation to patient age and were statistically compared. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic quality of the parameters of the ovaries regarding the diagnosis of PCOS. Results: in a cohort aged 21 - 30 a significant difference between patients with PCOS and healthy volunteers was able to be determined for all 5 parameters (p 3 and at least 12 follicles. In regard to these parameters a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.32%, 90.32% und 80.65% and a specificity of 68.42%, 63.16% und 86.42% can be reached. (orig.)

  17. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia;

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated...... resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on mi......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  18. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia;

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with...... resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on mi......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  19. Quality of life and marital sexual satisfaction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Pawlińska-Chmara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 5-10% of women in the developed world, making it the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. The symptoms typically associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, subfertility, anovulation and acne can lead to a significant reduction in female life quality.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome on quality of life and marital sexual satisfaction. Fifty women with polycystic ovary syndrome were qualified to the study as the research group. The control group consisted of fourty healthy women. A specific questionnaire was used as a research tool in this study. It included the socio-demographic part, polycystic ovary syndrome's symptomatology and validated scales: Polish version of Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36 and Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS. The mean age of researched women was 28.9+/-5.6 years, and in the control group - 30.5+/-5.3 years (p>0.05. Quality of life parameters for women with polycystic ovary syndrome were lower than for the controls in the aspect of: general health (p<0.01, limitations due to physical health (p<0.05, limitations due to emotional problems (p<0.001, social functioning (p<0.01, energy/fatigue (p<0.001 and emotional wellbeing (p<0.01. Studied women showed worse marital sexual functioning (p<0.05. Marital sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 28.6% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and in 10.5% of healthy women (p<0.05. Polycystic ovary syndrome decreases quality of life and marital sexual functioning among women. A negative effect of hirsutism severity on general well-being and marital sexual life is also observed.

  20. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  1. Steroidogenic response of carp ovaries to piscine FSH and LH depends on the reproductive phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Joseph; Kobayashi, Makito; Selicharova, Irena; Sohn, Young Chang; Yoshizaki, Goro; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2012-08-01

    The gonadotropins (GTHs) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are the key regulators of reproduction. We determined the competence of heterologous recombinant GTHs at eliciting steroid secretion from carp ovaries at different reproductive stages. We collected carp ovaries at: early, mid and end vitellogenesis, when most of the oocytes still contained a germinal vesicle (GV) at a central stage, and mature ovaries with a migrating GV. Plasma estradiol (E2) levels at early vitellogenesis were high and decreased thereafter. Basal secretion levels of E2 increased with oocyte diameter and GSI value, whereas 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was detected only in females with mature follicles. Carp ovary fragments were exposed to recombinant fish GTHs belonging to different teleost orders: Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica, Anguilliformes), Manchurian trout (Brachymystax lenok, Salmoniformes), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus); to mammalian GTHs (pFSH and hCG), or to carp and tilapia pituitary extract (CPE and TPE, respectively). All of the recombinant GTHs tested stimulated steroid secretion. However, the steroid secretion differed according to the type of GTH and the developmental state of the ovary. CPE increased the secretion of both E2 and DHP at almost all stages of ovarian maturity. In mature ovarian fragments, DHP secretion was higher in response to recombinant LHs (eel and tilapia) than to recombinant FSH. Early- and mid-vitellogenic ovaries showed no secretion of DHP and high secretion of E2 in response to all recombinant GTHs tested. This is in line with the hypothesis that LH regulates the final stages of maturation, when the involvement of FSH is marginal. These results may contribute to understanding the mechanisms that determine differential activation of steroid secretion and specificity in fish. PMID:22522050

  2. The localization of estrogen receptor alpha and its function in the ovaries of postmenopausal women.

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    Jacek Brodowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha in the ovaries of postmenopausal women is a very up-to-date topic in the aspect of using estrogens therapy in the clinical situations of different type. In ovaries of reproductive age women ERalpha is present in ovary stroma, theca and granulosa cells, ovary surface epithelium (OSE and in corpus luteum. The ovaries of postmenopausal women are smaller than those of women at the reproductive age, the division into cortex and medulla gets blurred, the ovaries have no follicles any longer, and the stroma is mainly composed of fibrous connective tissue, corpora albicantia, nerves, and blood and lymphatic vessels. The aim of our study was to investigate the immunolocalization and immunoexpression of ERalpha in the ovaries of postmenopausal women. The study involved 50 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed by laparotomy due to non-neoplastic diseases of the uterus. The women were divided into 3 groups (A, B, and C depending on the time that had passed since the last menstruation. Group A consisted of women who had their last menstruation no more than 5 years earlier, in group B menopause occurred 5 to 10 years earlier, group C was composed of patients who had the last menstruation over 10 years earlier. In all the patients concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing stimulating hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, androstendione (A and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS in blood plasma were measured. Ovarian tissue was obtained during surgery. For morphological studies, ovaries were fixed in Bouin;s solution and 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Morphological analysis was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Comparing to groups A and B, the ovaries in group C contained a small number of corpora albicantia located in the medullary part as well as thinned blood vessels and few lymphatic vessels and nerves. For immunoohistochemical

  3. Primary lymphoma of the ovary

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    Elharroudi Tijani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the ovary by malignant lymphoma is a well-known late manifestation of disseminated nodal disease. Primary ovarian lymphoma is rare. We report a case of primary ovarian non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma with bilateral involvement which was managed by surgery and chemotherapy. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of an ovarian cancer. Computed tomography revealed an abdominal tumor measuring 20 cm in diameter, without enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was established after bilateral adnexectomy and histological study of the excised tissue. The tumor was classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient has been advised 8 cycles of standard CHOP regimen and is presently on treatment. She has now been without disease for 7 months after the surgery. According to previous reports the treatment principles and prognosis of primary ovarian lymphoma is the same as that of other nodal lymphomas.

  4. Overweight in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Haugen, A G; Glintborg, D

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women affecting 5-10%. Nearly 50% are overweight or obese, which result in a more severe phenotype of PCOS. Weight loss is therefore considered the first line treatment in overweight women with PCOS....... The aim of this study was to appoint evidence based and clinically applicable advises on weight loss in overweight women with PCOS. Methods: A review of the existing literature on weight loss through lifestyle modification and/or metformin treatment in overweight women with PCOS. The primary outcome...... style changes, preferably a low calorie diet, should be the first line treatment in overweight/obese women with PCOS. Metformin can be considered as an additional treatment but has subtle additive effect....

  5. Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David J; Kengeri, Seema S; Clever, Beth; Booth, Julie A; Maras, Aimee H; Schlittler, Deborah L; Hayek, Michael G

    2009-12-01

    To move closer to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in human longevity, we studied pet dogs to determine whether lifetime duration of ovary exposure was associated with exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, age at death, and cause of death for a cohort of canine 'centenarians'--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than average life expectancy for the breed. Sex and lifetime ovary exposure in the oldest-old Rottweilers (age at death, > or = 13 years) were compared to a cohort of Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death, 8.0-10.8 years). Like women, female dogs were more likely than males to achieve exceptional longevity (OR, 95% CI = 2.0, 1.2-3.3; P = 0.006). However, removal of ovaries during the first 4 years of life erased the female survival advantage. In females, a strong positive association between ovaries and longevity persisted in multivariate analysis that considered other factors, such as height, body weight, and mother with exceptional longevity. A beneficial effect of ovaries on longevity in females could not be attributed to resistance against a particular disease or major cause of death. Our results document in dogs a female sex advantage for achieving exceptional longevity and show that lifetime ovary exposure, a factor not previously evaluated in women, is associated with exceptional longevity. This work introduces a conceptual framework for designing additional studies in pet dogs to define the ovary-sensitive biological processes that promote healthy human longevity. PMID:19732047

  6. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide system is involved in the defective quality of bovine oocytes from low mid-antral follicle count ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessaro, I; Luciano, A M; Franciosi, F; Lodde, V; Corbani, D; Modina, S C

    2011-08-01

    In a previous survey concerning cows of reproductive age, we demonstrated that oocytes isolated from ovaries with ovaries; Lo) show less developmental competence than oocytes collected from ovaries with >10 medium antral follicles (high ovaries; Hi). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a defective endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (eNOS/NO) system and vasculature in healthy medium antral follicles is likely to reduce oocyte competence from Lo ovaries. Thus, experiments were conducted to 1) immunolocalize eNOS protein during folliculogenesis; 2) quantify eNOS protein/vasculature in the follicle wall; and 3) verify if NO donor, S-nitroso acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) administration during in vitro maturation affects developmental competence of oocytes isolated from Lo ovaries. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein was detected in granulosa and theca cells, as well as in blood vessels from primordial to antral follicles. Quantitative analysis indicated that in medium antral follicles from Lo ovaries, eNOS protein expression and vasculature were reduced (P ovaries, promoting a percentage similar to oocytes from Hi ovaries, and reduced the percentage of apoptotic nuclei in in vitro-produced blastocysts (P bovine ovaries with small mid antral follicle number, a defective eNOS/NO system is related to a reduced follicle vasculature and may affect oocyte quality, thus inducing a premature decline of fertility. PMID:21421835

  7. Histomorphometric study of the follicles of the ovary in Bangladeshi women

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    Hosna Ara Perven, Abu Sadat Mohammad Nurunnabi, Shamim Ara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accurate assessment of size and number of ovarian follicles are paramount to understanding the physiology of female reproduction.Objective: To observe the variation in size of the Graafian follicle and follicular number with age in Bangladeshi women.Methods: This descriptive type of study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, from January to December 2009, on 140 post mortem human ovaries collected from 70 unclaimed female dead bodies from the morgue of Forensic Medicine, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka. The samples were divided into three age-groups including group A (10-13 years, group B (14-45 years and group C (46-52 years. 10 best prepared histological slides from 14-45 years age group were examined to determine the average size of Graafian follicle and 20 slides from each group were taken to determine the number of follicles.Results: The average diameter of the Graafian follicles of the right is slightly higher than that of the left ovary but not statistically significant (p>0.05. No difference was found in follicular number in between the right and the left ovaries at any age group. However, the difference in number of the follicles of the ovary were statistically significant in between age groups A & C and B & C (p<0.001.Conclusion: The average diameter of Graafian follicle was found greater in the right ovary than the left ovary. However, the number of ovarian follicles was found to decrease in old age.

  8. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  9. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  10. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities.

  11. Novel expression and functional role of ghrelin in chicken ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, A V; Grossmann, R; María-Peon, M T; Roa, J; Tena-Sempere, M; Klein, S

    2006-09-26

    Ghrelin has recently emerged as pleiotropic regulator of a wide array of endocrine and non-endocrine functions. The former likely includes the control of gonadal function, as expression of ghrelin and its putative receptor, the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), has been described in mammalian gonads, and direct effects of ghrelin in the control of testicular secretion and cell proliferation have been reported. Yet, the expression and/or functional role of ghrelin in gonads from non-mammalian species remain to be analyzed. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R genes in the chicken ovary, and to assess the potential involvement of ghrelin in the direct control of chick ovarian function. To this end, RT-PCR assays for ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNAs were performed in ovarian tissue, and cultures of chicken ovarian cells were conducted in the presence of increasing doses (1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) of the ghrelin analog, ghrelin 1-18. Our results demonstrate that both ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNAs are expressed in chick ovarian tissue. Moreover, challenge of ovarian granulosa cells with ghrelin 1-18 was able to induce markers of proliferation (i.e. expression of both PCNA and cyclin), and to modulate markers of apoptosis (i.e. decreased expression of caspase-3, bax, bcl-2 and TUNEL-positive cells). Moreover, ghrelin 1-18 increased the expression of PCNA, cyclin, bax and p53 in cultures of ovarian follicular fragments, where it also stimulated the release of progesterone, estradiol, arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and IGF-I, but not of testosterone. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for the gonadal expression of the genes encoding ghrelin and its cognate receptor in a non-mammalian species, i.e. the chicken ovary, and unravels the potential involvement of this newly discovered molecule in the control of key gonadal functions in the chick, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone release. PMID:16891055

  12. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-07-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  13. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry.

  14. Apparent mesonephric duct (rete anlage) origin for cysts and proliferative epithelial lesions in the mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gerald G

    2002-01-01

    Ovaries and adjacent parovarian (mesovarial) tissues of CD-1 mice of various ages were examined to characterize cystic and proliferative epithelial lesions of the ovary and parovarian tissues. Ovaries and adjacent tissues from 6 mice each at approximately 3 and 8 months of age were processed for light microscopy and step-sections (50-micron intervals) of the entire tissue were examined. Tissues were collected from 40 mice each at 16 through 24 months of age and 3 step sections per mouse were examined. Mesonephric duct remnants were found in all mice at 3 and 8 months. Ducts were usually in the mesovarial adipose tissue and near or within the ovarian hilus and were often loosely associated with smooth muscle of the mesovarial ligament. The epithelium of the ducts varied from low cuboidal to columnar, occasional individual cells were ciliated, and small papillary configurations of epithelium were occasionally present. Ducts were dilated (> 1 mm) more often in mice at 8 months compared to 3 months, and some were continuous with cystic spaces within the ovaries. As mice aged (16-24 months), dilation and cystic change in ducts and associated compression of ovarian tissue away from the ovarian hilus became common. The epithelium of dilated ducts was generally flattened, but foci of cuboidal to columnar epithelium and/or occasional ciliated cells were present. Many ducts contained foci of hyperplastic and/or hypertrophic epithelium, and papillary projections of epithelium were occasionally found. Some of the latter lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of papillary cystadenoma. Hyperplasia of associated fibromuscular stroma was limited to a few apparently extraovarian ducts. The results of this study indicate that remnant mesonephric ductular structures are common in and adjacent to the ovaries of CD-1 mice. As mice age, these ducts become dilated and, in some, the epithelium becomes hyperplastic and/or hyperptrophic. These mesonephric duct remnants appear to be a

  15. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Amna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder, and a major cause of infertility in women. An excessive amount of androgen hormones are produced by polycystic ovaries in PCOS with irregular menstruation and anovulation as result. The most common early symptoms are infertility, hirsutism and acne. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and possibly cardiovascular disease and endometrial carcinoma are all associated as lifelong implications with t...

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome and environmental toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Zofia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-09-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, heterogeneous, and multifactorial endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. The pathophysiology of this endocrinopathy is still unclear; however, the heterogeneity of its features within ethnic races, geographic location, and families suggests that environment and lifestyle are of prime importance. This work is mainly focused on the possible role of the most common and studied environmental toxins for this syndrome in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates, which belong to the categories of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), affect humans' health in everyday, industrialized life; therefore special attention should be paid to such exposure. Timing of exposure to EDCs is crucial for the intensity of adverse health effects. It is now evident that fetuses, infants, and/or young children are the most susceptible groups, especially in the early development periods. Prenatal exposure to EDCs that mimic endogenous hormones may contribute to the altered fetal programming and in consequence lead to PCOS and other adverse health effects, potentially transgenerationally. Acute or prolonged exposure to EDCs and AGEs through different life cycle stages may result in destabilization of the hormonal homeostasis and lead to disruption of reproductive functions. They may also interfere with metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia that can exacerbate the PCOS phenotype and contribute to PCOS consequences such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since wide exposure to environmental toxins and their role in the pathophysiology of PCOS are supported by extensive data derived from diverse scientific models, protective strategies and strong recommendations should be considered to reduce human exposure to protect present and future generations from their adverse health effects. PMID

  18. [Mechanism of the development of permanent estrus in rats after transplantation of the ovaries into a low temperature medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunder, P A; Smetanina, M D

    1983-03-01

    Autotransplantation of the ovaries to the ears of adult rats induces permanent estrus following 5-7 days. Autotransplantation of the ovaries beneath the renal capsules makes the sexual cycle return to normal after the same period. Autotransplantation of the ovaries to the ears of infantile rats brings about pubertas precox followed by normal sexual cycle. Permanent estrus ensues only after 4 months. Transplantation of the ovaries from infantile rats to adult ones and vice versa has shown that age-related differences in the alterations seen in the sexual cycle in response to gonadal transplantation to the ears are caused by age-related differences in the recipients, precisely by those in the cyclic center. PMID:6681996

  19. Mono-ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch Petersen, Kathrine; Pedersen, Nina Maria Gros; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes;

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age and is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. The treatment approaches to ovulation induction vary in efficacy, treatment duration and patient friendliness. The aim was to determine the most efficient, evidence...... studies. Clomiphene citrate is recommended as primary treatment for PCOS-related infertility. It induces ovulation in three out of four patients, the risk of multiple pregnancies is modest and the treatment is simple and inexpensive. Gonadotrophins are highly efficient in a low-dose step-up regimen...

  20. Androgen - secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Ratilal Udhreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs, not otherwise specified of the ovary are rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, which account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and also that will present at any age. The majority of these tumors produce steroids with testosterone being the most common. A case of a 28-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of virilization is reported. Although SCTs are generally benign, there is a risk for malignant transformation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  1. Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kahal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age and it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Obesity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the majority of patients with PCOS are obese. Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased, with probable associated increase in PCOS. Weight reduction plays an integral part in the management of women with PCOS. In this paper, current available weight reduction therapies in the management of PCOS are discussed.

  2. Identification and profiling of microRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats during estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Hou, Jinxing; Li, Guang; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Jiangang; Cao, Binyun

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in almost all ovarian biological processes, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteal development, and regression. The study identified known and novel miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats by combining Solexa sequencing with bioinformatics. In total, 862 known and 53 novel miRNAs were identified in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats. A total of 771 miRNAs were co-expressed in both libraries. One hundred twenty miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous goats and 24 miRNAs in the ovaries of monotocous goats were specifically expressed. In addition, 445 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats, of which 348 were upregulated, and 97 were downregulated in the ovaries of polytocous goats compared with the ovaries of monotocous goats (P values 1). The expression levels of 12 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by stem-loop real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with Solexa sequencing results. KEGG analysis showed that GnRH, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis and ovarian steroidogenesis participated in follicular development and ovulation. On the basis of miRNA-mRNA network analysis and luciferase reporter assays, the ggo-miR-4488-p3_1ss10CG, bta-miR-2892-p5_1ss8CG and hsa-miR-4532_L+1R-3 were closely related with prolific traits. The results will help to further understand the role of miRNAs in kidding rate regulation. PMID:26542138

  3. Mast cells in mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropp, J J

    1976-01-01

    Mast cells, which had until recently been believed to be not present in the mammalian brain, were studied in the brains of 29 mammalian species. Although there was considerable intraspecific and interspecific variation, mast cells were most numerous within the leptomeninges (especially in those overlying the cerebrum and the dorsal thalamus - most rodents, most carnivores, chimpanzees, squirrel monkeys and elephant), the cerebral cortex (most rodents, tiger, fox, chimpanzee, tarsier, and elephant) and in many nuclei of the dorsal thalamus (most rodents, tiger, lion, and fox). In some mammals, mast cells were also numerous in the stroma of the telencephalic choroid plexuses (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the putamen and the claustrum (chimpanzee), the subfornical organ (pack rat, tiger, chimpanzee), the olfactory peduncles (hooded rat, albino rat), the stroma of the diencephalic choroid plexus (lion, chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), the pineal organ (chimpanzee, squirrel monkey), some nuclei of the hypothalamus (tiger), the infundibulum (hooded rat, tiger, fox) the area postrema (pack rat, chinchilla, lion, spider monkey, chimpanzee, fox) and some nuclei and tracts of the metencephalon and the myelencephalon (tiger). Neither the sex of the animal nor electrolytic lesions made in the brains of some of the animals at various times prior to sacrifice appeared to effect the number and the distribution of mast cells. Age-related changes in mast cell number and distribution were detected in the albino rat. PMID:961335

  4. Clinical and metabolic characteristics of reproductive-aged obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome%育龄期肥胖多囊卵巢综合征患者特异性临床代谢特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 马向华; 沈捷

    2011-01-01

    目的 多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)是遗传异质性、发病多因性、临床表现多样性的疾病,发病机制尚不明确.对年龄及肥胖与PCOS关系的研究报道较少.文中比较育龄期和青春期肥胖与非肥胖PCOS患者的病史、临床特征及实验室指标的差异,探讨PCOS发生的危险因素和发病机制. 方法 按年龄及体质指数(body mass index,BMI)将PCOS患者分为育龄期肥胖组、育龄期非肥胖组和青春期肥胖组3组.记录各组患者病史、体征,检测并比较血脂、血糖、胰岛素、性激素等实验室检查结果. 结果 肥胖PCOS患者中,青春期患者紫纹发生率显著高于育龄期患者(P<0.05),育龄期患者三酰甘油( triglyceride,TG)、总胆同醇(total cholesterol,TC)异常发生率与青春期患者相比有升高趋势,但差异无统计学意义.育龄期PCOS患者中,肥胖者黑棘皮、紫纹、痤疮、腹型肥胖、黄体生成素/卵泡刺激素(luteinizing hormone/follicule-stimulating hormone,LH/FSH)≥2.0、高胰岛素血症及胰岛素抵抗(insulin resistance,IR)、空腹血糖受损/糖耐量受损、糖尿病( diabetes mellitus,DM)、代谢综合征(metabolic syndrome,MS)发生率均较非肥胖者显著升高,而胰岛素敏感指数(intermediate-acting insulin,IAI)及血高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平显著低于非肥胖者.高雄激素血症(hyperandrogenism)发生率以及血LH、TC、TG水平与非肥胖者比较呈升高趋势,但差异无统计学意义.PCOS患者的肥胖程度与腰臀比( waist-to-hip ratio,WHR)和IR呈正相关.青春期肥胖PCOS患者的肥胖程度与TG水平呈正相关.肥胖PCOS患者的年龄与血FSH水平呈负相关,TG/HDL-C与腰围、WHR呈正相关. 结论 PCOS患者中普遍存在IR及LH/FSH倒置,育龄期肥胖PCOS患者糖脂代谢异常较为常见.PCOS发生与肥胖相关,与家族史、月经史无明显相关.

  5. Research progress in the relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive function in obese women of child-bearing age and the therapies.%育龄期肥胖女性生殖功能与多囊卵巢综合征的关系及治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季海波; 王卓然

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and fertility in women of childbearing age is very close, especial-ly abdominal obesity. Females with obesity often show oligomenorrhea, increased androgen levels and ovulation obsta-cle. In addition, studies show that obese people are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogen-emia and metabolic abnormalities, compared with normal people. Disorder in sex hormones levels may be one of the key factors causing obesity of different types. Studies have confirmed that reducing of weight can correct sex hormone disorder, reduce androgen levels, establish regular menstrual cycle and restore ovulation, and thus improve the fertility of obese females. Previous experience applied drugs such as metformin to strengthen the function of ovary and pro-mote fertility by improving insulin resistance. In recent years, anti-obesity drugs are used for the treatment because of its functions of reducing fat and improving insulin resistance. This paper reviews the recent progress in polycystic ova-ry syndrome, fertility of obese women in child-bearing age, and related drug therapies.%肥胖与育龄期妇女生育能力的关系极为密切,尤其是以腹型肥胖者更加明显,此类人群多表现为月经稀发、雄激素水平增高及排卵障碍.此外,研究表明肥胖人群较正常人群更易发生多囊卵巢综合征、高雄激素血症和代谢功能异常.基础性激素水平紊乱可能是导致不同类型肥胖的关键因素之一,并且在大量研究中已证实降低体重可纠正性激素紊乱状态,降低雄激素水平,建立规律月经周期,恢复排卵,进而提高肥胖女性生育能力.以往针对此情况多采用二甲双胍等药物,通过改善胰岛素抵抗等途径增强卵巢功能,提供生育能力.近年来减肥药物因其具有减脂、改善胰岛素抵抗等作用,被用于此类患者的治疗,本文则对近年来多囊卵巢综合征与育龄期肥胖妇女生育能力及相关药物治疗进行综述.

  6. Improvement of the antioxidative status of pig ovaries by selenopyran treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Vasileva Abadjieva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential micro-element in animal diet due to its high antioxidative properties. As a part of selenocystein it is an important constituent of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx enzyme, which has a big importance for cell protection from oxidative damage. The aim of the present work was the investigation of the selenopyran effect on the antioxidative state of the pig ovary. The experiment was conducted with 18 gilts of Danube white breed randomly divided into two groups between 120 - 228 days of age. The animals received equal basal diets without selenium additives. The experimental gilts were injected once per month intramuscularly with oil solution of preparation selenopyran (9-phenylsymmetrical octahydroselenoxanthene ensured 0.1 mgSe/kg live weight. After slaughtering, the ovaries were used for histological analysis and estimation of the selenium content in ovarian tissue by the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The GPx activity in ovary homogenates using the colorimetric assay kit (BioVision was measured. The expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT in ovaries by immunochistochemical method was estimated. The selenopyran treatment leads to significant (P0.05 in ovarian tissue. Enhancement of GPx activity in the ovaries of experimental group was observed (142.61±6.6 versus 122.28±3.4U/gP, P<0.05. The GGT expression in the ovarian cortex cells, follicular fluid and in the erythrocytes of ovarian blood vessels in treated gilts was an evidence of active transport of glutathione from blood to the ovary tissue. The selenopyran treatment promotes the increase of the GPx dependent antioxidative defense in ovary of growing gilts.

  7. Mitomycin resistance in mammalian cells expressing the bacterial mitomycin C resistance protein MCRA

    OpenAIRE

    Belcourt, Michael F.; Penketh, Philip G.; Hodnick, William F.; Johnson, David A.; David H Sherman; Rockwell, Sara; Sartorelli, Alan C.

    1999-01-01

    The mitomycin C-resistance gene, mcrA, of Streptomyces lavendulae produces MCRA, a protein that protects this microorganism from its own antibiotic, the antitumor drug mitomycin C. Expression of the bacterial mcrA gene in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells causes profound resistance to mitomycin C and to its structurally related analog porfiromycin under aerobic conditions but produces little change in drug sensitivity under hypoxia. The mitomycins are prodrugs that are enzymatically reduc...

  8. Prevalence and possible mechanisms of reactive hypoglycemia in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Henriksen, Jan Erik;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence of reactive hypoglycemia (RH) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) versus age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. SUMMARY ANSWER: The prevalence of RH was increased in PCOS versus controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies suggested an...

  9. Anti-Müllerian Hormone: Function and Molecular Mechanism of Action in the Ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.G. Gruijters (Maria)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMenopause, the end of menstrual cycling, is a major milestone in the aging process in women. The cessation of ovarian function is accompanied by the almost complete absence of female sex steroid hormone secretion by the ovaries in postmenopausal life. Consequently, before and after the

  10. Analysis of the vascular responses in a murine model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Labruijere (Sieneke); E.L.A.F. van Houten (Leonie); R. de Vries (René); U.M. Musterd-Bagghoe (Usha M); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); P. Kramer (Piet); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); C.M. Villalon (C.); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A. Maassen VanDenBrink (Antoinette)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of the reproductive age, but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain unclear. Cardiovascular disease risk is increased in PCOS patients and endothelial damage has been observed. We recently de

  11. Polycystic ovaries and infertility: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rajashekar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common (15-20% endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. Although it is a major cause of infertility, its etiology remains unknown and its treatment difficult. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of patients with PCOS. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: PCOS patients (914 of the 1057 attending the outpatient department (OPD from June 2003 to February 2008 were evaluated for this study. Of the 914 patients investigated, 814 came for treatment and these patients were studied for hormonal disturbances and their response to various modalities of treatment. Results: Of the 2270 infertility patients, 46.50% (1057 had PCOS, out of these, 86.47% (914 were investigated and 77% (814 came for treatment. Our overall pregnancy rate was 48.40% (394/814. The pregnancy rate per cycle with timed intercourse (TI was 44.77% (47/105, 17.09% (286/1673 with intrauterine insemination (IUI, 29.82% (51/171 with in vitro fertilization (IVF and 22.22% (10/45 with frozen embryo transfer (FET. The maximum number of pregnancies (85.29%, 284/333 were achieved in the first three treatment cycles. The abortion rate was 19.01% (73/384 and the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 5.47% (21/384. Complications seen were in the form of ovarian hyperstimulation (OHSS, retention cyst on day two and multiple pregnancies in 11.71% (228/1946 of the total treatment cycles. Conclusion: Most PCOS symptoms could be adequately controlled or eliminated with proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, ovulation induction (OI protocols and treatment modalities must be balanced for optimal results.

  12. The Inguinal Herniation of the Ovary in the Newborn: Ultrasound and Color Doppler Ultrasound Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inguinal hernias in the newborn age group are seldom encountered. In the affected female patient, the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the intestines may settle in the hernia sac. The early diagnosis of torsion in cases in which the ovary is herniated into the inguinal canal is of utmost importance in order to give surgery the chance of reduction and correction. In this paper, a case of an ovarian herniation into the inguinal canal without the presence of torsion is being presented, and the place of US and CDUS in the differential diagnosis of the situation is being discussed.

  13. Sarcoma-like mural nodule in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Bhowmik, Sourav

    2014-10-01

    Sarcoma-like mural nodule (SLMN) is a very uncommon and misleading benign entity which may be associated with benign, borderline or malignant mucinous neoplasm of the ovary. It should be distinguished from other malignant mural nodules with sarcoma, carcinosarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma for proper management. We report a rare case of SLMN in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary in a 30-year-old lady. In spite of having confusing histopathological features the final diagnosis was made depending on the younger age of the patient, well circumscription of the nodule, absence of vascular invasion and immunohistochemical profile.

  14. Mammalian gut immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Chassaing; Manish Kumar; Mark T Baker; Vishal Singh; Matam Vijay-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximit...

  15. Building the mammalian testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Koopman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Development of testes in the mammalian embryo requires the formation and assembly of several cell types that allow these organs to achieve their roles in male reproduction and endocrine regulation. Testis development is unusual in that several cell types such as Sertoli, Leydig, and spermatogonial...... the architecture of the testis unfolds and highlights the questions that remain to be explored, thus providing a roadmap for future studies that may help illuminate the causes of XY disorders of sex development, infertility, and testicular cancers....

  16. Re-torsion of the ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B;

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases....... The main outcome measures were re-torsion and viability of ovary with fixation measures. A total of 38 publications including 71 girls, 363 fertile women, and 69 pregnant women were found to be relevant. All studies were case reports or case series, sometimes with non-randomized controls. The studies show...... considerable heterogeneity in design, population, management and outcome. Only four studies included more than 50 cases. In pregnancy the risk of re-torsion was as high as 19.5-37.5%; among fertile women it was 28.6%. Most articles concluded that fixation of the ovaries to the pelvic sidewall or plication...

  17. Deciduoma of the ovary complicating pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy Vedavalli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 24 yr old Primigravida who conceived spontaneously came with two months amenorrhea for confirmation of pregnancy and routine checkup. Her 1st trimester scan, showed a single intra – uterine viable pregnancy of 8-9 weeks, with a right adnexal mass of about 10.7x7.7x10.3 cm with solid and cystic areas with internal echoes. In view of the size of the tumor and its varying echogenicity, pathological condition of the ovary was suspected. She reported at 24 weeks with abdominal pain. Partial torsion was suspected and Laprotomy was done. Right ovary was enlarged to 10 cm with varying consistency. Right ovariotomy was done. Postoperative period was uneventful. Histopathological examination showed extensive decidual changes in the ovary, forming tumor like lesions in the cystic areas. The pregnancy progressed without any complication. At term, she delivered a healthy female baby. The case is being presented for its extreme rarity.

  18. The DNA damage response in mammalian oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eCarroll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is one of the most common insults that challenge all cells. To cope, an elaborate molecular and cellular response has evolved to sense, respond to and correct the damage. This allows the maintenance of DNA fidelity essential for normal cell viability and the prevention of genomic instability that can lead to tumour formation. In the context of oocytes, the impact of DNA damage is not one of tumour formation but of the maintenance of fertility. Mammalian oocytes are particularly vulnerable to DNA damage because physiologically they may lie dormant in the ovary for many years (>40 in humans until they receive the stimulus to grow and acquire the competence to become fertilized. The implication of this is that in some organisms, such as humans, oocytes face the danger of cumulative genetic damage for decades. Thus, the ability to detect and repair DNA damage is essential to maintain the supply of oocytes necessary for reproduction. Therefore, failure to confront DNA damage in oocytes could cause serious anomalies in the embryo that may be propagated in the form of mutations to the next generation allowing the appearance of hereditary disease. Despite the potential impact of DNA damage on reproductive capacity and genetic fidelity of embryos, the mechanisms available to the oocyte for monitoring and repairing such insults have remained largely unexplored until recently. Here, we review the different aspects of the response to DNA damage in mammalian oocytes. Specifically, we address the oocyte DNA damage response from embryonic life to adulthood and throughout oocyte development.

  19. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ningling; Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li; Xu, Hong; Li, Rong; Huang, Hefeng

    2016-02-26

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. PMID:26850853

  20. Fracture risk is decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Glintborg, Dorte; Nybo, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia may protect against osteoporosis, whereas amenorrhea, increased cortisol, and low growth hormone may be associated with higher fracture risk in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate fracture risk in PCOS. MATERIAL/METHODS: PCOS...... Denmark: Women with PCOS and/or hirsutism were identified in the Danish National Patient Register (1995-2012). Each patient was assigned three age-matched controls on the index date of PCOS diagnosis. Individuals with a previous endocrine diagnosis were excluded. Within PCOS Denmark, we embedded a well......-characterized subcohort of patients, PCOS OUH, diagnosed with PCOS at Odense University Hospital (n = 1,217). We identified incident fractures by ICD-10 codes and used conditional Cox regression analysis to compare fracture risk. RESULTS: PCOS Denmark: 19,199 women with PCOS and 57,483 controls were included, mean age 30...

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;

    2012-01-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens...

  2. Immunohistochemistry of Paraffin Sections from Mouse Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Tepekoy, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an efficient technique to detect cellular localizations of the proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues. It allows specific proteins to be visualized by the interaction of antibodies with an enzyme-substrate-chromogen system. Here, we describe indirect immunohistochemistry method for paraffin-embedded mouse ovaries fixed with Bouin's Fixative. PMID:27557588

  3. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting. PMID:27287621

  4. Oncological repercussions of polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de França Neto, Antônio H; Rogatto, Silvia; Do Amorim, Melania M R;

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine disorder that has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has suggested that PCOS may be associated with the appearance of certain types of cancer, particularly endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer...

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of ovary--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Preethi, Joseph; Remadevi, A V

    2005-01-01

    Leiomyosarcomas are rare to arise in ovary and only 23 cases have been reported so far. They are considered to arise from components supporting the vascular elements in the hilar region. We report the case of a 75 year old lady, who was treated by resection of the tumour with hysterectomy and oophorectomy for ovarian leiomyosarcoma and followed up to six months. PMID:16758777

  6. Anti-Müllerian Hormone: Function and Molecular Mechanism of Action in the Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Gruijters, Maria

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMenopause, the end of menstrual cycling, is a major milestone in the aging process in women. The cessation of ovarian function is accompanied by the almost complete absence of female sex steroid hormone secretion by the ovaries in postmenopausal life. Consequently, before and after the menopausal transition very different physiological hormonal regimens prevail, which have a major impact on healthy aging of women and their quality of life. After menopause, due to the loss of expos...

  7. Autophagy in mammalian cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kadija; Abounit; Tiziano; M; Scarabelli; Roy; B; McCauley

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a regulated process for the degradation of cellular components that has been well conserved in eukaryotic cells. The discovery of autophagy-regulating proteins in yeast has been important in understanding this process. Although many parallels exist between fungi and mammals in the regulation and execution of autophagy, there are some important differences. The preautophagosomal structure found in yeast has not been identified in mammals, and it seems that there may be multiple origins for autophagosomes, including endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and mitochondrial outer membrane. The maturation of the phagophore is largely dependent on 5’-AMP activated protein kinase and other factors that lead to the dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. Once the process is initiated, the mammalian phagophore elongates and matures into an autophagosome by processes that are similar to those in yeast. Cargo selection is dependent on the ubiquitin conjugation of protein aggregates and organelles and recognition of these conjugates by autophagosomal receptors. Lysosomal degradation of cargo produces metabolites that can be recycled during stress. Autophagy is an impor-tant cellular safeguard during starvation in all eukaryotes; however, it may have more complicated, tissue specific roles in mammals. With certain exceptions, autophagy seems to be cytoprotective, and defects in the process have been associated with human disease.

  8. Pancreatic lipase-related protein (PY-PLRP) highly expressed in the vitellogenic ovary of the scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sun; Kim, Bo Kwang; Kim, Hak Jun; Yoo, Myong Suk; Mykles, Donald L; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2008-09-01

    A cDNA (1206 bp) encoding a pancreatic lipase-related protein (PY-PLRP) was obtained from the ovary of the scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, using a differentially expressed gene system. The open reading frame specified a protein containing 353 amino acids (~38 kDa). The N-terminal catalytic domain, which contained the catalytic triad of serine, aspartate, and histidine residues, 10 cysteine residues involved in disulfide bridges, and the conserved lid domain, indicated that the protein would be catalytically active. However, PY-PLRP lacked the C-terminal colipase-binding domain present in mammalian PLRPs. Sequence analysis of the catalytic domains of PY-PLRP with members of the pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) family suggested that PY-PLRP was related to mammalian PLRP1, PLRP2, and PTL. End-point reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after 25 cycles showed that PY-PLRP was expressed at a high level in the ovary and at low levels in testis and mantle; expression was not detected in gill, digestive gland, and adductor muscle. Quantitative PCR of RNA from ovaries at different stages of development showed that PY-PLRP was expressed at a significantly higher level in the late growth stage than in the ripe and spent stages. These data suggest that PY-PLRP plays a role in lipid metabolism associated with oocyte maturation and vitellogenesis that occurs during ovarian growth. PMID:18602322

  9. Expression of FSH receptor in ovary tissue of rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein in ovary tissue in rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to provide experimental data for the model application. Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=20), in PCOS model group letrozole was administered once daily during 21 d, and in control group without any treatment. The gonadal hormone concentrations in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, the histologic changes in ovaries were observed by HE staining, the expression of FSH receptor gene in ovary tissue was detected by realtime -PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with control group, estradiol (E2) and progesterone in model group showed a considerable reduction (P0.05). Compared with control group, the ovaries from model group showed high incidence of subcapsular ovarian cyst and capsular thickening and decreased number of corpora lute a. The expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein were significantly higher in model group than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of FSH receptor gene in letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries is similar with that of PCOS women, the rat model is proved to be an ideal PCOS animal model to study the pathophysiology of PCOS. (authors)

  10. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Elaine Sørensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome.

  11. Treatment strategies for infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Wendy; Hoeger, Kathleen; Legro, Richard S

    2016-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder that can be diagnosed when two of the following three criteria are present: menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Factors such as the individual's body weight influence the severity of the phenotype and risk of metabolic comorbidities. While anovulatory infertility is a common issue among lean and obese reproductive-aged women with PCOS, obesity is associated with resistance to oral ovulation induction agents, lower pregnancy rates and a higher risk of pregnancy complications. Lifestyle modification is recommended as first line therapy among obese women with PCOS in order to optimize their outcomes. Among lean and obese women with PCOS, ovulation induction can be achieved with aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen receptor modulators, insulin sensitizing agents, gonadotropins and ovarian drilling with varying rates of ovulation, live birth and multiple gestations. Assisted reproductive technologies are reserved for women who do not conceive despite restoration of ovulation or couples with additional factors contributing to their infertility. This review will outline treatment strategies for achieving a healthy pregnancy among lean and obese women with PCOS and infertility. PMID:26765152

  12. Developmental changes in uptake of 3H-progesterone by rat ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3H-progesterone uptake by the ovaries and skeletal muscles were compared in newborn female Wistar rats and in other females aged 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 days, two hours after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 μCi/100 g body weight. The ratio of the concentration of radioactivity between the ovaries and the skeletal muscle increased significantly at the age of 15 days. The increase in ovary/skeletal muscle ratio (characterised by a logistic curve) suggests the first appearance of specific binding capacity for progesterone, coinciding with an increase in plasma progesterone level and beginning of the distinct atretic changes in compact and cavitated follicles simultaneously with the attainment of capability to ovulate following adequate exogenous gonadotropic stimulation. The early postnatal period of protective short-term treatment, using progesterone, agiainst the early androgen or oestrogen syndrome of anovulatory sterility and/or noxious long-term treatment, using progesterone, inducing a delayed anovulatory syndrome precedes the beginning of preferential accumulation of 3H-progesterone in the ovary. (author)

  13. Immature teratoma of the ovary: A clinicopathological study of 28 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar K Deodhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Immature teratoma (IT of the ovary represents 1% of all ovarian cancers and 20% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. This retrospective study of 28 such cases aims to look at its morphological spectrum and to study the correlation of the grade and stage of the tumor with prognosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 28 cases of IT of the ovary was done. Neuroepithelium was graded as grade I, II and III according to the standard criteria. The presence of immature mesenchyme was also looked for and similarly graded. Results: The median age for the cases was 19 years and abdominal pain was the commonest symptom. Neuroepithelium was seen in 26 cases (6 were grade I, 13 were grade II, and 7 were grade III; and two showed immature mesenchymal tissue (IM only. IM was seen in all 28 cases, but no correlation with the grade of the IT of the ovary is found. The follow up is available in 23 cases ranging from 6 months to 78 months (median 33 months. Of these, 13 were stage I, 3 were stage II and 7 were stage III ITs. Out of 23 patients, 17 patients were alive without evidence of disease recurrence during the last follow up. Adverse events in the form of death and local recurrence occurred in 6 patients. One patient died of the disease at 7 months duration from the disease onset (stage III, grade II IT. Conclusion: Morphological spectrum of IT of ovary is varied. Immature mesenchyme was seen in all the cases of IT of ovary and its presence should prompt a careful search for immature neuroepithelium. Stage I IT of ovary has better prognosis. Combination of surgery and chemotherapy can give longer survival even in recurrent disease.

  14. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  15. Metabolic syndrome among infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Walid Farok Elsawah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: Two hundred and twenty infertile PCOS women were included in this prospective cross section study. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on at least two of ESHRE/ASRM criteria and diagnosis of MS was based on at least three of NCEP ATP III criteria. A standard questionnaire was used to document length of menstrual cycles, personal and family history of medical disorders. Signs of androgen excess and insulin resistance were noted in the physical examination. Anthropometric measurements were done to measure waist circumference, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overnight fasting blood sample and a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test, TSH, prolactin, total testosterone, SHBG and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all studied PCOS women. Trans-vaginal ultrasound was also done to measure;ovarian volume and number of follicles in both ovaries. Results: The prevalence of MS in studied PCOS women was 30.5% (67/220). There is strong positive correlation between prevalence of MS and both age and BMI of the studied PCOS women. Logistic regression analysis showed that;the age>25 and waist-hip ratio≥0.85 were powerful predictors for the prevalence of MS in PCOS women. Conclusion:The prevalence of MS was 30.5%in the studied PCOS women. The age above 25 years and waist-hip ratio≥0.85 were powerful predictors for prevalence of MS in PCOS women.

  16. The mammalian blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Stephen R; de Barros, Flavia R O; Rossant, Janet; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2016-01-01

    The blastocyst is a mammalian invention that carries the embryo from cleavage to gastrulation. For such a simple structure, it exhibits remarkable diversity in its mode of formation, morphology, longevity, and intimacy with the uterine endometrium. This review explores this diversity in the light of the evolution of viviparity, comparing the three main groups of mammals: monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians. The principal drivers in blastocyst evolution were loss of yolk coupled with evolution of the placenta. An important outcome of blastocyst development is differentiation of two extraembryonic lineages (trophoblast and hypoblast) that contribute to the placenta. While in many species trophoblast segregation is often coupled with blastocyst formation, in marsupials and at least some Afrotherians, these events do not coincide. Thus, many questions regarding the conservation of molecular mechanisms controlling these events are of great interest but currently unresolved. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26799266

  17. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the action of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), as an inhibitor of repair of x radioinduced injuries were extended from synchronous Chinese hamster cells to synchronous human HeLa cells. These studies showed a similar mode of action in both cell types lending support to the notion that conclusions may be extracted from such observations that are of fairly general applicability to mammalian cells. Radiation studies with NEM are being extended to hypoxic cells to inquire if NEM is effective relative to oxygen-independent damage. Observations relative to survival, DNA synthesis, and DNA strand elongation resulting from the addition products to DNA when cells were exposed to near uv in the presence of psoralen were extended. (U.S.)

  18. Mammalian phospholipase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamur, Ganesh; Ross, Elliott M

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG). DAG and IP(3) each control diverse cellular processes and are also substrates for synthesis of other important signaling molecules. PLC is thus central to many important interlocking regulatory networks. Mammals express six families of PLCs, each with both unique and overlapping controls over expression and subcellular distribution. Each PLC also responds acutely to its own spectrum of activators that includes heterotrimeric G protein subunits, protein tyrosine kinases, small G proteins, Ca(2+), and phospholipids. Mammalian PLCs are autoinhibited by a region in the catalytic TIM barrel domain that is the target of much of their acute regulation. In combination, the PLCs act as a signaling nexus that integrates numerous signaling inputs, critically governs PIP(2) levels, and regulates production of important second messengers to determine cell behavior over the millisecond to hour timescale. PMID:23140367

  19. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-07-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction.

  20. Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

  1. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2013-01-01

    was followed up in the NPR for PCOS diagnoses from age 15 years until the end of 2006. Furthermore, information on maternal diabetes diagnoses was extracted from the NPR. RESULT(S): The risk of PCOS was significantly increased in women with birth weight =4,500 g (incidence rate ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...... female children born of Danish mothers in Denmark between 1973 and 1991 were included (n = 523,757) and followed for a total of 4,739,547 person-years at risk. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on birth weight was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The cohort...

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setji, Tracy L; Brown, Ann J

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is now a well-recognized condition affecting 6%-25% of reproductive-aged women, depending on the definition. Over the past 3 decades, research has launched it from relative medical obscurity to a condition increasingly recognized as common in internal medicine practices. It affects multiple systems, and requires a comprehensive perspective on health care for effective treatment. Metabolic derangements and associated complications include insulin resistance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome, and sleep apnea. Reproductive complications include oligo-/amenorrhea, sub-fertility, endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer. Associated psychosocial concerns include depression and disordered eating. Additionally, cosmetic issues include hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, and acne. This review organizes this multi-system approach around the mnemonic "MY PCOS" and discusses evaluation and treatment options for the reproductive, cosmetic, and metabolic complications of this condition. PMID:24859638

  3. Mood disorders and quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Luisi, Stefano; Regini, Cristina; Katulski, Krzysztof; Centini, Gabriele; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of the population of women. The exact etiology of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. The spectrum of its symptoms such as hirsutism, skin problems, obesity and finally infertility has a huge negative impact on the individuals' psychological and interpersonal functioning. PCOS symptoms can lead to significant deterioration in quality of life and be highly stressful negatively affecting psychological well-being and sexuality. Fear symptoms like palpitation, being out of breath and tension might be caused by many somatic diseases. Moreover, detection and continuous thinking about illness can lead to significant negative impact on individual functioning in society. PCOS may be a factor potentially favoring the occurrence of mood disorders and depression. Biological, social and psychological consequences of PCOS among women of reproductive age are opening a new perspective on management of women's health in these patients.

  4. Criteria, prevalence, and phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizneva, Daria; Suturina, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Brakta, Soumia; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent disorder effecting reproductive-aged women worldwide. This article addresses the evolution of the criteria used to diagnosis PCOS; reviews recent advances in the phenotypic approach, specifically in the context of the extended Rotterdam criteria; discusses limitations of the current criteria used to diagnosis, particularly when studying adolescents and women in the peri- and postmenopause; and describes significant strides made in understanding the epidemiology of PCOS. This review recognizes that although there is a high prevalence of PCOS, there is increased variability when using Rotterdam 2003 criteria, owing to limitations in population sampling and approaches used to define PCOS phenotypes. Last, we discuss the distribution of PCOS phenotypes, their morbidity, and the role that referral bias plays in the epidemiology of this syndrome. PMID:27233760

  5. Mood disorders and quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Luisi, Stefano; Regini, Cristina; Katulski, Krzysztof; Centini, Gabriele; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of the population of women. The exact etiology of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. The spectrum of its symptoms such as hirsutism, skin problems, obesity and finally infertility has a huge negative impact on the individuals' psychological and interpersonal functioning. PCOS symptoms can lead to significant deterioration in quality of life and be highly stressful negatively affecting psychological well-being and sexuality. Fear symptoms like palpitation, being out of breath and tension might be caused by many somatic diseases. Moreover, detection and continuous thinking about illness can lead to significant negative impact on individual functioning in society. PCOS may be a factor potentially favoring the occurrence of mood disorders and depression. Biological, social and psychological consequences of PCOS among women of reproductive age are opening a new perspective on management of women's health in these patients. PMID:26204044

  6. The insulin-resistant phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Madsbad, Sten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the individual parameters included in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and their impact on insulin sensitivity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. PATIENT......(S): Sixty-one women; 36 women with PCOS and 25 age- and weight-matched control women were investigated. INTERVENTION(S): Peripheral insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and ovarian morphology by transvaginal...... assessment IR index. We found no significant association between ovarian morphology and insulin sensitivity or between menstrual frequency and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION(S): The PCOS is associated with IR. Body mass index, hyperandrogenemia, and hyperandrogenism are independent predictors of low insulin...

  7. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Badawy; Abubaker Elnashar

    2011-01-01

    Ahmed Badawy1 Abubaker Elnashar21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfun...

  8. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    David H Abbott; Nicol, Lindsey E.; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Dumesic, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. L...

  9. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure.

  10. The effects of phthalates on the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHannon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic

  11. The pathogenetic enigma of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S. Speca; Napolitano, C.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease with heterogeneous clinical and anatomical features that were first described in 1721 by Antonio Vallisneri. There is still a lack of consensus regarding the criteria to be used for diagnosis of PCOS. Transvaginal ultrasonography with Doppler studies of the ovarian and pelvic vasculature plays an important role in its diagnosis, but findings must be interpreted in light of the patient's symptoms and laboratory findings.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome: symptomatology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzick, D

    1998-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome seek health care for 3 major reasons: infertility, menstrual irregularity, and androgen excess. The infertility is associated with anovulation. The menstrual irregularity is typically chronic, beginning with menarche. Although amenorrhea may sometimes occur, the more common presentation is irregular bleeding characteristic of anovulation. Androgen excess may be manifested by varying degrees of hirsutism. Patients may also report acne. The rapid development of virilizing signs, such as deepening of the voice, increased muscle mass, and temporal balding, should prompt a search for a tumor and lead one away from a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Typically treatment is directed at alleviating the symptoms: ovulation induction for infertility, oral contraceptives or a progestin for menstrual irregularity, and oral contraceptives or spironolactone for hirsutism. On the basis of recent epidemiologic data suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome, such treatment might be complemented by a long-term approach that addresses the underlying pathophysiology of insulin resistance. PMID:9855614

  13. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Dai

    Full Text Available Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  14. Transient transfection of mammalian cells using a violet diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mapa, Maria Leilani; Angus, Liselotte; Ploschner, Martin; Dholakia, Kishan; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate the first use of the violet diode laser for transient mammalian cell transfection. In contrast to previous studies, which showed the generation of stable cell lines over a few weeks, we develop a methodology to transiently transfect cells with an efficiency of up to ~40%. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells are exposed to a tightly focused 405-nm laser in the presence of plasmid DNA encoding for a mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein. We report transfection efficiencies as a function of laser power and exposure time for our system. We also show, for the first time, that a continuous wave laser source can be successfully applied to selective gene silencing experiments using small interfering RNA. This work is a major step towards an inexpensive and portable phototransfection system.

  15. Menstrual cycle disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome: Ultrasonographic characteristics and hormonal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The polycystic ovary syndrome is primarily characterized by an association of hyperandrogenism and anovulation. The aim was to determine the incidence of menstrual cycle disorders in patients with PCO syndrome and the relation with ultrasonographic and hormonal findings. Material and methods A retrospective study examined the ultrasonographic findings and hormonal status in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the General Hospital in Subotica. The sample comprised 39 patients. Results and conclusions Most frequently age at menarche was 14 years (29% in obese and 10 years (45.5% in normal weight patients. There was not a significant difference in duration of menstrual bleeding in both groups of examined patients, whereas amenorrhoea was significantly more frequent in obese patients (29.4% than in patients with normal weight (4.7%. On the basis of presented results (increased percentage of severe disorders of menstrual cycle in all patients in subgroup C and increased percentage of menstrual disorders in patients with high stromal density in relation to those with normal echogenity of stroma it can be concluded that there is a correlation between ultrasonographic findings of ovaries (number of microcysts, volume and density of the stroma and menstrual cycle disorders, the polycystic ovary syndrome.

  16. Involvement of nitric oxide in inflammation of ovaries in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Barbara; Andronowska, Aneta; Kucharski, Jan

    2002-03-01

    NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and an inducible type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were demonstrated in porcine ovaries after unilateral infusion of bacteria into the hilus of an ovary. In group I one ml of saline was infused into the hilus of each ovary from the 15th day to the 19th day of the estrous cycle. In group II one ml of bacterial suspension (10(9) colony forming units of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium pyogenes, in a proportion 1:1:1, respectively) in saline was infused into the hilus of one ovary on days corresponding to those of the control group (gr. I), whereas saline was infused into the contralateral ovary. The ovaries were collected on the 7th day of the next estrous cycle. In the bacteria-treated ovary, the activity of NADPH-d was higher in the endothelium of blood vessels, corpora lutea and follicular walls in comparison to that observed in the respective structures of the contralateral ovary. The highest activity of NADPH-d was found in the vascular endothelium in the bacteria-infused ovary. Vascular smooth muscle cells found in both ovaries of the bacteria-treated gilts were more intensely stained for NADPH-d than those in control animals. After bacteria administration, the intensity of NADPH-d reaction in all the structures of both ovaries in group II was higher than in control group. The strongest immunostaining for iNOS was observed in all structures of the bacteria-infused ovary. In the contralateral ovary, iNOS-immunoreactivity was weaker but still stronger than that in control group. The present results revealed that infusions of bacteria into the hilus of one ovary enhanced the activity of NADPH-d and immunoreactivity for iNOS in both porcine ovaries. However, the activity of both enzymes was higher in the bacteria-infused ovary than in the contralateral one. These data suggest that locally synthesized NO can mediate an inflammatory effect of bacteria in the porcine ovaries. PMID:14666163

  17. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies of the molecular biology and functional changes in cultured mammalian cells following exposure to x radiation, uv radiation, fission neutrons, or various chemical environmental pollutants alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the separate and combined effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons released during combustion of fossil fuels and ionizing and nonionizing radiations. Sun lamps, which emit a continuous spectrum of near ultraviolet light of 290 nm to 315 nm were used for studies of predictive cell killing due to sunlight. Results showed that exposure to uv light (254 nm) may not be adequate to predict effects produced by sunlight. Data are included from studies on single-strand breaks and repair in DNA of cultured hamster cells exposed to uv or nearultraviolet light. The possible interactions of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DmBA) alone or combined with exposure to x radiation, uv radiation (254 nm) or near ultraviolet simulating sunlight were compared for effects on cell survival

  18. Investigating Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Based on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome phenotypes in the 18-14 year Old High School Girls in Shiraz 2009

    OpenAIRE

    MH Dabbaghmaneh; T. Naderi; M Akbarzadeh; HR Tabatabaee; Z Zareh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with polycystic ovary syndrome hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia may represent an increased risk for coronary cardiovascular disease .This study aimed to investigate risk factors for cardiovascular disease based on polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes in Shiraz. Methods: This Cross-sectional study was performed on 3200 students aged 18-14. Demographic survey, clinical signs of androgen excess (acne, hirsutism, alopecia), Ultrasound...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome; Magnetresonanztomografie (MRT) des Beckens bei Patientinnen mit polyzystischem Ovarsyndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, E.A.; Umutlu, L.; Libera, H.; Forsting, M. [Inst. fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Kimmig, R. [Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: MRI evaluation of parameters of the ovaries for the diagnosis of polycystic ovaries in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: an MRI of the pelvis was performed in 51 patients with PCOS and 50 healthy volunteers. The volume and maximum diameter of the bigger ovary, the number of follicles, and the maximum diameter and volume of the biggest follicle of the bigger ovary were determined in relation to patient age and were statistically compared. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic quality of the parameters of the ovaries regarding the diagnosis of PCOS. Results: in a cohort aged 21 - 30 a significant difference between patients with PCOS and healthy volunteers was able to be determined for all 5 parameters (p < 0.001). In the cohort aged 31 - 40 neither one of the parameters showed a significant difference. In the group of 21 - 30 year-olds the AUC was significantly different from 0.5 in all parameters. The maximum diameter, the volume and the number of follicles of the bigger ovary presented the highest AUC. The parameters needed to diagnose PCOS in MRI in a group of women aged 21 - 30 are a maximum diameter of an ovary of 30 mm, an ovarian volume of 5.6 cm{sup 3} and at least 12 follicles. In regard to these parameters a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.32%, 90.32% und 80.65% and a specificity of 68.42%, 63.16% und 86.42% can be reached. (orig.)

  20. [Telomere Recombination in Normal Mammalian Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, N S; Rubtsov, N B

    2016-01-01

    Two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance are known to date. The first includes the use of a special enzymatic telomerase complex to solve the problems that arise during the replication of linear DNA in a normal diploid and part of tumor cells. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), which is based on the homologous recombination of telomere DNA, represents the second mechanism. Until recently, ALT was assumed to be expressed only in 15-20% of tumors lacking active telomerase and, together with telomerase reactivation represented one of two possibilities to overcome the replicative senescence observed in somatic mammalian cells due to aging or during cell culturing in vitro. Previously described sporadic cases of combinations of the two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in several cell lines in vitro were attributed to the experimental design rather than to a real biological phenomenon, since active cellular division without active telomerase was considered to be the "gold standard" of ALT. The present review describes the morphological and functional reorganizations of mammalian telomeres observed with ALT activation, as well as recently observed,and well-documented cases of combinations between ALT-like and telomerase-dependent mechanisms in mammalian cells. The possible role of telomere recombination in telomerase-dependent cells is discussed. PMID:27183789

  1. Growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfield Fiona J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the African elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. These have not been previously quantified in any studies. The collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2 months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2 months and 9 years of age during routine management off-takes of complete family groups in private conservancies in Zimbabwe provided an opportunity for a detailed study of this period. Results The changing morphology of the ovary is described as the presumptive cortex and medulla components of the fetal ovary settled into their adult form. Interstitial tissue dominated the ovary in late fetal life and these cells stained strongly for 3β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This staining continued postnatally through to 4.5 years of age suggesting continued secretion of progestagens by the ovary during this period. The considerable growth of antral follicles peaked at 28% of ovarian volume at around 16.7 months of fetal age. The numbers of small follicles (primordial, early primary and true primary, counted in the cortex using stereological protocols, revealed fewer small follicles in the ovaries of animals aged 0 to 4.5 years of age than during either late fetal life or prepubertal life. Conclusions The small follicle populations of the late-fetal and prepubertal ovaries of the African elephant were described along with the changing morphology of these organs. The changes noted represent a series of events that have been recorded only in the elephant and the giraffe species to date. The expansion of the interstitial tissue of the fetal ovary and its continued presence in early post natal life may well contribute to the control of follicle development in these early years. Further

  2. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome and its associated complications in Iranian women: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Jalilian; Faezeh Kiani; Fatemeh Sayehmiri; Kourosh Sayehmiri; Zahra Khodaee; Malihe Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is the most common cause of infertility due to anovulation. There is no single criterion for the diagnosis of this syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PCOS and its associated complications in Iranian women using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods: Prevalence of PCOS was investigated from the SID, Goggle scholar, Pu...

  3. Visfatin and Resistin Serum Levels in Normal-Weight and Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farshchian, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Amirrasouli, Houshang; Rahimi Pour, Hooman; Hedayati, Mehdi; Kazerouni, Faranak; Soltani, Adeleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age that is linked to insulin resistance and obesity. While studies have shown that plasma levels of resistin and visfatin increase with obesity, the association between PCOS and these markers has not been described well. Objectives: This case-control study aimed to compare the serum levels of visfatin and resistin in women with PCOS in comparison with the healthy controls matched for ag...

  4. ELEVATED CIRCULATING LEVELS OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    González, Frank; ROTE, Neal S.; Minium, Judi; Weaver, Amy L.; Kirwan, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low level inflammation which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We evaluated the status of circulating macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in atherogenesis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models adjusted for age were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status (PCOS vs. controls) and weight-class (obese vs. lean) on MIF and other parameters. M...

  5. Altered microRNAs expression profiling in cumulus cells from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Suying; Zhang, Xuan; Shi, Changgen; Lin, Jimin; Chen, Guowu; Wu, Bin; Wu, Ligang; Shi, Huijuan; Yuan, Yao; Zhou, Weijin; Sun, Zhaogui; Dong, Xi; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, and oocyte developmental competence is altered in patients with PCOS. In recent years microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression, the aim of the study was to study miRNAs expression patterns of cumulus cells from PCOS patients. Methods The study included 20 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): 10 diag...

  6. Evaluation of Adolescents for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in an Urban Population

    OpenAIRE

    Fingert, Sarabeth Broder; Shah, Bina; Kessler, Marion; Pawelczak, Melissa; David, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of diagnostic work-up received by patients with “possible” polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: A retrospective chart review. Setting: A hospital based Pediatric Clinic in New York City. Patients: Sixty female patients aged 13-19 years, with a primary ICD-9 diagnosis of ovarian dysfunction (256), menstrual irregularity (626), or hirsutism (704.1) were randomly selected for evaluation. In addition, 18 patients who were assigned the same ICD-9 codes at the ...

  7. Current trends in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with desire for children

    OpenAIRE

    Margalida E Sastre; Prat, Maria O; Miguel Angel Checa; Carreras, Ramon C

    2009-01-01

    Margalida E Sastre1, Maria O Prat1, Miguel Angel Checa1,2, Ramon C Carreras11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2Unit of Endocrinological Gynaecology and Human Reproduction, Hospital del Mar, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most frequent endocrine diseases, affects approximately 5%–10% of women of childbearing age and constitutes the most common cause of female sterility regardless of the need...

  8. Present status of understanding on the genetic etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta S; Reddy B

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 7-10% worldwide. PCOS reflects multiple potential aetiologies and variable clinical manifestations. This syndrome is characterized by serious health implications such as diabetes, coronary heart diseases and cancer and also leads to infertility. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic...

  9. The metabolic effects of drugs used for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karaköse, Melia; Çakal, Erman; Ertan, Kubilay; Delibaşı, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. It is characterized by menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical) and ultrasonographic features. It is well known that PCOS has unfavourable effects on carbohydrate metabolism, the parameters of cardiovascular disease and lipid profile. Mode of treatment is mainly guided by the main complaint of the patient. A lot of medicines have been used for many years to treat ...

  10. Mediators of Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Relation to Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Thozhukat Sathyapalan; Atkin, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age group and is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. Obesity, mainly visceral adiposity, is prevalent in patients with PCOS. Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and raised inflammatory cytokines, both of which are also described in patients with PCOS. In this paper, the potential relationships between fat distribution, adipocyte dysfunction and, altered inflammatory markers in pati...

  11. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anth...

  12. Mediators of Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Relation to Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozhukat Sathyapalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age group and is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. Obesity, mainly visceral adiposity, is prevalent in patients with PCOS. Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and raised inflammatory cytokines, both of which are also described in patients with PCOS. In this paper, the potential relationships between fat distribution, adipocyte dysfunction and, altered inflammatory markers in patients with PCOS have been discussed.

  13. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  14. Is change in ovary carbon status a cause or a consequence of maize ovary abortion in water deficit during flowering?

    OpenAIRE

    Oury, Vincent; Caldeira, Cecilio Frois; Prodhomme, Duyên; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, Francois; TURC, OLIVIER

    2016-01-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabo...

  15. Complementary histological and genomic analyses reveal marked differences in the developmental trajectories of ovaries in Siberian hamsters raised in long- and short-day lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Un; Bernstein, Adrien N; Place, Ned J

    2014-03-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) delay sexual development when raised in short-day (SD; 10 hr light: 14 hr dark) conditions, which leads to delayed onset of estrous cycles and ovulations as compared to females raised in long-day (LD; 16 hr light: 8 hr dark) conditions. In addition to the absence of pre-ovulatory follicles and corpora lutea, the ovaries of SD-reared Siberian hamsters are characterized by an abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells (HGCs) that surround atretic oocytes. To determine the age at which the histology of LD and SD ovaries first diverge, including the initial appearance of HGCs in SD conditions, we examined hamster ovaries histologically at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age. After identifying subtle differences in LD and SD ovarian histology at 4 weeks of age, we searched for differences in ovarian gene expression at 3 and 8 weeks of age, which correspond to the ages when ovarian histology do not differ (3 weeks) versus the earliest age when HGCs were observed (8 weeks). At 3 weeks, only 14 genes were differentially expressed in LD and SD ovaries, whereas 183 genes were differentially expressed at 8 weeks. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ovarian development under SD conditions is not simply arrested at an early stage of LD development, but rather utilizes a developmental path that is distinct from that used in LD ovaries.

  16. Indicators for metabolic disturbances in anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosed according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, A. J.; van Koert, A. J. B.; Eijkemans, M. J.; Knauff, E. A. H.; Westerveld, H. E.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Broekmans, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic abnormalities. It is debated whether all women with PCOS should be screened for metabolic abnormalities as these may vary with PCOS phenotype, age and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of metabolic abnormalit

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome in patients on antiepileptic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Lakshminarayanapuram G.; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Bhimani, Bipin C.; Reddy, Janardhan YC; Rama Murthy, Batchu S.; Subbakrishna, Doddaballapura K.; Sinha, Sanjib

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to discuss the prevalence of polycystic ovary (PCO) and Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with epilepsy (WWE) on valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), or phenobarbitone (PB), drug naive WWE and women with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) on VPA. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 190 women aged 18–45 years, who had epilepsy or BPAD (on VPA), and consented for study. Patients were grouped as Group 1 (n = 40): WWE on VPA, Group 2 (n = 50): WWE on CBZ, Group 3 (n = 50): WWE on PB, Group 4 (n = 30): drug naïve WWE, and Group 5 (n = 20): women with BPAD on VPA. All women were interviewed for medical, menstrual, drug and treatment history, nature of epilepsy, and seizure control. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were done to compare results between the groups. Results: Fifty-two women (52/190; 27.4%) had menstrual disturbances, in which oligomenorrhea was the most common (55.8%). There was a significant difference in the occurrence of PCOS in patients on VPA versus normal population (P = 0.05) and patients on other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (P = 0.02). There was, however, no significant difference in the occurrence of PCO between patients on VPA and the untreated epileptic women. VPA group (Epilepsy + BPAD) had a significantly higher occurrence of obesity than other treatment groups (P = 0.043, OR = 2.11). Conclusions: The study observed significantly higher occurrence of PCO in patients on VPA compared to other AEDs and the normal population. The importance of proper clinical evaluation before initiating VPA is highlighted. PMID:27570385

  18. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent...... vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The findings of this study emphasise the role of early and comprehensive in vivo studies in pharmaceutical research. Nanocarrier accumulation in the ovaries may also comprise an important toxicity issue in humans...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  19. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  20. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenic enzymes in the ovary of rats with polycystic ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Lombardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferative, apoptotic and steroidogenic enzyme markers in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: twenty rats were divided into two groups: GCtrl - estrous phase, and PCOS - with polycystic ovaries. The GCtrl animals were subjected to a lighting period from 7 am to 7 pm, while the animals with PCOS group remained with continuous lighting for 60 days. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized, the ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formaldehyde, prior to paraffin embedding. Sections were stained using H.E. or subjected to immunohistochemical methods for the detection of Ki-67, cleaved caspase-3, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test (p < 0,05. Results: morphological results showed evidence of interstitial cells originating from the inner theca cells of degenerating ovarian cysts in PCOS. Immunoexpression of Ki-67 was higher in the granulosa cells in GCtrl, and the theca interna cells in PCOS, while cleaved caspase-3 was higher in granulosa cells of ovarian cysts from PCOS and in the theca interna cells of GCtrl. Immunoreactivity of CYP11A1 in the theca interna, granulosa and interstitial cells was similar between the two groups, while CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were higher in the granulosa and interstitial cells in the PCOS group. Conclusion: the results indicate that the interstitial cells are derived from the theca interna and that enzymatic changes occur in the theca interna and interstitial cells in ovaries of rats with PCOS, responsible for the high levels of androgens and estradiol.

  1. In Vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Embryo Culture of Oocytes Obtained from Vitrified Auto-Transplanted Mouse Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Behbahanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro survival and developmentalpotential of oocytes obtained from vitrified mouse ovaries transplanted to a heterotopic site.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two-week-old mice were unilaterallyovariectomized after anesthesia. The ovaries were vitrified by cryotop. After two weeks, the ovarieswere thawed and autotransplanted to the gluteus muscle tissue. Three weeks later the mice werekilled, after which we removed and dissected the transplanted and opposite right ovaries. Cumulusoocyte complexes (COCs and denuded oocytes were evaluated for in vitro maturation (IVM, invitro fertilization (IVF and in vitro development (IVD. The control group consisted of sevenweek-old age-matched mice ovaries.Results: All vitrified-transplanted (Vit-trans ovaries contained some oocytes that survived.Following IVM, IVF and IVD, there were 41.7% out of 12 cultured zygotes that reached the 8-cellstage.Conclusion: Our experiment supports the progressive role of long-term graft survival after wholeovariancryopreservation by vitrification and subsequent heterotopic transplantation. It is possible torecover viable follicles and oocytes that have the ability to develop in vitro.

  2. Discovery and Characterization of piRNAs in the Human Fetal Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev Williams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs, a class of 26- to 32-nt non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, function in germline development, transposon silencing, and epigenetic regulation. We performed deep sequencing and annotation of untreated and periodate-treated small RNA cDNA libraries from human fetal and adult germline and reference somatic tissues. This revealed abundant piRNAs originating from 150 piRNA-encoding genes, including some exhibiting gender-specific expression, in fetal ovary and adult testis—developmental periods coinciding with mitotic cell divisions expanding fetal germ cells prior to meiotic divisions. The absence of reads mapping uniquely to annotated piRNA genes demonstrated their paucity in fetal testis and adult ovary and absence in somatic tissues. We curated human piRNA-expressing regions and defined their precise borders and observed piRNA-guided cleavage of transcripts antisense to some piRNA-producing genes. This study provides insights into sex-specific mammalian piRNA expression and function and serves as a reference for human piRNA analysis and annotation.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed. PMID:18089592

  4. Adnexal torsion: MR imaging findings of viable ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of torsed ovarian cystic tumor, in which contrast-enhanced high-resolution MR images accurately contributed to the diagnosis of torsion despite the lack of symptoms and to the preoperative evaluation of viability of the edematous ovary. Accurate preoperative assessment by MR images and prompt conservative surgical approach succeeded in salvaging the involved ovary. (orig.)

  5. Cardiometabolic abnormalities in the polycystic ovary syndrome : Pharmacotherapeutic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, H. E.; Hoogendoorn, M.; de Jong, A. W. F.; Goverde, A. J.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of all premenopausal women. It is diagnosed by a combination of oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism (NIH criteria) or by the presence of two out of three of: oligo-amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound (Rotterdam criteria)

  6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome : Genetic determinants of the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Valkenburg (Olivier)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first described in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal as an association of amenorrhoea, obesity and a typical, polycystically enlarged, appearance of the ovaries at laparatomy1. Taking into account the absence of advanced imaging techni

  7. Adipose expression of adipocytokines in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines.......To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines....

  8. Bone morphogenetic proteins and the polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.A.F. van Houten (Leonie); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); Y.V. Louwers (Yvonne); A. McLuskey; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); J.A. Visser (Jenny)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is defined by two out of the following three criteria being met: oligo- or anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Affected women are often obese and insulin resistant. Although the etiology is still unknown, members of the Tran

  9. Incorporating patient preference into the management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoroafor UC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ugochi C Okoroafor, Emily S JungheimDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous condition characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Because of the heterogeneous nature of PCOS, women affected by the condition often require a customized approach for ovulation induction when trying to conceive. Treating symptoms of PCOS in overweight and obese women should always incorporate lifestyle changes with the goal of weight-loss, as many women with PCOS will ovulate after losing 5%–10% of their body weight. On the other hand, other factors must be considered including the woman’s age, age-related decline in fertility, and previous treatments she may have already tried. Fortunately, multiple options for ovulation induction exist for women with PCOS. This paper reviews specific ovulation induction options available for women with PCOS, the benefits and efficacy of these options, and the related side effects and risks women can anticipate with the various options that may affect treatment adherence. The paper also reviews the recommended evidence-based strategies for treating PCOS-related infertility that allow for incorporation of the patient’s preference. Finally, it briefly reviews emerging data and ongoing studies regarding newer agents that have shown great promise as first-line agents for the treatment of infertility in women with PCOS.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulation, clomiphene citrate, letrozole, metformin, obesity

  10. Lack of Rev7 function results in development of tubulostromal adenomas in mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Abdolrahim; Khalaj, Maryam; Akiyama, Kouyou; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Acosta, Tomas J; Said, Neveen; Yoshida, Midori; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Rev7 is a subunit of Polζ, one of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases involved in DNA damage repair. We recently found that Rev7 is also essential for germ cell development in mouse. In the present study, we found the development of ovarian tumors in Rev7 mutant mouse, suggesting the involvement of TLS deficiency in the etiology of ovarian tumor. The Rev7 mutant mice showed complete lack of oocytes and follicles in the ovary. The lack of follicles causes a significant increase of gonadotropin level and an increase in the proliferation of ovarian cells. As a result, the weight of the ovaries of Rev7 mutant mice increased with age and they developed tubulostromal adenomas. However, the remarkable overgrowth of ovaries occurred after gonadotropin level decreases at older ages, suggesting gonadotropin-independent progression of the ovarian tumors. In addition, the Rev7 mutant fibroblasts and ovarian cells showed significant accumulation of DNA damage. These findings suggest that not only increased gonadotropin levels but also lack of DNA damage repair function could be responsible for the development of ovarian tumors in the Rev7 mutant mouse. PMID:26004212

  11. Inguinal Hernia Containing Uterus, Fallopian Tube, and Ovary in a Premature Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz Cerit, Kıvılcım; Ergelen, Rabia; Colak, Emel; Dagli, Tolga E.

    2015-01-01

    A female infant weighing 2,200 g was delivered at 34 weeks of gestation by vaginal delivery. She presented with an irreducible mass in the left inguinal region at 32 days of age. An ultrasonography (US) was performed and an incarcerated hernia containing uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary was diagnosed preoperatively. Surgery was performed through an inguinal approach; the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary were found in the hernia sac. High ligation and an additional repair of the internal inguinal ring were performed. Patent processus vaginalis was found during contralateral exploration and also closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. After one year of follow-up, there have been no signs of recurrence. PMID:26351609

  12. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Johansson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO. PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view.

  13. Metabolic evaluation and measurement of ovarian volume in polycystic ovary sydrome: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Evran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material-methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Their ages, family histories, polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes, first menstrual age, length of cyclus and physical examination findings were recorded. Ferriman and Gallwey score was used for hirsutism. Insulin resistance was calculated via HOMA-IR method by making the biochemical and hormonal tests. Ovarian volumes were measured by abdominal ultrasonography. SPSS-16 was used for the statistical analysis of the findings. Results: Mean age was 21.41+/-0.88. Polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes were B in 40.9%, C in 31.8% and A in 27.3%. Cyclus length was normal in 31.8% (27-34 days. Ferriman and Gallwey score was and #8805;7 in all of the patients. Although

  14. FACS-sorted putative oogonial stem cells from the ovary are neither DDX4-positive nor germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Garcia, Larissa; Lane, Simon I R; Merriman, Julie A; Jones, Keith T

    2016-01-01

    Whether the adult mammalian ovary contains oogonial stem cells (OSCs) is controversial. They have been isolated by a live-cell sorting method using the germ cell marker DDX4, which has previously been assumed to be cytoplasmic, not surface-bound. Furthermore their stem cell and germ cell characteristics remain disputed. Here we show that although OSC-like cells can be isolated from the ovary using an antibody to DDX4, there is no good in silico modelling to support the existence of a surface-bound DDX4. Furthermore these cells when isolated were not expressing DDX4, and did not initially possess germline identity. Despite these unremarkable beginnings, they acquired some pre-meiotic markers in culture, including DDX4, but critically never expressed oocyte-specific markers, and furthermore were not immortal but died after a few months. Our results suggest that freshly isolated OSCs are not germ stem cells, and are not being isolated by their DDX4 expression. However it may be that culture induces some pre-meiotic markers. In summary the present study offers weight to the dogma that the adult ovary is populated by a fixed number of oocytes and that adult de novo production is a rare or insignificant event. PMID:27301892

  15. Uterine morphology and peristalsis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with chronic oligo-anovulation and high circulating sex hormone levels. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. In anovulatory women with PCOS a positive relationship between endometrial thickness and endometrial hyperplasia has been observed. Uterine peristalsis, which has been suggested to be of importance for female fertility, has not previously been studied in PCOS. Purpose. To assess whether women with PCOS have altered endometrial thickness, uterine wall morphology, and peristalsis. Material and Methods. In this prospective case-control study 55 women with PCOS (mean age, 29.5 years ± 4.5 SD) and 28 controls (27.6 ± 3.2) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assessing thickness of endometrium, junctional zone (JZ), and myometrium, and evaluating the occurrence, frequency (waves/min), strength (amplitude), pattern, and direction of peristalsis. Uterine morphology was also assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS). Results. The endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea compared to controls, also after adjustments for age and BMI (adjusted P = 0.043). There was no difference in thickness of the JZ or the myometrium in cases versus controls. Uterine peristalsis was less commonly observed in women with PCOS than in controls (adjusted P = 0.014). Conclusion. There were no differences in myometrial morphology between PCOS and controls, but the endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea. Based on cine MRI, uterine peristalsis was less common in PCOS than in controls

  16. Uterine morphology and peristalsis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Henrik; Hellstroem, Mikael [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail: henrik.leonhardt@vgregion.se; Gull, Berit; Nilsson, Lars; Janson, Per O. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kishimoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Kataoka, Masako [Department of Radiology, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Stener-Victorin, Elisabet [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with chronic oligo-anovulation and high circulating sex hormone levels. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. In anovulatory women with PCOS a positive relationship between endometrial thickness and endometrial hyperplasia has been observed. Uterine peristalsis, which has been suggested to be of importance for female fertility, has not previously been studied in PCOS. Purpose. To assess whether women with PCOS have altered endometrial thickness, uterine wall morphology, and peristalsis. Material and Methods. In this prospective case-control study 55 women with PCOS (mean age, 29.5 years {+-} 4.5 SD) and 28 controls (27.6 {+-} 3.2) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assessing thickness of endometrium, junctional zone (JZ), and myometrium, and evaluating the occurrence, frequency (waves/min), strength (amplitude), pattern, and direction of peristalsis. Uterine morphology was also assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS). Results. The endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea compared to controls, also after adjustments for age and BMI (adjusted P = 0.043). There was no difference in thickness of the JZ or the myometrium in cases versus controls. Uterine peristalsis was less commonly observed in women with PCOS than in controls (adjusted P = 0.014). Conclusion. There were no differences in myometrial morphology between PCOS and controls, but the endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea. Based on cine MRI, uterine peristalsis was less common in PCOS than in controls.

  17. Mucinous carcinoid of the ovary: report of a case with metastasis in the contralateral ovary after ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Ewing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monodermal teratomas of the ovary can take the form of carcinoid tumors of which there are several types, mucinous carcinoid being the least common. Very few cases of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary have been reported in the literature and the behavior of these tumors over the long term is unclear. We describe a case of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary in a 39-year-old woman treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, where a metastasis occurred in the contralateral ovary ten years later. This case demonstrates that mucinous carcinoid of the ovary can metastasize even after a long interval, and careful follow-up of patients, particularly those treated conservatively, is appropriate.

  18. Correlation of severity of hyperandrogenism with ovarian stroma to area ratio and stromal echogenicity in polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Gupta; Harsha Gaikwad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders of reproductive age group. Rotterdam consensus although includes ovarian volume in diagnosis of PCOS but its ovarian stroma area that corresponds histological and thus its clinical features. Methods: A prospective study conducted on 55 PCOS cases and 55 age and weight matched healthy volunteers. Detailed medical, menstrual history and examination for clinical hyperandrogenism and anthropometry was done. Fas...

  19. Expression of hepatitis C virus envelope protein 2 induces apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Xin Zhu; Jing Liu; You-Hua Xie; Yu-Ying Kong; Ye Ye; Chun-Lin Wang; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 2 (E2) in the induction of apoptosis.METHODS: A carboxyterminal truncated E2 (E2-661) was transiently expressed in several cultured mammalian cell lines or stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)cell line. Cell proliferation was assessed by 3H thymidine uptake. Apoptosis was examined by Hoechst 33258staining, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation analysis.RESULTS: Reduced proliferation was readily observed in the E2-661 expressing cells. These cells manifested the typical features of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage,chromatin condensation and hypodiploid genomic DNA content. Similar apoptotic cell death was observed in an E2-661 stably expressing cell line.CONCLUSION: HCV E2 can induce apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells.

  20. Seasonal and age related changes in size of reproductive structures of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Langvatn

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric studies of uteri, ovary weights, and follicle diameters were carried out to investigate possible methodological applications. Size and anatomical appearance of the uterus varied with age and phase in the estrous cycle, both in parous and nulliparous females. The uterus thus may provide valuable information on reproductive status for known-aged animals. Weight of ovaries increased in young, but declined in old females, showing significant covariance with body weight in young and prime ages. Ovary weights increased from low levels shortly after parturition to a maximum towards the end of the gestation period. Ovaries containing a corpus luteum were heavier than those without. Compared to ovary weights, mean diameter of largest ovarian follicle varied in an opposite pattern during the yearly cycle. Maximum follicle diameter was largest in non-ovulated females. Weight of ovaries and follicle size appear to be of limited value as criteria in analysis of reproductive status and performance.

  1. MMATURE TERATOMA OF OVARY- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarmani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immature teratoma is the currently preferred term f or the malignant ovarian teratoma composed of a mixture of embryonal and adult tissues derived from all three germ layers, regardless of its gross appear ance. AIM: to distinct mature and immature teratoma when dealing with ovarian germ cell tumors . CASE SUMMARY: a 30 year female presented with intra abdominal mass and ascitis. Gro ssly, variable size nodule and cystic areas are seen. Microscopically, carcinoid like lesion, th yroid tissue immature neural tissue and glandular tissue noted. Diagnosis of immature terat oma grade 3 was made. DISCUSSION: immature teratoma of ovary accounts for 10-20% of a ll ovarian tumors and is considered second most common germ cell tumor following mature teratoma. It is usually seen in children and adolescents. CONCLUSION: A thorough search for immature elements in a terat oma is necessary for proper grading, management and assessin g prognosis of cases with immature teratoma.

  2. Endogenous thrombin potential in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes J; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate plasma endogenous thrombin generation in four different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS is diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. DESIGN: Multicenter...... cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two major University Hospitals in the Capital region of Denmark. PATIENTS: Hundred forty-eight European women with PCOS were consecutively recruited during April 2010-February 2012. Clinical examination, blood sampling, and DEXA scan were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES......: Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). RESULTS: PCOS women with phenotype BMI > 25 + IR have increased potential of thrombin generation. ETP is associated with total body fat mass, IR, and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Obese and insulin resistant women with PCOS have elevated level of ETP corresponding to increased risk...

  3. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Badawy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Badawy1 Abubaker Elnashar21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms.Keywords: treatment, polycystic ovary

  4. Computer-generated ovaries to assist follicle counting experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Skodras

    Full Text Available Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries, with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units.

  5. Successful cryopreservation of buffalo ovaries using in situ oocyte cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovaries, we developed a new method termed in situ oocyte (ISO cryopreservation. ISO cryopreservation is a multistep procedure that involves aspiration of follicular fluid and then perfusion of antral follicles and diffusion of whole buffalo ovaries with cryoprotectant agent (CPA, rapid cooling, storage, thawing and, finally, dilution and removal of the CPA with return to physiological environment. Our study compared ISO cryo ovaries with cryo-diffused ovaries. We systematically examined the effects of ISO cryo and diffuse cryo on ovaries by morphological examination and with viability tests. The percentages of morphologically normal and viable follicular oocytes from ISO cryo were significantly higher than those that resulted from the cryo-diffused method (p<0.01. The quality of follicular oocytes from ISO cryo ovaries appeared better than that achieved from cryo-diffused ovaries. In conclusion, this study shows that ISO cryo is highly efficient for cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue.

  6. Polycystic Ovary Induction in Mouse by Testosterone Enanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalhori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Polycystic ovary is the most common cause of infertility in Women. Animal models are required for understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary. The objective of this study then was to develop an animal model for inducing the polycystic ovaries using testosterone enanthate.Materials & Methods: In this study, for inducing the polycystic ovary phenotype, female rats about12-14 days-old were injected daily with testosterone enanthate for 2 and 4 weeks (experiment groups: 1 and 2, while the control groups (1 and 2 were injected only with vehicle.The ovaries from both groups were fixed and then were used for histological studies.Results: Testosterone enanthate treatment causes the histological changes in mouse ovary and significantly increased the percentage of preantral and cystic follicles and decreased the percentage of antral follicles in the experiment group, comparing with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: It concluded that testosterone enanthate can induces polycystic ovary in mouse.

  7. Studies on Androgen Receptor mRNA expression in Pancreas, Hypothalamus and Ovary of Androgen Sterilized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Jing-wen HOU; Li-min LU; Jin YU; Sui-qi GUI

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in pancreas,hypothalamus and ovary of androgen sterilized rats (ASR)Methods ASR model was established by subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate to SD female rats at the age of 9 days. Around the age of 106 days (proestrus),all rats were killed, serum △ 4-andronestedione (△ 4-A), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin (Ins) and C-peptide (C-P)were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Total RNA in pancreas, hypothalamus and ovary were extracted and the amount of AR mRNA was quantitatedly analyzed by RT-PCR with single base mutant template as inner standard. Results Serum concentrations of△ 4-A, TT, FT, Ins and C-P in ASR model rats were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). The expression of AR mRNA in pancreas, hypothalamus and ovary increased significantly (P<0. 05,P<0. 01) of model rats as compared with control group. Conclusion The elevated serum androgen levels in ASR model could enhance the expression of AR mRNA levels in pancreas, hypothalamus and ovary, which further induce hyperinsulinemia and anovulation.

  8. Xbp1-based engineering of secretory capacity enhances the productivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Marcel; Fussenegger, Martin

    2006-05-01

    A variety of successful transcription and translation engineering strategies implemented during the past decade have driven the specific productivity of mammalian cells to an apparent limit. Restricted post-translation competence has since been considered the major bottleneck preventing mammalian cells from fully exploiting their physiologic production capacity in a biopharmaceutical manufacturing scenario. Through ectopic expression of the human transcription factor Xbp1 (X-box-binding-protein 1), evolved to manage plasma cell differentiation and coordinate the unfolded protein response, we have specifically expanded the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi of transgenic Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1)-derived cell lines with a resulting increase in overall production capacity. Xbp-1-based engineering of secretory bottlenecks was compatible with a variety of different promoter–product gene configurations suggesting that Xbp-1 induces generic production increases in CHO-K1 cell derivatives. Secretion engineering, illustrated here by Xbp1-based reprogramming of the post-translational processing machinery, provides a first insight into mastering a major system bottleneck which impacts biopharmaceutical manufacturing of secreted protein therapeutics.

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Cytogenetic and Genome Research (edited by Roscoe Stanyon, University of Florence and Alexander Graphodatsky, Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences is dedicated to the fascinating long search of the forces behind the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes, revealed after the hypotonic miracle of the 1950s....

  10. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  11. Prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of ultrasonography and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Thirteen female CAH patients (median age 19.8 years, range 14.8-23.5 years) underwent transvaginal (n=6) or transabdominal (n=7) ultrasonography by a gynaecologist and MR imaging (n=13) of the ovaries (pre and post contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted images). Ovarian adrenal rest tumours were defined as small hypoechoic and multifocal nodules on ultrasound and isointense lesions on T1- and hypointense on T2-weighted MR images (derived from characteristics of testicular adrenal rest tumours). Polycystic ovaries were defined as the presence of ≥10 follicles arranged peripherally around or scattered throughout increased stroma. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were found either on ultrasound, or by MR imaging. Polycystic ovaries were found in 2 of the 13 patients (15.4%), both with ultrasound and MR. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were detected in these female CAH patients, which suggests that ovarian adrenal rest tumours in CAH females are rare. The prevalence of polycystic ovaries corresponded to that in the general population. From these results, we would suggest that routine ovarian imaging in CAH females is not indicated. However, when ovarian dysfunction is present, ovarian imaging is advised, first by ultrasonography, to detect ovarian adrenal rest tumours or polycystic ovaries. (orig.)

  12. Proposal on the diagnosis and classification of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the treatment outcome and facilitate the clinical practice, a diagnostic classification of heterogeneous disease-polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is proposed.PCOS is classified into 2 main types (Ⅰ ,Ⅱ ) and 4 subtypes ( Ⅰ a,Ⅰb,Ⅱa, Ⅱb) : PCOS Ⅰ refers to eases with hyperandrogenemia derived from the ovary ( Ⅰa) or from both the ovary and the adrenal cortex ( Ⅰ b).PCOS Ⅱ refers to cases with both hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia, while Ⅱb being severer than Ⅱ a, like hyperthecosis.Better efficacy of integrative medicine treatment on this classification is mentioned.

  13. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurdan; Erol; Aysu; Turkmen; Karaagac; Nicholas; G; Kounis

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome.

  14. Alpha smooth muscle actin in the cycling ovary - an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Ruth M; Plendl, Johanna; Kaessmeyer, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    In the ovary with its cyclically developing and regressing functional bodies and the associated intense neovascularisation and remodelling, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunolocalisation has been frequently used as a marker to establish vessel hierarchy, in angiogenesis studies, or in studies characterising ovarian neoplasms in various species. The present study aims at detection of alpha-SMA-immunolocalisation within all structural components of the cycling bovine ovary in order to complement the hitherto available data. 27 ovaries, mainly of dairy cows ranging from 23 to 118 months of age and displaying all major stages of follicle and corpora lutea development, were collected at the abattoir and subjected to routine HE and trichrome staining as well as alpha-SMA immunohistochemistry. For this purpose, the specimens were pooled to form groups of the respective stage of corpus luteum development. The ovarian stroma displayed a notable alpha-SMA-reactivity, particularly surrounding the functional bodies. The study revealed specialised vascular modifications such as multi-directionally arranged vascular smooth muscle layers, vascular sphincters and distinct epitheloid modifications of the media in ovarian arteries. Alpha-SMA-reactivity of the microcirculation within corpora lutea of various stages allowed inferences on respective angiogenic properties. The findings were discussed focussing on functional interpretations. PMID:22538540

  15. Adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in polycystic ovary syndrome women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Nikbakht

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorders in reproductive age women. These women confer with complications of pregnancy such as gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and neonatal complications such as small for gestational diabetes (SGA are more prevalence in women with PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of complications associated with PCOS in pregnant women. Methods: This was an observational and prospective study which recruited 205 pregnant women with PCOS from Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS between 2013 and 2014. Inclusion criteria were women with PCOS and gestational age over 20 weeks. The demographic and clinical variables including mother's age, body mass index (BMI and conditions of pregnancy including pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes and neonatal complications such as preterm labor (PTL, SGA and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD were recorded. Results: The prevalence of hypertension disorders, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes were observed in 44 (21.5%, 18 (8.8%, 29 (14% and 22 (11% patients, respectively. The history of familial diabetes was shown in 28 patients (13.6%. In addition, the history of pregnancy induced hypertension was reported in 25 patients (12.1%. Only 6 patients (2.9% had history of gestational diabetes. Among neonatal complications due to PCOS, SGA with 15.3% and then PTL with 12.6% had highest prevalence. IUFD was shown only in 2 patients. Conclusion: Pregnant women with PCOS are at the higher risk for pregnancy and neonatal complications. Specifically, these women should be evaluated for pregnancy induced hypertension during pregnancy than others.

  16. Anaho Island: Mammalian species richness report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study assessed the mammalian species richness on Anaho Island using live trapping between July 18th and July 23rd 2005. The last mammalian species richness...

  17. Investigation of MYST4 histone acetyltransferase and its involvement in mammalian gametogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirard Marc-André

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various histone acetylases (HATs play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, but the precise functions of many of those HATs are still unknown. Here we provide evidence that MYST4, a known HAT, may be involved in early mammalian gametogenesis. Results Although MYST4 mRNA transcripts are ubiquitous, protein expression was restricted to select extracts (including ovary and testis. Immunohistochemistry experiments performed on ovary sections revealed that the MYST4 protein is confined to oocytes, granulosa and theca cells, as well as to cells composing the blood vessels. The transcripts for MYST4 and all-MYST4-isoforms were present in oocytes and in in vitro produced embryos. In oocytes and embryos the MYST4 protein was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Within testis sections, the MYST4 protein was specific to only one cell type, the elongating spermatids, where it was exclusively nuclear. Conclusion We established that MYST4 is localized into specialized cells of the ovary and testis. Because the majority of these cells are involved in male and female gametogenesis, MYST4 may contribute to important and specific acetylation events occurring during gametes and embryo development.

  18. Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjie; Qi, Yane; Yang, Xuefei; Zhao, Lihui; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Tang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is difficult to treat PCOS because of its complex etiology and pathogenesis. Here, we characterized the roles of gut microbiota on the pathogenesis and treatments in letrozole (a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor) induced PCOS rat model. Changes in estrous cycles, hormonal levels, ovarian morphology and gut microbiota by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR were determined. The results showed that PCOS rats displayed abnormal estrous cycles with increasing androgen biosynthesis and exhibited multiple large cysts with diminished granulosa layers in ovarian tissues. Meanwhile, the composition of gut microbiota in letrozole-treated rats was different from that in the controls. Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus and Clostridium were lower while Prevotella was higher in PCOS rats when compared with control rats. After treating PCOS rats with Lactobacillus and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy rats, it was found that the estrous cycles were improved in all 8 rats in FMT group, and in 6 of the 8 rats in Lactobacillus transplantation group with decreasing androgen biosynthesis. Their ovarian morphologies normalized. The composition of gut microbiota restored in both FMT and Lactobacillus treated groups with increasing of Lactobacillus and Clostridium, and decreasing of Prevotella. These results indicated that dysbiosis of gut microbiota was associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. Microbiota interventions through FMT and Lactobacillus transplantation were beneficial for the treatments of PCOS rats. PMID:27093642

  19. Primary mucinuous adenocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Natu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian neoplasms are common tumours in females comprising 23% of all gynecologic tumours and are the most common gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian cancer is primarily a disease of postmenopausal women, the highest number of cases being concentrated in the age group from 50 to 70 years. They are the 5th leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. Primary Mucinuous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary is very rare. Our reported case was 50 years old woman which came in our OPD of Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences with vague symptoms of lower abdominal pain and swelling. The data were collected by history-taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations, ultrasonographic examination, CECT abdomen, CA 125, and by histo-pathological study of the excised surgical specimen. The case was reported as a rare ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. New and improved screening modalities are required for early diagnosis. And proper diagnostic criteria should be made for better prognosis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 3007-3010

  20. Treatments to Relieve Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L. A., Cedars, M. I., et al. (2011). Physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Prevalence, predictors, and positive health associations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , 204, 352.e1–352. ...

  1. Insulin and hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Catherine G.; Battista, Marie-Claude; Trottier, Andréanne; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, and/or polycystic ovaries. But most experts consider that hyperandrogenism is the main characteristic of PCOS. Several theories propose different mechanisms to explain PCOS manifestations: (1) a primary enzymatic default in the ovarian and/or adrenal steroidogenesis; (2) an impairment in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion that pr...

  2. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Nicholas G Kounis

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female wi...

  3. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Moran; Monica Arriaga; Gustavo Rodriguez; Segundo Moran

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese...

  4. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmans SM; Pate KA

    2013-01-01

    Susan M Sirmans, Kristen A PateDepartment of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and...

  5. Bioenergetics of Mammalian Sperm Capacitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods.

  6. The shape of mammalian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purvis, Andy; Fritz, Susanne A; Rodríguez, Jesús;

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian phylogeny is far too asymmetric for all contemporaneous lineages to have had equal chances of diversifying. We consider this asymmetry or imbalance from four perspectives. First, we infer a minimal set of 'regime changes'-points at which net diversification rate has changed-identifying 15...... significant radiations and 12 clades that may be 'downshifts'. We next show that mammalian phylogeny is similar in shape to a large set of published phylogenies of other vertebrate, arthropod and plant groups, suggesting that many clades may diversify under a largely shared set of 'rules'. Third, we simulate...... six simple macroevolutionary models, showing that those where speciation slows down as geographical or niche space is filled, produce more realistic phylogenies than do models involving key innovations. Lastly, an analysis of the spatial scaling of imbalance shows that the phylogeny of species within...

  7. Molecular aspects of mammalian fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hector Serrano; Dolores Garcia-Suarez

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian fertilization is a highly regulated process, much of which are not clearly understood. Here we present some information in order to elaborate a working hypothesis for this process, beginning with the sperm modifications in the epidydimis up to sperm and egg plasmalemma interaction and fusion. We also discuss the still poorly understood capacitation process, the phenomenon of sperm chemo-attraction that brings the capacitated sperm to interact with the oocyte vestments and certain aspects of the acrosome reaction.

  8. Mammalian sex hormones in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Skoczowski; Anna Janeczko

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17β-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube ...

  9. Olfactory sensitivity in mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermannová, M; Pinc, L; Jebavý, L

    2016-07-18

    Olfaction enables most mammalian species to detect and discriminate vast numbers of chemical structures called odorants and pheromones. The perception of such chemical compounds is mediated via two major olfactory systems, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system, as well as minor systems, such as the septal organ and the Grueneberg ganglion. Distinct differences exist not only among species but also among individuals in terms of their olfactory sensitivity; however, little is known about the mechanisms that determine these differences. In research on the olfactory sensitivity of mammals, scientists thus depend in most cases on behavioral testing. In this article, we reviewed scientific studies performed on various mammalian species using different methodologies and target chemical substances. Human and non-human primates as well as rodents and dogs are the most frequently studied species. Olfactory threshold studies on other species do not exist with the exception of domestic pigs. Olfactory testing performed on seals, elephants, and bats focused more on discriminative abilities than on sensitivity. An overview of olfactory sensitivity studies as well as olfactory detection ability in most studied mammalian species is presented here, focusing on comparable olfactory detection thresholds. The basics of olfactory perception and olfactory sensitivity factors are also described. PMID:27070753

  10. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  11. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinedisorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive agewomen. Experimental research and clinical observationssuggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stagesof development, possibly even during intrauterine life.This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmittedor is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in theintrauterine microenvironment. Although familial casessupport the role of genetic factors, no specific geneticpattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidategenes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, butnone can specifically be implicated in PCOS development.Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterineenvironment on PCOS development can be groupedinto two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotypehypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritionalrestriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretionand, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance.Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment canaffect the methylation of some specific genes, which canalso trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates thatfetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changesin differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype todevelop in adult life. This review aimed to examine therole of fetal programming in development of PCOS.

  12. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a transgenerational evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L M A; Elton, S

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome has a common association with anovulatory infertility, while the physical symptoms are often associated with the increased androgens that are part of the endocrine profile. There is a well-recognised association with lipid and glucose metabolism anomalies and, when undergoing ovulation induction, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This common condition is familial, but a contributory gene has yet to be found. The question of why a gene that predisposes to anovulation, diabetes and heart disease might have perpetuated so frequently is addressed. Three hypotheses for evolutionary advantage are discussed. The food deprivation hypothesis considers the role of the observed increase in ovulation when women with the condition lose weight in relation to seasonality. The refeeding hypothesis considers the androgenic and slightly enhanced anabolic metabolism in relation to periods of privation and the advantage of preferential early ovulation when refeeding after a period of privation. The transgenerational privation hypothesis considers the effect of persistent, severe, yet subfatal privation on individuals both in utero and throughout life. While an androgenic, anabolic state would improve efficiency in the use of food for protein synthesis and fat storage, benefiting the fetus both in relation to its in utero development and neonatal survival, survival and reproductive capacity as an adult benefits by a genotype expressing itself in women of successive generations.

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age group. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia seem to be the central pathophysiological mechanism that links PCOS to its associated metabolic derangements. Women with PCOS exhibit a number of risk factors for coronary artery disease. We studied risk of CVD using two surrogate markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Aims and objectives: To study cardiovascular disease risk in young women (18-35 years age with PCOS using CIMT and FMD. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with PCOS (age: 23.8 ± 4.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 23.5 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 were compared with 30 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age: 26.3 ± 5.4 years; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . Diagnosis of PCOS was made using the Rotterdam criteria. Fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWADP, and interleukin 6 (IL6. CIMT and FMD were performed. Results: PCOS patients had a higher waist to hip ratio (W/H [0.86 ± .07 vs. 0.80 ± .05] and free testosterone index (FTI [6.6 ± 6.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0] in comparison to controls. There was no difference in the two groups in lipid profile parameters and HOMA IR. CIMT was significantly higher (0.59 ± .1 mm vs. 0.50 ± .05 mm, P value <.001 and FMD lower (10.3 ± 3.9% vs. 15.2 ± 5.5%, P value < .001 in cases when compared to controls. FMD negatively correlated with W/H ratio (r: -0.257 and hsCRP (r: -0.347, while IMT showed positive correlation with IL6 (r: 0.325 and hsCRP (r: 0.303 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL [r: -0.224], all P values < .05. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by endothelial dysfunction manifested by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.

  15. Is Change in Ovary Carbon Status a Cause or a Consequence of Maize Ovary Abortion in Water Deficit during Flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oury, Vincent; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Prodhomme, Duyên; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, François; Turc, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabolism, together with the concentrations and amounts of sugars, and with the activities of major enzymes of carbon metabolism. Photosynthesis and indicators of sugar export, measured during water deprivation, suggested sugar export maintained by the leaf. The first molecular changes occurred in silks rather than in ovaries and involved genes affecting expansive growth rather than sugar metabolism. Changes in the concentrations and amounts of sugars and in the activities of enzymes of sugar metabolism occurred in apical ovaries that eventually aborted, but probably after the switch to abortion of these ovaries. Hence, we propose that, under moderate water deficits corresponding to most European drought scenarios, changes in carbon metabolism during flowering time are a consequence rather than a cause of the beginning of ovary abortion. A carbon-driven ovary abortion may occur later in the cycle in the case of carbon shortage or under very severe water deficits. These findings support the view that, until the end of silking, expansive growth of reproductive organs is the primary event leading to abortion, rather than a disruption of carbon metabolism. PMID:27208256

  16. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  17. The prevalence of metabolic disorders in various phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: a community based study in Southwest of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Rashidi, Homeira; Bahri Khomami, Mahnaz; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy, associated with metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic features of various phenotypes of this syndrome are still debatable. The aim of present study hence was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal features of PCOS phenotypes in comparison to a group of healthy control. Methods A total of 646 reproductive-aged women were randomly selected using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method. The subjects were ...

  18. Quality of life and body mass index in overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a lifestyle modification program

    OpenAIRE

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; STUYVER, ISABELLE; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...

  19. Comparison of Dietary Intake and Physical Activity between Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Review12

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Annie W.; LUJAN, MARLA E.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age worldwide. In addition to deleterious effects on fertility imparted by PCOS, women with PCOS are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and certain cancers. Hormonal and metabolic aberrations in PCOS have the potential to influence dietary intake and physical activity levels. There are emerging global data that women with PCOS have different baseline diet...

  20. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karbek, Basak; Ozbek, Mustafa; Karakose, Melia; Topaloglu, Oya; Bozkurt, Nujen Colak; Cakır, Evrim; Aslan, Muyesser Sayki; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Copeptin has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia. We tested whether copeptin is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods This was a cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital. The study population consisted of 40 reproductive-age PCOS women and 43 control subjects. We evaluated...

  1. Serum Visfatin in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Hussaien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a peptide that is predominantly expressed and secreted from adipose tissue and exerts insulinmimicking effects through activation of an insulin receptor. The aim of this study to evaluated serum visfatin level in both lean and obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS subjects before and after treatment with metformin . This study included (80 women, 20 lean with PCOS (BMI 30 kg m-2 and (group C include 40 healthy normally menstruating women (20 lean and 20 obese are control. All these groups were detected after treatment with metformin for 3 months. Metformin was given at doses up to 1500 mg/day for three month; the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were attended to obstetrics and gynecology outpatient and primary health care outpatient in Al – Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, and Kamal-Al-Samaraae Hospital. The control subjects were recruited mainly from medical students and staff. Serum visfatin was estimated before and after treatment. A results showed that significant high increase in mean serum visfatin level in lean polycystic ovary syndrome compared to control lean (6.35±1.07 ng/ml versus 0.26±0.11 ng/ml, P=0.0001* ,and also in obese polycystic ovary syndrome showed a significant increase compared to control obese(1.31±0.39 ng/ml versus 0.29±0.08 ng/ml, P=0.0001*. Serum visfatin was reduced in both lean and obese polycystic ovary syndrome after treatment with metformin. By this study, we can conclude Serum Visfatin level increased in polycystic ovary syndrome groups and this increment is high in lean group. These findings might suggest that visfatin could play a role in pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Metformin decrease serum visfatin level in both lean and obese groups.

  2. Roles of Pofut1 and O-fucose in mammalian Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark; Uemura, Kazuhide; Ge, Changhui; Shi, Shaolin; Tashima, Yuko; Stanley, Pamela

    2008-05-16

    Mammalian Notch receptors contain 29-36 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats that may be modified by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1), an essential component of the canonical Notch signaling pathway. The Drosophila orthologue Ofut1 is proposed to function as both a chaperone required for stable cell surface expression of Notch and a protein O-fucosyltransferase. Here we investigate these dual roles of Pofut1 in relation to endogenous Notch receptors of Chinese hamster ovary and murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. We show that fucosylation-deficient Lec13 Chinese hamster ovary cells have wild type levels of Pofut1 and cell surface Notch receptors. Nevertheless, they have reduced binding of Notch ligands and low levels of Delta1- and Jagged1-induced Notch signaling. Exogenous fucose but not galactose rescues both ligand binding and Notch signaling. Murine ES cells lacking Pofut1 also have wild type levels of cell surface Notch receptors. However, Pofut1-/- ES cells do not bind Notch ligands or exhibit Notch signaling. Although overexpression of fucosyltransferase-defective Pofut1 R245A in Pofut1-/- cells partially rescues ligand binding and Notch signaling, this effect is not specific. The same rescue is achieved by an unrelated, inactive, endoplasmic reticulum glucosidase. Therefore, mammalian Notch receptors require Pofut1 for the generation of optimally functional Notch receptors, but, in contrast to Drosophila, Pofut1 is not required for stable cell surface expression of Notch. Importantly, we also show that, under certain circumstances, mammalian Notch receptors are capable of signaling in the absence of Pofut1 and O-fucose.

  3. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Mariona Jové; Alba Naudí; Juan Carlos Aledo; Rosanna Cabré; Victoria Ayala; Manuel Portero-Otin; Gustavo Barja; Reinald Pamplona

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and ...

  4. Regulation of fibrillins and modulators of TGFβ in fetal bovine and human ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Nicole A; Bayne, Rosemary A; Hummitzsch, Katja; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy M; Hartanti, Monica D; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Anderson, Richard A; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-08-01

    Fibrillins 1-3 are stromal extracellular matrix proteins that play important roles in regulating TGFβ activity, which stimulates fibroblasts to proliferate and synthesize collagen. In the developing ovary, the action of stroma is initially necessary for the formation of ovigerous cords and subsequently for the formation of follicles and the surface epithelium of the ovary. FBN3 is highly expressed only in early ovarian development and then it declines. In contrast, FBN1 and 2 are upregulated in later ovarian development. We examined the expression of FBN1-3 in bovine and human fetal ovaries. We used cell dispersion and monolayer culture, cell passaging and tissue culture. Cells were treated with growth factors, hormones or inhibitors to assess the regulation of expression of FBN1-3 When bovine fetal ovarian tissue was cultured, FBN3 expression declined significantly. Treatment with TGFβ-1 increased FBN1 and FBN2 expression in bovine fibroblasts, but did not affect FBN3 expression. Additionally, in cultures of human fetal ovarian fibroblasts (9-17weeks gestational age), the expression of FBN1 and FBN2 increased with passage, whereas FBN3 dramatically decreased. Treatment with activin A and a TGFβ family signaling inhibitor, SB431542, differentially regulated the expression of a range of modulators of TGFβ signaling and of other growth factors in cultured human fetal ovarian fibroblasts suggesting that TGFβ signaling is differentially involved in the regulation of ovarian fibroblasts. Additionally, since the changes in FBN1-3 expression that occur in vitro are those that occur with increasing gestational age in vivo, we suggest that the fetal ovarian fibroblasts mature in vitro. PMID:27222596

  5. Should we individualize lipid profiling in women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Papunen, Laure Morin;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is it necessary to monitor lipid profiles in all young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Lipid profiling is required when women with PCOS develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) or hypertension, but rarely changes clinical care before the age of 35 years. WHAT...... lipid profiles had been determined routinely as part of clinical care since 2000 were included. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: One thousand three hundred and twenty-seven women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria) were included. Based on individual cardiovascular risk score and lipid levels...... with hypertension was 42/57 (73.7%). In PCOS women who had not yet developed T2D or hypertension, lipid profiling only changed clinical care in 28 (2.3%). This number was further reduced to 12 (1.2%) in women below the age of 35 years, and to zero in normal-weight women below the age of 35 years. LIMITATIONS...

  6. Effect of electroacupuncture on the bio-chemical indices of bone and bone collagen metabo-lism and TNF-α in osteoporosis model rats without ovaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍圣涌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of electroacu-puncture(EA) on postmenopausal osteoporosis(PMO).Methods Sixty female SD rats aged 6 months were selected,resected double ovaries and fed for 90 days in order to make the model of experimental osteoporosis,and then,they were randomly divided into a model control group

  7. Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger JJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joshua J Berger, G Wright Bates JrUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity, and the metabolic derangements that often accompany polycystic ovary syndrome. Beginning with lifestyle modification and use of metformin, the progressive inclusion of more intensive therapies for induction of ovulation is described. Second-line treatments are discussed and the new findings from a large multicenter trial are discussed in the context of evidence-based treatment strategies for first-line agents. Finally, monofollicular development as a treatment goal and in vitro fertilization are discussed for those with recalcitrant disease.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, infertility, metformin, ovarian drilling, ovulation induction, subfertility

  8. Fenvalerate-induced Alterations in Calcium Homeostasis in Rat Ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of fenvalerate on calcium homeostasis in rat ovary. Methods Female SpragueDawley rats were orally given fenvalerate at daily doses of 0.00, 1.91, 9.55, and 31.80 mg/kg for four weeks. The ovary ultrastucture was observed by electron microscopy. Serum free calcium concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The activities of phosphorylase a in rat ovary were evaluated by the chromatometry. The total content of calmodulin in ovary was estimated by ELISA at each stage of estrous cycle. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to evaluate the level of serum progesterone. Results Histopathologically, damages of ovarian corpus luteum cells were observed. An increase in serum free calcium concentration was observed in rats treated with 31.80mg/kg fenvalerate. The activities of phosphorylase a enhanced in all treated groups, and fenvalerate increased the total content of calmodulin significantly in estrus period. Serum progesterone levels declined in fenvalerate exposed rats in diestrus. Conclusion Fenvalerate interferes with calcium homeostasis in rat ovary. Also, the inhibitory effects of fenvalerate on serum progesterone levels may be mediated partly through calcium signals.

  9. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M.; Krams, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and tog...

  10. Recent advances in mammalian protein production

    OpenAIRE

    Bandaranayake, Ashok D.; Almo, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian protein production platforms have had a profound impact in many areas of basic and applied research, and an increasing number of blockbuster drugs are recombinant mammalian proteins. With global sales of these drugs exceeding US$120 billion per year, both industry and academic research groups continue to develop cost effective methods for producing mammalian proteins to support preclinical and clinical evaluations of potential therapeutics. While a wide range of platforms have been ...

  11. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  12. Current insights into gonadotropic pituitary function in the polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JacklyneSilvaBarbosa; EvelynBarzotto daSilva; Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the gonadotrope cell function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS). Methods:This study included42 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged26.6±5.9 years, and13 eumenorrheic controls, aged30.1±4.6 years.Gonadotropins, sex steroids, sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG), cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH), prolactin, free thyroxin, and insulin were measured.Gonadotrope cell function was assessed at baseline and at30 and 60 min after gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH) injection.Results:Luteinizante hormone (LH), prolactin(PRL), total testosterone(T), androstenedione(A), and17- hidroxyprogesterone(17-OHP4) levels were higher(P0.05).Positive correlation between insulin and theAUC ofLH was identified in controls.Conclusion:The current study confirms the hypersecretion ofLH inPCOS patients after the newest diagnostic systematization.The gonadotrope response toGnRH stimulation inPCOS patients was associated with the baseline levels ofLH,P4, insulin.

  13. Global gene expression analysis in fetal mouse ovaries with and without meiosis and comparison of selected genes with meiosis in the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C.; Nyeng, P.; Kalisz, M.;

    2007-01-01

    In order to identify novel genes involved in early meiosis and early ovarian development in the mouse, we used microarray technology to compare transcriptional activity in ovaries without meiotic germ cells at embryonic age 11.5 (E11.5) and E13.5 ovaries with meiosis. Overall, 182 genes were...... differentially expressed; 134 were known genes and 48 were functionally uncharacterized. A comparison of our data with the literature associated, for the first time, at least eight of the known genes with female meiosis/germ cell differentiation (Aldh1a1, C2pa, Tex12, Stk31, Lig3, Id4, Recq1, Piwil2......-expressed transcript 1" (Get-1). In situ hybridization showed that Get-1 was expressed in meiotic germ cells in both fetal ovaries and mature testis. Get-1 is therefore a novel gene in both male and female meiosis....

  14. Evolutionary Patterns of RNA-Based Duplication in Non-Mammalian Chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Chen; Ming Zou; Beide Fu; Xin Li; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Xiaoni Gan; Dengqiang Wang; Wen Wang; Manyuan Long; Shunping He

    2011-01-01

    The role of RNA-based duplication, or retroposition, in the evolution of new gene functions in mammals, plants, and Drosophila has been widely reported. However, little is known about RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. In this study, we screened ten non-mammalian chordate genomes for retrocopies and investigated their evolutionary patterns. We identified numerous retrocopies in these species. Examination of the age distribution of these retrocopies revealed no burst of young re...

  15. Identification of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in the Ovary of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lin; Tao Du; Jia Huang; Li-Li Huang; Dong-Zi Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age.The patients often develop insulin resistance (IR) or hyperinsulinemia despite manifesting anovulation and signs of hyperandrogenism.The cause and effect relationship of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia (HA) is still debated.Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) have recently been shown to play a role in regulation of ovarian function.Our current study focused on the altered expression of miRNAs with PCOS.Methods:Ovarian theca intema tissues were obtained from 10 PCOS patients and 8 controls that were non-PCOS and had normal insulin sensitivity undergoing laparoscopy and/or ovarian wedge resection.Total RNA of all samples was extracted.We studied the repertoire of miRNAs in both PCOS and non-PCOS women by microarray hybridization.Bioinformatic analysis was performed for predicting targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs.Furthermore,selected miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).Results:A total of 27 miRNAs were differentially expressed in PCOS patients with respect to the controls in our discovery evaluationand two (miR-92a and miR-92b) of them were significantly downregulated in PCOS women in followed validation (P < 0.05).Targets prediction revealed that miR-92a targeted both GATA family of zinc finger transcription factor GATA-binding factor 6 (GATA6) and insulin receptor substrate proteins 2 (IRS-2).Conclusions:MiRNAs are differentially expressed between PCOS patients and controls.We identified and validated two miRNAs-miR-92a and miR-92b.They are significantly downregulated and may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  16. Is polycystic ovary syndrome a sexual conflict? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to explain the high overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among women worldwide (about 4-10%) despite its link to subfertile phenotypes. For this reason, it is considered an evolutionary paradox. In this review, we show that several genetic loci associated with the disease differently modulate the reproductive parameters of men and women. This observation suggests that such genetic variants lead to opposite effects in the two sexes in reproductive success. Intralocus sexual conflict as a cause of the persistence polycystic ovary syndrome genotypes among humans is supported. PMID:26874987

  17. PRIMARY TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE OVARY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with a history of progressively enlarging abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography showed a pelvic mass involving both the ovaries and omentum. CA-125 was normal. Staging surgery was performed and the histopathological diagnosis of Transitional Cell Carcinoma was made and later confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and patient’s outcomes after chemotherapy are better than for other types of ovarian cancers.

  18. INFLUENCE OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII ON OVARY AND UTERUS ENDOMETRIUM OF MOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIATai-He; WANGXiao-Xu; WULi; XIUHe-Ming; DINGWei-Dong; HAOXiao-Dong; LIXiang-Fu; SUNHui-Chen; LEIJian-Zhang; WANGGeng-Xin; YINGGuo-Hua

    1989-01-01

    An observation was performed on ovary and uterus endometrium of female mice after administration of a syrup containing root extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.F,( TWH ) for 6 months with light and electron micoscopics. Ovaries were enlarged for 3

  19. Stem cell factor and c-Kit in human primordial germ cells and fetal ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Byskov, Anne Grete; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry......Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry...

  20. Laparoscopic Surgery for Ovarian Pregnancy using Diathermy Hook with Conservation of Ovary: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha K. Gebeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old woman presented with a 7-week history of irregular vaginal bleeding without abdominal pain. She had been using the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD for the last 3 years. A pregnancy test was positive and subsequent serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG was 4992 mIU/mL. A transvaginal ultrasound scan demonstrated an empty uterus with an associated adnexal mass but no free fluid. A right primary ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed a laparoscopy. This was managed laparoscopically using monopolar diathermy hook with conservation of the ovary and minimal blood loss. Ovarian pregnancy is rare, especially in women without the classical risk factors for tubal pregnancy, and efforts should be made to exclude ectopic pregnancy in the absence of abdominal pain in a woman of reproductive age presenting with prolonged and irregular vaginal bleeding. Methods to conserve the ovary are also encouraged in cases of ovarian pregnancy.

  1. An autopsy case of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with PIVKA-II production: immunohistochemical study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, H; Kiyozuka, Y; Mizuoka, H; Yamamoto, D; Ueda, S; Izumi, H; Tsubura, A

    1999-02-01

    A case of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary in a 61-year-old Japanese woman, who showed high serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and CA125, is reported. Grossly, the left ovarian tumor, which measured 12 x 9 cm, was solid and multinodular. Histologically, the tumor resembled hepatocellular carcinoma by its architectural and cytological features. Liver cell differentiation was indicated functionally by the immunohistochemical detection of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and by positive bile production, and the hepatocellular differentiation was structurally in accord with keratin 7, 8 and 18 expression. CA125 expression, commonly present in ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas, suggested that this neoplasm originated from ovarian common epithelial cells. There are only nine such cases in the literature. A review of these cases reveals that hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary occurs exclusively in postmenopausal women (mean age, 62.7 years) and that the prognosis is poor.

  2. Stereolithographic biomodeling of equine ovary based on 3D serial digitizing device

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Junpei; Kakusho, Nobunori; Yamazawa, Kenji; Hirano, Yuuko; NAMBO, Yasuo; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2009-01-01

    The 3D internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) was applied to the equine ovary, which possesses peculiar structural characteristics. Stereolithography was applied to make a life-sized model by means of data obtained from 3D-ISM. Images from serially sliced surfaces contributed to a successful 3D reconstruction of the equine ovary. Photopolymerized resin models of equine ovaries produced by stereolithography can clearly show the internal structure and spatial localizations in the ovary. The und...

  3. Searching for Common Mammalian Retroviruses in Pediatric Idiopathic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Jeziorski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian retroviruses cause a variety of diseases in their hosts, including hematological and immunodeficiency disorders. Both human T-cell leukemia (HTLV and human immunodeficiency (HIV viruses originated from several independent zoonotic transmissions, indicating that cross-species transmissions from animal to humans may still occur. Thus, as the risk for retroviral transmissions from animals to humans increase, we investigated whether mammalian retroviruses are involved in selected pediatric idiopathic diseases whose symptoms evoke retroviral infections. Blood samples, sera, and synovial fluids, or bone marrow cells were collected from pediatric patients under 18 years of age with different autoimmune idiopathic diseases. Overall, we screened clinical samples from 110 children using sensitive nested and semi-nested PCR strategies targeting env genes, and a C-type retrovirus reverse transcriptase (RT activity kit. All clinical samples were free of retroviral signatures, indicating the unlikelihood of an etiological role of the retroviruses we assessed in the pediatric diseases we tested.

  4. Searching for Common Mammalian Retroviruses in Pediatric Idiopathic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorski, Eric; Foulongne, Vincent; Ludwig, Catherine; Louhaem, Djamel; Rodiere, Michel; Sitbon, Marc; Courgnaud, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian retroviruses cause a variety of diseases in their hosts, including hematological and immunodeficiency disorders. Both human T-cell leukemia (HTLV) and human immunodeficiency (HIV) viruses originated from several independent zoonotic transmissions, indicating that cross-species transmissions from animal to humans may still occur. Thus, as the risk for retroviral transmissions from animals to humans increase, we investigated whether mammalian retroviruses are involved in selected pediatric idiopathic diseases whose symptoms evoke retroviral infections. Blood samples, sera, and synovial fluids, or bone marrow cells were collected from pediatric patients under 18 years of age with different autoimmune idiopathic diseases. Overall, we screened clinical samples from 110 children using sensitive nested and semi-nested PCR strategies targeting env genes, and a C-type retrovirus reverse transcriptase (RT) activity kit. All clinical samples were free of retroviral signatures, indicating the unlikelihood of an etiological role of the retroviruses we assessed in the pediatric diseases we tested.

  5. Mammalian Mitochondrial ncRNA Database

    OpenAIRE

    Anandakumar, Shanmugam; Vijayakumar, Saravanan; Arumugam, Nagarajan; Gromiha, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian Mitochondrial ncRNA is a web-based database, which provides specific information on non-coding RNA in mammals. This database includes easy searching, comparing with BLAST and retrieving information on predicted structure and its function about mammalian ncRNAs. Availability The database is available for free at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/mmndb/

  6. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX485215,SRX1149373,SRX485203,...X215623,SRX215627 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX101478,SRX485215,SRX264599,S...215627,SRX1165009 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX201903,SRX485216,SRX201902,S...X215627,SRX485205 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX485220,SRX485219,SRX1134696,...X485205,SRX661228 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  10. Morbidity and medicine prescriptions in a nationwide Danish population of patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hass Rubin, Katrine; Nybo, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of other diseases is not clarified. We aimed to investigate morbidity and medicine prescriptions in PCOS. DESIGN: A National Register-based study. METHODS: Patients with PCOS (PCOS...... Denmark and an embedded cohort; PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH)) and one control population. Premenopausal women with PCOS underwent clinical and biochemical examination (PCOS OUH, n=1217). PCOS Denmark (n=19 199) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age......-matched controls were included per patient (n=57 483). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis codes and filled prescriptions. RESULTS: The mean (range) age of the PCOS Denmark group and controls was 30.6 (12-60) years. Patients in PCOS Denmark had higher Charlson index, higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia...

  11. Genotoxic Effects of PAH Containing Sludge Extracts in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective Many studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxicity of chemicals and waste materials, which utilized in vivo test protocols. The use of animals for routine toxicity testing is now questioned by a growing segment of society[1]. Methods Keeping the above fact in mind, we have conducted in the present study the genotoxicity evaluation of oily sludge samples generated from a petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry and ETP sludge from petroleum refinery using DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein induction and apoptosis in short term in vitro mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary cell cultures. Results It is evident from the results that the oily sludge compounds derived from petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry could cause DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein accumulation and apoptotic cell death on exposure to oily sludge extracts in the presence of metabolic activation system (S-9 mix), however, ETP sludge extract could not cause significant genotoxicity in comparison to oily sludge extract and negative control. Conclusion The effect may be attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the samples as evidenced from GC-MS.

  12. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  13. Photodynamic inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F; Neves, Maria Graça P M S; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide

    2012-07-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  14. Evolutionary patterns of RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The role of RNA-based duplication, or retroposition, in the evolution of new gene functions in mammals, plants, and Drosophila has been widely reported. However, little is known about RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. In this study, we screened ten non-mammalian chordate genomes for retrocopies and investigated their evolutionary patterns. We identified numerous retrocopies in these species. Examination of the age distribution of these retrocopies revealed no burst of young retrocopies in ancient chordate species. Upon comparing these non-mammalian chordate species to the mammalian species, we observed that a larger fraction of the non-mammalian retrocopies was under strong evolutionary constraints than mammalian retrocopies are, as evidenced by signals of purifying selection and expression profiles. For the Western clawed frog, Medaka, and Sea squirt, many retrogenes have evolved gonad and brain expression patterns, similar to what was observed in human. Testing of retrogene movement in the Medaka genome, where the nascent sex chrosomes have been well assembled, did not reveal any significant gene movement. Taken together, our analyses demonstrate that RNA-based duplication generates many functional genes and can make a significant contribution to the evolution of non-mammalian genomes.

  15. Impact of Obesity on the Risk for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Bulent O.; Knochenhauer, Eric S.; Azziz, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Context: Although it is well established that adiposity increases the severity of the clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the data regarding the prevalence of PCOS in obese women and the change in body weight women presented with PCOS over time are scarce.

  16. Calcified cavernous hemangioma of the ovary: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Ovarian hemangiomas are very uncommon and most are of the cavernous type. A few reports have described the radiologic findings of this neoplasm, but as far as the author is aware, the literature contains no description of calcified cavernous hemangioma. A case in which this condition involved the ovary is now reported.

  17. Calcified cavernous hemangioma of the ovary: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian hemangiomas are very uncommon and most are of the cavernous type. A few reports have described the radiologic findings of this neoplasm, but as far as the author is aware, the literature contains no description of calcified cavernous hemangioma. A case in which this condition involved the ovary is now reported

  18. Circulating hormone concentrations in hypothyroid rats with induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M T; Adams, W C; Bruot, B C

    1991-11-01

    The induction of polycystic ovaries in hypothyroid rats by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been studied for many years. A complete understanding of this phenomenon requires information regarding the circulating levels of the hormones of the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. In this study, serum prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay at intervals during the 40-day period in which large ovarian cysts were induced in hypothyroid rats by daily injections of hCG. After 20 injections, ovaries increased in weight 10-fold, and well-developed ovarian cysts were present, accompanied by lutein tissue; cyst development continued for the subsequent 20 days of hCG. Both PRL and LH rose during the first 5 days of treatment and were maintained at high levels from day 20 on. The pattern of change of gonadal steroids showed greater increases with hCG in hypothyroid than in euthyroid rats. Levels of estradiol in hypothyroid, hCG-injected rats increased in parallel to ovarian hypertrophy, whereas progesterone was high in initial stages and then declined. Testosterone increased in both euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, with no clear pattern coincident with cyst formation. The data suggest that the formation of polycystic ovaries in the hypothyroid rat is associated with high levels of PRL and LH followed by elevations of estradiol, which may serve to maintain continuous PRL, as well as LH, stimulation of the ovary. PMID:1924408

  19. miRNA-dependent translational repression in the Drosophila ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Reich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary.

  20. Aromatase inhibitors for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franik, S.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Farquhar, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infrequent periods (oligomenorrhoea) and absence of periods (amenorrhoea). It affects about 4% to 8% of women worldwide and often leads to anovulatory subfertility. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a novel class of drugs that wer

  1. POLYCYSTIC OVARIES WITH STROMAL HYPERTHECOSIS: A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a 47-year-old peri-menopausal lady with hypomenorrhoea, temporal baldness, alopecia, hirsutism. The histopathology was polycystic ovaries with stromal hyperthecosis. Hughesdon described hyperthecosis as a severe form of PCOS. Hyperthecosis is rare in young women, with clinical features similar to PCOS. However, these women are usually more virilised.

  2. Placental characteristics in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Maria P H; de Wilde, Marlieke A; Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; Houben, ML; Nikkels, Peter G J; van Rijn, Bas B; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are macroscopic and microscopic placental characteristics in a heterogeneous group of women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) different from those of a low-risk general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with PCOS have significantly different microscopic placental charac

  3. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) receptor gene is expressed in the chicken ovary: potential role of GnIH in follicular maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineni, Sreenivasa R; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Hendricks, Gilbert L; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2008-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), an RFamide peptide, has been found to inhibit pituitary LH secretion in avian and mammalian species. The gene encoding a putative receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the chicken and Japanese quail brain and pituitary gland. GnIHR appears to be a seven-transmembrane protein belonging to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors. In the present study, we have characterized the expression of GnIHR mRNA in the chicken ovary and demonstrate that GnIHR may exert an inhibitory effect on ovarian follicular development. By RT-PCR, we detected GnIHR mRNA in the chicken testis and in the ovary, specifically both thecal and granulosa cell layers. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed greater GnIHR mRNA quantity in theca cells of prehierarchial follicles compared with that of preovulatory follicles. GnIHR mRNA quantity was significantly decreased in sexually mature chicken ovaries versus ovaries of sexually immature chickens. Estradiol (E(2)) and/or progesterone (P(4)) treatment of sexually immature chickens significantly decreased ovarian GnIHR mRNA abundance. Treatment of prehierarchial follicular granulosa cells in vitro with chicken GnIH peptide significantly decreased basal but not FSH-stimulated cellular viability. Collectively, our results indicate that the ovarian GnIHR is likely to be involved in ovarian follicular development. A decrease in ovarian GnIHR mRNA abundance due to sexual maturation or by E(2) and/or P(4) treatment would implicate an inhibitory role for GnIHR in ovarian follicular development. Furthermore, GnIH may affect follicular maturation by decreasing the viability of prehierarchial follicular granulosa cells through binding to GnIHR. PMID:18239054

  4. Ice-Binding Protein Derived from Glaciozyma Can Improve the Viability of Cryopreserved Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Jun; Shim, Hye Eun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kang, Yong-Cheol; Hur, Young Baek

    2015-12-28

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) can inhibit ice recrystallization (IR), a major cause of cell death during cryopreservation. IBPs are hypothesized to improve cell viability after cryopreservation by alleviating the cryoinjury caused by IR. In our previous studies, we showed that supplementation of the freezing medium with the recombinant IBP of the Arctic yeast Glaciozyma sp. (designated as LeIBP) could reduce post-thaw hemolysis of human red blood cells and increase the survival of cryopreserved diatoms. Here, we showed that LeIBP could improve the viability of cryopreserved mammalian cells. Human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), mouse fibroblasts (NIH/3T3), human preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1), and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were evaluated. These mammalian cells were frozen in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/fetal bovine serum (FBS) solution with or without 0.1 mg/ml LeIBP at a cooling rate of -1°C/min in a -80°C freezer overnight. The minimum effective concentration (0.1 mg/ml) of LeIBP was determined, based on the viability of HeLa cells after treatment with LeIBP during cryopreservation and the IR inhibition assay results. The post-thaw viability of mammalian cells was examined. In all cases, cell viability was significantly enhanced by more than 10% by LeIBP supplementation in 5% DMSO/5% FBS: viability increased by 20% for HeLa cells, 28% for NIH/3T3 cells, 21% for MC3T3-E1, 10% for CHO-K1, and 20% for HaCaT. Furthermore, addition of LeIBP reduced the concentrations of toxic DMSO and FBS down to 5%. Therefore, we demonstrated that LeIBP can increase the viability of cryopreserved mammalian cells by inhibiting IR.

  5. Cortisol-Metabolizing Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Zeev; Kaidar, Gabi; Zuckerman-Levin, Nehama; Dumin, Elena; Knopf, Carlos; Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), using a fully quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) method. DESIGN We investigated the glucocorticoid degradation pathways that include 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1, 5α-reductase (5α-R) and 5β-reductase (5β-R), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20α- and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD and 20β-HSD, respectively) in young nonobese women with PCOS, using a fully quantitative GCMS method. SETTING This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Israel. PATIENTS This study group consisted of 13 young women, aged 20.1 ± 2.8 years (mean ± SD), with the body mass index (BMI) of 22.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2, diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. The control group consisted of 14 healthy young women matched for weight, height, and BMI. INTERVENTIONS Urine samples were analyzed using GCMS. We measured urinary steroid metabolites that represent the products and substrates of the study enzymes and calculated the product/substrate ratios to represent enzyme activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The calculation of enzymatic activity, based on glucocorticoid degradation metabolites, was done by GCMS in PCOS vs. controls. RESULTS All glucocorticoid degradation metabolites were higher in the PCOS group than in controls. Of the adrenal enzymes, the activities of 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase were reduced, whereas the activity of 17,20-lyase was enhanced in PCOS. Of the degradation enzymes, the activity of 11β-HSD type 1 was reduced in women with PCOS only when calculated from cortoles and cortolones ratios. The activities of 5α-R/5β-R were increased only when calculating the 11-hydroxy metabolites of androgens. The activity of 20α-HSD was elevated in the patients with PCOS and its relation with the substrate levels was lost. CONCLUSIONS We confirm PCOS

  6. Fate Mapping Mammalian Corneal Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alexander; Wakefield, Denis; Di Girolamo, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The anterior aspect of the cornea consists of a stratified squamous epithelium, thought to be maintained by a rare population of stem cells (SCs) that reside in the limbal transition zone. Although migration of cells that replenish the corneal epithelium has been studied for over a century, the process is still poorly understood and not well characterized. Numerous techniques have been employed to examine corneal epithelial dynamics, including visualization by light microscopy, the incorporation of vital dyes and DNA labels, and transplantation of genetically marked cells that have acted as cell and lineage beacons. Modern-day lineage tracing utilizes molecular methods to determine the fate of a specific cell and its progeny over time. Classically employed in developmental biology, lineage tracing has been used more recently to track the progeny of adult SCs in a number of organs to pin-point their location and understand their movement and influence on tissue regeneration. This review highlights key discoveries that have led researchers to develop cutting-edge genetic tools to effectively and more accurately monitor turnover and displacement of cells within the mammalian corneal epithelium. Collating information on the basic biology of SCs will have clinical ramifications in furthering our knowledge of the processes that govern their role in homeostasis, wound-healing, transplantation, and how we can improve current unsatisfactory SC-based therapies for patients suffering blinding corneal disease. PMID:26774909

  7. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyun Shin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/ (- testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/ (- testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/ (- ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/ (- oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  8. Ghrelin receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKaiya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered three years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  9. Baculoviruses as Vectors in Mammalian Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-yong LIANG; Xin-wen CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The Baculoviridae are a large family of enveloped DNA viruses exclusively pathogenic to arthropods. Baculoviruses have been extensively used in insect cell-based recombinant protein expression system and as biological pesticides. They have been deomostrated to be safe to mammals, birds and fish. Recently, baculoviruses has been shown to transduce different mammalian cells in spite of the fact that they cannot replicate in mammalian cells (11, 73, 76). This has resulted in the development of baculoviruses as mammalian expression systems and even as vestors for gene therapy.

  10. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and α-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur. PMID:24895012

  11. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congjiao Sun

    Full Text Available Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW and ovary weight (OW at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL and Dongxiang chickens (DX. For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based heritability estimates (0.25-0.38, while the estimates for FW (0.16 and OW (0.20 were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points.

  12. Hacking the genetic code of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Dirk

    2009-07-01

    A genetic shuttle: The highlighted article, which was recently published by Schultz, Geierstanger and co-workers, describes a straightforward scheme for enlarging the genetic code of mammalian cells. An orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for a new amino acid can be evolved in E. coli and subsequently transferred into mammalian cells. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by adding a photocaged lysine derivative to the genetic repertoire of a human cell line.

  13. Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Cho, On Koo; Kim, Yong Soo; Hahm, Chang Kok [School of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary is a rare benign neoplasm, with distinctive clinical and pathologic features. It occurs predominantly in females during the second and third decades of life. Histologically, it is composed of cellular and acellular collagenized areas, and edematous stromal areas, and at ultrasonography and computed tomography is seen as a distinctive mixed solid and cystic mass lesion. We report a case of sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a 15-year-old girl with a history of menorrhagia since menarche. Ultrasonography revealed the tumor as a well-defined, lobulated, heterogenous echogenic pelvic mass, while at CT, a huge pelvic mass 9 x 9 x 10 cm in size, was seen. This comprised a well-enhanced internal solid portion, a capsule, septa, and a non-enhanced cystic portion.

  14. A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninive SanchezSchool of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, psychosocial, mental health, multidisciplinary, life course, adolescence

  15. Value of qualitative research in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hongxia; Liang Huiling; Gao Jingshu; Ma Hongli; Liu Jianping; Ng Hungyu Ernest; Billhult Annika

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article aims to introduce the benefits of qualitative research and to discuss how such research can be applied to the study of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Data sources Relevant articles were published in English as of May 2013 from Pubmed.Terms "polycystic ovary syndrome/PCOS,qualitative research and methodology" were used for searching.Study selection Articles studying PCOS with qualitative methods were reviewed.Articles associated with the use of qualitative research in clinical research were cited.Results Six qualitative studies related to PCOS were found in the literature search.These studies addressed different aspects in PCOS women including their womanhood,lived experience,information need,and experience of treatment with acupuncture.Five of these six studies used phenomenology as guiding theory.Conclusion Quantitative research has been the dominant approach in the field so far,qualitative research is relevant to the advancement of PCOS.

  16. Primary pleomorphic sarcoma of the ovary with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Sumana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old patient presented with a right ovarian mass, which, on microscopy, showed to consist of haphazardly oriented large pleomorphic cells with abundant cytoplasm. Periodic acid Schiff stain was positive but negative with diastase digestion. Immunohistochemical staining with Desmin showed intense cytoplasmic positivity in almost all the cells. Cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle actin, HMB-45, S-100 and neurone-specific enolase were negative. Immunohistochemical staining with Myogenin showed intense nuclear positivity. There was no other primary tumor on extensive search. A diagnosis of primary sarcoma of the ovary with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation was made. The incidence of similar tumors of the ovary are low and therefore little data are available on this uniformly lethal tumor. Thus, such cases need to be reported to pool experience so that the tumor can be diagnosed early.

  17. Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary in an Adolescent: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Boyraz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, and also will present at any age. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, and may give symptoms like hirsutism, hair loss, amenorrhea, or oligomenorrhea. For the evaluation of androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are the first laboratory tests to be measured. A pelvic ultrasound and a magnetic resonance imaging are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although steroid cell tumors are generally benign, there is a risk of malignant transformation and clinical malignant formation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  18. Imaging of uterus and ovaries in children; Bildgebende Diagnostik des inneren weiblichen Genitales bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Abt. fuer Paediatrische Radiologie

    2015-06-15

    The clinical symptoms of pathologies of the uterus and ovaries are relatively unspecific. Their presentation includes absence of symptoms, abdominal pain and acute abdomen - but also developmental alterations during puberty and problems with menstruation and conception. Ultrasound can reliably diagnose most of these diseases. MRI is being a second line of diagnostics especially in cases of malformation and possible tumors. It is decisive for a valid interpretation of results to be aware of age-dependent normal findings and to have a working knowledge of embryologic processes, especially to understand how deformities take shape. This article is presenting normal findings and many pathologies of the female inner genital in childhood and puberty. By using exemplary images we will cover their differential diagnoses, pitfalls and typical presentations.

  19. Systems pharmacology to investigate the interaction of berberine and other drugs in treating polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fu, Xin; Xu, Jing; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common multifactorial endocrine disorder among women of childbearing age. PCOS has various and heterogeneous clinical features apart from its indefinite pathogenesis and mechanism. Clinical drugs for PCOS are multifarious because it only treats separate symptoms. Berberine is an isoquinoline plant alkaloid with numerous biological activities, and it was testified to improve some diseases related to PCOS in animal models and in humans. Systems pharmacology was utilized to predict the potential targets of berberine related to PCOS and the potential drug-drug interaction base on the disease network. In conclusion, berberine is a promising polypharmacological drug for treating PCOS, and for enhancing the efficacy of clinical drugs. PMID:27306862

  20. The metabolic effects of drugs used for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaköse, Melia; Cakal, Erman; Ertan, Kubilay; Delibaşı, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. It is characterized by menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical) and ultrasonographic features. It is well known that PCOS has unfavourable effects on carbohydrate metabolism, the parameters of cardiovascular disease and lipid profile. Mode of treatment is mainly guided by the main complaint of the patient. A lot of medicines have been used for many years to treat these women. For that reason the recognition the effects of these drugs on the metabolic risk profile is important. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. PMID:24592098

  1. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS.

  2. Atrial natriuretic peptide, copeptin and adrenomedullin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Nylander, Malin; Aziz, Mubeena;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by the Rotterdam criteria does not take into account the unhealthy metabolic profile of the syndrome with increased insulin resistance (IR) and overweight favoring development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We...... assess three vasoactive peptides associated with CVD in women with PCOS. METHOD: Plasma levels of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), copeptin and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were measured in 98 PCOS patients and 46 age- and BMI-matched healthy women. RESULTS: We...... found no difference in levels of MR-proANP, copeptin and MR-proADM between the PCOS and control group. Multiple regression analyses on a combined group of PCOS and control subjects demonstrated an inverse correlation between MR-proANP and IR (measured by fasting C-peptide) and a positive correlations...

  3. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in polycystic ovary syndrome: an evidence-based minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Georgescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a plurifactorial endocrine disorder, affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age to result inhyperandrogenia, anovulation and infertility, metabolic syndrome and enhanced cardiovascular risk. Animal experiments unraveled that preandearly postnatal exposure of female offspring to testosterone or bisphenol A (BPA, one synthetic, organic plasticizers component may inducea PCOS-like developmental pattern in adulthood. In contrast to other endocrine-disruption chemicals, information on BPA exposure inbiological indicators and wildlife is scarce. On the other hand, the ability of BPA to alter ovarian steroidogenesis has been demonstrated in severalcell culture models. In line with that, preliminary clinical studies demonstrated elevated serum and urinary BPA levels in PCOS patients.Nonetheless, a causative role of BPA in PCOS is still under debate and further studies on the topic are warranted.

  4. Systems pharmacology to investigate the interaction of berberine and other drugs in treating polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fu, Xin; Xu, Jing; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common multifactorial endocrine disorder among women of childbearing age. PCOS has various and heterogeneous clinical features apart from its indefinite pathogenesis and mechanism. Clinical drugs for PCOS are multifarious because it only treats separate symptoms. Berberine is an isoquinoline plant alkaloid with numerous biological activities, and it was testified to improve some diseases related to PCOS in animal models and in humans. Systems pharmacology was utilized to predict the potential targets of berberine related to PCOS and the potential drug-drug interaction base on the disease network. In conclusion, berberine is a promising polypharmacological drug for treating PCOS, and for enhancing the efficacy of clinical drugs. PMID:27306862

  5. Clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita J. Ramanand; Balasaheb B Ghongane; Jaiprakash B Ramanand; Milind H Patwardhan; Ghanghas, Ravi R.; Jain, Suyog S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility. All the dimensions of PCOS have not been completely explored. Many studies have tried to characterize the exact presentation of the disease. In this study we studied clinical features of PCOS in Indian women to characterize different phenotypes of this syndrome. Prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) as surrogate marker of insulin resistance, obesity, hirsutism and hypothyroidism in PCOS wo...

  6. A comprehensive approach in diagnosing the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Renato; Gambineri, Alessandra

    2015-07-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is the commonest hyperandrogenic and dysmetabolic disorder in women that, by definition, may present with different phenotypes, including the classic forms and those with a milder presentation. Its diagnosis is mainly based on careful clinical judgment, although it may require additional investigation by blood testing or imaging techniques in the differential diagnosis of androgen excess. This article summarizes the most important aspects of the diagnostic procedure and suggests how to apply them in clinical practice. PMID:25756387

  7. Is interleukin-18 associated with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Li Rong; Qiao Jie; Yang Yan; Li Mei-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent research show that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may have an association with low-grade chronic inflammation, IL-18 is considered as a strong risk marker of inflammation. Methods To investigate serum IL-18 concentrations in PCOS patients and focus on its relationship between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Sixty consecutive women with PCOS and thirty controls were recruited. Serum level of IL-18 and fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, follicle-stimulatin...

  8. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have successful embryo arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Wei, Duo; Song, Xiaobing; Xie, Juanke; Zhang, Cuilian

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we investigate the relationship between embryo arrest and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In this study, 667 subjects were enrolled, including 330 patients with PCOS and 337 subjects without PCOS. The subjects underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) cycles at the Reproductive Medical Centre of Henan Provincial Hospital from January 2009 to December ...

  9. OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AND METABOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsche, Katie; Ehrmann, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underrecognized, yet significant factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic derangements in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Recent findings suggest that there may be two “subtypes” of PCOS, i.e. PCOS with or without OSA, and these two subtypes may be associated with distinct metabolic and endocrine alterations. PCOS women with OSA may be at much higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease than PCOS women without OSA and may benefit from therapeutic i...

  10. Trichloroethylene Metabolism in the Rat Ovary Reduces Oocyte Fertilizability

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Katherine Lily; Berger, Trish

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE, an environmental toxicant) reduced oocyte fertilizability in the rat. In vivo, TCE may be metabolized by cytochrome P450 dependent oxidation or glutathione conjugation in the liver or kidneys, respectively. Cytochrome P450 dependent oxidation is the higher affinity pathway. The primary isoform of cytochrome P450 to metabolize TCE in the liver, cytochrome P450 2E1, is present in the rodent ovary. Ovarian metabolism of TCE by the oxidative pathway and the pro...

  11. Aromatase inhibitors for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Franik, S.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Farquhar, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infrequent periods (oligomenorrhoea) and absence of periods (amenorrhoea). It affects about 4% to 8% of women worldwide and often leads to anovulatory subfertility. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a novel class of drugs that were introduced for ovulation induction in 2001. Over the last ten years clinical trials have reached differing conclusions as to whether the AI letrozole is at least as effective as the first-line tr...

  12. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome An Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder Throughout Life

    OpenAIRE

    Szilágyi A

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still a matter of controversies, but it is apparent that hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance (IR) are major determining factors in the development of ovarian hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. The consequences of the PCOS extend beyond the reproductive axis. Follow up studies have shown an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other elements of metabolic syndrome in PCOS and increased cardiov...

  13. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  14. ROLE FAILURE CORRECTION OF 25(OHD IN PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Matveyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the correction failure 25 (OH D in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and Methods. The study involved 44 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 31.32 ± 5.05, who were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1st – obtained coca biguanides and Kolekaltsiferol, second – combined oral contraceptive (combined hormonal and biguanides. The comparison group consisted of 22 healthy women matched for age and sex. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS was verified on theОригинальные статьиБюллетень сибирской медицины, 2015, том 14, № 5, с. 47–53 53basis of diagnostic criteria ESHRE / ASRM (2012. 25 (OH vitamin D was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ng/ml. Examined glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA index of insulin re-sistance. Depression was assessed using the Beck test. Statistical analysis – R-system.Results. The patients with PCOS defined by the expression deficit of 25 (OH D, which is associated with hyperandrogenism, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, as well as depression. Ad-mission kolekaltsiferola leads to improved glucose metabolism and manifestations of PCOS, and also significantly reduces the parameters of OT, OT / OB, depression.Conclusion. Failure correction of 25 (OH D contributes to the improvement of metabolic and psycho-logical parameters of fertility.

  15. The progression of small-follicle reserves in the ovaries of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from puberty to reproductive senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, F J; Nöthling, J O; Allen, W R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the follicle reserve in the ovary of the African elephant declines progressively after puberty and whether its depletion constrains the fertility of older females. Elephant ovaries were fixed in 4% neutral buffered formalin and small-follicle counts made using stereological protocols. Excepting a slight rise in small-follicle numbers between 16 and 25 years of age, there was a trend for follicle numbers to fall from puberty to 70 years. Reproductive status did not impact significantly on small-follicle numbers (P=0.31). The number of early primary follicles, initially higher in number than true primary follicles, fell from post-puberty to nil at 45 years of age. Six of the seven oldest animals in the study showed signs of recent ovarian activity in the form of antral follicles, corpora lutea or large corpora nigra. The four oldest elephants (mean age 69 years) had a median small-follicle count of 11,113. In summary, it appears that the elephant ovary is capable of supplying oocytes for ovulation right up to the time of death at the age of maximum life expectancy, although the follicle reserve becomes depleted in some older elephants. PMID:24112390

  16. Does Unilateral Oocyte Retrieval due to Transvaginally Inaccessible Ovaries, Contrary to Common Beliefs, Affect IVF/ICSI Treatment Outcomes That Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgan, Safak; Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Bozdag, Gurkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcomes of unilateral oocyte retrieval in patients with transvaginally inaccessible ovaries. Study Design. Ninety-two women who underwent unilateral oocyte retrieval were retrospectively matched for age, antral follicle count, and body mass index with 184 women who underwent bilateral oocyte retrieval. Each patient in bilateral oocyte retrieval group had the same number of cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs) from single ovary and had comparable number of follicles (±2) on contralateral site where follicular aspiration was performed. Results. The number of COCs, metaphase-2 oocytes, 2-pronuclei, and top-quality embryos was significantly lower in unilateral oocyte retrieval group. However, proportion of patients with an embryo transfer of at least one top-quality embryo was found to be comparable between unilateral and bilateral oocyte retrieval. Subsequently, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found to be similar between the groups. The ROC curve analysis revealed (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.86, p = 0.001) that retrieved COCs ≥ 5 from single ovary had sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 64.2% for occurrence of a clinical pregnancy. Conclusion. The patients with unilateral oocyte retrieval have reasonable chance of success with IVF. The retrieval of ≥5 COCs from accessible ovary might result in better treatment outcomes among these patients. PMID:27123444

  17. Does Unilateral Oocyte Retrieval due to Transvaginally Inaccessible Ovaries, Contrary to Common Beliefs, Affect IVF/ICSI Treatment Outcomes That Much?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Olgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment outcomes of unilateral oocyte retrieval in patients with transvaginally inaccessible ovaries. Study Design. Ninety-two women who underwent unilateral oocyte retrieval were retrospectively matched for age, antral follicle count, and body mass index with 184 women who underwent bilateral oocyte retrieval. Each patient in bilateral oocyte retrieval group had the same number of cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs from single ovary and had comparable number of follicles (±2 on contralateral site where follicular aspiration was performed. Results. The number of COCs, metaphase-2 oocytes, 2-pronuclei, and top-quality embryos was significantly lower in unilateral oocyte retrieval group. However, proportion of patients with an embryo transfer of at least one top-quality embryo was found to be comparable between unilateral and bilateral oocyte retrieval. Subsequently, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found to be similar between the groups. The ROC curve analysis revealed (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.86, p=0.001 that retrieved COCs ≥ 5 from single ovary had sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 64.2% for occurrence of a clinical pregnancy. Conclusion. The patients with unilateral oocyte retrieval have reasonable chance of success with IVF. The retrieval of ≥5 COCs from accessible ovary might result in better treatment outcomes among these patients.

  18. A simple eccentric stirred tank mini-bioreactor: mixing characterization and mammalian cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulnes-Abundis, David; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; García-Ulloa, Alfonso; Granados-Pastor, Marisa; Sánchez-Arreola, Pamela B; Murugappan, Gayathree; Alvarez, Mario M

    2013-04-01

    In industrial practice, stirred tank bioreactors are the most common mammalian cell culture platform. However, research and screening protocols at the laboratory scale (i.e., 5-100 mL) rely primarily on Petri dishes, culture bottles, or Erlenmeyer flasks. There is a clear need for simple-easy to assemble, easy to use, easy to clean-cell culture mini-bioreactors for lab-scale and/or screening applications. Here, we study the mixing performance and culture adequacy of a 30 mL eccentric stirred tank mini-bioreactor. A detailed mixing characterization of the proposed bioreactor is presented. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are used to identify the operational conditions required for adequate mixing. Mammalian cell culture experiments were conducted with two different cell models. The specific growth rate and the maximum cell density of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures grown in the mini-bioreactor were comparable to those observed for 6-well culture plates, Erlenmeyer flasks, and 1 L fully instrumented bioreactors. Human hematopoietic stem cells were successfully expanded tenfold in suspension conditions using the eccentric mini-bioreactor system. Our results demonstrate good mixing performance and suggest the practicality and adequacy of the proposed mini-bioreactor.

  19. Geosmin induces genomic instability in the mammalian cell microplate-based comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline Flor; Lehmann, Mauricio; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    Geosmin (GEO) (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol) is a metabolite that renders earthy and musty taste and odor to water. Data of GEO genotoxicity on mammalian cells are scarce in the literature. Thus, the present study assessed the genotoxicity of GEO on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in the microplate-based comet assay. The percent of tail DNA (tail intensity (TI)), tail moment (TM), and tail length (TL) were used as parameters for DNA damage assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of GEO of 30 and 60 μg/mL were genotoxic to CHO cells after 4- and 24-h exposure periods, in all parameters evaluated, such as TI, TM, and TL. Additionally, GEO 15 μg/mL was genotoxic in the three parameters only in the 24-h exposure time. The same was observed for GEO 7.5 μg/mL, which induced significant DNA damage observed as TI in the 24-h treatment. The results present evidence that exposure to GEO may be associated with genomic instability in mammalian cells.

  20. Mitomycin resistance in mammalian cells expressing the bacterial mitomycin C resistance protein MCRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcourt, M F; Penketh, P G; Hodnick, W F; Johnson, D A; Sherman, D H; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1999-08-31

    The mitomycin C-resistance gene, mcrA, of Streptomyces lavendulae produces MCRA, a protein that protects this microorganism from its own antibiotic, the antitumor drug mitomycin C. Expression of the bacterial mcrA gene in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells causes profound resistance to mitomycin C and to its structurally related analog porfiromycin under aerobic conditions but produces little change in drug sensitivity under hypoxia. The mitomycins are prodrugs that are enzymatically reduced and activated intracellularly, producing cytotoxic semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone reduction intermediates. In vitro, MCRA protects DNA from cross-linking by the hydroquinone reduction intermediate of these mitomycins by oxidizing the hydroquinone back to the parent molecule; thus, MCRA acts as a hydroquinone oxidase. These findings suggest potential therapeutic applications for MCRA in the treatment of cancer with the mitomycins and imply that intrinsic or selected mitomycin C resistance in mammalian cells may not be due solely to decreased bioactivation, as has been hypothesized previously, but instead could involve an MCRA-like mechanism. PMID:10468636

  1. The effects of selenium on glutathione peroxidase activity and radioprotection in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The media of representative mammalian cell lines were supplemented with low levels of selenium in the form of sodium selenite in order to investigate the effects of selenium on mammalian cells. Following incubation in 30 nM sodium selenite, these cells were assayed for changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The cells examined included NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, PC12 rat sympathetic precursor cells, SupT-1 human lymphocytes, MCF-7adr human breast carcinoma cells and AA8 Chinese hamster ovary cells. Selenium supplementation resulted in a marginal increase in GPx activity for the NIH 3T3, MCF-7adr and Supt-1 cells but stimulated GPx activity approximately 5-fold in PC12 and AA8 cells. AA8 cells were selected to evaluate whether selenium supplementation was radioprotective against 60cobalt gamma irradiation. Protection against radiation-induced mutation was measured by evaluating mutation frequency at the hprt locus. In this assay, preincubation of AA8 CHO cells significantly protected these cells from exposure to 8 Gy

  2. Prevalence of Elevated Glycated Hemoglobin Concentrations in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Anthropometrical and Metabolic Relationship in Amazonian Women

    OpenAIRE

    de Medeiros, Sebastiao Freitas; Yamamoto, Marcia Marly Winck; Bueno, Herica Bernardes; Belizario, Danilla; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to examine its relationship with other carbohydrate metabolic parameter among Brazilian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods A cross-sectional study including 288 PCOS patients was conducted. Anthropometrical, clinical, biochemical and endocrine parameters were evaluated. Results The mean age was 26.92 ± 5.51 years. HbA1c mean concentration was 5.83±1.34%. In 38.54% of patients, HbA1c was ≥ 5.7%...

  3. The Association of a Mediterranean-Style Diet Pattern with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Status in a Community Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Lisa J.; Grieger, Jessica A; Mishra, Gita D; Teede, Helena J.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in reproductive-aged women. While lifestyle management is first-line treatment in PCOS, the dietary intake of women with PCOS is unclear and there is no research assessing dietary patterns of women with and without PCOS. The aim of this study was to examine dietary patterns in a large cohort of women with and without PCOS. Data were from 7569 participants in the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health popul...

  4. Primary angiosarcoma of the ovary with prominent fibrosis of the ovarian stroma. Case report of an 81-year old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webersinke Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary angiosarcoma of the ovary (AS is a rare entity with only 31 reported cases. The majority are pure angiosarcomas, the remainder are associated either with teratomas or conventional epithelial tumors. More than 50% of ovarian AS are disseminated at the time of diagnosis, the minority is detected in stage I. The prognosis of ovarian angiosarcoma in general is poor. Most reports refer to younger individuals, aged from 7 to 46 years, and only 2 case reports could be found for patients older than 64 years. Here we present a very unusual case of angiosarcoma in a 81-year-old patient.

  5. Adiponectin and Its Receptors in the Ovary: Further Evidence for a Link between Obesity and Hyperandrogenism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio V Comim; Kate Hardy; Stephen Franks

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the exp...

  6. Serum lipid profile in non-polycystic ovary syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome women: a comparative and correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Nimish R. Halasawadekar; Jaiprakash B Ramanand; Ramanand, Sunita J.; Girish T. Raparti; Praveenkumar T. Patil; Ruchi D. Shah; Arvind V. Kumbhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in addition to impaired ovulation, also affects metabolic pathways. Dyslipidemia, occurring in PCOS women leads to cardiovascular diseases in them. The purpose of the present study was to compare lipid profile and its correlation with biochemical and hormonal parameters in PCOS and non PCOS women, to analyse the correlation of lipid profile with hirsutism and body mass index (BMI) in PCOS women. Methods: The present study includes 68 women divi...

  7. Telomerase and the aging process

    OpenAIRE

    Hornsby, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The level of telomerase activity is important in determining telomere length in aging cells and tissues. Here evidence on the importance of telomerase activity is reviewed with respect to aging rates of mammalian species and the health and life span of individuals within a species. The significance of telomerase reactivation for both cancer development and for immortalizing cells for therapeutic processes is assessed.

  8. Wnt signalling pathway parameters for mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wee Tan

    Full Text Available Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates cell fate, survival, proliferation and differentiation at many stages of mammalian development and pathology. Mutations of two key proteins in the pathway, APC and β-catenin, have been implicated in a range of cancers, including colorectal cancer. Activation of Wnt signalling has been associated with the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and consequential up-regulation of β-catenin/TCF gene transcription. In 2003, Lee et al. constructed a computational model of Wnt signalling supported by experimental data from analysis of time-dependent concentration of Wnt signalling proteins in Xenopus egg extracts. Subsequent studies have used the Xenopus quantitative data to infer Wnt pathway dynamics in other systems. As a basis for understanding Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, a confocal live cell imaging measurement technique is developed to measure the cell and nuclear volumes of MDCK, HEK293T cells and 3 human colorectal cancer cell lines and the concentrations of Wnt signalling proteins β-catenin, Axin, APC, GSK3β and E-cadherin. These parameters provide the basis for formulating Wnt signalling models for kidney/intestinal epithelial mammalian cells. There are significant differences in concentrations of key proteins between Xenopus extracts and mammalian whole cell lysates. Higher concentrations of Axin and lower concentrations of APC are present in mammalian cells. Axin concentrations are greater than APC in kidney epithelial cells, whereas in intestinal epithelial cells the APC concentration is higher than Axin. Computational simulations based on Lee's model, with this new data, suggest a need for a recalibration of the model.A quantitative understanding of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, in particular human colorectal cancers requires a detailed understanding of the concentrations of key protein complexes over time. Simulations of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells can be initiated

  9. Cardiometabolic Effects of Chronic Hyperandrogenemia in a New Model of Postmenopausal Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Carolina; Maranon, Rodrigo; Patil, Chetan; Bui, Elizabeth; Moulana, Mohadetheh; Zhang, Howei; Smith, Andrew; Yanes Cardozo, Licy L; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-07-01

    Postmenopausal women who have had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and chronic hyperandrogenemia may be at a greater risk for cardiovascular disease than normoandrogenemic postmenopausal women. The cardiometabolic effect of chronic hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS after menopause is unclear. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that chronic hyperandrogenemia in aging female rats would have more deleterious effects on metabolic function, blood pressure, and renal function than in normoandrogenemic age-matched females. Female Sprague Dawley were implanted continuously, beginning at 4-5 weeks, with dihydrotestosterone (postmenopausal hyperandrogenemic female [PMHAF]) or placebo pellets (controls), and were studied at 13 months of age. Plasma DHT was 3-fold higher, and estradiol was 90% lower in PMHAF than controls. Body weights were higher; EchoMRI showed greater fat and lean mass; and computed tomography showed more sc and visceral adiposity in PMHAF, but with similar femur length compared with controls. Insulin resistance was present in PMHAF with higher plasma insulin, normal fasting blood glucose, abnormal oral glucose tolerance test, and higher nonfasting blood glucose. Blood pressure (radiotelemetry) was significantly higher and heart rate was lower, and renal function (glomerular filtration rate) was reduced by 40% in PMHAF. Thus the aging chronically hyperandrogenemic female rat is a new model of postmenopausal PCOS, which exhibits insulin resistance and visceral obesity, hypertension, and impairment in renal function. This new model provides a unique tool to study the deleterious effects of chronic androgen excess in postmenopausal females rats. PMID:27145003

  10. Mammalian Cell-Based Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Franz, Briana; Bhunia, Arun K.

    Use of living cells or cellular components in biosensors is receiving increased attention and opens a whole new area of functional diagnostics. The term "mammalian cell-based biosensor" is designated to biosensors utilizing mammalian cells as the biorecognition element. Cell-based assays, such as high-throughput screening (HTS) or cytotoxicity testing, have already emerged as dependable and promising approaches to measure the functionality or toxicity of a compound (in case of HTS); or to probe the presence of pathogenic or toxigenic entities in clinical, environmental, or food samples. External stimuli or changes in cellular microenvironment sometimes perturb the "normal" physiological activities of mammalian cells, thus allowing CBBs to screen, monitor, and measure the analyte-induced changes. The advantage of CBBs is that they can report the presence or absence of active components, such as live pathogens or active toxins. In some cases, mammalian cells or plasma membranes are used as electrical capacitors and cell-cell and cell-substrate contact is measured via conductivity or electrical impedance. In addition, cytopathogenicity or cytotoxicity induced by pathogens or toxins resulting in apoptosis or necrosis could be measured via optical devices using fluorescence or luminescence. This chapter focuses mainly on the type and applications of different mammalian cell-based sensor systems.

  11. A Comparative Study of Mammalian Diversification Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Yu, Junxiao Xu, Yi Wu, Guang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mammals have long been regarded as a successful radiation, the diversification pattern among the clades is still poorly known. Higher-level phylogenies are conflicting and comprehensive comparative analyses are still lacking. Using a recently published supermatrix encompassing nearly all extant mammalian families and a novel comparative likelihood approach (MEDUSA, the diversification pattern of mammalian groups was examined. Both order- and family-level phylogenetic analyses revealed the rapid radiation of Boreoeutheria and Euaustralidelphia in the early mammalian history. The observation of a diversification burst within Boreoeutheria at approximately 100 My supports the Long Fuse model in elucidating placental diversification progress, and the rapid radiation of Euaustralidelphia suggests an important role of biogeographic dispersal events in triggering early Australian marsupial rapid radiation. Diversification analyses based on family-level diversity tree revealed seven additional clades with exceptional diversification rate shifts, six of which represent accelerations in net diversification rate as compared to the background pattern. The shifts gave origin to the clades Muridae+Cricetidae, Bovidae+Moschidae+Cervidae, Simiiformes, Echimyidae, Odontoceti (excluding Physeteridae+Kogiidae+Platanistidae, Macropodidae, and Vespertilionidae. Moderate to high extinction rates from background and boreoeutherian diversification patterns indicate the important role of turnovers in shaping the heterogeneous taxonomic richness observed among extant mammalian groups. Furthermore, the present results emphasize the key role of extinction on erasing unusual diversification signals, and suggest that further studies are needed to clarify the historical radiation of some mammalian groups for which MEDUSA did not detect exceptional diversification rates.

  12. 40 CFR 798.5395 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mammalian species may be used. (ii) Age. Young adult animals shall be used. (iii) Number and sex. At least... frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow of treated animals. (b) Definition... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall...

  13. Effects of tanshinone on hyperandrogenism and the quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yuehui; Li, Wei; Cong, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Ng, Ernest H.Y.; Wu, XiaoKe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in reproductive-age women. Chinese herbal medicine has been used for the treatment of PCOS, but the evidence for its efficacy and safety is minimal. Tanshinones are a class of bioactive molecules isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a commonly used herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of tanshinones on hyperandrogenism and quality of life in women with PCOS who d...

  14. Gender differences in transcriptional signature of developing rat testes and ovaries following embryonic exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Magre

    Full Text Available Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants interfering with endocrine systems and causing reproductive and developmental disorders. The objective of our project was to determine the impact of an in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD on reproductive function of male and female offspring in the rat with a special emphasis on the immature period. We used a low dose of TCDD (unique exposure by oral gavage of 200 ng/kg at 15.5 days of gestation in order to mirror a response to an environmental dose of TCDD not altering fertility of the progeny. We choose a global gene expression approach using Affymetrix microarray analysis, and testes of 5 days and ovaries of 14 days of age. Less than 1% of the expressed genes in gonads were altered following embryonic TCDD exposure; specifically, 113 genes in ovaries and 56 in testes with 7 genes common to both sex gonads. It included the repressor of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahrr, the chemokines Ccl5 and Cxcl4 previously shown to be regulated by dioxin in testis, Pgds2/Hpgds and 3 others uncharacterized. To validate and extend the microarray data we realized real-time PCR on gonads at various developmental periods of interest (from 3 to 25 days for ovaries, from 5 to the adult age for testes. Overall, our results evidenced that both sex gonads responded differently to TCDD exposure. For example, we observed induction of the canonic battery of TCDD-induced genes coding enzymes of the detoxifying machinery in ovaries aged of 3-14 days of age (except Cyp1a1 induced at 3-10 days but not in testes of 5 days (except Ahrr. We also illustrated that inflammatory pathway is one pathway activated by TCDD in gonads. Finally, we identified several new genes targeted by TCDD including Fgf13 in testis and one gene, Ptgds2/Hpgds regulated in the two sex gonads.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells: towards a bioengineered heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jong Youn; Gasimli, Leyla; Yang, Bo; Datta, Payel; Zhang, Fuming; Glass, Charles A; Esko, Jeffrey D; Linhardt, Robert J; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2012-03-01

    Heparin is the most widely used pharmaceutical to control blood coagulation in modern medicine. A health crisis that took place in 2008 led to a demand for production of heparin from non-animal sources. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, commonly used mammalian host cells for production of foreign pharmaceutical proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, are capable of producing heparan sulfate (HS), a related polysaccharide naturally. Since heparin and HS share the same biosynthetic pathway, we hypothesized that heparin could be produced in CHO cells by metabolic engineering. Based on the expression of endogenous enzymes in the HS/heparin pathways of CHO-S cells, human N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST2) and mouse heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 1 (Hs3st1) genes were transfected sequentially into CHO host cells growing in suspension culture. Transfectants were screened using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Out of 120 clones expressing NDST2 and Hs3st1, 2 clones, Dual-3 and Dual-29, were selected for further analysis. An antithrombin III (ATIII) binding assay using flow cytometry, designed to recognize a key sugar structure characteristic of heparin, indicated that Hs3st1 transfection was capable of increasing ATIII binding. An anti-factor Xa assay, which affords a measure of anticoagulant activity, showed a significant increase in activity in the dual-expressing cell lines. Disaccharide analysis of the engineered HS showed a substantial increase in N-sulfo groups, but did not show a pattern consistent with pharmacological heparin, suggesting that further balancing the expression of transgenes with the expression levels of endogenous enzymes involved in HS/heparin biosynthesis might be necessary. PMID:22326251

  16. BMP15 Prevents Cumulus Cell Apoptosis Through CCL2 and FBN1 in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15 is a maternal gene necessary for mammalian reproduction. BMP15 expression increased in oocytes accompanied by follicle growth and development. The function and regulation mechanism of BMP15 in porcine cumulus cell apoptosis process is still unclear now. Methods: In this study, flow cytometry (FCM was used to analyze the effects of BMP15 with different concentrations to cumulus cell apoptosis. High-throughput sequencing technology was carried out to screen regulatory genes linked closely with BMP15. In order to confirm the function of (MCP-1/CCL2 and FBN1 in cumulus cell apoptosis, RNA interference (RNAi method was used to inhibit the expression of (MCP-1/CCL2 and FBN1. Apoptosis and proliferation of cumulus cell treated with siRNA transfection technology were measured by FCM, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, quantitative real time-PCR (RT-qPCR and western blotting. Results: The results showed that the apoptosis levels of cumulus cell treated by BMP15 decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of related genes protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2 and fibrillin1 (FBN1 were both regulated by BMP15. After transfection, the proliferation of porcine cumulus cells increased significantly and apoptosis of cumulus cells was prevented while FBN1 was silenced after BMP15 treatment. The proliferation of cumulus cells decreased significantly and apoptosis rate of cumulus cells increased significantly while CCL2 was silenced. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study firstly demonstrated that CCL2 and FBN1 are important regulatory factors of BMP15 in preventing cumulus cell apoptosis in porcine ovaries.

  17. Efficacy and safety of metformin or oral contraceptives, or both in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang YM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Young-Mo Yang, Eun Joo Choi College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated. This study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or their combination in the treatment of PCOS and to define their specific individual roles.Methods: A literature search of original studies published in PubMed and Scopus was conducted to identify studies comparing metformin with oral contraceptives or evaluating the combination of both in PCOS.  Results: Eight clinical trials involving 313 patients were examined in the review. The intervention dosage of metformin ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/d and that of oral contraceptives was ethinylestradiol 35 µg and cyproterone acetate 2 mg. Lower body mass index was observed with regimens including metformin, but increased body mass index was observed in monotherapy with oral contraceptives. Administration of metformin or oral contraceptives, especially as monotherapy, had a negative effect on lipid profiles. In addition, there are still uncertainties surrounding the effects of metformin or oral contraceptives in the management of insulin level, although they improved total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In the included studies, significant side effects due to metformin or oral contraceptives were not reported.  Conclusion: The clinical trials suggest that metformin or oral

  18. Morphology and function of cryopreserved whole ovine ovaries after heterotopic autotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to perform complex characterization of cryopreserved and then autotransplanted ovaries including determination of the ability to respond to in vivo follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-treatment, fertilizability of retrieved oocytes, and morphology, vascularization, cellular proliferation and apoptosis in sheep. Methods Mature crossbred ewes were divided into two groups; an intact (control group (n = 4, and autotransplanted group (n = 4 in which oophorectomy was performed laparoscopically and ovaries with intact vascular pedicles frozen, thawed and transplanted back into the same animal at a different site. Approximately five months after autotransplantation, estrus was synchronized, ewes were treated with FSH, and ovaries were collected. For all ovaries, number of visible follicles was determined, and collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COC were matured and fertilized in vitro. Remaining ovarian tissues were fixed for evaluation of morphology, expression of factor VIII (marker of endothelial cells, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; expressed by pericytes and smooth muscle cells, and smooth muscle cell actin (SMCA; marker of pericytes and smooth muscle cells, and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Two fully functional ovaries were collected from each control ewe (total 8 ovaries. Results Out of eight autotransplanted ovaries, a total of two ovaries with developing follicles were found. Control ewes had 10.6 +/- 2.7 follicles/ovary, oocytes were in vitro fertilized and developed to the blastocyst stage. One autotransplanted ewe had 4 visible follicles from which 3 COC were collected, but none of them was fertilized. The morphology of autotransplanted and control ovaries was similar. In control and autotransplanted ovaries, primordial, primary, secondary, antral and preovulatory follicles were found along with fully functional vascularization which was manifested by expression of factor

  19. Ovary Apical Abortion under Water Deficit Is Caused by Changes in Sequential Development of Ovaries and in Silk Growth Rate in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oury, Vincent; Tardieu, François; Turc, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Grain abortion allows the production of at least a few viable seeds under water deficit but causes major yield loss. It is maximum for water deficits occurring during flowering in maize (Zea mays). We have tested the hypothesis that abortion is linked to the differential development of ovary cohorts along the ear and to the timing of silk emergence. Ovary volume and silk growth were followed over 25 to 30 d under four levels of water deficit and in four hybrids in two experiments. A position-time model allowed characterizing the development of ovary cohorts and their silk emergence. Silk growth rate decreased in water deficit and stopped 2 to 3 d after first silk emergence, simultaneously for all ovary cohorts, versus 7 to 8 d in well-watered plants. Abortion rate in different treatments and positions on the ear was not associated with ovary growth rate. It was accounted for by the superposition of (1) the sequential emergence of silks originating from ovaries of different cohorts along the ear with (2) one event occurring on a single day, the simultaneous silk growth arrest. Abortion occurred in the youngest ovaries whose silks did not emerge 2 d before silk arrest. This mechanism accounted for more than 90% of drought-related abortion in our experiments. It resembles the control of abortion in a large range of species and inflorescence architectures. This finding has large consequences for breeding drought-tolerant maize and for modeling grain yields in water deficit.

  20. Ovary Apical Abortion under Water Deficit Is Caused by Changes in Sequential Development of Ovaries and in Silk Growth Rate in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oury, Vincent; Tardieu, François; Turc, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Grain abortion allows the production of at least a few viable seeds under water deficit but causes major yield loss. It is maximum for water deficits occurring during flowering in maize (Zea mays). We have tested the hypothesis that abortion is linked to the differential development of ovary cohorts along the ear and to the timing of silk emergence. Ovary volume and silk growth were followed over 25 to 30 d under four levels of water deficit and in four hybrids in two experiments. A position-time model allowed characterizing the development of ovary cohorts and their silk emergence. Silk growth rate decreased in water deficit and stopped 2 to 3 d after first silk emergence, simultaneously for all ovary cohorts, versus 7 to 8 d in well-watered plants. Abortion rate in different treatments and positions on the ear was not associated with ovary growth rate. It was accounted for by the superposition of (1) the sequential emergence of silks originating from ovaries of different cohorts along the ear with (2) one event occurring on a single day, the simultaneous silk growth arrest. Abortion occurred in the youngest ovaries whose silks did not emerge 2 d before silk arrest. This mechanism accounted for more than 90% of drought-related abortion in our experiments. It resembles the control of abortion in a large range of species and inflorescence architectures. This finding has large consequences for breeding drought-tolerant maize and for modeling grain yields in water deficit. PMID:26598464

  1. Enhancer evolution across 20 mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villar, Diego; Berthelot, Camille; Aldridge, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian radiation has corresponded with rapid changes in noncoding regions of the genome, but we lack a comprehensive understanding of regulatory evolution in mammals. Here, we track the evolution of promoters and enhancers active in liver across 20 mammalian species from six diverse orders...... by profiling genomic enrichment of H3K27 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation. We report that rapid evolution of enhancers is a universal feature of mammalian genomes. Most of the recently evolved enhancers arise from ancestral DNA exaptation, rather than lineage-specific expansions of repeat elements....... In contrast, almost all liver promoters are partially or fully conserved across these species. Our data further reveal that recently evolved enhancers can be associated with genes under positive selection, demonstrating the power of this approach for annotating regulatory adaptations in genomic sequences...

  2. Chromosomal redistribution of male-biased genes in mammalian evolution with two bursts of gene gain on the X chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong E Zhang

    Full Text Available Mammalian X chromosomes evolved under various mechanisms including sexual antagonism, the faster-X process, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. These forces may contribute to nonrandom chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes. In order to understand the evolution of gene content on the X chromosome and autosome under these forces, we dated human and mouse protein-coding genes and miRNA genes on the vertebrate phylogenetic tree. We found that the X chromosome recently acquired a burst of young male-biased genes, which is consistent with fixation of recessive male-beneficial alleles by sexual antagonism. For genes originating earlier, however, this pattern diminishes and finally reverses with an overrepresentation of the oldest male-biased genes on autosomes. MSCI contributes to this dynamic since it silences X-linked old genes but not X-linked young genes. This demasculinization process seems to be associated with feminization of the X chromosome with more X-linked old genes expressed in ovaries. Moreover, we detected another burst of gene originations after the split of eutherian mammals and opossum, and these genes were quickly incorporated into transcriptional networks of multiple tissues. Preexisting X-linked genes also show significantly higher protein-level evolution during this period compared to autosomal genes, suggesting positive selection accompanied the early evolution of mammalian X chromosomes. These two findings cast new light on the evolutionary history of the mammalian X chromosome in terms of gene gain, sequence, and expressional evolution.

  3. Investigating Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Based on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome phenotypes in the 18-14 year Old High School Girls in Shiraz 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Dabbaghmaneh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In patients with polycystic ovary syndrome hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia may represent an increased risk for coronary cardiovascular disease .This study aimed to investigate risk factors for cardiovascular disease based on polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes in Shiraz. Methods: This Cross-sectional study was performed on 3200 students aged 18-14. Demographic survey, clinical signs of androgen excess (acne, hirsutism, alopecia, Ultrasound were applied in order to find the cyst. Tests included prolactin, dehydroepiandrodion sulfate, and oral glucose tolerance test, fasting blood glucose, blood sugar two hours later, triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein. Data were submitted to SPSS software, version 11.5 and then analyzed by chi-square tests. Results: The serum cholesterol mean in four phenotypes had a statistically significant relationship with non-PCOS patients(p<0.05. Mean of serum cholesterol in oligomenorrhea, Hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary phenotype (195.09±30.28 was higher than the other phenotypes. Mean of serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein(LDL-C were significantly higher in patients with Hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovarian phenotype(130.046±26.27 and oligomenorrhea, Hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype(138.58±28.34 compared with non-infected individuals. Serum glucose mean in all phenotype was higher than non-infected after two hours and it showed a significant relation in oligomenorrhea and also polycystic ovarian phenotype(98.03 ± 20.98 versus 87.5±12.97 with non-infected individuals. Conclusion: Biochemical factors that lead to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases is increased in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Therefore, it should be attended in prevention programs

  4. Autofluorescence of viable cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, J E

    1979-01-01

    The autofluorescence other than intrinsic protein emission of viable cultured mammalian cells has been investigated. The fluorescence was found to originate in discrete cytoplasmic vesicle-like regions and to be absent from the nucleus. Excitation and emission spectra of viable cells revealed at least two distinct fluorescent species. Comparison of cell spectra with spectra of known cellular metabolites suggested that most, if not all, of the fluorescence arises from intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and riboflavin and flavin coenzymes. Various changes in culture conditions did not affect the observed autofluorescence intensity. A multiparameter flow system (MACCS) was used to compare the fluorescence intensities of numerous cultured mammalian cells.

  5. Endometriosis coexisting with dermoid cyst in a single ovary: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tsai-chuan; KUO Hsu-tung; SHYU Shin-kuo; CHU Chih-ping; CHANG Tien-chang

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis coexisting with a dermoid cyst of the ovary is extraordinarily rare, although these both benign conditions are said to be common in women in the reproductive age group. There are only two previous case reports, which is evident from our literature review from January 1960 through January 2010. Acute abdomen is one of the greatest diagnostic challenges and easily ignored by the clinicians to exclude the possibility of gynecologic illness. A 35-year-old woman was referred by the doctor in Family clinic. She experienced a three-day period of severe right lower abdominal pain and intermittent vomiting. Ultrasonography identified a bilocular, cystic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic tumor, 7 cm×6 cm×6 cm in the right adnexal region. Laparoscopic cystectomy was performed under the impression of ovarian cyst with torsion or hemorrhage. The frozen section was benign and appendiceal status was adequate. Histopathologic examination described an ovarian cyst composed of endometrial-type lining with stroma cells (endometriosis) and benign terotoma tissue with plenty of skin appendages and sebaceous glands. We report this unusual and interesting ovarian mass to remind physicians that the usage of the Endobag after cystectomy, the benefits on minimizing operative time, spilled opportunity, and postoperative complications. Laparoscopic techniques for large ovarian masses might be considered. The experience of the surgeon is also very important to prevent misdiagnosis or complication. Further follow up is mandatory for this simultaneous finding of ovarian endometriosis with coincidental dermoid cyst as a separate pathology in single ovary of such a nature. It also presents a challenge to the clinicians and to the pathologists.

  6. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirmans SM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Sirmans, Kristen A PateDepartment of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome

  7. Low aneuploidy rate in early pregnancy loss abortuses from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Luo, Lu; Lei, Qiong; Lin, Ming-Mei; Huang, Xuan; Chen, Ming-Hui; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Zhou, Can-Quan

    2016-07-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine whether chromosome aneuploidy increases the risk of early spontaneous abortions in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 1461 patients who conceived after IVF and embryo transfer were followed; 100 patients who had experienced clinical spontaneous abortion were recruited, 32 with PCOS and 68 without PCOS. Before 2013, genetic analysis comprised conventional cultured villus chromosome karyotyping and a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification subtelomere assay combined with fluorescence in-situ hybridization; since 2013, array-based comparative genomic hybridization technique combined with chromosome karyotyping has been used. Age, BMI, pregnancy history, gestational age and total gonadotrophin dosage did not differ significantly between the PCOS and non-PCOS groups. In the PCOS group, 28.1% of abortuses demonstrated aneuploidy, which was significantly lower (P = 0.001) than in the non-PCOS group (72.1%). Further statistical analyses controlling for maternal age demonstrated that abortuses of women with PCOS were significantly less (P = 0.001) likely to have chromosome aneuploidy. Embryonic aneuploidy does not play a vital role in early spontaneous abortion in women with PCOS. Maternal factors resulting in endometrial disorders are more likely to be responsible for the increased risk of early spontaneous abortion in patients with PCOS. PMID:27157933

  8. Acupuncture Treatment for 26 Cases of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 张玉洁; 吴富东; 卢岩; 黄国琪

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a commonly encountered disease in fertile women, clinically manifested by polymorphous comprehensive symptoms such as irregular menstruation, infertility,polytrichosis and obesity, and manifested by high levels of androgen, and no ovulation constantly shown by monophasic basal body temperature (BBT).The therapeutic methods are medication for promoting ovulation and surgery, but, even certain therapeutic effect can be achieved, there is certain side effect and high cost. The author had treated 26 cases of PCOS by acupuncture. Now, the report is given in the following.

  9. Glucose intolerance states in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A

    2013-09-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common hyperandrogenic disorder affecting 4-7% of women, is often associated with metabolic alterations, chiefly insulin resistance and obesity. Based on available scientific evidence, PCOS should be regarded as an independent risk for the development of glucose intolerance states. This short review summarizes the available literature on the prevalence and incidence of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes in this disorder. In addition, some insights on potential factors responsible for individual susceptibility are discussed. Targeted intervention studies focused on prevention and treatment of glucose intolerance states in PCOS are warranted.

  10. Methods for modeling chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    for identifying a CHO cell line having a desired genetic trait, as well as for generating a desired CHO cell line having a genetic basis for a desired phenotype. Additionally, described herein are methods for constructing and analyzing in silico models of biological networks for CHO cells.......Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods...

  11. TREATMENT OF METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners. PMID:27483702

  12. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Over the past several years, the field of reproductive medicine has witnessed great advances in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), leading to identification of several promising genes involved in hormone action, type 2 diabetes, and cell proliferation. This review summarizes the key findings and discusses their potential implications with regard to genetic mechanisms of PCOS. Limitations of GWAS are evaluated, emphasizing the understanding of the reasons for variability in results between individual studies. Root causes of misinterpretations of GWASs are also addressed. Finally, the impact of GWAS on future directions of multi- and interdisciplinary studies is discussed. PMID:27513023

  13. Obesity, body composition and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in women with PCOS. METHODS: In 35 women with PCOS (17 lean, lean PCOS and 18 obese, obese PCOS) and 25 control women (9 lean, lean controls and 16 obese...... was used for the assessment of glucose and lipid oxidation. Body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. RESULTS: When adjusted for obesity, PCOS was associated with higher 2-h glucose levels (P ...-stimulated glucose oxidation (GOX 2) (P PCOS had lower ISI (P PCOS, ISI...

  14. Local Interaction Between the Ovary, Fallopian Tube and Uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Einer-Jcnsen

    1992-01-01

    Counter current transfer of prostaglandins, inert gasses, steroid-and peptidehormones has been found between the utero-ovarian veins and the ovarian artery in man and several animal species, The substance transferred will, via the ovarian arterial blood, reach the ovary, tube and, in some speeies, the proximat part of the uterus in theipsifateralside Transfer has also been found.from the caudal uterine vein blood to the ipsilateral uterine artery. Preliminary results further indicate that local transfer cantake place of substances deposit ed in t he vaginal lumen.

  15. Thiazolidinediones and Fertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Froment

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent cause of female infertility. The treatment of PCOS patients with insulin sensitizers, such as metformin or thiazolidinediones, increases the ovulation rate and the number of successful pregnancies. The positive action of the insulin-sensitizing treatments could be explained by a decrease in the peripheral insulin resistance but also by a direct action at the ovarian level. We report in this review different hypotheses of thiazolidinediones actions to improve PCOS (steroid secretion by ovarian cells ; insulin sensitivity in muscle and adipocyte and fat redistribution.

  16. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample of Iranian population: Iranian PCOS prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the heavy burden and impact of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in reproduction and public health, estimates regarding its prevalence at community levels are limited. We aimed to ascertain prevalence of PCOS in a community based sample using the National Institute of Health (NIH, the Rotterdam consensus (Rott. and the Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method, 1126 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. PCOS were diagnosed using universal assessment of ultrasonographic parameters, hormonal profiles and clinical histories. Results The mean +/- SD of age of study population was 34.4 +/- 7.6 years. Estimated prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9-12.9%; 8.3% of women had only oligo/anovulation and 8.0% had only polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS was 7.1% (95% CI: 5.4-8.8% using the NIH definition, 11.7% (95% CI: 9.5-13.7% by AES criteria and 14.6% (95% CI: 12.3-16.9% using the Rott definition. Conclusions At community level, widespread screening of Rotterdam criteria will increase the estimated prevalence of PCOS over twofold. Establishing an explicit and contemporaneous method for definition and screening of each PCOS criteria has important investigational implications and increase the comparability of published research.

  17. Increased risk of preterm delivery and pre-eclampsia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperandrogenaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Grinsted, J; Larsen, S O;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to examine the role of hyperandrogenaemia. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Singleton pregnancies in women with PCOS identified at a private fertility clinic during 1997-2010 and a backgro......OBJECTIVE: To study the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to examine the role of hyperandrogenaemia. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Singleton pregnancies in women with PCOS identified at a private fertility clinic during 1997......-2010 and a background population including all singleton deliveries at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, in 2005. POPULATION: A cohort of 459 women with PCOS and a background population of 5409 women. METHODS: Obstetric outcomes were extracted from national Danish registries and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by multiple...... logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, parity, and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age offspring in the entire PCOS population and in a subsample with hyperandrogenaemia. RESULTS: Women with PCOS had an increased risk...

  18. Molecular evolution of mammalian ribonucleases 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, J.Y; Ursing, B.M.; Kolkman, J.A.; Beintema, J.J

    2003-01-01

    There have been many studies on the chemistry of mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases (ribonucleases 1), but the functional biology of this family of homologous proteins is still largely unknown. Many studies have been performed on the molecular evolution and properties of this enzyme from species bel

  19. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R

    2014-03-26

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  20. Cholesterol, the central lipid of mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxfield, F. R.; van Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite its importance for mammalian cell biology and human health, there are many basic aspects of cholesterol homeostasis that are not well understood. Even for the well-characterized delivery of cholesterol to cells via lipoproteins, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered recently, invo

  1. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  2. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, Gisela K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  3. Archetype, adaptation and the mammalian heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Meijler, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, we started our quest for 'The Holy Grail' of understanding ventricular rate control and rhythm in atrial fibrillation (AF). We therefore studied the morphology and function of a wide range of mammalian hearts. From mouse to whale, we found that all hearts show similar structural and

  4. Effects of jnk inhibitor on inflammation and fibrosis in the ovary tissue of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Gulay; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Dönmez, Yeliz Bozdemir; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Erten, Remzi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125) on fibrosis and inflammation in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Method: 50 Wistar-albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each): control group, sham group, PCOS group, SP600125+ PCOS group and SP600125 group. In the estradiol valerate (EV)-treated group in which PCOS was injected with a single 4 mg/kg i.p. of EV in 0.2 ml sesame oil and the rats were sacrificed on day...

  5. Life in the cold: links between mammalian hibernation and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The biological process of aging is the primary determinant of lifespan, but the factors that influence the rate of aging are not yet clearly understood and remain a challenging question. Mammals are characterized by >100-fold differences in maximal lifespan, influenced by relative variances in body mass and metabolic rate. Recent discoveries have identified long-lived mammalian species that deviate from the expected longevity quotient. A commonality among many long-lived species is the capacity to undergo metabolic rate depression, effectively re-programming normal metabolism in response to extreme environmental stress and enter states of torpor or hibernation. This stress tolerant phenotype often involves a reduction in overall metabolic rate to just 1-5% of the normal basal rate as well as activation of cytoprotective responses. At the cellular level, major energy savings are achieved via coordinated suppression of many ATP-expensive cell functions; e.g. global rates of protein synthesis are strongly reduced via inhibition of the insulin signaling axis. At the same time, various studies have shown activation of stress survival signaling during hibernation including up-regulation of protein chaperones, increased antioxidant defenses, and transcriptional activation of pro-survival signaling such as the FOXO and p53 pathways. Many similarities and parallels exist between hibernation phenotypes and different long-lived models, e.g. signal transduction pathways found to be commonly regulated during hibernation are also known to induce lifespan extension in animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we highlight some of the molecular mechanisms that promote longevity in classic aging models C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, while providing a comparative analysis to how they are regulated during mammalian hibernation.

  6. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  7. Late aortic lymphocele and residual ovary syndrome after gynecological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliano Marialetizia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gynecological surgery, as radical hysterectomy or pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomy, accounts for more than 50% of iatrogenic injuries. In premenopausal women, an hysterectomy with ovarian sparing and concomitant lateral ovarian transposition is frequently performed. However, the fate of the retained ovary is complicated by the residual ovarian syndrome (ROS and one of the most common postoperative complications of the lymphadenectomy procedure is the lymphocele, with an average incidence of 22–48.5%. The differential diagnosis of a postoperative fluid collection includes, in addition to a lymphocele, urinoma, hematoma, seroma or abscess and the computed tomography (CT findings alone is not enough. Case presentation We describe a patient, affected by ROS concomitant with a asymptomatic lymphocele, initially confused with an aortic lymph nodes relapse, after abdominal radical hysterectomy. The patient was subjected to a surgical approach, included a diagnostic open laparoscopy and laparotomy with sovraombelico-pubic incision, wide opening of the pelvic peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Examination of the mass revealed, macroscopically, a ovary with multiloculated cystic masses filled with clear or yellow serous fluid and the layers were composed by flat or cuboidal mesothelial cells. Conclusion The tribute of this case illustrates the atypical appearance with uncertain aetiology after complex imaging. Gynecologist and radiologist should acquaint with the appearance of fluid collection (urinoma, lymphocele, seroma, hematoma, abscess in gynecologic oncology follow-up to properly differentiated from tumor recurrence.

  8. MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reproductive women, various physiologic conditions can cause morphologic changes of the ovary, resembling pathologic conditions. Benign ovarian diseases can also simulate malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can play an important role in establishing accurate diagnosis. Functional cysts should not be confused with cystic neoplasms. Corpus luteum cysts typically have a thick wall and are occasionally hemorrhagic. Multicystic lesions that may mimic cystic neoplasms include hyperreactio luteinalis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Recognition of clinical settings can help establish diagnosis. In endometrial cysts, MRI usually provides specific diagnosis; however, decidual change during pregnancy should not be confused with secondary neoplasm. Peritoneal inclusion cysts can be distinguished from cystic neoplasms by recognition of their characteristic configurations. Ovarian torsion and massive ovarian edema may mimic solid malignant tumors. Recognition of normal follicles and anatomic structures is useful in diagnosing these conditions. In pelvic inflammatory diseases, transfascial spread of the lesion should not be confused with invasive malignant tumors. Radiologic identification of abscess formation can be a diagnostic clue. Many benign tumors, including teratoma, Brenner tumor, and sex-cord stromal tumor, frequently show characteristic MRI features. Knowledge of MRI features of these conditions is essential in establishing accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  9. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%-20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%-70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

  10. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes.

  11. MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Ken; Saga, Tsuneo; Kido, Aki; Kataoka, Masako; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Koyama, Takashi [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Fujii, Shingo [Kyoto University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    In reproductive women, various physiologic conditions can cause morphologic changes of the ovary, resembling pathologic conditions. Benign ovarian diseases can also simulate malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can play an important role in establishing accurate diagnosis. Functional cysts should not be confused with cystic neoplasms. Corpus luteum cysts typically have a thick wall and are occasionally hemorrhagic. Multicystic lesions that may mimic cystic neoplasms include hyperreactio luteinalis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Recognition of clinical settings can help establish diagnosis. In endometrial cysts, MRI usually provides specific diagnosis; however, decidual change during pregnancy should not be confused with secondary neoplasm. Peritoneal inclusion cysts can be distinguished from cystic neoplasms by recognition of their characteristic configurations. Ovarian torsion and massive ovarian edema may mimic solid malignant tumors. Recognition of normal follicles and anatomic structures is useful in diagnosing these conditions. In pelvic inflammatory diseases, transfascial spread of the lesion should not be confused with invasive malignant tumors. Radiologic identification of abscess formation can be a diagnostic clue. Many benign tumors, including teratoma, Brenner tumor, and sex-cord stromal tumor, frequently show characteristic MRI features. Knowledge of MRI features of these conditions is essential in establishing accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome: A component of metabolic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1935, Stein and Leventhal first described the polycystic ovary (PCO as a frequent cause of irregular ovulation in women seeking treatment for subfertility. Although the initial management was surgical with wedge resection of ovary, the availability of radioimmunoassay and increased clinical use of ultrasound made it clear that many women had the ultrasound characteristics of PCO with or without the biochemical or clinical features of PCOS and therefore that PCO were not associated with a single syndrome. The association between increased insulin resistance and PCOS is a consistent finding in all ethnic groups. Obesity is a common factor in the majority of women with PCOS. It is postulated that a woman may be genetically predisposed to developing PCOS but it is only the interaction of environmental factors (obesity with the genetic factors that results in the characteristic metabolic and menstrual disturbances. Weight loss, altered diet and exercise have been shown to be effective in the management of PCOS. Importance of early recognition, proper intervention, long-term monitoring and health implications needs more concern.

  13. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-12

    This Conference will examine DNA repair as the key component in genomic surveillance that is so crucial to the overall integrity and function of mammalian cells. Recent discoveries have catapulted the field of DNA repair into a pivotal position for fundamental investigations into oncology, aging, environmental health, and developmental biology. We hope to highlight the most promising and exciting avenues of research in robust discussions at this conference. This Mammalian DNA Repair Gordon Conference differs from the past conferences in this series, in which the programs were broader in scope, with respect to topics and biological systems covered. A conference sponsored by the Genetics Society in April 1998 emphasized recombinational mechanisms for double-strand break repair and the role of mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer. These topics will therefore receive somewhat less emphasis in the upcoming Conference. In view of the recent mechanistic advances in mammalian DNA repair, an upcoming comprehensive DNA repair meeting next autumn at Hilton Head; and the limited enrollment for Gordon Conferences we have decided to focus session-by-session on particular areas of controversy and/or new developments specifically in mammalian systems. Thus, the principal presentations will draw upon results from other cellular systems only to the extent that they impact our understanding of mammalian DNA repair.

  14. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager;

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of wome...... with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism....

  15. Auxin is required for pollination-induced ovary growth in Dendrobium orchids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketsa, S.; Wisutiamonkul, A.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    In Dendrobium and other orchids the ovule becomes mature long after pollination, whereas the ovary starts growing within two days of pollination. The signalling pathway that induces rapid ovary growth after pollination has remained elusive. We placed the auxin antagonist ¿-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyr

  16. Mammalian circadian clock and metabolism - the epigenetic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellet, Marina Maria; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2010-11-15

    Circadian rhythms regulate a wide variety of physiological and metabolic processes. The clock machinery comprises complex transcriptional-translational feedback loops that, through the action of specific transcription factors, modulate the expression of as many as 10% of cellular transcripts. This marked change in gene expression necessarily implicates a global regulation of chromatin remodeling. Indeed, various descriptive studies have indicated that histone modifications occur at promoters of clock-controlled genes (CCGs) in a circadian manner. The finding that CLOCK, a transcription factor crucial for circadian function, has intrinsic histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity has paved the way to unraveling the molecular mechanisms that govern circadian chromatin remodeling. A search for the histone deacetylase (HDAC) that counterbalances CLOCK activity revealed that SIRT1, a nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent HDAC, functions in a circadian manner. Importantly, SIRT1 is a regulator of aging, inflammation and metabolism. As many transcripts that oscillate in mammalian peripheral tissues encode proteins that have central roles in metabolic processes, these findings establish a functional and molecular link between energy balance, chromatin remodeling and circadian physiology. Here we review recent studies that support the existence of this link and discuss their implications for understanding mammalian physiology and pathology. PMID:21048160

  17. Secondary instabilities modulate cortical complexity in the mammalian brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Disclosing the origin of convolutions in the mammalian brain remains a scientific challenge. Primary folds form before we are born: they are static, well defined and highly preserved across individuals. Secondary folds occur and disappear throughout our entire lifetime: they are dynamic, irregular and highly variable among individuals. While extensive research has improved our understanding of primary folding in the mammalian brain, secondary folding remains understudied and poorly understood. Here, we show that secondary instabilities can explain the increasing complexity of our brain surface as we age. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we explore the critical conditions for secondary instabilities. We show that with continuing growth, our brain surface continues to bifurcate into increasingly complex morphologies. Our results suggest that even small geometric variations can have a significant impact on surface morphogenesis. Secondary bifurcations, and with them morphological changes during childhood and adolescence, are closely associated with the formation and loss of neuronal connections. Understanding the correlation between neuronal connectivity, cortical thickness, surface morphology and ultimately behaviour, could have important implications on the diagnostics, classification and treatment of neurological disorders.

  18. Ovary growth and protein levels in ovary and fat body during adult-wintering period in the red mason bee, Osmia rufa

    OpenAIRE

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Giejdasz, Karol; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Skrzypski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Winter months are supposed to be a crucial period for the development of the reproductive system, especially ovaries, in Osmia rufa females. During 7 months of the wintering period (from September till March), the length and width of terminal oocytes and protein concentrations in ovary and fat body tissue extracts of red mason bee females, O. rufa, were studied. Our observations indicate statistically significant differences in the size of terminal oocytes for three different periods of over-...

  19. Metabolic-flux analysis of mammalian-cell culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonarius, H.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry mammalian cells are cultivated for the production of recombinant glycoproteins, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies. In contrast to other expression systems, such as prokaryotes or yeasts, mammalian cells are able to glycosylate and fold therapeutic proteins correct

  20. A pure primary transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: A rare case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandanwale, Shirish S; Kamble, Tushar; Mishra, Neha; Kumar, Harsh; Jadhav, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare and recently recognized subtype of ovarian surface epithelial-stromal cancer. Pure forms of the TCC ovary account for only 1% of surface epithelial carcinomas. The clinical presentation is indistinguishable from other types of ovarian cancers. They have a favorable response to chemotherapy than other surface epithelial cancers. We report a case of 55-year-old woman who presented with a hard mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography-diagnosed it as a carcinoma of the ovary. Tumor was immunoreactive with Wilms' tumor protein-1 and nonreactive with cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and CK20. Histopathology diagnosis of primary TCC of the ovary was made. These tumors are needed to be differentiated from metastatic TCC from other sites and undifferentiated carcinomas of ovaries. Clinical features and immunohistochemistry are helpful. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach followed by standardized chemotherapy. PMID:27127747

  1. Prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced response of the bovine ovary, oviduct (uterine tube), and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L P; Sadiku, A; Verma, O P

    1979-12-01

    Tissue strips from the ovary, (uterine tube), and oviduct, and uterus of pregnant and nonpregnant cows were tested for their contractile response to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). When 2.1 x 10(-6)M PGF2 alpha was added to the uterine strips, tension of tissues from pregnant cows increased sharply; however, tension in tissues from nonpregnant cows only increased moderately. Similar concentrations failed to elicit any response from oviductal tissues of either group. Unlike the uterus and the oviduct, the ovaries contracted slowly and irregularly. They responded with varying degrees of stimulation; ovaries from pregnant cows with brief and mild stimulation and ovaries from nonpregnant cows with slower and relatively stronger stimulation. Results indicate that the bovine ovary contracts rhythmically and that its sensitivity to PGF2 alpha decreases during pregnancy in contrast to the bovine uterus which becomes increasingly sensitive during pregnancy.

  2. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, hippo represses notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic ovaries, triggering the mitosis-endocycle switch in the follicular cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Irles

    Full Text Available During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries.

  3. Ovários policísticos em meninas e adolescentes normais: uma avaliação ultra-sonográfica Polycystic ovaries in normal children and adolescent girls: ultrasound evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimere J. Teixeira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos ultra-sonografia pélvica em tempo real e de alta resolução em 140 meninas com idade entre dois e 18 anos, para descrever a prevalência de ovários policísticos durante o desenvolvimento puberal normal. O volume dos ovários foi calculado e sua estrutura classificada como homogênea, microcística, multicística, policística e folicular. O volume aumentou e a freqüência das classes ovarianas variou de acordo com o status puberal. Os ovários eram de aspecto policístico em 8% (duas meninas pré-puberais e nove pós-puberais, com volume normal em 8/11 pacientes. Consideramos que a utilização do volume como critério diagnóstico de ovários policísticos pode ser de difícil interpretação durante este período e enfatizamos a importância da avaliação da ecogenicidade do estroma pelo ultra-som. Uma hipótese atrativa, mas que necessita de confirmação através de estudos longitudinais, é se essas meninas com ovários policísticos na ultra-sonografia serão destinadas, em alguns casos, a tornar-se adultas com a síndrome dos ovários policísticos.Real-time high-resolution ultrasonography of the pelvic organs was performed in 140 healthy females aged 2-18 years. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of polycystic ovaries during normal pubertal development. The volume of the ovaries was calculated and ovarian structure was classified as homogeneous, microcystic, multycystic, polycystic and follicular. The volume of the ovaries increased and the ovarian structure varied according to sexual development. The ovaries exhibited a polycystic appearance in 8% of the cases (two prepubertal and nine postpubertal girls. The volume of the ovaries was normal in 8/11 patients with polycystic ovaries. We consider that the using of the volume of the ovaries as a diagnostic criterion for polycystic ovaries is difficult to interpret and we emphasize the importance of the evaluation of the ovarian stroma with ultrasound. An

  4. Metabolic-flux analysis of mammalian-cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonarius, H.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry mammalian cells are cultivated for the production of recombinant glycoproteins, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies. In contrast to other expression systems, such as prokaryotes or yeasts, mammalian cells are able to glycosylate and fold therapeutic proteins correctly, and therefore the only possible production system for many (recombinant) therapeutics.Cultivated mammalian cells are similar to tumor cells: in contrast to normal cells in mammalian tissue they...

  5. Interspecific Hybridization of Brassica campestris x B.Oleracea Through Ovary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-qing; SONG Wen-jian; TANG Gui-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun

    2004-01-01

    Using three varieties of Brassica campestris, Hauarad (708), Maoshan-3 (714) and Youbai (715),as the maternal plants and one variety of Brassica oleracea Jingfeng-1 (6012) as paternal plants, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques.The ovaries from the cross between B. campestris × B.oleracea (708 × 6012 and 714 × 6012) were cultured and ovary culture was more effective in terms of obtained seeds when ovaries were cultured in vitro at 9 d after pollination (DAP). While for the cross of 715 × 6012, it was better when ovaries in vitro cultured at 12 DAP. Among three cross combinations, the cross of 714 × 6012 showed the best response and 43 seeds per ovary were obtained. Among the media studied, the ovaries from the cross of 708 × 6012 cultured on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA × 0.1 mg L-1 NAA showed better response, and its rate of seeds per ovary reached 44.0%.While the ovaries from the other two crosses (714 × 6012 and 715 × 6012) showed the best response when cultured on B5 media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.2 mg L-1 NAA, and the rates of seeds per ovary reached 72.0 and 60.0%, respectively. All seeds obtained from the three cross combinations were cultured on the MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.05 mg L-1 NAA,and the seeds from the cross of 715 × 6012 showed the best germination response and the percentage of germinations reached 66.7%. The regenerated plantlets were obtained from these seedlings after cultured on the MS media supplemented with 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. Cytological study showed that these regenerated plants were all true hybrids of B.campestris × B.oleracea.

  6. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  7. The Evaluation of Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently a relation between female sex hormones and severity of asthma symptoms has been proposed. As a common endocrine dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS could significantly influence the level of sex hormones in PCOS patients. Regarding the possible role of sex hormones in airway physiology, the present study was conducted to survey the effects of PCOS on pulmonary function test parameters. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 30 recently diagnosed patients with PCOS without history of pulmonary disease were enrolled and 20 healthy women were considered as the control group according to their age, weight, and height. The patients and the controls underwent body plethysmography to measure pulmonary function tests. Results: The mean age of the patients and the controls were 29.43±7.8 and 30.0±7.6 years respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in all pulmonary function test parameters between the patients and the controls (p>0.05. After dividing the patients into 2 groups based on their body mass index (BMI, BMIConclusion: Our results showed that pulmonary function test parameters are not different in PCOS patients comparing to healthy women. Only the deleterious effects of high BMI on pulmonary function can be occurred in these patients.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: Implications of measurement of plasma aldosterone, renin activity and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana; Donà, Gabriella; Sabbadin, Chiara; Bakdounes, Leila; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Giorgino, Francesco L; Fiore, Cristina

    2012-05-01

    A positive correlation between aldosterone, inflammatory parameters, blood pressure and metabolic abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been reported in the early estrogenic phase. The aim of the study was to measure plasma aldosterone, plasma renin activity (PRA) and progesterone on the 21st day of the cycle, in women with PCOS and to consider the interrelationships between these hormones. Sixty-six consecutive normal BMI women with PCOS (median age 24 years, range 21-28 years) and 53 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Aldosterone, aldosterone/PRA ratio (ARR) and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index were significantly higher (p<0.0001) in PCOS women than controls. Positive correlations were found in PCOS but not in controls between (i) progesterone and aldosterone, (ii) aldosterone and PRA, (iii) PRA and progesterone. Mean blood pressures were within the normal range but significantly higher in PCOS than controls. The increase of plasma aldosterone, ARR and blood pressure in PCOS compared with controls is consistent with an increased mineralocorticoid effector mechanism in PCOS; prolonged therapy with spironolactone could counteract both the hyperandrogenism and reduce future cardiovascular risk. PMID:22387621

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome, blood group & diet: A correlative study in South Indian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pal, Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Poulomi Chatterjee, Vinodini NA, PrasannaMithra, Sourjya Banerjee, Suman VB2, Sheila R. Pai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the co-relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with blood group & diet in South Indian females, between the age-group of (20-30 years. Objectives: Correlative analysis of ABO & Rh system, dietary habits & alcohol consumption with PCOS. Materials & Methods: 100 patients between (20-30 years, diagnosed with PCOS were selected. A standard PCOS questionnaire was given. Blood group & dietary status data were collected. Patients were grouped according to ABO & Rh system considering their diet & alcohol intake (p≤0.05 significant. Result: Our data revealed that the highest risk of PCOS was observed in females with blood group ‘O’ positive followed by ‘B’ positive who were on mixed diet & used to consume alcohol. Our study also suggests that Rh negative individuals didn’t show any association with PCOS. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that ‘O’ positive females, are more prone to PCOS. Though the relative frequency of B positive individuals are more in India, females with blood group O positive are more susceptible to PCOS, contributing factors being mixed diet & alcohol intake. So, early screening of ‘O’ positive &‘B’ positive females of reproductive age-group in South-India, could be used as a measure for timely diagnosis of PCOS, better management &also prevention of complications. However, further research should be done to investigate the multifaceted mechanisms triggering these effects.

  10. Adrenocortical steroid response to ACTH in different phenotypes of non-obese polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinar Nese

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal androgen excess is frequently observed in PCOS. The aim of the study was to determine whether adrenal gland function varies among PCOS phenotypes, women with hyperandrogenism (H only and healthy women. Methods The study included 119 non-obese patients with PCOS (age: 22.2 ± 4.1y, BMI:22.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2, 24 women with H only and 39 age and BMI- matched controls. Among women with PCOS, 50 had H, oligo-anovulation (O, and polycystic ovaries (P (PHO, 32 had O and H (OH, 23 had P and H (PH, and 14 had P and O (PO. Total testosterone (T, SHBG and DHEAS levels at basal and serum 17-hydroxprogesterone (17-OHP, androstenedione (A4, DHEA and cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation were measured. Results T, FAI and DHEAS, and basal and AUC values for 17-OHP and A4 were significantly and similarly higher in PCOS and H groups than controls (p  Conclusion PCOS patients and women with H only have similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen levels than controls. All three hyperandrogenic subphenotypes of PCOS exhibit similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen secretion patterns compared to non-hyperandrogenic subphenotype.

  11. The role of sex chromosomes in mammalian germ cell differentiation: can the germ cells carrying X and Y chromosomes differentiate into fertile oocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruko Taketo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sexual differentiation of germ cells into spermatozoa or oocytes is strictly regulated by their gonadal environment, testis or ovary, which is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, respectively. Hence, in normal mammalian development, male germ cells differentiate in the presence of X and Y chromosomes, and female germ cells do so in the presence of two X chromosomes. However, gonadal sex reversal occurs in humans as well as in other mammalian species, and the resultant XX males and XY females can lead healthy lives, except for a complete or partial loss of fertility. Germ cells carrying an abnormal set of sex chromosomes are efficiently eliminated by multilayered surveillance mechanisms in the testis, and also, though more variably, in the ovary. Studying the molecular basis for sex-specific responses to a set of sex chromosomes during gametogenesis will promote our understanding of meiotic processes contributing to the evolution of sex determining mechanisms. This review discusses the fate of germ cells carrying various sex chromosomal compositions in mouse models, the limitation of which may be overcome by recent successes in the differentiation of functional germ cells from embryonic stem cells under experimental conditions.

  12. Characteristic element of matrix attachment region mediates vector attachment and enhances nerve growth factor expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Zhang, J H; Sun, Q L; Yao, Z Y; Deng, B G; Guo, W Y; Wang, L; Dong, W H; Wang, F; Zhao, C P; Wang, T Y

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that a characteristic element of the matrix attachment region (MAR) in human interferon-β mediates the adhesion of vectors to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In this study, we investigated if vector adhesion increased nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in CHO cells. The MAR characteristic element sequence of human interferon-β was inserted into the multiple-cloning site of the pEGFP-C1 vector. The target NGF gene was inserted upstream of the MAR characteristic element sequence to construct the MAR/NGF expression vector. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO cells and stable monoclonal cells were selected using G418. NGF mRNA and protein expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Plasmid reduction experiments were used to determine the state of transfected plasmid in mammalian cells. The insertion of MAR into the vector increased NGF expression levels in CHO cells (1.93- fold) compared to the control. The recombinant plasmid expressing the MAR sequence was digested into a linear space vector. The inserted MAR and NGF sequences were consistent with those inserted into the plasmid before recombination. Therefore, we concluded that the MAR characteristic element mediates vector adhesion to CHO cells and enhances the stability and efficiency of the target gene expression. PMID:26345852

  13. [Results of mammalian cell culture exposure on artificial earth satellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkov, F V; Portugalov, V V; Rudneva, S V; Bobkova, N N; Iordanishvili, E K

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an exposure of cells of the Syrian hamster strain VNK-21 to space flight effects. In contrast to the cell culture kept in a thermostat at 29 degrees C, the cell culture that was maintained in thermally uncontrolled conditions developed noticeable structural and physiological changes induced by suboptimal temperatures. It was concluded that a 6-day exposure to weightlessness exerted no adverse effect on mammalian cells in vitro and produced no stable structural or physiological changes. Some changes that were detected in the cell culture--faster ageing, stable tendency to an increase of the number of cells with enlarged nuclei, an increase of the mitotic index at an early stage of cultivation--need further investigation.

  14. Freezing mammalian cells for production of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Gargi

    2012-03-01

    Cryopreservation techniques utilize very low temperatures to preserve the structure and function of living cells. Various strategies have been developed for freezing mammalian cells of biological and medical significance. This paper highlights the importance and application of cryopreservation for recombinant mammalian cells used in the biopharmaceutical industry to produce high-value protein therapeutics. It is a primer that aims to give insight into the basic principles of cell freezing for the benefit of biopharmaceutical researchers with limited or no prior experience in cryobiology. For the more familiar researchers, key cell banking parameters such as the cell density and hold conditions have been reviewed to possibly help optimize their specific cell freezing protocols. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the freezing of complex and sensitive cellular entities as we implement best practices around the techniques and strategies used for cryopreservation. PMID:22226818

  15. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  16. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E. A.; Gadêlha, H.; Smith, D. J.; Blake, J. R.; Kirkman-Brown, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics.

  17. Synthesis of phycocyanobilin in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Konrad; Engesser, Raphael; Timmer, Jens; Nagy, Ferenc; Zurbriggen, Matias D; Weber, Wilfried

    2013-10-11

    The chromophore 3-Z phycocyanobilin (PCB, (2R,3Z)-8,12-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-18-ethyl-3-ethylidene-2,7,13,17-tetramethyl-2,3-dihydrobilin-1,19(21H,24H)-dione) mediates red and far-red light perception in natural and synthetic biological systems. Here we describe a PCB synthesis strategy in mammalian cells. We optimize the production by co-localizing the biocatalysts to the substrate source, by coordinating the availability of the biocatalysts and by reducing the degradation of the reaction product. We show that the resulting PCB levels of 2 μM are sufficient to sustain the functionality of red light-responsive optogenetic tools suitable for the light-inducible control of gene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:23963496

  18. Mammalian hairs in Early Cretaceous amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Romain; Girard, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Néraudeau, Didier

    2010-07-01

    Two mammalian hairs have been found in association with an empty puparium in a ˜100-million-year-old amber (Early Cretaceous) from France. Although hair is known to be an ancestral, ubiquitous feature in the crown Mammalia, the structure of Mesozoic hair has never been described. In contrast to fur and hair of some Jurassic and Cretaceous mammals preserved as carbonized filaments, the exceptional preservation of the fossils described here allows for the study of the cuticular structure. Results show the oldest direct evidence of hair with a modern scale pattern. This discovery implies that the morphology of hair cuticula may have remained unchanged throughout most of mammalian evolution. The association of these hairs with a possible fly puparium provides paleoecological information and indicates peculiar taphonomic conditions.

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome in Salvador, Brazil: a prevalence study in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielli Ligia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common condition in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries. It is associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. No studies have been conducted on the prevalence of PCOS in Brazilian or South American women. Few studies using the Rotterdam criteria have been published. The objective of the present study was to calculate the prevalence of PCOS at primary healthcare level in Salvador, Brazil based on these criteria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, two-phase study conducted in a probability sample of women of 18–45 years of age screened for cervical cancer in the primary healthcare network of the city of Salvador, Brazil. In the first phase, interviews were conducted, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and random blood sugar levels were measured, and the presence of acne and hirsutism was investigated. Women with at least one diagnostic criterion were referred for the second phase, which consisted of specialist consultation, pelvic ultrasonography and hormone measurements for differential diagnosis and/or investigation of a second criterion. Results Of the 859 women interviewed, 88.5% were black and 58.7% had 11 years of schooling or less. A diagnosis of PCOS was excluded in 84.4%, undetermined in 7.1% and confirmed in 8.5% (95%CI: 6.80–10.56. There were no statistically significant differences between these three groups with respect to weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood sugar levels or arterial blood pressure. Women with PCOS were younger (p = 0.00, taller (p = 0.04, had fewer children (p = 0.00, were better educated (p = 0.01, and had higher total testosterone levels (p = 0.01 and a higher LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.01. Conclusion According to the Rotterdam criteria, the prevalence of PCOS in women seeking primary

  20. Morfologia do ovário da ema (Rhea americana Morphology of the ovary in rhea (Rhea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério C. Parizzi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia do ovário de emas adultas (Rhea americana sexualmente maduras foi descrita neste trabalho. Os ovários de 24 fêmeas em fase reprodutiva foram colhidos em abatedouro, tomados dados métricos do diâmetro dos folículos (n = 18 e colhidos fragmentos para microscopia de luz (n = 6 fixados em formol 10%, PBS 0,1M, pH 7,4 para microscopia de luz. Nas emas o ovário esquerdo está desenvolvido, ocupando a porção dorsal da cavidade celomática em contato com a porção cranial do rim esquerdo e a glândula adrenal esquerda, sustentado na cavidade pelo mesovário. Na superfície livre do ovário foram observados em média 72,4±17,09 folículos em desenvolvimento e 30,4±3,65 folículos atrésicos. Os folículos estão unidos à superfície ovariana pelo pedúnculo folicular e os em desenvolvimento apresentam uma cinta na superfície, o estigma folicular, rompida nos folículos atrésicos. Histologicamente, o ovário possui uma medula, com tecido conjuntivo frouxo e vasos sangüíneos e um córtex repleto de oócitos e folículos, cuja parede está constituída pelas tecas externa e interna, estrato granuloso e zona radia-da. No córtex observam-se folículos primordiais, pré-vitelogêni-cos e vitelogênicos. A superfície do ovário está revestida por epitélio cúbico baixo, o epitélio germinativo, o qual está sobre o tecido conjuntivo da túnica albugínea. As características morfológicas do ovário da ema são resultado do tamanho do ovo produzido e em geral semelhante ao de outras espécies de aves.The ovarian morphology of the sexually mature rhea (Rhea Americana is described. Ovaries from 24 adult rheas in their reproductive age were collected in the slaughterhouse. Follicular diameters (n = 18 were measured and samples (n = 6 were fixed in 10% formaldehyde with 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 for light microscopy. Results showed that the left ovary occupied the dorsal portion of the celomatic cavity in contact with the

  1. The cellular code for mammalian thermosensation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogorzala, Leah A.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Hoon, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian somatosenory neurons respond to thermal stimuli allowing animals to reliably discriminate hot from cold and select their preferred environments. We previously generated mice that are completely insensitive to temperatures from noxious cold to painful heat (−5 to 55 °C) by ablating several different classes of nociceptor early in development. Here we have adopted a selective ablation strategy in adult mice to dissect this phenotype and thereby demonstrated that separate populations o...

  2. Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of ...

  3. Cell-surface remodelling during mammalian erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraith, D C; Chesterton, C J

    1982-10-15

    Current evidence suggests that the major cell-surface modification occurring during mammalian erythropoiesis could be generated by two separate mechanisms: either selective loss of membrane proteins during enucleation or endocytosis at the subsequent reticulocyte and erythrocyte stages. The former idea was tested by collecting developing rabbit erythroid cells before and after the enucleation step and comparing their cell-surface protein composition via radiolabelling and electrophoresis. Few changes were observed. Our data thus lend support to the endocytosis mechanism.

  4. Hysteresis in a synthetic mammalian gene network

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Beat P.; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Bistable and hysteretic switches, enabling cells to adopt multiple internal expression states in response to a single external input signal, have a pivotal impact on biological systems, ranging from cell-fate decisions to cell-cycle control. We have designed a synthetic hysteretic mammalian transcription network. A positive feedback loop, consisting of a transgene and transactivator (TA) cotranscribed by TA's cognate promoter, is repressed by constitutive expression of a macrolide-dependent t...

  5. Epigenetic regulation of the mammalian cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Baverstock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding how mammalian cells are regulated epigenetically to express phenotype is a priority. The cellular phenotypic transition, induced by ionising radiation, from a normal cell to the genomic instability phenotype, where the ability to replicate the genotype accurately is compromised, illustrates important features of epigenetic regulation. Based on this phenomenon and earlier work we propose a model to describe the mammalian cell as a self assembled open system operating in an environment that includes its genotype, neighbouring cells and beyond. Phenotype is represented by high dimensional attractors, evolutionarily conditioned for stability and robustness and contingent on rules of engagement between gene products encoded in the genetic network. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We describe how this system functions and note the indeterminacy and fluidity of its internal workings which place it in the logical reasoning framework of predicative logic. We find that the hypothesis is supported by evidence from cell and molecular biology. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic regulation and memory are fundamentally physical, as opposed to chemical, processes and the transition to genomic instability is an important feature of mammalian cells with probable fundamental relevance to speciation and carcinogenesis. A source of evolutionarily selectable variation, in terms of the rules of engagement between gene products, is seen as more likely to have greater prominence than genetic variation in an evolutionary context. As this epigenetic variation is based on attractor states phenotypic changes are not gradual; a phenotypic transition can involve the changed contribution of several gene products in a single step.

  6. EGF mRNA Expression in Pig Ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor(EGF)is known to enhance oocyte maturation,embryo development and implantation in many species. To study the rules of EGF in pig ovary,the level of EGF mRNA activity was measured by RT-PCR technique. A strong EGF transcripts band was detected in the follicles and oocytes. The expression of EGF is strongest in the small follicle or oocyte from small follicle. A EGF transcripts band could be detectable in the granulosa cell. The expression of EGF in the granulosa cell was lower than that in the oocyte. Also,the expression of EGF in the granulosa cell from the small follicle is stronger than in another.These results suggest EGF has important roles in the pig follicular development by autocrine/paracrine fashion.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure.

  8. An old patient with growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadiman Kiykac Altinbas; Taner Turan; Namik Kemal Altinbas; Ahmet Ozfuttu; Nurettin Boran; Gokhan Tulunay

    2013-01-01

    Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is a rare complication of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A 52-year old woman was admitted to our Gynecological Oncology Department with metastatic multiple abdominal masses. Her initial gynecological history presented an immature teratoma of the ovary 3 years previously, and she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic-paraaortic lymphadenectomy and omentectomy. She received three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) regimen after surgery. Although the tumor markers were within normal limits, multiple metastatic lesions were detected in the 3rd month of follow-up. The patient was referred to our gynecological oncology department, optimal debulking including resection of the tumoral lesions localized on the liver, diaphragm, peritoneum, sigmoid colon, omentum and retroperitoneum was performed. Histopathology of all samples revealed mature teratoma. This syndrome should be remembered when a tumor is refractory to chemotherapy and growth of the tumor still continues after resection of the initial tumor.

  9. Increased thrombin generation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Lambaa Altinok, Magda;

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) which may be modified by the use of metformin and oral contraceptives (OC). Thrombin generation (TG) measures are risk markers of CVD and address the composite of multiple factors...... randomized to 12 months treatment with metformin, metformin + OC or OC alone. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, trunk fat mass, body mass index, estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as TG measures, i.e. the lag time for formation of thrombin...... significantly. Conclusions. PCOS is associated with increase in TG measures independent of other risk factors of CVD. OC increases TG measures further and may thus add to the increased risk of CVD already present in women with PCOS....

  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure. PMID:26825073

  11. Alkylation damage repair in mammalian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S.; Roy, R.; Kim, N.K. [Texas Univ. Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States). Sealy Center for Molecular Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tano, K. [Banyu Pharmaceutical Co. Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ibeanu, G.C. [NIEHS, Research Triangle, NC (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dunn, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Natarajan, A.T. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Sylvius Labs.; Hartenstein, B.; Kaina, B. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Genetik und Toxikologie

    1992-11-01

    The repair of O{sup 6} -alkylguanine in DNA involves only O{sup 6} -methyltransferase (MGMT) while the repair of N-alkylpurines requires multiple proteins including N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG). While the biochemical properties human and mouse MGMTs are very similar, the mouse MPG removes 7-methylguanine more efficiently than the human protein. An increased level of MGMT, without a change in the level of MPG associated with gene amplification, was observed in a mouse cell line resistant to 2-chloroethyl-N-nitrosourea. In contrast, no correlation was observed between MPG level and resistance to methyl methanesulfonate in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This result suggests a protein other than MPG limits the repair rate of N-alkylpurine in CHO cells.

  12. Biosynthesis of the Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) Lectin in Ripening Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J

    1988-03-01

    The biosynthesis and processing of the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin were studied in vivo in ripening snowdrop ovaries. Using labeling and pulse chase labeling experiments it could be demonstrated that the snowdrop lectin is synthesized as a precursor of relative molecular weight (M(r)) 15,000 which is posttranslationally converted into the authentic lectin polypeptide of M(r) 13,000 with a half-life of about 6 hours. Gel filtration of an extract of [(3)H]leucine labeled ovaries on Sepharose 4B showed that a significant portion of the newly synthesized lectin is associated with the particulate fraction. When the organellar fraction was fractionated on isopycnic sucrose gradients this lectin banded in the same density region as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker enzyme NADH cytochrome c reductase. Both radioactivity in lectin and in enzyme activity shifted towards a higher density in the presence of 2 millimolar Mg-acetate indicating that the labeled lectin was associated with the rough ER. Labeled lectin could be chased from the ER with a half-life of 4 hours and then accumulated in the soluble fraction. Whereas the ER-associated lectin contains exclusively polypeptides of M(r) 15,000 the soluble fraction contains both precursor molecules and mature lectin polypeptides. The snowdrop lectin in the ER is fully capable of binding immobilized mannose. It is associated into tetramers with an appropriate molecular weight of 60,000. These results indicate that newly synthesized snowdrop lectin is transiently associated with the ER before transport and processing.

  13. Development of the larval ovary in the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckemeyer, E F; Shirk, P D

    2004-11-01

    The morphogenesis of ovaries and the organization of germ cells within them were visualized during the larval stages of the moth, Plodia interpunctella. The germ cells were observed by utilizing confocal microscopy coupled with immuno-fluorescent staining for the alpha-crystallin protein 25 (alphaCP25). The alphaCP25 was previously shown to be specific to germ cells of pupae and adults, and this study shows that alphaCP25 is present in larval germ cells as well. A cluster of 28 germ cells that stain for alphaCP25 was found in the gonads of newly hatched first instar larvae. The founding germ cells became segregated into four clusters, most likely by somatic cell intrusion, around the beginning of the second instar. Division of the primary germ cells began by the end of the second instar and the formation of all cystoblasts appeared to be completed within the four ovarioles by the end of the third instar. Within the ovarioles of third instar larvae, the germ cells were organized with a distal cap of seven germ cells which was segregated from the majority of the germ cells. The main body of germ cells was arranged around a central germ cell-free core as a spiral. Divisions of the cystoblasts to form cystocyte clusters were nearly completed during the fourth (last) larval instar. These features suggest that the strategy to produce follicles in moths is fundamentally different from the fruitfly, Drosophila. It appears that during the initial stages of ovary development in P. interpunctella, the primary germ cells undergo stage-complete divisions that are completed prior to the onset of the next set of divisions, which results in a complete complement of follicles available by the time of adult eclosion, while in Drosophila the primary germ cell divisions are initiated in the adult stage, and follicles are produced individually as resources are available.

  14. Hypercalcemic type of small cell carcinoma of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is a rare, prognostically bad tumor category. Primary, it can be localized in every organ, even in the ovary, where, due to its clinical specificities, it represents a challenge in diagnosis, as well as in therapy. Small cell ovarian carcinoma (SCOC is biologically very aggressive malignant tumor of unknown histogenesis. We presented a rare case of SCOC with hypercalcemia of aggressive course and fatal outcome in a postmenopausal woman at International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO Ia stage. Case report. A 60-year-old woman, Caucasian, came to the doctor because of discomfort in the lower abdomen and pain of greater intensity in last few days. Ultrasound examination and CT scan of the abdomen confirmed the presence of large adnexal masses of cystic-solid appearance with the largest diameter of 13 cm, regular structure of the other gynecological organs, without verifying the existence of metastatic deposits. All the results of laboratory analysis gave normal values, except for calcium, which was elevated. Explorative laparotomy with complete hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, dissection of lymph nodes and omentectomy were conducted. Based on pathohistological analysis of the operative material, SCOC at FIGO Ia stage was diagnosed. No complications were observed in a postsurgery period and after 10 days the patient was discharged in a good condition and with normal calcemia. The treatment was continued with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, in spite of overall treatment, the disease progressed, and the patient died of disseminated metastatic disease, 26 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Small cell carcinoma localized in the ovary is generally a tumor category with bad prognosis depending on the stage of the disease.

  15. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Isachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n=13 and n=23 were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min. It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo.

  16. Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo.

  17. Worker honey bee ovary development: seasonal variation and the influence of larval and adult nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Shelley E R; Higo, Heather A; Winston, Mark L

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of larval and adult nutrition on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ovary development. Workers were fed high or low-pollen diets as larvae, and high or low-protein diets as adults. Workers fed low-protein diets at both life stages had the lowest levels of ovary development, followed by those fed high-protein diets as larvae and low- quality diets as adults, and then those fed diets poor in protein as larvae but high as adults. Workers fed high-protein diets at both life stages had the highest levels of ovary development. The increases in ovary development due to improved dietary protein in the larval and adult life stages were additive. Adult diet also had an effect on body mass. The results demonstrate that both carry-over of larval reserves and nutrients acquired in the adult life stage are important to ovary development in worker honey bees. Carry-over from larval development, however, appears to be less important to adult fecundity than is adult nutrition. Seasonal trends in worker ovary development and mass were examined throughout the brood rearing season. Worker ovary development was lowest in spring, highest in mid-summer, and intermediate in fall.

  18. Anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Stefano Favale1, Anish Bhuva4, Pietro Scicchitano1, Vito Caragnano1, Cristina Lavopa2, Giovanni De Pergola3, Giuseppe Loverro21Department of Cardiology; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 3Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari, DETO, Italy; 4University College of London, London, UKBackground: Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS. Methods: Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25. Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1 oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2 hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3 polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment. Results: Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01, increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001, total testosterone (p < 0.001, and androstenedione (p < 0.001 levels, and lower

  19. Understanding the intracellular effects of yeast extract on the enhancement of Fc-fusion protein production in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Yating; Liu, Xuping; Liu, Jintao; Zhang, Xintao; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Haibin; Tan, Wen-Song; Fan, Li

    2015-10-01

    Yeast extract (YE), as a non-animal source additive for mammalian cell culture medium, has been widely used for manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In the present study, one particular YE was found to have significantly improved the specific productivity (q p) of Fc-fusion protein in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell culture. In order to elucidate the intracellular effects of YE on protein productivity, steps of the target protein synthesis process were investigated to unveil their variations caused by YE addition. Stepwise analysis on Fc-fusion protein synthesis process showed that YE enhanced Fc-fusion protein gene transcription with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was activated to enhance the translation of Fc-fusion protein, and the block in post-translational steps of Fc-fusion protein was alleviated by YE addition as well. Our results revealed the responses of multiple protein production steps to the addition of YE and provided a practical guidance for the separation and application of active compounds from hydrolysates. PMID:26162671

  20. Monitoring utilizations of amino acids and vitamins in culture media and Chinese hamster ovary cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Chan, Pik Kay; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring amino acids and vitamins is important for understanding human health, food nutrition and the culture of mammalian cells used to produce therapeutic proteins in biotechnology. A method including ion pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to quantify 21 amino acids and 9 water-soluble vitamins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and culture media. By optimizing the chromatographic separation, scan time, monitoring time window, and sample preparation procedure, and using isotopically labeled (13)C, (15)N and (2)H internal standards, low limits of quantitation (≤0.054 mg/L), good precision (amino acids showed a zigzag pattern with maxima at the feeding days, and 9 non-essential amino acids displayed a smoothly changing profile as they were mainly products of cellular metabolism. Five of 9 vitamins accumulated continuously during the culture period, suggesting that they were fed in access. The method serves as an effective tool for the development and optimization of mammalian cell cultures.

  1. Ovulation requires the activation on proestrus of M₁ muscarinic receptors in the left ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M E; Flores, A; Alvarado, B E; Hernández, C G; Zárate, A; Chavira, R; Cárdenas, M; Arrieta-Cruz, I; Gutiérrez-Juárez, R

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the effects of chemically blocking type 1 muscarinic receptors (M1R) on either the left or right ovary on ovulation rate, number of ova shed and steroid hormones levels. M1R were unilaterally blocked in ovary with the M1R selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZP). PZP was delivered into the bursa ovarica of the left or right ovary of adult rats at 13:00 h on proestrus day. PZP treatment in the left but not in the right ovary blocked ovulation. PZP did not modify the number of ova shed, nor progesterone or 17β-estradiol serum levels. The surge of luteinizing hormone levels was diminished while that of follicle-stimulating hormone did not change in animals treated with PZP in the left ovary. Interestingly, treatment with either synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or human chorionic gonadotropin 1 h after PZP administration in the left ovary restored ovulation in both ovaries. The presence of M1R protein in the theca cells of the ovarian follicles as well as in cells of the corpus luteum was detected on proestrus day. These results suggest that M1R activation in the left ovary is required for pre-ovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and ovulation. Furthermore, these results also suggest that M1R in the left ovary might be regulating ovulation asymmetrically through a stimulatory neural signal relayed to the hypothalamus via the vagus nerve to induce the GnRH secretion which then triggers ovulation.

  2. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary-A case report with review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Aijaz Aziz; Abdul Rashid Lone; Mohmad Hussain Mir; Sumyra Khursheed Qadri; Arif Nabi Bhat; Farhana Siraj Bagdadi; Mir Muzaffar Bashir; Sanjeed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Transitional cel carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare and recently recognized subtype of ovarian epithelial cancer. We presented the first case report from our Institute (Sheri Kashmir Instiute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India), which was initial y misdiagnosed as stromal cel carcinoma (granulosa cel tumour), and on review of histopathology with immunohistochemistry, the diagnosis of TCC of the ovary was established. The aim of this article was to describe the typical case of primary TCC of the ovary and to review the literature for information on TCC management.

  3. Preparation of Immuno-magnetic Beads and Their Separation & Detection to Ovary Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The organic monomer-molecule with nanometer magnetic powder by means of reforming the surface of nanometer magnetic powder have been synthesized.Magnetic beads in diameter of 2μm or so are obtained by controlling conditions.Ovary cancer cells of ascites are separated and ovary cancer cells of blood are detected by using immuno-magnetic beads linked with ovary cancer cell mono-antibodies.Results show that the specificity is 85%,sensitivity is 87%,accuracy is 84%,cells acquiring purity is 90%,cells activity is 92% and detection sensitivity is 25×10-7.

  4. Abnormal structural luteolysis in ovaries of the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM): expression of Fas ligand/Fas-mediated apoptosis signaling molecules in luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiso, Minako; Manabe, Noboru; Komatsu, Kohji; Shimabe, Munetake; Miyamoto, Hajime

    2003-12-01

    Senescence accelerated mouse-prone (SAMP) mice with a shortened life span show accelerated changes in many of the signs of aging and a shorter reproductive life span than SAM-resistant (SAMR) controls. We previously showed that functional regression (progesterone dissimilation) occurs in abnormally accumulated luteal bodies (aaLBs) of SAMP mice, but structural regression of luteal cells in aaLB is inhibited. A deficiency of luteal cell apoptosis causes the abnormal accumulation of LBs in SAMP ovaries. In the present study, to show the abnormality of Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-mediated apoptosis signal transducing factors in the aaLBs of the SAMP ovaries, we assessed the changes in the expression of FasL, Fas, caspase-8 and caspase-3 mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and in the expression and localization of FasL, Fas and activated caspase-3 proteins by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively, during the estrus cycle/luteolysis. These mRNAs and proteins were expressed in normal LBs of both SAMP and SAMR ovaries, but not at all or only in trace amounts in aaLBs of SAMP, indicating that structural regression is inhibited by blockage of the expression of these transducing factors in luteal cells of aaLBs in SAMP mice. PMID:14967896

  5. New models of hematogenous ovarian cancer metastasis demonstrate preferential spread to the ovary and a requirement for the ovary for abdominal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Lan G; Burgos-Ojeda, Daniela; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen; Bai, Shoumei; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggest that many high-grade serous "ovarian" cancers (HGSOC) start in the fallopian tube. Cancer cells are then recruited to the ovary and then spread diffusely through the abdomen. The mechanism of ovarian cancer spread was thought to be largely due to direct shedding of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity with vascular spread being of limited importance. Recent work challenges this dogma, suggesting hematogenous spread of ovarian cancer may play a larger role in ovarian cancer cell metastasis than previously thought. One reason the role of vascular spread of ovarian cancer has not been fully elucidated is the lack of easily accessible models of vascular ovarian cancer metastasis. Here, we present 3 metastatic models of ovarian cancer which confirm the ability of ovarian cancer to hematogenously spread. Strikingly, we observe a high rate of metastasis to the ovary with the development of ascites in these models. Interestingly, oophorectomy resulted in a complete loss of peritoneal metastases and ascites. Taken together, our data indicate that hematogenously disseminated HGSOC cells have a unique tropism for the ovary and that hematogenous spread in ovarian cancer may be more common than appreciated. Furthermore, our studies support a critical role for the ovary in promoting HGSOC cell metastasis to the abdomen. The models developed here represent important new tools to evaluate both the mechanism of cancer cell recruitment to the ovary and understand and target key steps in ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:27083386

  6. New models of hematogenous ovarian cancer metastasis demonstrate preferential spread to the ovary and a requirement for the ovary for abdominal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Lan G; Burgos-Ojeda, Daniela; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen; Bai, Shoumei; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggest that many high-grade serous "ovarian" cancers (HGSOC) start in the fallopian tube. Cancer cells are then recruited to the ovary and then spread diffusely through the abdomen. The mechanism of ovarian cancer spread was thought to be largely due to direct shedding of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity with vascular spread being of limited importance. Recent work challenges this dogma, suggesting hematogenous spread of ovarian cancer may play a larger role in ovarian cancer cell metastasis than previously thought. One reason the role of vascular spread of ovarian cancer has not been fully elucidated is the lack of easily accessible models of vascular ovarian cancer metastasis. Here, we present 3 metastatic models of ovarian cancer which confirm the ability of ovarian cancer to hematogenously spread. Strikingly, we observe a high rate of metastasis to the ovary with the development of ascites in these models. Interestingly, oophorectomy resulted in a complete loss of peritoneal metastases and ascites. Taken together, our data indicate that hematogenously disseminated HGSOC cells have a unique tropism for the ovary and that hematogenous spread in ovarian cancer may be more common than appreciated. Furthermore, our studies support a critical role for the ovary in promoting HGSOC cell metastasis to the abdomen. The models developed here represent important new tools to evaluate both the mechanism of cancer cell recruitment to the ovary and understand and target key steps in ovarian cancer metastasis.

  7. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements on Abnormal Gonadotropin Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of anthropometric measurements on abnormal gonadotropin secretion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS), DUHS in collaboration with Gynae/infertility clinics of the Civil Hospital and Lady Dufferin Hospital, Karachi, from October 2010 to February 2011. Methodology: One hundred and sixty three oligomenorrhic PCOS women of reproductive age (18 - 40 years) fulfilling the revised Rotterdam 2003 criteria were studied. The data recorded on a prescribed proforma included current age, age at menarche, menstrual irregularities, presence of hirsuitism, acne, infertility, familial nature, blood pressure, BMI and waisthip ratio. Blood samples for gonadotropin assay were taken randomly on day 6th to 30th of menstrual cycle, in a gel tube. Hormonal assay was performed using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Kruskul Wallis test was used to assess the influence of BMI levels on LH:FSH values. Results: The mean weight was 66.14 +- 11.02 kg and mean BMI was 27.03 +- 4.42 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in mean LH/FSH ratio (p=.575) among BMI groups. However, there was a positive correlation between BMI and LH:FSH ratio (p=0.04, r=0.155). Conclusion: There was high frequency of obesity (69%) in women with PCOS. Although no significant difference was found between mean LH:FSH ratio among different BMI groups levels but significant correlation between BMI levels and LH: FSH suggested that there was positive relation between BMI and LH: FSH. (author)

  8. Age-dependent role of steroids in the regulation of growth of the hen follicular wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Vladimir A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ovaries are the primary targets of senescence effects in mammalian and avian species. In the present study, relationships between reproductive aging, sex steroids and the growth pattern of the pre-ovulatory follicle wall were investigated using young hens with long clutch (YLC, old hens with long clutch (OLC, old hens with short clutch (OSC, and old hens with interrupted long clutch (OILC. Methods Experiment 1: Hens were sacrificed 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation. Experiment 2: YLC and OILC hens were sacrificed 3.5 h after treatments with LH and/or aminoglutethimide (AG, an inhibitor of steroid synthesis. Volumes of pre-ovulatory follicles (F1-F5 and plasma concentrations of ovarian steroids were determined. Experiment 3: Granulosa and theca cells from F3 follicles of OSC and/or YLC hens were exposed in vitro to estradiol-17beta (E2, testosterone (T and LH and the proliferative activity of the cells was examined using CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Assay. Results In YLC and OLC groups, the total volume of F1-F5 follicles rose between 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation (P 2 (P 2 and the follicular volume (P 2 (r = -0.54, P 2 enhanced proliferation of granulosa cells from YLC and OSC groups. The proliferative activity of granulosa and theca cells of YLC hens depended on the interaction between T and LH (P Conclusions These data indicate for the first time that the growth pattern of pre-ovulatory follicles during the ovulatory cycle changes in the course of reproductive aging. E2 seems to play a dual role in this adjustment; it stimulates the growth of the follicular wall in reproductive aged hens, whereas it may inhibit this process in young birds. T and LH are apparently involved in the growth regulation during the pre-ovulatory surge in young hens.

  9. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumithra N Unni C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001 lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001 higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings.

  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome: insight into pathogenesis and a common association with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Thomas M; Dimitriadis, George K; Andreou, Avgi; Franks, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition that typically develops in reproductive-age women. The cardinal clinical and biochemical characteristics of PCOS include reproductive dysfunction and hyperandrogenic features. PCOS is also strongly associated with obesity based on data from epidemiological and genetic studies. Accordingly, PCOS often becomes manifest in those women who carry a genetic predisposition to its development, and who also gain weight. The role of weight gain and obesity in the development of PCOS is mediated at least in part, through worsening of insulin resistance. Compensatory hyperinsulinaemia that develops in this context disrupts ovarian function, with enhanced androgen production and arrest of ovarian follicular development. Insulin resistance also contributes to the strong association of PCOS with adverse metabolic risk, including dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Conversely, modest weight loss of just 5% body weight with improvement in insulin sensitivity, frequently results in clinically meaningful improvements in hyperandrogenic, reproductive and metabolic features. Future developments of novel therapies for obese women with PCOS should focus on promotion of weight loss and improvement in insulin sensitivity. In this context, therapies that complement lifestyle changes such as dietary modification and exercise, particularly during the maintenance phase of weight loss are important. Putative novel targets for therapy in PCOS include human brown adipose tissue. PMID:27251917

  11. The Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Avisar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to re-evaluate whether the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS amongst women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is higher than in the general population using the NIH criteria. Methods. We included all consecutive women with IIH of child-bearing age seen at a hospital-based neuro-ophthalmology clinic between the years 2000–2005. All consenting women included in this study filled-out a screening questionnaire aimed at identifying women at risk for PCOS. The endocrinologist examined each patient suspect of PCOS as well as their biochemical results and diagnosed PCOS according to NIH criteria. The prevalence of PCOS in these women with IIH was compared with the reported prevalence of PCOS in the general population. Results. Out of 58 women with IIH who completed the study, definite PCOS was diagnosed in nine women (9/58; 15.5%. We found a significantly higher prevalence of PCOS using the NIH criteria among the IHH study group (15.5%, P=0.001 compared to the general population (8.7%. Conclusions. The prevalence of PCOS is higher among patients with IHH, compared to the general population. We suggest a novel screening questionnaire to aid in the identification of women with IIH at risk for PCOS.

  12. Parents’ Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Karen P. Jakubowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth’s ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20, BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24 = 2.15, p=0.043. Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals.

  13. Present status of understanding on the genetic etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 7-10% worldwide. PCOS reflects multiple potential aetiologies and variable clinical manifestations. This syndrome is characterized by serious health implications such as diabetes, coronary heart diseases and cancer and also leads to infertility. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities determined by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In this paper, we have attempted a comprehensive review of primarily molecular genetic studies done so far on PCOS. We have also covered the studies focusing on the environmental factors and impact of ethnicity on the presentation of this syndrome. A large number of studies have been attempted to understand the aetiological mechanisms behind PCOS both at the clinical and molecular genetic levels. In the Indian context, majority of the PCOS studies have been confined to the clinical dimensions. However, a concrete genetic mechanism behind the manifestation of PCOS is yet to be ascertained. Understanding of this complex disorder requires comprehensive studies incorporating relatively larger homogenous samples for genetic analysis and taking into account the ethnicity and the environmental conditions of the population/cohort under study. Research focused on these aspects may provide better understanding on the genetic etiology and the interaction between genes and environment, which may help develop new treatment methods and possible prevention of the syndrome.

  14. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis, Elias; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have.

  15. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John G; McKenzie, John S; Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Broom, John; Rolland, Catherine; Johnston, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews) of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT), a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. PMID:27499648

  16. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder in women of reproductive age. Psychosocial factors can play a role in PCOS. Methods: To determine the psychosocial factors associated with PCOS in a case control study, 742 PCOS cases were compared to 798 women without PCOS for psychiatric disorders and social conditions. The data were collected using a validated questionnaire of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire (DSM-IV was used to diagnose major psychopathological disorders and other depressive and anxiety syndromes. The suspected psychopathology was evaluated by a clinical psychiatrist. Results: There was a significant difference between cases and controls in education level (71.8% vs. 80.4%; (P<0.001, and employment status (60% vs. 53%; P=0.01 (respectively. Chronic anxiety (35.7% vs. 26.8%; P<0.001, depression (18.9% vs. 7.9 %; P<0.001, anxiety disorders (7.7% vs. 3.3%; P<0.001, and personality disorders (2.9% vs. 1.7%; P=0.01, were higher in the PCOS patients compared controls, respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that chronic anxiety and depression were the most pscycologic pattern in PCO patients. Lower educational level and unemployment were higher in the cases than controls.

  17. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Stress Neurohormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zangeneh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum levels of stress neurohormones in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.This study was a clinical trial and was performed during July 2011 (month of Ramadan in Royan institute, Tehran. A total of 40 women who were aged 20-40 years and known cases of PCOS and had no other medical diseases were included in the study. They were divided into two groups as follows: (i study group (n = 20 who participated in Ramadan fasting and (ii control group (n = 20 who did not participate in fasting. For evaluating Ramadan's effect on the level of neurohormones serum level of the following variables were evaluated before and after Ramadan: cortisol, adrenaline (A, noradrenalin (NA, beta-endorphin (β-End, insulin, as well as sex hormones including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and testosterone.In the study group after Ramadan serum cortisol and nor-adrenaline levels were significantly lower than the initial levels obtained at beginning of Ramadan (p < 0.05 as compared to control group.This study indicates that Ramadan fasting decreases stress neurohormones in women with PCOS.

  18. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL, plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05. However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384. Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases.

  19. Evaluation of early atherosclerotic findings in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Afshin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women of childbearing age, and it seems better to consider it as an ovarian manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the current study was to evaluate early atherosclerotic findings in patients with PCOS. Methods We enrolled 46 women with PCOS and 45 normal control subjects who were referred to our hospital's endocrinology outpatient clinic. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD were performed in both cases and matched controls. Results Patients with PCOS showed an increased mean CIMT (0.63 ± 0.16 mm when compared with the control subjects (0.33 ± 0.06 mm. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001. The mean FMD in young patients with PCOS was 10.07 ± 1.2%, while it was 6.5 ± 2.06% in normal subjects. This difference was also statistically significant (p = 0.001. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PCOS is related with early atherosclerotic findings.

  20. Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Pascuali, Natalia; Bas, Diana; Bianchi, María Silvia; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology that affects more than 5% of women of reproductive age. Among other heterogeneous symptoms, PCOS is characterized by abnormalities in angiogenesis. Metformin has been introduced in the treatment of PCOS to manage insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Besides its metabolic effects, metformin has been shown to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in PCOS patients. In the present study, we used a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS rat model to analyze the effect of metformin administration on ovarian angiogenesis. We found that metformin was able to restore the increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin (ANGPT)1, and ANGPT1/ANGPT2 ratio and the decreased levels of platelet-derived growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor D observed in the dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats. These effects could take place, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of serum insulin. We also found an improvement in follicular development, with a lower percentage of small follicles and cysts and a higher percentage of antral follicles and corpora lutea after metformin administration. The improvement in ovarian angiogenesis is likely to restore the accumulation of small follicles observed in PCOS rats and to reduce cyst formation, thus improving follicular development and the percentage of corpora lutea. These results open new insights into the study of metformin action not only in glucose metabolism but also in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS women.

  1. Metabolic and hormonal aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: the impact of diet.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Annalouise

    2010-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, chronic endocrine condition affecting young women of reproductive age. It is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, and profound menstrual and ovulatory dysfunction with consequent sub-fertility. A clustering of metabolic aberrations is commonly associated with this condition and these include insulin resistance, disordered lipid metabolism and chronic low-grade inflammation. Overweight and obesity, as well as a degree of adipose tissue dysfunction, are present in a large proportion of women with PCOS, and where present, magnify the inherent hyperandrogenaemia characteristic of the condition, in addition to worsening the metabolic profile. Diet and lifestyle interventions are among the first-line treatments for PCOS, and weight reduction through energy restriction has been shown to exert positive influences on both metabolic and hormonal aspects of this condition. Alterations in carbohydrate amount and type have also been investigated, and more recently, dietary fatty acids, with a particular emphasis on PUFA, have been shown to have a positive impact within this population group. Although it is likely that diet is not the root cause of PCOS, it represents a modifiable variable with the potential to improve the health of women with this condition. Work to date has provided insights into the role of diet in PCOS; however, further work is required to determine the role of nutrients specifically within the context of PCOS, in order to develop more effective, evidence-based dietary guidelines for this condition.

  2. Loss of Function of the Melanocortin 2 Receptor Accessory Protein 2 Is Associated with Mammalian Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, M; Ramachandrappa, S.; Joachim, M.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, R.; Nuthalapati, N.; V. Ramanathan; Strochlic, D. E.; Ferket, P.; Linhart, K.; Ho, C.; Novoselova, T. V.; Garg, S.; Ridderstrale, M.; Marcus, C

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) modulate signaling of melanocortin receptors in vitro. To investigate the physiological role of brain-expressed Melanocortin 2 Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2), we characterized mice with whole body and brain-specific targeted deletion of Mrap2, both of which develop severe obesity at a young age. Mrap2 interacts directly with Melanocortin 4 Receptor (Mc4r), a protein previously implicated in mammalian obesity, and it enhances Mc4r-mediated...

  3. Accelerated protein evolution analysis reveals genes and pathways associated with the evolution of mammalian longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The genetic basis of the large species differences in longevity and aging remains a mystery. Thanks to recent large-scale genome sequencing efforts, the genomes of multiple species have been sequenced and can be used for cross-species comparisons to study species divergence in longevity. By analyzing proteins under accelerated evolution in several mammalian lineages where maximum lifespan increased, we identified genes and processes that are candidate targets of selection when longevity evolv...

  4. Primary Glial and Neuronal Tumors of the Ovary or Peritoneum: A Clinicopathologic Study of 11 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Olar, Adriana; Niu, Na; Jiang, Yi; Cheng, Wenjun; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Yang, Wentao; Zhang, Jing; Yemelyanova, Anna; Malpica, Anais; Zhang, Zhihong; Fuller, Gregory N; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-01

    Primary glial and neuronal tumors of the ovary or peritoneum are rare neuroectodermal-type tumors similar to their counterparts in the central nervous system. We retrospectively reviewed 11 cases. These cases included 4 ependymomas, 6 astrocytic tumors, and 1 neurocytoma. Patients' age ranged from 9 to 50 years (mean, 26 y; median, 24 y). All ependymal tumors with detailed clinical history (n=3) were not associated with any other ovarian neoplasm. In contrast, all astrocytic tumors were associated with immature teratoma (n=4), mature cystic teratoma (n=1), or mixed germ cell tumor (n=1). The neurocytoma arose in association with mature teratomatous components in a patient with a history of treated mixed germ cell tumor. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 7 of 7 ependymal and astrocytic tumors (100%) were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, and 2 of 2 ependymomas (100%) were positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. The neurocytoma was positive for synaptophysin and negative for S100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and SALL4. No IDH1-R132H mutation was detected in 2 of 2 (0%) astrocytomas by immunohistochemistry. Next-generation sequencing was performed on additional 2 ependymomas and 2 astrocytomas but detected no mutations in a panel of 50 genes that included IDH1, IDH2, TP53, PIK3CA, EGFR, BRAF, and PTEN. Follow-up information was available for 8 patients, with the follow-up period ranging from 4 to 59 months (mean, 15 mo; median, 8.5 mo), of which 3 had no evidence of disease and 5 were alive with disease. In conclusion, primary glial and neuronal tumors of the ovary can arise independently or in association with other ovarian germ cell tumor components. Pathologists should be aware of these rare tumors and differentiate them from other ovarian neoplasms. Even though an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation is found in the majority of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas, and in secondary glioblastomas arising from them, such mutations were

  5. Combined letrozole and clomiphene versus letrozole and clomiphene alone in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishafiha M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishafiha,1 Meisam Dehghan,2 Nazila Kiarang,1 Nahideh Sadegh-Asadi,1 Seyed Navid Shayegh,3 Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad2 1Department of Gynecology, Reproductive Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, 2Urmia University of Medical Sciences, 3Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age (6.8%–18%, is among the most common causes of infertility due to ovulation factors, and accounts for 55%–70% of infertility cases caused by chronic anovulation. In this study, we used a combination of letrozole and clomiphene in patients resistant to both drugs individually, and studied the effects of this combination in ovulation and pregnancy in resistant PCOS patients. Methods: The study population included infertile couples diagnosed as PCOS in the wife. The women used clomiphene for at least six cycles in order to ovulate after failure to form the dominant follicle, and were then put on letrozole for four cycles. Patients who were unable to form the dominant follicle were enrolled on letrozole and clomiphene combination therapy. Results: One hundred enrolled patients underwent 257 cycles of a combination of letrozole and clomiphene, in which 213 were able to form the dominant follicle (82.9% and 44 were unable to do so (17.1%. The number of mature follicles was 2.3±1.1. The mean endometrial thickness in patients on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration was 8.17±1.3 mm. The pregnancy rate was 42%. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be proposed that in PCOS patients resistant to clomiphene and letrozole used as single agents, a combination of the two drugs can be administered before using more aggressive treatment that may have severe complications or surgery. This combination may also be used as a first-line therapy to induce ovulation in severe cases of PCOS in order to

  6. Mammalian niche conservation through deep time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa R G DeSantis

    Full Text Available Climate change alters species distributions, causing plants and animals to move north or to higher elevations with current warming. Bioclimatic models predict species distributions based on extant realized niches and assume niche conservation. Here, we evaluate if proxies for niches (i.e., range areas are conserved at the family level through deep time, from the Eocene to the Pleistocene. We analyze the occurrence of all mammalian families in the continental USA, calculating range area, percent range area occupied, range area rank, and range polygon centroids during each epoch. Percent range area occupied significantly increases from the Oligocene to the Miocene and again from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene; however, mammalian families maintain statistical concordance between rank orders across time. Families with greater taxonomic diversity occupy a greater percent of available range area during each epoch and net changes in taxonomic diversity are significantly positively related to changes in percent range area occupied from the Eocene to the Pleistocene. Furthermore, gains and losses in generic and species diversity are remarkably consistent with ~2.3 species gained per generic increase. Centroids demonstrate southeastern shifts from the Eocene through the Pleistocene that may correspond to major environmental events and/or climate changes during the Cenozoic. These results demonstrate range conservation at the family level and support the idea that niche conservation at higher taxonomic levels operates over deep time and may be controlled by life history traits. Furthermore, families containing megafauna and/or terminal Pleistocene extinction victims do not incur significantly greater declines in range area rank than families containing only smaller taxa and/or only survivors, from the Pliocene to Pleistocene. Collectively, these data evince the resilience of families to climate and/or environmental change in deep time, the absence of

  7. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  8. Molecular mechanisms for transcription in mammalian mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspari, Martina

    2006-01-01

    The circular double stranded mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), which is about 16,600 bp in humans and 16,300 bp in mice, encodes 13 of the -90 different proteins present in the respiratory chain of mammalian mitochondria. The remaining components of the respiratory chain are encoded by nuclear genes and imported into the mitochondrial network. The genes present in mtDNA, 13 mRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs, are all essential for oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, mtDNA replicatio...

  9. Spiral Waves in Disinhibited Mammalian Neocortex

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoying; Troy, William C.; Yang, Qian; Ma, Hongtao; Laing, Carlo R.; Steven J Schiff; Wu, Jian-young

    2004-01-01

    Spiral waves are a basic feature of excitable systems. Although such waves have been observed in a variety of biological systems, they have not been observed in mammalian cortex during neuronal activity. We here report stable rotating spiral waves in rat neocortical slices visualized by voltage-sensitive dye imaging. Tissue from the occipital cortex (visual) was sectioned parallel to cortical lamina to preserve horizontal connections in layers III to V (500 μm thick, about 4 × 6 mm2). In such...

  10. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  11. Chlorpromazine inhibits mitosis of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, G B; Paul, D C; Williams, D C

    1983-09-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) at minimally effective concentrations accumulates mammalian cells in mitosis without lethal effects on the cells. Star-metaphase morphology similar to effects seen with classical antimitotic compounds probably results from the preferential action of CPZ on a specific class of microtubules--the pole-to-pole microtubules of the mitotic spindle. At CPZ concentrations of 8 X 10(-6) M, flow cytometry indicates no effect of CPZ on the progress of cells through phases of the cell cycle other than mitosis (M). These results suggest a possible mechanism for toxic side effects of CPZ in man such as granulocytopenia and light sensitization.

  12. Optogenetics for gene expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Konrad; Naumann, Sebastian; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D

    2015-02-01

    Molecular switches that are controlled by chemicals have evolved as central research instruments in mammalian cell biology. However, these tools are limited in terms of their spatiotemporal resolution due to freely diffusing inducers. These limitations have recently been addressed by the development of optogenetic, genetically encoded, and light-responsive tools that can be controlled with the unprecedented spatiotemporal precision of light. In this article, we first provide a brief overview of currently available optogenetic tools that have been designed to control diverse cellular processes. Then, we focus on recent developments in light-controlled gene expression technologies and provide the reader with a guideline for choosing the most suitable gene expression system.

  13. Micronuclei versus Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by X-Ray in Radiosensitive Mammalian Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Plamadeala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was accomplished to compare estimation methods of ionizing radiations genotoxicity in mammalian cell cultures by means of two cytogenetic parameters with focus on aberrant cells characterized by multiple chromosomal damages.In vitro study was carried out on the genotoxicity of low-medium doses of 190 kV X-rays absorbed in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures. Micronuclei and ten types of chromosomal aberrations were identified with Giemsa dying and optical microscope screening.The first parameter consisting in micronuclei relative frequency has led to higher linear correlation coefficient than the second one consistent with chromosomal aberrations relative frequency. However, the latter parameter estimated as the sum of all chromosomal aberrations appeared to be more sensitive to radiation dose increasing in the studied dose range, from 0 to 3 Gy. The number of micronuclei occurring simultaneously in a single cell was not higher than 3, while the number of chromosomal aberrations observed in the same cell reached the value of 5 for doses over 1 Gy.Polynomial dose-response curves were evidenced for cells with Ni micronuclei (i=1,3 while non-monotonic curves were evidenced through detailed analysis of aberrant cells with Ni chromosomal changes [Formula: see text] - in concordance with in vitro studies from literature. The investigation could be important for public health issues where micronucleus screening is routinely applied but also for research purposes where various chromosomal aberrations could be of particular interest.

  14. Performance monitoring of a mammalian cell based bioprocess using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Ray, Bryan H; Leister, Kirk J; Ryder, Alan G

    2013-09-24

    Being able to predict the final product yield at all stages in long-running, industrial, mammalian cell culture processes is vital for both operational efficiency, process consistency, and the implementation of quality by design (QbD) practices. Here we used Raman spectroscopy to monitor (in terms of glycoprotein yield prediction) a fed-batch fermentation from start to finish. Raman data were collected from 12 different time points in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) based manufacturing process and across 37 separate production runs. The samples comprised of clarified bioprocess broths extracted from the CHO cell based process with varying amounts of fresh and spent cell culture media. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CoAdReS) and ant colony optimization (ACO) variable selection methods were used to enhance the predictive ability of the chemometric models by removing unnecessary spectral information. Using CoAdReS accurate prediction models (relative error of predictions between 2.1% and 3.3%) were built for the final glycoprotein yield at every stage of the bioprocess from small scale up to the final 5000 L bioreactor. This result reinforces our previous studies which indicate that media quality is one of the most significant factors determining the efficiency of industrial CHO-cell processes. This Raman based approach could thus be used to manage production in terms of selecting which small scale batches are progressed to large-scale manufacture, thus improving process efficiency significantly. PMID:24016587

  15. Studies of some correlations of ovaries with corpora lutea and fetal development in female Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbieri Trevisan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the right and left ovaries of 30 pregnant Nelore cows. The reproductive tracts were collected at slaughterhouses in the western region of the state of São Paulo, and the study was conducted at the Laboratório de Anatomia Animal at UNESP (in Araçatuba. The size (occipitosacral length, height and weight of the fetuses were analyzed. The length, width and thickness (using calipers of the ovaries and corpora lutea, and weight and volume of the gonads were also measured. The data related to the ovaries and corpora lutea were correlated with fetal development, using a SAS program to analyze the Pearson correlation coefficient, and adjusted using a simple linear regression model. There was a significant correlation between the right ovary variables and fetal development; positive for width and negative for thickness. For the corpora lutea and fetal development, there was a significant negative correlation with the volume.

  16. NICHD Research Networks Help Piece Together the Puzzle of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donating to the NICHD Staff Directory NICHD research networks help piece together the puzzle of polycystic ovary ... identified by researchers in an NICHD-supported research network, the Specialized Cooperative Centers Program in Reproduction and ...

  17. The expression of testosterone converting enzymes in adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome rat mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) rat model and compare the expression of testosterone converting enzymes in adipose tissue of PCOS rat with that of controls.Methods 21-day-old female SD

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OVARY AND UTERUS OF EARLY PREGNANT RATS AND WOMEN TREATED WITH MIFEPRISTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWen-Jian; ZHANGLong-Sheng; YANGXin-Li; SHENGJi-Yun; ZHOUJie-Ling; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, morphological studies of uterus and ovary during terminating early pregnancy with mifcpristonc Were reported. In the experimental studies, 24 hrs after inhering 10 mg / kg mifcpristonc to early pregnant rats, all embryos wcrc dead, with decidual cells

  19. Pathogenesis of teratoid tumors of the ovary and testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, R M

    1975-01-01

    three germ layers, neoplastic sex cells, and neoplastic trophoblastic cells. The cells of these tumors and the tissues they form resemble very nearly the tissues of the human embryo with nonaxial formation of alimentary and respiratory structures in many instances. The notable frequency of variably differentiated neural elements in the teratoids tumors of the ovary is in sharp contrast to their uncommon occurrence in like tumors of the testis. Dysgenesis of the ovaries and the testes of testicular feminization syndrome should be regarded as likely soil for the development of teratoid tumors. PMID:1101172

  20. Gibberellins and parthenocarpic ability in developing ovaries of seedless mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talon, M; Zacarias, L; Primo-Millo, E

    1992-08-01

    Satsuma (Citrus unshiu [Mak] Marc.) and Clementine (Citrus reticulata [Hort.] Ex. Tanaka, cv Oroval) are two species of seedless mandarins differing in their tendency to develop parthenocarpic fruits. Satsuma is a male-sterile cultivar that shows a high degree of natural parthenocarpy and a high fruit set. Seedless Clementine varieties are self-incompatible, and in the absence of cross-pollination show a very low ability to set fruit. The gibberellins (GAs) GA53, putative 17-OH-GA(53), GA(44), GA(17), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(1), 3-epi-GA(1), GA(8), GA(24), GA(9), and GA(4) have been identified from developing fruits of both species by full-scan combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using selected ion monitoring with [(2)H(2)]- and [(13)C]-labeled internal standards, the levels of GA(53), GA(44), GA(19), GA(20), GA(1), GA(8), GA(4), and GA(9) were determined in developing ovaries at anthesis and 7 days before and after anthesis, from both species. Except for GA8, levels of the 13-hydroxy-GAs were higher in Satsuma than in Clementine, and these differences were more prominent for developing young fruits. At petal fall, Satsuma had, on a nanograms per gram dry weight basis, higher levels of GA(53) (10.4x), GA(44) (13.9x), GA(19) (3.0x), GA(20) (11.2x), and GA(1) (2.0x). By contrast, levels of GA(8) were always higher in Clementine, whereas levels of GA(4) did not differ greatly. Levels of GA(9) were very low in both species. At petal fall, fruitlets of Satsuma and Clementine contained 65 and 13 picograms of GA(1), respectively. At this time, the application of 25 micrograms of paclobutrazol to fruits increased fruit abscission in both varieties. This effect was reversed by the simultaneous applications of 1 microgram of GA(3). GA(3) alone improved the set in Clementine (13x), but had little influence on Satsuma. Thus, seedless fruits of the self-incompatible Clementine mandarin may not have adequate GA levels for fruit set. Collectively, these results

  1. Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ovaries by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Bellés Xavier; Irles Paula; Piulachs M Dolors

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library to identify genes involved in ...

  2. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns provide insight into polycystic ovary syndrome development

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiu-Xia; Wei, Jing-Zan; Jiao, Jiao; Jiang, Shu-Yi; Yu, Da-hai; Li, Da

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. However, the epigenetic mechanism involved in PCOS progression remains largely unknown. Here, combining the DNA methylation profiling together with transcriptome analysis, we showed that (i) there were 7929 differentially methylated CpG sites (β > 0.1, P 1.5, P < 0.005) in PCOS compared to normal ovaries; (ii) 54 genes were identified with methylated...

  3. [The conflict between obturator nerve and ovary: a cadaveric and radioanatomic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, F; Peltier, J; Havet, E; Page, C; Foulon, P; Gondry, J; Le Gars, D

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relationships between the ovary and the obturator nerve in its intrapelvic portion. Seven embalmed cadavers were dissected; 20 MRIs were then analyzed. The main distance between the lateral pole of the ovary and the obturator nerve was 29 mm. The authors describe various etiologies responsible for obturator neuralgia. An underdiagnosed cause is gonadal hypertrophy. PMID:23796698

  4. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Involving the Ovary: Comparative Evaluation of the Classification Algorithms using Tumor Size and Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Eun Sun; Bae, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ahwon; Choi, Yeong Jin; Park, Jong-Sup; Lee, Kyo-Young

    2010-01-01

    For intraoperative consultation of mucinous adenocarcinoma involving the ovary, it would be useful to have approaching methods in addition to the traditional limited microscopic findings in order to determine the nature of the tumors. Mucinous adenocarcinomas involving the ovaries were evaluated in 91 cases of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas and 19 cases of primary mucinous adenocarcinomas using both an original algorithm (unilateral ≥10 cm tumors were considered primary and unilateral

  5. “Cutaneous‐type” angiosarcoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary

    OpenAIRE

    den Bakker, M A; Ansink, A C; Ewing‐Graham, P C

    2006-01-01

    Benign and malignant somatic tumours arising in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary are a rare but recognised phenomenon. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common somatic malignancy arising in ovarian teratomas, although many other types of tumour have been described. An angiosarcoma with “cutaneous” type typical features arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary is reported. Vascular tumours have only rarely been described as secondary somatic tumours in ovarian teratomas. The diagnostic fea...

  6. Ovary apical abortion under water deficit is caused by changes in sequential development of ovaries and in silk growth rate in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Oury, Vincent; Tardieu, Francois; TURC, OLIVIER

    2016-01-01

    Grain abortion allows production of at least few viable seeds under water deficit, but causes major yield loss. It is maximum for water deficits occurring during flowering in maize (Zea mays). We have tested the hypothesis that abortion is linked to the differential development of ovary cohorts along the ear and to the timing of silk emergence. Ovary volume and silk growth were followed over 25-30d under four levels of water deficit and four hybrids in two experiments. A position-time model a...

  7. Toward Understanding the Genetic Basis of Yak Ovary Reproduction: A Characterization and Comparative Analyses of Estrus Ovary Transcriptiome in Yak and Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoliang Lan

    Full Text Available Yaks (Bos grunniens are endemic species that can adapt well to thin air, cold temperatures, and high altitude. These species can survive in harsh plateau environments and are major source of animal production for local residents, being an important breed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, compared with ordinary cattle that live in the plains, yaks generally have lower fertility. Investigating the basic physiological molecular features of yak ovary and identifying the biological events underlying the differences between the ovaries of yak and plain cattle is necessary to understand the specificity of yak reproduction. Therefore, RNA-seq technology was applied to analyze transcriptome data comparatively between the yak and plain cattle estrous ovaries.After deep sequencing, 3,653,032 clean reads with a total of 4,828,772,880 base pairs were obtained from yak ovary library. Alignment analysis showed that 16992 yak genes mapped to the yak genome, among which, 12,731 and 14,631 genes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Furthermore, comparison of yak and cattle ovary transcriptome data revealed that 1307 genes were significantly and differentially expressed between the two libraries, wherein 661 genes were upregulated and 646 genes were downregulated in yak ovary. Functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were involved in various Gene Ontology (GO categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. GO annotations indicated that the genes related to "cell adhesion," "hormonal" biological processes, and "calcium ion binding," "cation transmembrane transport" molecular events were significantly active. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the "complement and coagulation cascade" pathway was the most enriched in yak ovary transcriptome data, followed by the "cytochrome P450" related and "ECM-receptor interaction" pathways. Moreover, several

  8. On the potential of metformin to prevent preterm delivery in women with polycystic ovary syndrome - an epi-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanky, Eszter; DE Zegher, Francis; Díaz, Marta; Ibáñez, Lourdes; Carlsen, Sven M

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to re-evaluate whether metformin may reduce late miscarriage/preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We performed an epi-analysis of two randomized controlled trials. The participants were 313 women aged 18-42 years with PCOS who had singleton pregnancies. They were randomized to metformin or placebo treatment from first trimester until delivery. We analysed the prevalence of late miscarriage/preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes according to both the intention-to-treat principle and per protocol analysis. The metformin-treated patients had less late miscarriage/preterm delivery; five (3%) vs. 18 (11%) in the placebo group (p treatment during pregnancy seems to reduce early delivery in women with PCOS. We believe that further randomized studies should be performed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  9. Plasma osteoprotegerin is associated with testosterone levels but unaffected by pioglitazone treatment in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Hermann, Pernille; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt;

    2013-01-01

    in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Research design and methods Plasma OPG levels were measured in 30 PCOS patients before and after randomized treatment with 30 mg pioglitazone/placebo for 16 weeks. Fourteen age and BMI matched healthy women were included as controls. Clinical and hormonal evaluations...... and whole body DXA-scans were performed in all participants. Results OPG levels were comparable in PCOS patients [12.0 (10.5 - 14.6) ng/ml] and controls [12.9 (11.7 - 14.9) ng/ml]. In PCOS patients (n=30), OPG levels were positively associated with testosterone (r= 0.43), prolactin (r= 0.47), ICTP (r= 0...

  10. Regulation of neuroendocrine cells and neuron factors in the ovary by zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Hao, Ya-Nan; Song, Ran; Li, Lan; Feng, Yan-Ni; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Di; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    The pubertal period is an important window during the development of the female reproductive system. Development of the pubertal ovary, which supplies the oocytes intended for fertilization, requires growth factors, hormones, and neuronal factors. It has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause cytotoxicity of neuron cells. However, there have been no reports of the effects of ZnO NPs on neuronal factors and neuroendocrine cells in the ovary (in vivo). For the first time, this in vivo study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs on gene and protein expression of neuronal factors and the population of neuroendocrine cells in ovaries. Intact NPs were detected in ovarian tissue and although ZnO NPs did not alter body weight, they reduced the ovary organ index. Compared to the control or ZnSO4 treatments, ZnO NPs treatments differentially regulated neuronal factor protein and gene expression, and the population of neuroendocrine cells. ZnO NPs changed the contents of essential elements in the ovary; however, they did not alter levels of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. These data together suggest that intact ZnO NPs might pose a toxic effect on neuron development in the ovary and eventually negatively affect ovarian developmental at puberty. PMID:27215404

  11. Morphological aspects of the ovary of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Ribeiro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the female genital system of Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is part of the research on the reproductive biology of Brazilian birds. This work describes the morphological aspects of the ovary of Columba livia, as well as the histological differences observed in the ovarian follicles during the ovocyte maturation process. Ten Columba livia females were studied, whose ovaries had been dissected, fixed in Bouin and Helly solutions, and histologically processed for staining (Hematoxylin-Eosin; Gomori's trichromic and Weigert's technique and Gomori's technique for connective tissue fibers. The ovary has an irregular surface, is located in the abdominal cavity, and relates to the cranial portion of the left kidney and caudal extremity of the left lung. Histological examination shows that the ovary is covered with simple cubical epithelium, underlined by loose connective tissue that continues internally, surrounding the follicles. The ovarian follicles were described, in their different stages of development, with basis on the morphological changes occurring in the ovocyte and in the layers that surround it, in each phase of maturation. Among the follicles, groups lof cells of two distinct types, surrounded by connective tissue, are observable: clear cells with a spherical nucleus, and acidophilic cells with a slightly elongated nucleus. The studies of the ovary of Columba livia reveal histological similarities between this species and Columbina talpacoli (Temminck, 1811, whose ovaries were examined by Ribeiro et al. (1991.

  12. [Ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Fábio C A; Cônsoli, Fernando L

    2010-01-01

    As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles.

  13. Effects of Selenium on Maize Ovary Development at Pollination Stage Under Water Deficits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qiang-yun; Marja Turakainen; Mervi Seppanen; Pirjo M(a)kel(a)

    2008-01-01

    Maize ovary development is linked to kernel formation. Soil water deficit results in ovary abortion because of low water potential (ψw) resulting in inhibition of photosynthesis from anthesis to silking stage. Thus, drought is a key factor causing yield losses in maize, especially near the time of pollination. Earlier studies have indicated that selenium (Se) maintains antioxidative defence systems and enhances sugar and starch accumulation. The effects of Se on maize ovary development were studied in drought stress conditions. Maize ovary development was studied through observations on starch, membrane integrity, fresh weight and dry weight in drought-treated or unstressed glasshouse-grown plants, and crop yield, yield structure, leaf, stem and ear biomass accumulation were also analyzed. Results indicated that Se increased the stress tolerance of the crop, even though ovary abortion was not eliminated by Se treatments under low ψw. Under well-watered control conditions, Se had also negative effects. When the first ear was not succesfully pollinated or the ovaries aborted, the plants developed more ears. Even though these later formed ears did not produce kernels, they significantly increased the dry weight of the plants under water deficit. It could be concluded that The optimal concentration for maize of Se applied through roots is about 0.01 mg kg-1 (supplied as Na2SeO4) soil or less.

  14. Redox regulation of mammalian sperm capacitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian O′Flaherty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitation is a series of morphological and metabolic changes necessary for the spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability. One of the earlier happenings during mammalian sperm capacitation is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS that will trigger and regulate a series of events including protein phosphorylation, in a time-dependent fashion. The identity of the sperm oxidase responsible for the production of ROS involved in capacitation is still elusive, and several candidates are discussed in this review. Interestingly, ROS-induced ROS formation has been described during human sperm capacitation. Redox signaling during capacitation is associated with changes in thiol groups of proteins located on the plasma membrane and subcellular compartments of the spermatozoon. Both, oxidation of thiols forming disulfide bridges and the increase on thiol content are necessary to regulate different sperm proteins associated with capacitation. Reducing equivalents such as NADH and NADPH are necessary to support capacitation in many species including humans. Lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phospohate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase are responsible in supplying NAD (P H for sperm capacitation. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs are newly described enzymes with antioxidant properties that can protect mammalian spermatozoa; however, they are also candidates for assuring the regulation of redox signaling required for sperm capacitation. The dysregulation of PRDXs and of enzymes needed for their reactivation such as thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system and glutathione-S-transferases impairs sperm motility, capacitation, and promotes DNA damage in spermatozoa leading to male infertility.

  15. Calcium Signaling in Mammalian Eggs at Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Hideki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ito, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The innovation and development of live-cell fluorescence imaging methods have revealed the dynamic aspects of intracellular Ca2+ in a wide variety of cells. The fertilized egg, the very first cell to be a new individual, has long been under extensive investigations utilizing Ca2+ imaging since its early days, and spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics and underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ mobilization, as well as physiological roles of Ca2+ at fertilization, have become more or less evident in various animal species. In this article, we illustrate characteristic patterns of Ca2+ dynamics in mammalian gametes and molecular basis for Ca2+ release from intracellular stores leading to the elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and describe the identity and properties of sperm-borne egg-activating factor in relation to the induction of Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations, referring to its potential use in artificial egg activation as infertility treatment. In addition, a possible Ca2+ influx-driven mechanism for slow and long-lasting Ca2+ oscillations characteristic of mammalian eggs is proposed, based on the recent experimental findings and mathematical modeling. Cumulative knowledge about the roles of Ca2+ in the egg activation leading to early embryogenesis is summarized, to emphasize the diversity of functions that Ca2+ can perform in a single type of cell.

  16. Evolution of mammalian genome organization inferred from comparative gene mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J; Stanyon, Roscoe; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2001-01-01

    Comparative genome analyses, including chromosome painting in over 40 diverse mammalian species, ordered gene maps from several representatives of different mammalian and vertebrate orders, and large-scale sequencing of the human and mouse genomes are beginning to provide insight into the rates and patterns of chromosomal evolution on a whole-genome scale, as well as into the forces that have sculpted the genomes of extant mammalian species. PMID:11423011

  17. USE OF NON-MAMMALIAN ALTERNATIVE MODELS FOR NEUROTOXICOLOGICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Randall T.; Nass, Richard; Boyd, Windy A; Jonathan H Freedman; Dong, Ke; Narahashi, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    The field of neurotoxicology needs to satisfy two opposing demands: the testing of a growing list of chemicals, and resource limitations and ethical concerns associated with testing using traditional mammalian species. National and international government agencies have defined a need to reduce, refine or replace mammalian species in toxicological testing with alternative testing methods and non-mammalian models. Toxicological assays using alternative animal models may relieve some of this pr...

  18. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal; Bhaiya Khanal; Khadga Basnet; Bhim Rai; Shiva Devkota

    2013-01-01

    Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were...

  19. Pharmacotherapy of polycystic ovary syndrome--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a persisting challenge to clinical and basic research scientists as none of the presently available medications have been fully able to combat these consequences. The aim of the present review is to summarize the different lines of treatment available for the different symptomologies that women with PCOS presents. In this comprehensive review, search was made for various treatment options available for PCOS by using Cochrane library, Pubmed, Medline, in addition to the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. The search results revealed that oral contraceptives containing oestrogen and progesterone regularize the menstruation, antiandrogens like spironolactone and drosperinone have proven to be effective in hirsutism and acne, clomiphene is the gold standard for ovulation induction, but multiple pregnancies and clomiphene failure add to its limitation. Hence, aromatase inhibitors like letrozole, low-dose gondotropins, and ovarian drilling procedure have shown to be beneficial effect in clomiphene-resistant cases. Insulin sensitizers such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, and d-chiro-inositol increase insulin sensitivity and improve ovulation rate. Recently, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, acarbose, and statins have shown positive results in different symptomologies of PCOS. The results show that PCOS treatment constitutes varied line of treatment depending upon the clinical features with which a woman is presenting. Still, unfortunately, none of the treatments are fully able to combat the PCOS. PMID:21210850

  20. Is interleukin-18 associated with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Rong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research show that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS may have an association with low-grade chronic inflammation, IL-18 is considered as a strong risk marker of inflammation. Methods To investigate serum IL-18 concentrations in PCOS patients and focus on its relationship between obesity and insulin resistance (IR. Sixty consecutive women with PCOS and thirty controls were recruited. Serum level of IL-18 and fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone (T were measured. Results Serum levels of IL-18 was significantly higher in the PCOS group than in the control group. Serum level of IL-18 was higher in the PCOS group with IR than in the PCOS group without IR. Serum level of IL-18 was higher in obese PCOS patients than in lean PCOS patients. Serum level of IL-18 was higher in lean PCOS patients than in the lean control group. Serum level of IL-18 in the PCOS group was positively related to BMI, IR index and T. Conclusion IL-18 level was increased in PCOS patients, and correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and hyperandrogenism.