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Sample records for aged beagles histomorphometry

  1. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Miller, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Radiobiology Div.; Sacco-Gibson, N. [Proctor and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  2. Histomorphometry and stability analysis of early loaded implants with two different surface conditions in beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Despite an improved bone reactions of Mg-incorporated implants in the animals, little yet has been carried out by the experimental investigations in functional loading conditions. PURPOSE This study investigated the clinical and histologic parameters of osseointegrated Mg-incorporated implants in early loading conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 36 solid screw implants (diameter 3.75 mm, length 10 mm) were placed in the mandibles of 6 beagle dogs. Test groups incl...

  3. Dental radiology: ageing changes in permanent teeth of Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic interpretation of dental or periodontal disease is dependent in part on an understanding of ageing changes, A progressively ageing colony of healthy beagle dogs (120 to 3759 days) was studied by use of high-detail radiographs made following the death of the dog. Morphological features whose radiographic appearance was found to be especially age-dependent were: root canal size, both vertical and horizontal alveolar bone resorption, visualisation of the lamina dura dentis, and detection of hypercementosis. Understanding of these ageing changes is necessary to avoid over-diagnosis of disease

  4. Consideration of age-dependent radium retention in people on the basis of the beagle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal calcification as a function of age has been estimated for human females on the basis of the beagle model. The interspecies scaling of radium retention characteristics has been described in terms of skeletal calcium addition rates for beagles and humans. radium retention in humans exposed to less than 200 μCi was greatest in individuals who were less than 18 years old when exposed

  5. Histomorphometry of regenerated tibial bone tissue in rats of different age under violation of saltwater balance

    OpenAIRE

    Pogorelov M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Formation of regenerated bone tissue in rats of different age at normal conditions and at hyperhydration has beenstudied. It was revealed the features in composition of regenerated tissue at a different stages of bone repair process that dependson rat's age. The hypoosmolar hyperhydration cause disorders of regenerated tissue development and inhibit lamellarbone tissue formation. With the help of statistical methods it was shown the dependence of the age and hyperhydration degreeon regenerate...

  6. Histomorphometry of regenerated tibial bone tissue in rats of different age under violation of saltwater balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelov M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of regenerated bone tissue in rats of different age at normal conditions and at hyperhydration has beenstudied. It was revealed the features in composition of regenerated tissue at a different stages of bone repair process that dependson rat's age. The hypoosmolar hyperhydration cause disorders of regenerated tissue development and inhibit lamellarbone tissue formation. With the help of statistical methods it was shown the dependence of the age and hyperhydration degreeon regenerated tissue composition.

  7. Mechanical and morphological evaluation of age-related changes in the Beagle spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-related changes were evaluated in the spines of Beagle dogs by biomechanical testing, radiology and pathology. Thirty age-matched healthy Beagle dogs were divided into five groups having mean ages of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 years. Spinal radiographs of anesthetized dogs were taken prior to euthanasia and on defleshed pines following necropsy. Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar segments were tested in compression to calculate peak stress, peak strain, and elastic modulus. Adjacent spinal segments were examined histologically. Histological evidence of the disc degeneration and changes in the mechanical properties of the intervertebral disc joint preceded radiographical evidence of spondylosis. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc space were probably a result of the disc degeneration rather than the spondylytic lesions. 3 references, 4 figures

  8. Age incidence and site distribution of mammary dysplasias in young beagle bitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.R.

    1976-07-01

    The age incidence and site distribution of 2,142 mammary dysplasias were documented for 39 beagle bitches 6 months to 4 years of age. Lesion onset was at 2-3 years of age, at which time more than 50 percent of the females had dysplasias. Dysplasias appeared before palpable tumors. Posterior mammae developed more lesions than did anterior mammae. Thus the gradient for early onset of lesions coincided with the gradient for tumor frequency reported previously; a preneoplastic potential is suggested for (some) dysplasias. Problems of defining normal tissue are discussed.

  9. Age-related changes in the testes and prostate of the Beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-related changes in the histologic morphology of the Beagle dog prostate and testes must be separated from those changes that may result from the testing of experimental compounds. The prostate and testes of healthy age-matched Beagle dogs 3 to 14 yr of age were obtained. Serum to evaluate testosterone levels was also obtained from each dog at the time of euthanasia. Tissue sections from the prostate and testes were examined by light microscopy for both qualitative and quantitative morphologic assessment. A statistically significant increase in prostatic weight with increased age was noted. Significant morphometric findings in the prostate included a decrease in the relative percent of epithelial cells and an increase in the relative lumen size of glandular acini with increased age. The absolute volume of prostate interstitial tissue and inflammation showed a statistically significant increase with age. Stereological analysis of the testes showed a decrease in the relative percent epithelium with increasing age. No distinct age-related trend could be detected in serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels did not correlate with the morphologic age-related changes observed in the testes or prostate. (author)

  10. Toxicity of 239PuO2 inhaled by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of age at exposure on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 239PuO2 particles is being studied in aged Beagle dogs (8.0-10.5 yr of age at exposure). Forty-eight dogs inhaled 239PuO2 particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 mm to achieve graded levels of initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranging from 0.02-0.66 μCi 239Pu/kg body weight (0.75-24 kBq/kg). Twelve other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent only. All forty-eight exposed dogs have died, including two in the past year. The twelve control dogs have also died, including one in the past year. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been the primary causes of death in these aged dogs exposed to 239PuO2. (author)

  11. Effect of Age and Level of Cognitive Function on Spontaneous and Exploratory Behaviors in the Beagle Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Siwak, Christina T.; Tapp, P. Dwight; Milgram, Norton W.

    2001-01-01

    Cognitively characterized young and aged beagle dogs were administered six different spontaneous behavior tests, which provided measures of locomotion, exploration, and social interaction. Consistent with our previous findings, we obtained no overall effect of age on locomotion. We did find, however, that for the aged dogs locomotion correlated with level of cognitive function, being lowest in age-unimpaired dogs and highest in impaired dogs. Exploratory behavior, as measured by response to n...

  12. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  13. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45Ca content and 45Ca/dry and 45Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  14. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Joseph A.; Landsberg, Gary M.; Milgram, Norton W.; Miolo, Alda

    2008-01-01

    Aged dogs demonstrate cognitive decline that is linked to brain aging. The purpose of the present study was to examine if a commercially available nutraceutical supplement that may be neuroprotective and contains phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine could improve cognitive function in aged beagles. Nine aged beagles were tested on performance on a delayed-non-matching-to-position task, which is a neuropsychological test of short-term visuospatial memory. All subjects w...

  15. Gross and surgical pathologic findings in beagles receiving gamma radiation during development and sacrificed at 5 or 8 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross necropsy examinations have been completed on each of the 140 beagles scheduled for sacrifice at 5 years of age and on 28 of 140 beagles for sacrifice at 8 years of age. To date, the only major gross pathologic changes that are correlated with radiation treatment are an unusual number of testicular tumors occurring in irradiated dogs, especially in those receiving 100R at 55 days postcoitus and sacrificed at 5 years of age

  16. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old Beagle dogs is being investigated to determine possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to non-radioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. All 144Ce-exposed and control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2726 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure, and neoplastic disease in 13 of the 20 dogs that died beyond 904 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in five of these dogs. In contrast to the study with young adult dogs, in which pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were one of the prominent findings, all of these tumors were carcinomas

  17. Spontaneous Pathology and Routine Clinical Pathology Parameters in Aging Beagle Dogs: A Comparison With Adolescent and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J; Cotton, P; Robinson, S; Jacobsen, M

    2016-03-01

    AstraZeneca ran a bespoke study to generate age-matched clinical pathology and histopathology data from a cohort of Beagle dogs aged between 25 and 37 months to support the use of these older animals in routine preclinical toxicology studies. As the upper age range of Beagle dogs routinely used in toxicology studies does not normally exceed 24 months, there is an absence of appropriate age-matched historical control data. The generation of such data was crucial to understand whether age-related differences in spontaneous findings might confound the interpretation of toxicology study data. While the majority of the histopathology findings in all the older dogs occurred at a similar prevalence as those expected in young adult dogs (<24 months), a number of differences were observed in the thymus (involution), bone marrow (increased adiposity), testes (degenerative changes), and lung (fibrosis, pigment and alveolar hyperplasia) that could be misinterpreted as a test article effect. Minor differences in some clinical pathology values (hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, absolute reticulocytes) were of a small magnitude and considered unlikely to affect the interpretation of study data. PMID:26553522

  18. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  19. Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Koji; Kim, Soonih; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:24650193

  20. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, D.R. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with 45Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO-); ovariectomized (OV-); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H2O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and 45Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV- and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO-. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV- and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO-. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig

  2. Toxicity of inhaled 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles in aged beagle dogs. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles inhaled by 8- to 10.5-yr-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of older members of the human population to accidental inhalation of radioactive aerosols. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies of dogs exposed at approximately 3 mo or 12 to 14 mo of age. Six blocks of five female dogs each have been divided into four exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14, 28 and 57 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight. Six blocks of four male dogs have been divided into three exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14 and 28 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight. Controls in each block were exposed to fused aluminosilicate particles containing stable cerium. Fifteen dogs with initial lung burdens ranging from 20 to 75 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight and cumulative doses to lung of from 22,000 to 74,000 rads have died or were euthanized 197 to 1207 days after exposure with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis.Pulmonary retention of the inhaled 144Ce was similar to that observed previously in dogs exposed at 18 to 22 mo of age in a radiation dose pattern study. Serial observations are continuing on the 19 surviving 144Ce-exposed and eight control dogs

  3. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged beagle dogs. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles by 8 to 10.5-year-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of older members of the human population to accidental inhalation of radioactive aerosols. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies of dogs exposed at approximately 3 months or 12 to 14 months of age. Six blocks of five female dogs each have been divided into four exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14, 28 and 57 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight. Six blocks of four male dogs each have been divided into three exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.2, 14 and 28 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight. Controls in each block were exposed to fused aluminosilicate particles containing stable cerium. Eighteen dogs with initial lung burdens ranging from 14 to 75 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight and cumulative doses to lung of from 22,000 to 74,000 rads have died or were euthanized 197 to 1207 days after exposure with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis

  4. Desempenho e histomorfometria intestinal de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade recebendo melhoradores de crescimento Performance and intestinal histomorphometry of broiler chickens at 1 to 21 days of age fed growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiana de Siqueira Nunes Ramos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para avaliar o desempenho produtivo e a histomorfometria dos segmentos do intestino delgado em frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes aditivos melhoradores de crescimento: ração controle (sem melhorador de crescimento; ração controle + antibióticos (colistina e bacitracina de zinco; ração controle + probiótico; ração controle + prebiótico; ração controle + probiótico + prebiótico. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho, consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e as características morfométricas, altura, perímetro e profundidade de vilos, dos segmentos do intestino delgado no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O desempenho das aves e as características morfométricas dos segmentos dos intestino não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. O uso de probiótico, prebiótico, probiótico + prebiótico e antibiótico em rações para frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade em condições de baixo desafio sanitário não interfere no desempenho e nas características histomorfométricas dos segmentos do intestino delgado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and intestinal histomorphometry of small intestine segments in broiler chickens in 1 to 21-day of age period, fed diets with different growth promoter additives: control diet (without growth promoter; control diet + antibiotic (colistin and zinc bacitracin; control diet + probiotic (Protexin; control diet + prebiotic (Bio moss; control diet + probiotic + prebiotic. The birds were distributed in a random block design, with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated variables of performance, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion and the morphometric characteristics, height, circumference and depth of the

  5. Quantitative Histomorphometry of the Healthy Peritoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Betti Schaefer; Maria Bartosova; Stephan Macher-Goeppinger; Akos Ujszaszi; Markus Wallwiener; Joanne Nyarangi-Dix; Peter Sallay; Dorothea Burkhardt; Uwe Querfeld; Viktoria Pfeifle; Bernd Lahrmann; Vedat Schwenger; Elke Wühl; Stefan Holland-Cunz; Franz Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    The peritoneum plays an essential role in preventing abdominal frictions and adhesions and can be utilized as a dialysis membrane. Its physiological ultrastructure, however, has not yet been studied systematically. 106 standardized peritoneal and 69 omental specimens were obtained from 107 patients (0.1–60 years) undergoing surgery for disease not affecting the peritoneum for automated quantitative histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. The mesothelial cell layer morphology and protein ex...

  6. Mamary neoplasia in a closed beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence rate of mammary neoplasia in a large colony of beagles and its relationship to internal skeletal and/or liver radiation, age, relatively late ovariectomy (4 years and older), endometritis, parity status, and adrenal weight was examined. Of these various factors, age was the only condition that was clearly correlated with changes in the mammary tumor incidence. The rate became significant at approximately eight years of age and increased progressively throughout the successively older age classes. Within the female dogs, the incidence of mammary cancer was higher that that of any other form of spontaneous malignancy

  7. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Yongbin Zhao; Weilie Hu; Lichao Zhang; Fei Guo; Wei Wang; Bangqi Wang; Changzheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency leve...

  8. Radium-induced dental changes in humans and beagles: a comparative microradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microradiographs made from thin sections of teeth of humans carrying skeletal deposits of 226Ra and 228Ra and of beagles injected with 226Ra showed similar patterns of change with age. The patterns consisted of the presence of remodeling units of alveolar bone that extended across the gomphosis and involved the cementum and dentine. This is not described as a normal aging change in humans or beagles. 3 tables

  9. 226Ra-induced dental changes: a comparative microradiographic study of human and beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of microradiographs made from thin sections of teeth from human and the Beagle dog show a similar pattern of change dependent on age of exposure and duration of exposure prior to death or extraction. The pattern of change consisted of the presence of remodeling units of alveolar bone that extended across the gomphosis and involved the cementum and dentine. This pattern of change is not described as a normal aging change in either humans or the Beagle dog. 2 tables

  10. BeagleBone media center

    CERN Document Server

    Lewin, David

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a hobbyist or a professional, this book will get you fully equipped to resolve the most commonly occurring media-related challenges. If you want to expand your horizons beyond lighting an LED and push the limits of your board, this is just the book for you. Working knowledge of BeagleBone is assumed.

  11. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  12. Pathology in a lifespan study of x-irradiated female beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical records, gross necropsy records, slides, and stored tissues of x-irradiated beagles were reviewed. Tables are presented to show preliminary determinations of causes of death, neoplasms found, and number of dogs at risk in relation to age and dose level. Mammary and ovarian tumors were more numerous in irradiated beagles and were partially responsible for shortening of lifespan. Neoplasms of the urogenital system were also increased in irradiated groups

  13. Static histomorphometry of human iliac crest and vertebral trabecular bone: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    years) had a known vertebral fracture of L-2. The iliac crest biopsies and 9-mm-thick mediolateral slices of half the entire vertebral bodies were embedded in methylmetacrylate, stained with aniline blue, and scanned into a computer with a flatbed image scanner at a high resolution. With a custom......We recently developed a new, rapid method for conducting static histomorphometry on large histologic sections. This method has now been applied on both iliac crest and lumbar vertebral bone to compare the age-related changes at these two skeletal sites and to investigate the correlation between the...... histomorphometric measures at the iliac crest and the vertebral body. The material comprised matched sets of unilateral transiliac crest bone biopsies and lumbar vertebral bodies (L-2) from 24 women (19-96 years) and 24 men (23-95 years) selected from a larger autopsy material. Three female subjects (80, 88, and 90...

  14. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  15. Staining and histomorphometry of microcracks in the human femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, A R; Longo, J A; Weiner, G

    1994-03-01

    We developed staining techniques that permit identification and histomorphometric analysis of microcracks in the human femoral head 1) from thick, ground bone sections (100 microns) by prestaining with the Villanueva mineralized bone stain (MIBS), and 2) from plastic embedded, undecalcified thin bone sections (5-15 microns) by staining in gallocyanin chrome alum-Villanueva blood stain methods. Both methods represent a significant improvement in the stainability of the microcracks, cellular and tissue elements, and the simultaneous assessment of osteoid seams and tetracycline markers by histomorphometry. Shrinkage and other artifacts were minimized, which helped to clarify some of the uncertainties arising from artifacts resulting from some bone staining methods. Histomorphometric analyses of microcracks were conducted on thick, ground sections of subchondral and trabecular bone. Microcracks were more prevalent in the subchondral bone and osteochondral junction than in the more distant trabeculae. We have consistently localized microcrack areas in bone tissues prepared in these ways. PMID:7515700

  16. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An investigation will be held to identify the potential reasons surrounding the inability to communicate with the British-led Beagle 2 lander once it parted from the mother ship on Christmas day (1 page).

  17. Histomorphometry of Trabecular Bone of Caudal Vertebrae During Rat Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shahtaheri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy make demands upon maternal calcium hemeostasis and the extent to which the maternal bone mass is effected remains uncertain. Recently changes in the bone mass during human pregnancy have been associated also with the transformation of the cancellous architecture and the bone surface available for exchange. These jistomorphometrical structural changes were examined further in an animal model. Using uniparous laboratory rats fed at libitum, the histomorphometry of cancellous bone was compared in undecalcified of caudal vertebrae. Between 3 and 6 sections (8 m were analysed by an automated trabecular analysis system (TAS which measures a comprehensive range of structural variables including the trabecular separation, number, connectivity and width. There was an early stimulation of bone formation that was indicated by generation of thicker and interconnected trabeculae. However in caudal vertebrae, there were architectural changes in cancellous bone commencing with a significant increase in the trabecular separation. ‌‌ It was concluded that strengthens the cancellous component of the maternal skeleton possibly to counter increased load and to facilitate mineral mobilisation in maternal/neonate exchange during the subsequent lactation period.

  18. Radium-226-induced dental disease in Beagles: a radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of dental radiographs made at necropsy and during the life of the dogs clearly shows age dependent changes within the control dogs. Periodontal diseases, loss of lamina dura, root ankylosis, and loss of pulp cavity were all commonly noted. Tooth loss and dental caries were rare in the control dogs. In injected Beagles loss of lamina dura was noted earlier and was dose dependent. Tooth loss and dental carried increased with dose level and appeared earlier. Tooth loss was common by 1600-1800 days of age while dental caries were common in almost all dogs by 1600-1800 days of age in the R40 level. Dental caries was the most accurate indication of the level of 226Ra toxicity. 18 reference, 1 table

  19. A new approach to iliac bone histomorphometry: implications for biomechanics and cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Parfitt, A Michael

    2014-01-01

    I devised a method for obtaining information on cancellous bone structure from iliac bone histomorphometry that led to the demonstration that architecture is an important component of bone strength and bone fragility. Furthermore, this method contributed to the recognition of the importance of changes in osteoclast and osteocyte apoptosis in response to estrogen deficiency and replacement.

  20. BeagleBone for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Josh

    2014-01-01

    If you have some experience with the BeagleBone or similar embedded systems and want to learn more about security and privacy, this book is for you. Alternatively, if you have a security and privacy background and want to learn more about embedded development, this book is for you. You should have some familiarity with Linux systems and with the C and Python programming languages.

  1. Quantification of Osseointegration of Plasma-Polymer Coated Titanium Alloyed Implants by means of Microcomputed Tomography versus Histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Gabler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to derive both qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate osseointegration of implants is histomorphometry. The present study describes a new image reconstruction algorithm comparing the results of bone-to-implant contact (BIC evaluated by means of µCT with histomorphometry data. Custom-made conical titanium alloyed (Ti6Al4V implants were inserted in the distal tibial bone of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Different surface configurations were examined: Ti6Al4V implants with plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm coating and plasma-polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA coating as well as implants without surface coating. After six weeks postoperatively, tibiae were explanted and BIC was determined by µCT (3D and afterwards by histomorphometry (2D. In comparison to uncoated Ti6Al4V implants demonstrating low BIC of 32.4% (histomorphometry and 51.3% (µCT, PPAAm and PPEDA coated implants showed a nonsignificant increase in BIC (histomorphometry: 45.7% and 53.5% and µCT: 51.8% and 62.0%, resp.. Mean BIC calculated by µCT was higher for all surface configurations compared to BIC detected by histomorphometry. Overall, a high correlation coefficient of 0.70 (p<0.002 was found between 3D and 2D quantification of BIC. The μCT analysis seems to be suitable as a nondestructive and accurate 3D imaging method for the evaluation of the bone-implant interface.

  2. Retention and distribution of 226Ra in beagles: a comparison between multiple and single injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal uptake, retention, and distribution of 226Ra were studied in 330 beagles administered eight semi-monthly i.v. injections of radium starting at 2, 4, and 14 months of age. Skeletal uptake, the ratio of body burden at 35 days post-injection (A35) to the total injected dose (A0) was 71.7 percent, 78.1 percent and 38.5 percent, for a dose of 10 μCi/kg body weight administered starting at 2, 4, and 14 months of age, respectively. Skeletal retention of radium 350 days post-injection (A350/A0) was 67.2 percent, 73.3 percent, and 27.7 percent. Comparison of 226Ra retention from single and multiple injections of radium shows that at dose level 6.064 μCi/kg the retention functions for periods 35 days after injection are identical; for dose level 10 μCi/kg, a larger retention is observed for multiple-injection groups. Comparison of 226Ra retention in man with that in beagles shows that within a period between 35 days and 6000 days post--injection, the body burden in dog decreases by about 6 times in contrast with 43 times in man. Regional distribution of 226Ra in bone matrix at proximal, midshaft, and distal humeri from 21 beagles shows the highest concentration of the radionuclide at proximal regions. Radium distribution on autoradiograms shows a uniform distribution in 4-month-old beagles in contrast to ''hot spots'' superimposed on a diffuse background for the 14-month age group. Radium in the latter group is located mostly on periosteum and endosteum surfaces

  3. Development of the canine tooth in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla

  4. 224Ra toxicity from a pilot study in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity data are reported for 20 beagles given single intravenous injections of 224Ra in 1963 or 1968. The injection of 1 μCi 224Ra/kg gave an average skeletal dose of about 54 rad in young adult beagles. Two dogs died of acute radiation sickness, 6 with bone sarcomas, 6 from other causes, and 6 were still alive on 31 March 1977. The acutely lethal dosage (LD/sub 50/30)/ for a single injection of 224 Ra in young adult beagles seems to lie between 10 and 20 μCi 224Ra/kg, with an average skeletal dose between 500 and 1000 rad

  5. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4. The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Use of linear model analysis techniques in the evaluation of radiation effects on the life span of the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependency of the beagle-dog life span on level of and age at exposure to 60Co gamma radiation was analyzed by several techniques; one of these methods was linear model analysis. Beagles of both sexes were given single, bilateral exposures at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2, 70, or 365 days postpartum (dpp). Dogs exposed at 8, 28, or 55 dpc or at 2 dpp received 0, 20, or 100 R, whereas those exposed at 70 or 365 dpp received 0 or 100 R. Beagles were designated initially either as sacrifice or as life-span animals. All deaths of life-span study animals were classified as spontaneous, hence for this group the mean age of death was a quantitative response that can be analyzed by linear model analysis techniques. Such analyses for each age group were performed, taking into account differences due to sex, linear and quadratic dependency on dose, and interaction between sex and dose. At this time most of the animals have reached 11 years of age. No significant effects of radiation on mean life span have been detected. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Radiation injury of the developing immune system in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal lymphoid organs of the beagle dog were studied to determine if the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal 60Co gamma exposures to 200R or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation; 35, 40, or 45 days postcoitus. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gy. Half the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at five days and half at ten days postirradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymus lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at five and ten days PI as compared to age matched controls. Radiation damage in the developing immune system was expressed in the lymphocyte populations of fetal lymphoid organs and in thymus epithelium. Damage was qualitatively and quantitatively more severe following irradiation earlier in gestation, confirming that the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity. Prenatal radiation injury to the developing lymphoid system could compromise postnatal immunologic function and could alter immunoregulation

  8. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histo- morphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate. At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days, feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24, one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW, drumstick weight (DW, and jejunum length (JL as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01. The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04 and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01 and total periods (p < 0.05. The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059 and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079 as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL and villi number (p < 0.05 and, VL/CD (p < 0.01 and, villus surface area (p < 0.02. The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05. The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01. In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry.

  9. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  10. Hematologic effects of inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed, by inhalation, 5 to 11 years ago, to aerosols of 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4, at six dose levels resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Translocation of the plutonium to extrapulmonary sites was related to the physical-chemical characteristics of the plutonium compound. The highly insoluble 239PuO2 was retained primarily in the lung and associated lymph nodes, whereas 239Pu(NO3)4 was much more soluble and translocated relatively rapidly to the skeleton and other extrapulmonary tissues. The 238PuO2 was intermediate in solubility and translocation characteristics. The hematologic effects of plutonium inhalation were most pronounced on lymphocyte populations. Evidence suggests that these effects result from irradiation of lymphocytes via the pulmonary lymph nodes with insoluble 239PuO2, and via these same lymph nodes, extrapulmonary lymph nodes, and bone marrow lymphocytes with the more soluble forms, i.e., 238PuO2 and 239Pu(NO3)4. There is no evidence suggesting that these exposures increase the risk of developing myeloid or lymphoid neoplasia. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of 90Sr and 226Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226Ra. Although administration of 90Sr and 226Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  12. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of 90Sr and 226Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226Ra. Although administration of 90Sr and 226Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  13. Incidencia de agenesia dental en perros Beagle. Resultados preliminares(Dental agenesis incidence in Beagle dogs. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Sosa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente trabajo se examinaron 49 perros Beagle procedentes del CENPALAB que fueron mantenidos bajo el mismo régimen de convivencia, alimentación y manejo en el Bioterio de la Facultad de Medicina “Victoria de Girón” tributarios todos a estudios de implantes dentales.AbstractForty-nine Beagle dogs coming from CENPALAB were maintained under the same coexistence, feeding and handling regime in the Bioterio of Medicine High School “Victoria de Girón” tributary to studies of dental implant all them.

  14. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  15. Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelma Neylanne Pinho Muniz Oliveira; Matheus Augusto Rodrigues Félix; Tauany Costa Silva Pereira; Luiz Gustavo Pessoa Rocha; José Rafael Miranda; Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto; Suzan Kelly Vilela Bertolucci; Raimundo Vicente de Sousa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the...

  16. Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Beagle Channel, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez-Morales, E.; Ramírez, F.C.; Derisio, C.

    2008-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods were collected during zooplankton surveys in the Beagle Channel at the southernmost end of South America. These specimens represent two species of Monstrillopsis, one of them undescribed, and one new species of Monstrilla. Monstrillopsis igniterra n. sp. is related to forms of

  17. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  18. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  19. Comparison of histomorphometry and 85Sr uptake in induced heterotopic bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterotopic bone formation in the abdominal muscle of 45 male 8-week-old Wistar rats induced by implantation of 5, 10, or 15 mg demineralized bone (DBM) powder was evaluated at 4 weeks by 85Sr uptake of the implants and area histomorphometry of the induced bone. Two indices of 85Sr uptake were calculated: the osteogenic index [(counts/min/mg implant)/(counts/min/mg os ilium)] and an index that we have called the osteoquantum index in which the weight of the implant is disregarded [(counts/min implant)/counts/min/mg os ilium)]. The osteoquantum index showed a linear relationship to the area of the induced bone with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.90. Only weak linear relationships were found between the osteogenic index and the area of the bone (r = 0.32) and between the osteogenic index and the osteoquantum index (r = 0.33). The osteoquantum index and the area of the induced bone both increased with increasing mass of implanted DBM, whereas the osteogenic index did not change. (au)

  20. Effects of denosumab on bone histomorphometry: the FREEDOM and STAND studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian R; Miller, Paul D; Brown, Jacques P; Kendler, David L; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Valter, Ivo; Maasalu, Katre; Bolognese, Michael A; Woodson, Grattan; Bone, Henry; Ding, Beiying; Wagman, Rachel B; San Martin, Javier; Ominsky, Michael S; Dempster, David W

    2010-10-01

    Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, reversibly inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and has been developed for use in osteoporosis. Its effects on bone histomorphometry have not been described previously. Iliac crest bone biopsies were collected at 24 and/or 36 months from osteoporotic postmenopausal women in the FREEDOM study (45 women receiving placebo and 47 denosumab) and at 12 months from postmenopausal women previously treated with alendronate in the STAND study (21 continuing alendronate and 15 changed to denosumab at trial entry). Qualitative histologic evaluation of biopsies was unremarkable. In the FREEDOM study, median eroded surface was reduced by more than 80% and osteoclasts were absent from more than 50% of biopsies in the denosumab group. Double labeling in trabecular bone was observed in 94% of placebo bones and in 19% of those treated with denosumab. Median bone-formation rate was reduced by 97%. Among denosumab-treated subjects, those with double labels and those with absent labels had similar levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover. In the STAND trial, indices of bone turnover tended to be lower in the denosumab group than in the alendronate group. Double labeling in trabecular bone was seen in 20% of the denosumab biopsies and in 90% of the alendronate samples. Denosumab markedly reduces bone turnover and also reduces fracture numbers. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine how long such low turnover is safe. PMID:20533525

  1. Comparison of histomorphometry and [sup 85]Sr uptake in induced heterotopic bone in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solheim, E.; Pinholt, E.M. (Institute for Surgical Research, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo (Norway)); Bang, G. (Department of Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, University of Bergen (Norway)); Sudmann, E. (Hagavik Orthopedic Hospital, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    Heterotopic bone formation in the abdominal muscle of 45 male 8-week-old Wistar rats induced by implantation of 5, 10, or 15 mg demineralized bone (DBM) powder was evaluated at 4 weeks by [sup 85]Sr uptake of the implants and area histomorphometry of the induced bone. Two indices of [sup 85]Sr uptake were calculated: the osteogenic index [(counts/min/mg implant)/(counts/min/mg os ilium)] and an index that we have called the osteoquantum index in which the weight of the implant is disregarded [(counts/min implant)/(counts/min/mg os ilium)]. The osteoquantum index showed a linear relationship to the area of the induced bone with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.90. Only weak linear relationships were found between the osteogenic index and the area of the bone (r = 0.32) and between the osteogenic index and the osteoquantum index (r = 0.33). The osteoquantum index and the area of the induced bone both increased with increasing mass of implanted DBM, whereas the osteogenic index did not change. (au).

  2. Occurrence of bone cancer among young adult Beagles given 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred thirty-five young adult Beagles of both sexes were each given a single intravenous injection of 239Pu-citrate at graded dose-levels averaging about 0.026 to 106 kBq/kg when they were about 1 1/2 years of age and were maintained for lifespan observation. An additional 133 young adult Beagles of both sexes were entered into the experiment as control animals. All of these animals have now died or have been removed from the colony, and the occurrence of skeletal malignancies has been determined from histological examination. There were a total of 85 radiographically apparent malignant bone tumors in 77 dogs given 239Pu, and there was one control animal that developed a skeletal malignancy. Most of these were osteosarcomas, but there were seven chondrosarcomas of bone, one liposarcoma of bone, and in addition, there was one plasma cell myeloma and one ameloblastoma (admantinoma). Only those dogs that survived to at least the minimum latent period for death with radiation-induced bone sarcoma are included in the tabulation. There appeared to be a linear relationship between the percent of dogs with bone tumor and the average skeletal dose up to a dose of about 1 Gy. All dose-levels with skeletal doses of about 2 Gy and greater exhibited close to 100% occurrence

  3. Expression of intestinal transporter genes in beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Soo-Min; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Na-Hyun; Park, Jin-A; YI, HEE; CHO, Hee-Jung; PARK, KI-HWAN; HWANG, INGYUN; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to produce a transcriptional database of the intestinal transporters of beagle dogs. Total RNA was isolated from the duodenum and the expression of various mRNAs was measured using GeneChip® oligonucleotide arrays. A total of 124 transporter genes were detected. Genes for fatty acid, peptide, amino acid and glucose and multidrug resistance/multidrug resistance-associated protein (MDR/MRP) transport were expressed at relatively higher levels than the other transporter ...

  4. Building networks and servers using BeagleBone

    CERN Document Server

    Pretty, Bill

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with BeagleBone experience and want to learn how to use it to set up a network and file server, then this book is ideal for you. To make the most of this book, you should be comfortable with the Linux operating system and know how to install software from the Internet, but you do not have to be a network guru.

  5. Absorption and pharmacokinetics of grapefruit flavanones in beagles

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Bilbao, María de Lourdes; Andrés Lacueva, Ma. Cristina; Roura, Elena; Jáuregui Pallarés, Olga; Escribano Ferrer, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela Raventós, Rosa Ma.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three different grapefruit flavanone forms in dog plasma and demonstrated their absorption after an oral intake of a grapefruit extract; pharmacokinetic parameters of these forms were also determined. Ten healthy beagles were administered 70 mg citrus flavonoids as a grapefruit extract contained in capsules, while two additional dogs were used as controls and given an excipient. The grapefruit flavanone naringin, along with its metabolites n...

  6. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy''s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation

  7. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.

    1996-10-01

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation.

  8. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of 144Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 μCi/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the 144Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 144Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  9. Toxicity of 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature beagles have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239PuO2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those being observed in dogs exposed to a similar aerosol when they were young or aged adults. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239PuO2 and 12 controls. A total of 66 experimental and 11 control dogs are still alive. Six dogs died during the past year, all of radiation-related causes. Five dogs died from lung carcinomas and the sixth dog died of pneumonia/fibrosis, but with a lung tumor. With the large number of dogs still alive in this study, it is still premature to compare the cancer dose-response relationships for the immature and adult dogs. (author)

  10. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter monodisperse aerosol of 239PuO2 to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date, 18 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.003 to 0.38 μCi/kg body weight. Two dogs have been exposed to the aerosol diluent and serve as controls. Two of the 18 exposed animals were sacrificed 8 days after exposure to provide information on initial deposition and distribution. All other exposed animals are alive 400 days after exposure. No dogs were exposed during the past year because of an outbreak of canine parvovirus enteritis which caused death in 8 to 10 week-old dogs

  11. Response of the genital tract to gonadotropin stimulation of the afollicular (x-irradiated) ovary in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphologic response of the genital system in 16 beagles with afollicular (x-irradiated) ovaries has been examined following follicle and luteinizing hormone treatment. The dogs received a single brief exposure of 5 R daily or 10 R on alternate days from birth to 60 days of age (total 300 R). When the dogs were 7 months or older, the hormone treatment caused enlargement of the afollicular ovary and specific changes resembling proestrus in the oviduct and uterus; the vagina and vulva did not respond to the treatment

  12. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of 90Sr and 226Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226Ra. Although administration of 90Sr and 226Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Radiation-Induced Neoplasms in Beagles after Administrations of 90Sr and 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative carcinogenic efficiency of two bone-seeking radionuclides is under study in a colony of several hundred beagles. The toxicity of internally deposited alpha emitters (226Ra and its daughters) and of beta irradiation (90Sr) at comparable dosage rates indicates marked differences in site of appearance and mode of action in litters studied up to 7 years of age. Radiation carcinogenesis in beagles exposed to 90Sr daily from midgestation to adulthood (1.5 yr) is at present confined to dogs fed 4 μCi 90Sr/d or higher. The 20 cases constitute a spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders characterized by terminal anaemias, and ranging from myeloid metaplasia to granulocytic leukaemia. Continuous high-level 90Sr irradiation to bone and marrow from early life onward causes a thickened hypocellular bone ('pachyostosis'), some instances of myelofibrosis, and persistent mild leukopenia on which the final spectrum of terminal disoideis is superimposed. In contrast, up to 100 μCl 226Ra given intravenously (8 equally spaced injections at 14 to 18 months of age) to young adults is not a potent marrow cell carcinogen. The higher LET, shorter-range alpha particles are efficient in inducing bone cancers (14 cases) and skeletal lesions similar to those documented in watch-dial luminizers exposed to 226Ra in the early 1900's. The incidence of haematopoietic and skeletal neoplasms observed is dose-rate related, and the morphologic characteristics have several analogues in human cancer. The use of identically treated litters rather than individuals affords additional opportunity to study possible familial factors in the distribution of the neoplasms. Pathogenic evaluation at this juncture strongly indicates that continued bone and marrow irradiation in early life is more likely to induce haematopoietic neoplasms than is skeletal irradiation starting in young adulthood, which induces osseous neoplasms. (author)

  14. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of 238Pu or 239Pu oxide are reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide is presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of Pu particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance is discussed

  15. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium oxide were reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide was presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of plutonium particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance was discussed

  16. Hematological effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life-span study indicated that plutonium activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is a contributor to development of lymphopenia in beagles exposed to 239PuO2. Significant lymphopenia was found in 67 (58%) beagles given a single nose-only exposure to 239PuO2 to result in mean initial lung depositions ranging from 0.69 to 213.3 kBq. Lymphoid atrophy and sclerosis of the thoracic lymph nodes and lymphopenia were observed in exposure-level groups with initial lung depositions ≥2.5 kBq. Those dogs with final plutonium concentrations in the thoracic lymph nodes ≥0.4 kBq/g and dose rates ≥0.01 Gy/day developed lymphopenia. Marked differences existed between chronically lymphopenic dogs and intermittently lymphopenic dogs with regard to initial lung deposition, time to lymphopenic events and absolute lymphocyte concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed moderate correlation between reduction in lymphocyte values and initial lung deposition, in both magnitude and time of appearance after exposure. Cumulative dose and dose rate appeared to act together to produce initial effects on lymphocyte populations, while dose rate alone appeared to be responsible for the maintenance and subsequent cycles of lymphopenia seen over the life span. No primary tumors were associated with the thoracic lymph nodes in this study, although 70% of the lymphopenic dogs developed lung tumors. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Beagle 2: The Next Exobiology Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars on December 26, 2003 in the Isidis Planitia basin (approximately 10 degrees N and 275 degrees W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Beagle 2 will utilize a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks and inside rocks. A pair of stereo cameras will image the landing site along with a microscope for examination of surface and rock samples. Analyses will include both rock and soil samples at various wavelengths, X-ray spectrometer and Mossbauer spectrometer as well as a search for organics and other light element species (e.g. carbonates and water) and measurement of their isotopic compositions. Beagle 2 has as its focus the goal of establishing whether evidence for life existed in the past on Mars at the Isidis Planitia site or at least establishing if the conditions were ever suitable. Carbonates and organic components were first recognized as existing on Mars when they were found in the Martian meteorite Nakhla. Romanek et al showed the carbonates in ALH84001 were formed at low temperatures. McKay et al noted possible evidence of early life on Mars within the

  18. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallard, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret in terms of physical parameters any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations. The current version of the tool includes the versatile modeling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and the accounting for different instrumental effects. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broadband SEDs of a published sample of ${\\sim}10^4$ galaxies at redshifts $0.1 \\lesssim z\\lesssim8$. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multi-purpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and ...

  19. Planetary Protection for the Beagle2 Mars Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, J. A.; Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    Following ejection from the Mars Express orbiter on 19th December 2003, the Beagle 2 probe of mass 68kg headed for the martian surface. The fact that no communications were established with the Beagle 2 lander, and thus neither its location nor fate are currently known, heightens the relevance of the planetary protection aspects of the project. Payload configuration requirements and stringent mass constraints in the design did not allow the whole spacecraft to be terminally sterilised by a single processing method, due to material incompatibility issues. The lander was therefore integrated aseptically in a specially designed and constructed Class 10 cleanroom facility, following appropriate sterilisation processing at sub-assembly level utilising one of several different sterilisation technologies. Additional further cleanliness precautions were taken to ensure the integrity of the science package. The project demonstrates that the COSPAR requirements for a category IVA mission can be met or exceeded using this approach. The data show that, even in the event of a non-nominal landing, the martian environment is protected through the precautionary and conservative approach adopted in the planetary protection strategy.

  20. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  1. Effects of infrared laser on the bone repair assessed by x-ray microtomography (μct) and histomorphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Alessandra Rossi; Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; da Silva, Alessandro M. Hakme; Reiff, Rodrigo Bezerra de Menezes; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Alves, José Marcos

    2015-06-01

    The bone fracture is important public health problems. The lasertherapy is used to accelerate tissue healing. Regarding diagnosis, few methods are validated to follow the evolution of bone microarchitecture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lasertherapy on bone repair with x-ray microtomography (μCT) and histomorphometry. A transverse rat tibia osteotomy with a Kirchner wire and a 2mm width polymeric spacer beads were used to produce a delayed bone union. Twelve rats were divided into two groups: (i) Control Group: untreated fracture and; (ii) Laser Group: fracture treated with laser. Twelve sessions of treatment (808nm laser, 100mW, 125J/cm2, 50seconds) were performed. The μCT scanner parameters were: 100kV, 100μA, Al+Cu filter and 9.92μm resolution. A volume of interest (VOI) was chosen with 300 sections above and below the central region of the fracture, totaling 601sections with a 5.96mm. The softwares CT-Analyzer, NRecon and Mimics were used for 2D and 3D analysis. A histomorphometry analysis was also performed. The connectivity (Conn) showed significant increase for Laser Group than Control Group (32371+/-20689 vs 17216+/-9467, p<0.05). There was no significant difference for bone volume (59+/-19mm3 vs 47+/- 8mm3) and histomorfometric data [Laser and Control Groups showed greater amount of cartilaginous (0.19+/-0.05% vs 0.11+/-0.09%) and fibrotic (0.21+/-0.12% vs 0.09+/-0.11%) tissues]. The negative effect was presence of the cartilaginous and fibrotic tissues which may be related to the Kirchner wire and the non-absorption of the polymeric that may have influenced negatively the light distribution through the bone. However, the positive effect was greater bone connectivity, indicating improvement in bone microarchitecture.

  2. Effect of 17beta-estradiol or alendronate on the bone densitometry, bone histomorphometry and bone metabolism of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, L H; de Falco, V; Teng, N C; dos Reis, L M; Pereira, R M; Jorgetti, V

    2001-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 17beta-estradiol or alendronate in preventing bone loss in 3-month-old ovariectomized Wistar rats. One group underwent sham ovariectomy (control, N = 10), and the remaining three underwent double ovariectomy. One ovariectomized group did not receive any treatment (OVX, N = 12). A second received subcutaneous 17beta-estradiol at a dose of 30 microg/kg for 6 weeks (OVX-E, N = 11) and a third, subcutaneous alendronate at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg for 6 weeks (OVX-A, N = 8). Histomorphometry, densitometry, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline measurements were applied to all groups. After 6 weeks there was a significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) at the trabecular site (distal femur) in OVX rats. Both alendronate and 17beta-estradiol increased the BMD of ovariectomized rats, with the BMD of the OVX-A group being higher than that of the OVX-E group. Histomorphometry of the distal femur showed a decrease in trabecular volume in the untreated group (OVX), and an increase in the two treated groups, principally in the alendronate group. In OVX-A there was a greater increase in trabecular number. An increase in trabecular thickness, however, was seen only in the OVX-E group. There was also a decrease in bone turnover in both OVX-E and OVX-A. The osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline levels were decreased in both treated groups, mainly in OVX-A. Although both drugs were effective in inhibiting bone loss, alendronate proved to be more effective than estradiol at the doses used in increasing bone mass. PMID:11471040

  3. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs. PMID:27125835

  4. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91Y/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases

  5. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with 91Y initial body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Thirty-six of the exposed dogs and 7 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest activity levels died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas and three with pulmonary carcinomas and one with hepatic hemangiosarcoma that all appear related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on 10 surviving exposed dogs and six surviving unexposed dogs

  6. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 90Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi per kilogram body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91Y per kilogram body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Forty-four of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three dogs died with pulmonary carcinomas and one dog died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma; these cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on the two surviving exposed dogs

  7. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238Pu16O2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. None of the dogs exposed to 238Pu died during the first postexposure year. After inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs. (U.S.)

  8. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  9. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  10. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego Sub-bottom facies of the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.The Beagle Channel connects the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the southernmost part of South America, and has a subantarctic environment. It is a deep basin (300 m depth separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a shallow sill (30 m depth. The Beagle Channel is a tectonic valley that was completely covered by ice during the Last Glaciation. Later, it was occupied by a glacial lake from 12,000 to 8,000 years B.P. and then flooded by the sea, reaching a maximum sea level between 6,000 and 5,000 years B.P. A geophysical survey (side scan sonar and 3.5 kHz profiler was carried out in the channel to analyze the sea-bed and sub-bottom sedimentary facies. Metamorphic Mesozoic basement rocks are overlain by glacial deposits (till and fining upwards sequences. These sequences

  11. Restricted dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotypes and genotypes in Beagles

    OpenAIRE

    Soutter, Francesca; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ollier, William E R; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Beagles are commonly used in vaccine trials as part of the regulatory approval process. Genetic restriction within this breed and the impact this might have on vaccine responses are rarely considered. This study was designed to characterise diversity of dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II genes in a breeding colony of laboratory Beagles, whose offspring are used in vaccine studies. DLA haplotypes were determined by PCR and sequence-based typing from genomic DNA extracted from blood. Breeding...

  12. Carcinogenesis of inhaled radio daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters and to uranium ore dust for 4-1/2 to 6 yr have produced respiratory tract carcinomas, at similar cumulative working level months (WLM) of exposures to those which induced carcinomas in uranium miners. Biological data from the beagle-dog experiments can therefore be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk under changing exposure conditions in future uranium miners

  13. Tissue reactions to suture materials in the oral mucosa of beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Shin, Seung-Il; Herr, Yeek; Park, Joon-Bong; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Chung, Jong-Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the inflammatory responses of three widely used suture materials in the keratinized gingiva and buccal mucosa of beagle dogs. Methods Silk, polyglycolic acid, and nylon sutures were placed within the mandibular keratinized gingiva and maxillary buccal mucosa of four male beagle dogs. Biopsies were taken 3, 7, and 14 days after suturing. Specimens were prepared with hematoxylin-eosin stain for evaluation under a light microscope. ...

  14. Neoplasia in beagles that received whole-body irradiation during prenatal or postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity to radiation carcinogenesis is being studied in 1680 beagle dogs that received whole-body 60Co gamma radiation exposures during development. Eight treatment groups of 120 dogs each received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy at one of three prenatal (8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus) ages or at one postnatal (2 days postpartum) age. One treatment group of 120 dogs received 0.83 Gy as juveniles at 70 days postpartum, and one treatment group of 240 young adult dogs received 0.83 Gy at 365 days postpartum. Three-hundred-sixty control dogs were sham irradiated. Of the 1680 dogs, 1058 are dead. Approximately 25% of these deaths were related to malignant neoplasia. The age-related incidence of neoplasia is being evaluated. While the incidence of all neoplasms is being studied, particular emphasis is being placed on types of cancer with known susceptibility to induction by radiation such as those of breast, thyroid, and hematopoietic tissues. Neoplasms are classed as (1) incidental, i.e., those found at necropsy in dogs that died of an unrelated cause; (2) mortality independent, i.e., those seen in live dogs and removed surgically, or (3) fatal, i.e., those directly or indirectly responsible for death. Analyses of incidental tumors are done by a prevalence method, whereas analyses of mortality-independent and fatal tumors use an onset-rate or death-rate method. The results of these methods are then combined to give a composite age-related incidence of specific neoplasms. Analyses also are done on disease subgroups to attempt to delineate the effect of intercurrent disease on tumor incidence. The results of such analyses support the concept that age at exposure is an important factor in radiation carcinogenesis. 28 refs., 7 tabs

  15. Radiation-induced quantitative alterations in prenatal thymic development in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative morphology of the canine fetal thymus was studied to evaluate the age-dependent radiosensitivity of the developing immune system. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal 60Co gamma exposures (200 R) or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation, 30, 40, or 45 days. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gray. One-half of the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at 5 days and one-half at 10 days post-irradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymic lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at 5 and 10 days PI when compared with age-matched controls. Thymic cortical volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced between 13 and 29% from control volumes by 5 days PI and 8 and 13% by 10 day PI. Thymic medullary volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced 18 to 23% by 5 days PI and 27 to 54% by 10 days PI. The reductions in medullary volumes in fetuses irradiated at 35, 40, and 45 days of gestation and evaluated at 10 days PI were 54, 38, and 27%, respectively. Although injury to both thymic cortices and medullas was greater following exposures earlier in gestation, damage to medullas was relatively more severe than in cortices following exposure at any one age. The degree of reduction of medullary volume reflects thymic epithelial injury and is surprising since thymic epithelium is considered to be radioresistant in the adult. Such injury may have serious consequences postnatally as normal differentiation of T cell subpopulations is dependent upon the integrity of the thymic microenvironment. Damage to the thymic microenvironment could result in defects in immunologic regulation and in immune deficiencies

  16. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  17. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature Beagle dogs (3 months old) were exposed once by inhalation to an aerosol of 144Ce incorporated in fused aluminosilicate particles. The influence of this age on the dose-response relationships is being compared to that of 13-mo-old and 8 to 10.5-yr-old dogs. This study involves 49 dogs that received graded initial lung burdens from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight and five control dogs. To date, 19 of the 144Ce-exposed dogs and one of the controls have died. Dogs with the highest initial lung burdens of 144Ce died during the first 4 months with radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and congestive heart failure. Pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the primary finding in dogs that died at 1.5 to 2 years after exposure. Deaths beyond that time have been due primarily to extrapulmonary hemangiosarcomas. Observations are continued on the surviving 30 144Ce-exposed and four control dogs at 7.0 to 11.2 years after exposure

  18. Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma Neylanne Pinho Muniz Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the others were daily given the ethanolic extract, hexanic or aqueous fraction soluble in methanol in a dose of 42 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 70 days. Sperm was obtained from the right epididymal tail for the analysis of motility, count, morphology and viability. The testicular weight of groups supplemented with ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction soluble in methanol was higher when compared to the control. The gonadosomatic index increased in the group supplemented with ethanolic extract. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and individual volume of Leydig cells increased in supplementation with hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol. It was concluded that the extract influenced the spermatogenesis, while hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol promoted the changes in the intertubular compartment. Therefore, Tribulus terrestris did not improve the sperm quality of the rats.

  19. The Effects of Cosmos caudatus on Structural Bone Histomorphometry in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Norazlina Mohamed; Sharon Gwee Sian Khee; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid; Norliza Muhammad; Farihah Suhaimi; Faizah Othman; Abdul Salam Babji; Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is considered a serious debilitating disease. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja), a plant containing antioxidant compounds and minerals, may be used to treat and prevent osteoporosis. This study determines the effectiveness of C. caudatus as bone protective agent in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-two female rats, aged 3 months old, were divided into 4 groups. Group one was sham operated (sham) while group two was ovariectomized. These two groups were given ionized water b...

  20. The reproductive cycle of Eurhomalea exalbida (Chemnitz, 1795) (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in Ushuaia Bay (54°50′ S), Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Morriconi, E.; Lomovasky, B.; Calvo, J.; Brey, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of Eurhomalea exalbida (Chemnitz, 1795) in Ushuaia Bay, Beagle Channel, was studied from October 1998 to December 1999. Clams were collected monthly by SCUBA diving at 3 to 5 m water depth. The degree of sexual maturity was determined histologically (n=318). The sex ratio was 1:1 (Chi-squared p > 0.05). First sexual maturity occurred at 39 mm shell heigth in males and 40 mm in females (i.e. 4 years of age).Five distinct histological stages of sexual maturity could be es...

  1. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature beagle dogs. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature Beagle dogs (approximately equal to 3 months of age at exposure) have been exposed by inhalation to a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to compare the resulting patterns of metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects with those seen in dogs exposed at 12 and 14 months of age and at 8 to 10.5 years of age. Five blocks of longevity animals, each consisting of 10 exposed dogs and one control, are currently on experiment. The initial lung burdens of the 144Ce-exposed dogs range from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight. Three dogs with initial lung burdens of 73 to 120 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died at 66 to 121 days after exposure with pulmonary injury and congestive heart failure. One dog with an initial lung burden of 140 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died at 91 days after exposure with severe radiation pneumonitis and minimal pulmonary fibrosis and another dog whose initial lung burden was 70 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died at 511 days after exposure with pulmonary injury that was mainly fibrotic in nature. Two dogs with initial lung burdens of 52 and 64 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight had primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas and died at 618 and 689 days, respectively, with cumulative average absorbed beta doses to lung of 23,000 and 29,000 rads. One dog with an initial lung burden of 28 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight was euthanized at 1227 days after exposure with a hemangiosarcoma of the mediastinum, and another dog with an initial lung burden of 12 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died at 1520 days after exposure from epilepsy. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving 40 exposed and five control dogs

  2. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  3. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor; nine additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 6 yr after exposure. Two of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 4 yr postexposure, due to bone and lung tumors, with body burdens at death of 10 μCi. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of equal to or greater than 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  4. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that dies of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Eleven additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 7 yr after exposure. Four of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 4 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 6 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  5. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91YCl3 were studied in Beagle dogs. Forty-two dogs with initial 91Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg (0.52-48 MBq/kg) body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91Y/kg (6.7 MBq/kg) body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Of the dogs dying of late-occurring effects, three died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. 1 reference, 1 figure, 3 tables

  6. Retention of plutonium in the beagle after gastrointestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.01 M bicarbonate solution containing 130 nCi (approx. 5 kBq) of 237Pu (90% hexavalent, 93% ultrafilterable) was administered via gelatin capsule to six adult male beagles following a 21-hr fast. The dogs were sacrificed after 5-6 weeks and the percentage of the administered plutonium retained in the liver plus skeleton and its distribution within the skeleton were determined. The mean amount retained in these tissues was (0.063 +- 0.006)% of the administered dose. The mean amounts of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton were approximately equal, and the distribution within the skeleton was similar to that observed by other workers following either intravenous injection or inhalation. The value for plutonium retention by the dog is about a factor of three less than the values the authors have reported for rodents. It is a factor of 7 greater than the product of the values for gastrointestinal absorption (f1) and fractional retention (f2) recommended by the ICRP for man

  7. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Seventeen additional dogs, with body burdens of 0.2 to 1.8 μCi, died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 8 yr after exposure. Ten of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 5 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 1.5 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of >80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  8. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  9. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  10. Quantification of brown dog tick repellent, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, release from tick-resistant Beagle dogs, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  11. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of age at exposure on the resulting patterns of deposition, retention, dosimetry and biological effects from a single inhalation exposure to a relatively insoluble form of a beta-emitting radionuclide with a relatively long physical half-life is being investigated. Immature Beagle dogs (3 months of age) have been exposed once, by inhalation, to an aerosol of 144Ce incorporated in fused aluminosilicate particles. Eighteen of these dogs were serially sacrificed to study the patterns of deposition, retention and dosimetry and the remaining 49 dogs received graded initial lung burdens that ranged from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight and are being observed over their life span for study of the resulting long-term biological effects. Five control dogs are also included in this study. To date, 13 of the 144Ce-exposed dogs in the longevity study and none of the controls have died. Dogs with the highest initial lung burdens of 144Ce died first (during the first 4 months) with radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis and congestive heart failure. Pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the primary finding in dogs that died at 1.5 to 2 years after exposure. Deaths beyond that time have primarily involved extrapulmonary hemangiosarcomas. One dog, 627B, with an initial lung burden of 24 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died during the past year at 2341 days after exposure with a widely disseminated hemangiosarcoma showing heavy involvement of the liver and skin. Observations are continuing on the surviving 36 144Ce-exposed and five control dogs

  12. Primary degenerative joint disease of the shoulder in a colony of Beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoulder joints of 149 Beagles over 8 years old at the time of death (mean age, 13.8 years +/- 3.21), were examined radiographically throughout their life-times for the frequency of degenerative joint disease (DJD). Clinical histories revealed no underlying cause for DJD. The shoulder joints of a subgroup of 18 dogs were examined at necropsy, and thin sections of the joints were evaluated radiographically and histologically. Serial clinical radiographic studies indicated that normal shoulder joint development during the first year of life was followed by the appearance of subchondral bone sclerosis and bony remodeling of normal joint contour, and by the formation of periarticular osteophytes and enthesiophytes. All changes were progressive with age and typical for DJD in dogs. Bilateral involvement was common. Evaluation of specimens obtained at necropsy revealed: articular cartilage change with roughening of the surface layer, degeneration and death of superficial chondrocytes, exposure of deeper layers of chondrocytes that had proliferated with fissuring of the damaged cartilage, total cartilage loss with polishing of the exposed subchondral bone, mixed patterns of subchondral bone sclerosis and osteoporosis, change in contour of the articular surfaces, and formation of periarticular osteophytes and enthesiophytes. Joint capsule thickening, synovitis, pannus formation, and synovial chondroma formation were observed. Because of the available clinical information, in addition to the typical changes of DJD, it was thought that the changes were primary. Instability appeared to play a role in the pathogenesis of the joint disease described; however, it was not clear whether the instability caused abnormal forces on healthy cartilage or whether the primary cartilage wear caused the instability

  13. Celecoxib does not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model: a bone histomorphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Azusa Seki2, Yoshihiro Sato3, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Hamri Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanBackground and objective: The objective of the present study was to determine whether celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, would delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model by examining bone histomorphometry parameters.Methods: Twenty-one 6-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral osteotomy of the femoral diaphysis followed by intramedullary wire fixation; the rats were then divided into three groups: the vehicle administration group (control, n = 8, the vitamin K2 administration (menatetrenone 30 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (positive control, n = 5, and the celecoxib administration (4 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (n = 8. After 6 weeks of treatment, the wires were removed, and a bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on the bone tissue inside the callus. The lamellar area relative to the bone area was significantly higher and the total area and woven area relative to the bone area were significantly lower in the vitamin K2 group than in the vehicle group. However, none of the structural parameters, such as the callus and bone area relative to the total area, lamellar and woven areas relative to the bone area, or the formative and resorptive parameters such as osteoclast surface, number of osteoclasts, osteoblast surface, osteoid surface, eroded surface, and bone formation rate per bone surface differed significantly between the vehicle and celecoxib groups.Conclusion: The present study implies that celecoxib may not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model based on the results of a bone histomorphometric analysis.Keywords: femoral osteotomy, bone healing, callus, rat, celecoxib

  14. The early pathology and image study of percutaneous laser disc decompression in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the cause, influencing factor and possible solving method of transient adverse reactions during the operation. Methods: Sixteen healthy beagles were undergone virtual PLDD. The changes of vertebral discs and the surrounding tissues were observed by high resolution CT and MRI at different periods after the operation, and the same investigation procedure was carried out after the sacrifice of beagles. Results: The beagles of the conventional vaporization group occasionally had limb tic and whining in the operations. Pieces of necrosis and edema could be found in the tissues of intervertebral foramen at the paracentetic side. The histological changes in the negative pressure suction group were less than those in the conventional group. Conclusion: The reversible damages of the surrounding tissuses were observed in the conventional group and continuing negative pressure suction during the operations can prevent the damages to the surrounding tissues, all of the changes could be clearly displayed by CT and MRI scan. (authors)

  15. Real-time implementation of logo detection on open source BeagleBoard

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Estevez, L.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the real-time implementation of our previously developed logo detection and tracking algorithm on the open source BeagleBoard mobile platform. This platform has an OMAP processor that incorporates an ARM Cortex processor. The algorithm combines Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) with k-means clustering, online color calibration and moment invariants to robustly detect and track logos in video. Various optimization steps that are carried out to allow the real-time execution of the algorithm on BeagleBoard are discussed. The results obtained are compared to the PC real-time implementation results.

  16. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  17. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in beagle dogs: evaluation of a microsurgical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective-Assessment of a microsurgical technique for transsphenoidalhypophysectomy in dogs. Study Design-Prospective study using physicalexamination, pituitary function testing, computed tomography (CT), and histological examination at autopsy. Animals or Sample Population-Eight laboratory beagle dogs. Methods-Pituitary function was assessed before and at 10 weeks after hypophysectomy by combined administration of four releasing hormones (anterior pituitary), administration of haloperidol (pars intermedia), and infusion of hypertonic saline (posterior pituitary). Results-CT imaging enabled accurate preoperative localization of the pituitary. Appropriate positioning and surgical technique facilitated exposure of the pituitary and its extraction without hemorrhage. Postoperative recovery was generally uncomplicated. None of the eight dogs had somatotropic. gonadotropic, lactotropic, melanotropic, or posterior pituitary responses to stimulation at 10 weeks after hypophysectomy. Four dogs (ACTH nonresponders) also had no corticotropicresponse and four (ACTH responders) bad small but significant responses in the combined anterior pituitary function test. Adrenocortical atrophy was more pronounced in the ACTH nonresponders than in the responders. No residual pituitary tissue was found along the ventral hypothalamic diencephalon but nests of pituitary cells were found embedded infibrous tissue in the sella turcica. Conclusions-The surgical technique proved to be safe and effective. Microscopic nests of pituitary cells in the sella turcica may be responsible for residual corticotropic response to hypophysiotropic stimulation after hypophysectomy. Clinical Relevance-The surgical technique may be used in the treatment of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. The corticotropic response is the most sensitive criterion in assessing completeness of hypophysectomy in dogs. (C) Copyright 1997 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  18. Complement activation associated with polysorbate 80 in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shidong; Liu, Zhaohua; Hou, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Hong; Du, Wu; Wang, Wenfang; Qin, Yizhuo; Liu, Zhaoping

    2013-01-01

    Polysorbate 80 (Tween® 80) is the most extensively used surfactant in parenteral drug formulation. Its application as an adjunct for intravenous drug administration is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. However, severe hypersensitive reactions, which are typical non-immune anaphylactic reactions (pseudoallergy) characterized by the release of histamine and unvaried IgE antibodies, have been associated with Tween® 80. In order to explore the non-immune anaphylactic mechanisms of Tween® 80, we performed in vivo experiments to assess the changes in physiological and hematologic indicators after intravenous injection of Tween® 80 into dogs. Tween® 80 induced the release of histamine, and a 2-fold increase in SC5b-9, 2.5-fold increase in C4d, 1.3-fold increase in Bb, while IgE remained unchanged. It also produced changes in pulmonary pressure, systemic pressure and ECG. In in vitro experiments, Tween® 80 was incubated with dog serum in the presence of an inhibitor of complement activation (EGTA/Mg(2+)). Under these conditions, Tween® 80 increased the contents of C4d and Bb. The results of this study reveal that Tween® 80 can cause cardiopulmonary distress in dogs and activate the complement system through classical and alternative pathways as indicated in both in vivo and in vitro preparations. Moreover, they demonstrate the utility of the beagle dog as an animal model for the study of complement activation-related pseudoallergy. These findings raise concerns with regard to the indiscriminate use of Tween® 80 in clinical applications. PMID:23159336

  19. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight was placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight was placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-six of the exposed dogs and four of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91Y exposure. Nine 91Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2012 to 4115 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma, one a malignant lymphoma, one a melanosarcoma in the mouth and one heart base tumor. Two dogs died of renal failure 2663 and 4086 days after exposure. One dog died with autoimmune hemolytic anemia 3888 days after exposure and one died with congestive heart failure 4042 days after inhalation exposure. One control dog died of empyema, another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma, one died with congestive heart failure and one with malabsorption syndrome. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  20. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  1. Lovelace ITRI studies on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews 19 studies conducted by the Lovelace ITRI on the toxicity of inhaled radionuclides in beagle dogs. These studies provide information to estimate potential health effects in accidentally exposed people. Specific radionuclides (90Sr, 90Y, 91Y, 137Cs, 144Ce, 238Pu, and 239Pu), chemical forms, and particle sizes were selected for study because they are abundant in nuclear operations and deliver a wide range of radiation dose patterns. Depending upon the aerosol, one or more of the following organs or tissues received the significant irradiation: lung, nasal cavity, lung-associated lymph nodes, whole body, liver, or skeleton, with the radiation dose delivered over durations of time ranging from a few days to several years. In eight studies monodisperse particles of either 238PuO2 or 239PuO2 were used to evaluate the influence of particle number and total dose on lung cancer induction. Most studies involved single, brief exposures of young adult dogs, but two studies used immature dogs, two used aged dogs, and two studies involved repeated brief exposures. For each aerosol two types of studies were conducted. One was used to evaluate the time course of retention of radioactivity in various tissues of the body for calculating radiation doses. The second was used to determine health effects in animals exposed to achieve different initial lung burdens and observed for the remainder of their life spans. Initial lung burdens were selected to produce early morbidity and mortality at the highest levels and an excess of late-occurring diseases such as cancer at the lowest levels. The latter dogs have had an excess incidence of cancer, especially of the lung, lung-associated lymph nodes, nasal cavity, skeleton, and liver. Relationships between radiation doses to various tissues and effects have been evaluated for individual studies

  2. Life-span radiation effects studies in prenatally and postnatally exposed beagle dogs at Colorado State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime hazards associated with exposure to ionizing radiation during development are studied in 1680 beagle dogs given whole-body exposures to 60Co gamma radiation. Eight groups of 120 dogs each received 20-R or 100-R exposures at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). In addition, exposures of 100 R were given to 120 dogs at 70 dpp and to 240 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 360 dogs were sham exposed. Smaller groups of dogs were used to identify organs and tissues of particular sensitivity to radiation injury during development and to evaluate mechanisms of radiation injury. The research is concerned primarily with evaluating the role of age at exposure as a factor influencing response to radiation injury. As of December 31, 1982, of the 1680 dogs, 1058 were dead. Survivors ranged from 9.9 to 15 years of age. Through 10 years of age, no differences in survival were evident in any exposure groups. A variety of clinical, pathophysiologic, and pathologic responses have been studied. Irradiation during development has been found to be associated with abnormalities of skeletal, dental, and central nervous system development. Irradiation during ocular development has induced dysplastic and atrophic retinal lesions. Perinatal irradiation of the kidney has resulted in dysplasia, and, in animals receiving higher doses, significant chronic renal disease. The thymus gland, particularly thymic epithelium, has been found to be highly radiosensitive during fetal development

  3. Preliminary considerations for an in-depth investigation of thyroid disease in the CRHL beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes preliminary results of evaluation of selected clinical laboratory data from hypothroid and euthyroid beagles as an initial step in an in-depth study of hypothyroidism in the CRHL colony. Both hyperchloesterolemia and a decreased hematocrit were present in dogs with clinically diagnosed or pathologically confirmed thyroid disease

  4. Late effects of inhaled 238PuO2 in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcomas were the primary cause of death in beagle dogs 4 to 8 years after inhalation of 238PuO2. The plutonium body burden at death ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 μCi with 32 to 55 percent of the plutonium in the skeleton. Pulmonary neoplasia was observed in three of the bone-tumor-bearing dogs

  5. Effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on the primary immune response of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on the humoral component of the immune system were measured by intravenous immunizations of beagle dogs with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). With this T-cell-dependent antigen, a significant decrease in primary antibody response was observed in exposed versus unexposed dogs

  6. Clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays after treatment with supportive care, or supportive care and combined cytokines. Methods: Sixteen beagles were divided into irradiation control group, Supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group. Platelet aggregation test, thrombelastography (TEG) and the time measurement were analyzed in vitro. Results: In irradiation group and supportive care group, the platelet aggregation rates in beagles were decreased markedly and the k value of TEG was increased 7 d post-irradiation, while those indexes in combined cytokines treatment group changed little. At 14 d post-irradiation, each parameter of TEG in irradiated group changed obviously. The values of r, k, r + k and M were elevated significantly, clotting time and the maximum coagulation time of thrombus delayed, the Ma value was decreased markedly, and the maximum elasticity amplitude of thrombus was diminished. All parameters in combined cytokines treatment group were better than those in supportive care group. The thrombin time was prolonged obviously in irradiated group 14 d post-irradiation, while the thrombin time was the longest at 2-3 weeks post irradiation in supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Cytokines could improve the platelet aggregation and the blood clotting functions of beagles suffering from acute radiation sickness. (authors)

  7. Reference Intervals, Intraindividual and Interindividual Variability, and Reference Change Values for Hematologic Variables in Laboratory Beagles

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie H; Gury, Thierry D; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Thibault-Duprey, Kevin C; Dauchy, Arnaud; Trumel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In research and development studies for human and veterinary medicine, relevant comparators for interpreting clinical pathology results are matched with concurrent control animals. However, reference intervals (RI) provide a comparator database and important aids for interpreting clinical pathology data, especially in laboratory beagle dogs. Furthermore, RI incorporate biologic variation, which includes analytical, intraindividual, and interindividual variation. No studies to date have establ...

  8. Disposition of 241AmO2 following inhalation by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Translocation of 241Am from the lungs of beagles following inhalation of AmO2 was fairly rapid, roughly equal quantities being found in the liver and skeleton at all postexposure times to 810 days. Less than 16 percent of the initial body burden was excreted, more than two-thirds of this in the feces

  9. Clinical status and philosophy of clinical care of radionuclide-treated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manual for therapy of beagles is reviewed. The following protocol is outlined and described: antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy for neoplasms, hormone therapy, nutritional therapy, radiation therapy, steroid therapy, and miscellaneous treatments. The manual also includes sections on diagnosis and discussions of individual cases. Tables summarizing clinical cases seen during 1974 are presented

  10. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature Beagle dogs (approx. = 3 months of age at exposure) have been exposed by inhalation to a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to compare the resulting patterns of metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects with those seen in dogs exposed at 12 and 14 months of age and at 8 to 10.5 years of age. Five blocks of longevity animals, each consisting of 10 exposed dogs and one control, are currently being studied. The initial lung burdens of the 144Ce-exposed dogs range from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight. Three dogs with initial lung burdens of 73 to 120 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died at 66 to 121 days after exposure with pulmonary injury and congestive heart failure. One dog with an initial lung burden of 140 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died at 91 days after exposure with severe radiation pneumonitis and minimal pulmonary fibrosis and another dog whose initial lung burden was 70 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight died at 511 days after exposure with pulmonary injury that was mainly fibrotic in nature. Four dogs with initial lung burdens of 52 to 79 μCi/kg body weight had primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas and died between 618 and 738 days, with cumulative average absorbed beta doses to lung of 23,000 to 31,000 rads. Two of these dogs, 1027S and 1024D, died within the past year. One dog with an initial lung burden of 28 μCi/kg body weight was euthanized at 1227 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the mediastinum. Within the past year, Dog 627S, with an initial lung burden of 48 μCi/kg body weight, died 1732 days after exposure with hemangiosarcoma primary in the liver or spleen. A dog with an initial lung burden of 12 μCi/kg body weight died from epilepsy at 1520 days after exposure. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving 37 exposed and five control dogs

  11. The cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume: a comparative study between beagle dogs and mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the differences of cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume between beagle and mongrel dogs by using angiography and MR scanning. Methods: A total of 40 dogs, including 20 beagle dogs (beagle group) and 20 mongrel dogs (mongrel group), were enrolled in this study. Under general anesthesia, all dogs were examined with cerebral angiography and MR scanning. The cerebrovascular structure was evaluated with angiography via selective catheterization of aortic arch, bilateral external cerebral arteries (ECA), maxillary arteries, internal cerebral arteries (ICA) and vertebral arteries separately. The diameters of the ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), rostral cerebral artery (RCA), the anastomosis channel ICA and ECA, and basilar artery (BA) were measured at the similar point of each dog. Meanwhile the volumes of the brain tissue were calculated in coronal T2 view of MR scanning. The statistical analysis was performed among the weight of dogs, the diameter of arteries and the volume of brain tissue. The differences in the diameters and brain tissue volume were compared between the two groups. Results: No obvious variations in the cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume were found in these dogs. One mongrel dog was excluded from this study because of the severe stenosis of ICA. The mean weight of 20 beagle dogs and 19 mongrel dogs was (12.81±1.29) kg and (12.85±1.12) kg, respectively. The diameters of the ICA, MCA, RCA, the anastomosis channel between ICA and ECA and BA in beagle group were (1.26±0.07) mm, (0.90±0.05) mm, (0.58±0.07) mm, (0.55±0.07) mm and (0.95±0.06) mm, respectively. These parameters in mongrel group were (1.27±0.07) mm, (0.92±0.05) mm, (0.59±0.06) mm, (0.67±0.07) mm and (0.94±0.05) mm, respectively. The volume of brain in two groups was (76232.33±5018.51) mm3 and (71863.96±4626.87) mm3, respectively. There were no obvious correlation among the body weight, the cerebrovascular diameters and brain

  12. Ethnoarchaeology of hunter‐fisher‐gatherers societies in the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego): ethnographical sources and social simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Briz i Godino, Ivan; Izquierdo Millán, Luis Rodrigo; Álvarez, Myrian; Caro, Jorge; Galán Ordax, José Manuel; Santos Martín, José Ignacio; Zurro, Débora

    2014-01-01

    Research from the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego) offers a rich ethnographic and historical record produced by the late inclusion of Tierra del Fuego in the industrial world (the Beagle Channel was discovered by R. Fitz- Roy in 1830). This is an interesting frame for using new techniques (social simulation by Agent Based Modelling (ABM)) to generate new hypotheses in archaeology. In this case, the hypothesis is focused on the role of social cooperation in Yámana hunter-fisher-ga...

  13. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  14. Toxicity of inhaled 144Ce fused clay particles in beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 144Ce in fused clay particles are being investigated in the Beagle dog to aid in assessing the biological consequences of release of 144Ce in a relatively insoluble form such as might occur in certain types of nuclear accidents. The toxicity of inhaled 144Ce fused clay is also of general interest since it is representative of intermediate-lived beta-emitting radionuclides. Two major studies with young adult dogs (12 to 14 months of age at exposure) are involved: (1) a metabolism and dosimetry study in which 24 dogs were serially sacrificed over an extended period of time, and (2) a longevity study with 2 series of dogs; Series I with 15 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144Ce in fused clay particles to yield initial lung burdens of 11 to 210 μCi/kg body weight and 3 control dogs exposed to nonradioactive fused clay particles and Series II with 96 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144Ce in fused clay particles to yield initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to 66 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs exposed to nonradioactive fused clay particles. Twenty-eight dogs died or were euthanized at 143 to 2396 days after inhalation of 144Ce. The prominent findings were radiation pneumonitis in 17 dogs that died or were euthanized at early time periods and neoplastic disease in 10 of the 11 dogs that died or were euthanized at 750 days or later; 5 with hemangiosarcoma of the lung, 1 with both a hemangiosarcoma and a fibrosarcoma of the lung, 1 with both a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma and a hemangiosarcoma of lung, 1 with a hemangiosarcoma of lung, bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma, and a bronchiogenic adenocarcinoma, and 1 each with a hemangiosarcoma of the mediastinum and of the spleen. The cumulative radiation dose to the lung at time of death has ranged from 22,000 to 140,000 rads. Serial observations are continuing on the 83 survivors and 15 controls. (U.S.)

  15. Digenea in notothenioid fish in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region, sub-Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław

    2014-03-01

    Fish of five species of Notothenioidei (104 specimens), Cottoperca trigloides, Patagonotothen brevicauda, P. longipes, P. tessellata and Champsocephalus esox, caught in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region, sub-Antarctica) were infected with Digenea of nine species (1130 specimens). Faunistic data on the occurrence of all nine parasites are provided. The most abundant digenean species was Macvicaria magellanica found in the intestine of three host species of the genus Patagonotothen. The second most abundant digenean species was Elytrophalloides oatesi found in the stomach of four host species, with exception of P. brevicauda. Three digenean species: Stenakron kerguelense, Whitegonimus ozoufae and Genolinea bowersi, were more abundant in fish caught at the harbor of Ushuaia (depth 7-9 m), remaining six species: M. magellanica, Neolepidapedoides subantarcticus, Postmonorchis variabilis, Derogenes varicus, E. oatesi and Lecithaster macrocotyle, in the eastern mouth of the Beagle Channel (depth 30 m). PMID:24570049

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in litteral sediments from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, O; Ferrer, L; Marcovecchio, J

    1996-07-01

    For the first time the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and total Hg) of sediments from the coastal zone of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, in Southern Argentina) were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized in order to determine the metal contents. The level of metals as observed in the sediments was recognized as the natural background, even though the use of normalization of lead, copper, and zinc to iron allowed the identification of the main sources of metal pollution for this environment. In order to develop future environmental monitoring programmes for the area of Ushuaia city and the Beagle Channel, the present results need to be considered. PMID:24193396

  17. μCT-Based, In Vivo Dynamic Bone Histomorphometry Allows 3D Evaluation of the Early Responses of Bone Resorption and Formation to PTH and Alendronate Combination Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M. J.; Altman, Allison R.; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Tribble, Mary Beth; Li, Connie; Chandra, Abhishek; Qin, Ling; Liu, X. Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Current osteoporosis treatments improve bone mass by increasing net bone formation: anti-resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates block osteoclast activity, while anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase bone remodeling, with a greater effect on formation. Although these drugs are widely used, their role in modulating formation and resorption is not fully understood, due in part to technical limitations in the ability to longitudinally assess bone remodeling. Importantly, it is not known whether or not PTH-induced bone formation is independent of resorption, resulting in controversy over the effectiveness of combination therapies that use both PTH and an anti-resorptive. In this study, we developed a μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry technique for rat tibiae, and applied this method to longitudinally track changes in bone resorption and formation as a result of treatment with alendronate (ALN), PTH, or combination therapy of both PTH and ALN (PTH+ALN). Correlations between our μCT-based measures of bone formation and measures of bone formation based on calcein-labeled histology (r = 0.72 - 0.83) confirm the accuracy of this method. Bone remodeling parameters measured through μCT-based in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry indicate an increased rate of bone formation in rats treated with PTH and PTH+ALN, together with a decrease in bone resorption measures in rats treated with ALN and PTH+ALN. These results were further supported by traditional histology-based measurements, suggesting that PTH was able to induce bone formation while bone resorption was suppressed. PMID:25554598

  18. Non-neoplastic pulmonary disease from inhaled radon daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters plus uranium ore dust, with and without concurrent cigarette smoking, for 2 to 5-1/2 yr have produced massive pulmonary fibrosis and severe emphysema. The cumulative exposure doses are similar to those associated with a 5-fold or greater increase in death rate of uranium miners due to chronic respiratory insufficiency, including pneumoconiosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and emphysema

  19. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  20. Tissue Doppler and strain imaging of left ventricle in Beagle dogs with iatrogenic hypercortisolism

    OpenAIRE

    OUI, Heejin; JEON, Sunghoon; LEE, Gahyun; Park, Seungjo; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Changes in radial and longitudinal left ventricular (LV) function were investigated in beagles with iatrogenic hypercortisolism. A total of 11 normal dogs were used, and 2 mg/kg prednisone was administered per oral q12 h for 28 days to 7 out of 11 dogs to induce iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Body weight, blood pressure, conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of normal and iatrogenic hypercortisolism groups were conducted. The myocardial wall velocity of the LV was measu...

  1. Late effects of inhaled 238PuO2 in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors were the primary cause of death in beagle dogs 4 to 6 years after inhalation of 238PuO2. The plutonium body burden at death ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 μCi with 32 to 55 percent of the plutonium in the skeleton. Pulmonary neoplasia was observed in three of the bone-tumor-bearing dogs. (U.S.)

  2. Identification of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 Activities within Intestinal Mucosa of Clinically Healthy Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Hanifeh, Mohsen; Rajamäki, Minna M.; MÄKITALO, Laura; Syrjä, Pernilla; Sankari, Satu; Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that contribute to the control of breakdown and reconstitution of extracellular matrix under both normal and pathological conditions. The main objective of this study was to identify the presence of MMP-2 and -9 in the mucosa of the small and large intestines of clinically healthy beagle dogs using gelatin zymography technique. Intestinal mucosa samples from four different parts of the intestine (duodenum, jej...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgolide B after Oral Administration of Three Different Ginkgolide B Formulations in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide B (GB, an important active constituent of Ginkgo biloba extract, has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of dementia, cerebral insufficiency or related cognitive decline. To investigate the main pharmacokinetic characteristics of three different GB formulations in beagle dogs, a simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated. The separation of the analytes was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Quantitation was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM in negative ion mode, with the transitions at m/z (Q1/Q3 423.1/367.1 for GB and m/z 269.3/170.0 for IS. The linear calibration curve of GB was obtained over the concentration range of 2–200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <15% and the accuracies were within ±12.7%. The validated method was applied to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GB in healthy beagle dogs after oral administration of three formulations (HME08, GB capsule prepared by hot-melt extrusion technology; LL06, GB pellet prepared by liquid layer technology; conventional GB tablet. The Cmax values of GB from different formulations in beagle dog plasma were 309.2, 192.4 and 66.6 µg/L, and the AUC values were 606.7, 419.1 and 236.2 µg/L·h, respectively. The data suggested that the exposure level of GB from HME08 and LL06 in beagle dog plasma was greatly improved compared with conventional tablets. This study should be helpful for the design and development of oral GB preparations.

  4. Survey of blood pressure in 226Ra- and 90Sr-treated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple blood pressure measurements on a total of 407 beagles with a non-invasive method showed the greatest frequency of mean pressures to be in the normal 101-120 mm Hg range. Another major group of dogs were hypertensive, with mean pressures of 120-140 mm Hg. Future correlation of canine blood pressures with diseases should prove useful in both veterinary and human medical research

  5. Radionuclide distribution dynamics in skeletons of beagles fed 90Sr: Correlation with injected 226Ra and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for the bone-by-bone redistribution of 90Sr in the beagle skeleton are reported for a period of 4000 d following a midgestation-to-540-d-exposure by ingestion. The partitioned clearance model (PCM) that was originally developed to describe bone-by-bone radionuclide redistribution of 226Ra after eight semimonthly injections at ages 435-535 d has been fitted to the 90Sr data. The parameter estimates for the PCM that describe the distribution and clearance of 226Ra after deposition on surfaces following injection and analogous parameter estimates for 90Sr after uniform deposition in the skeleton as a function of Ca mass are given. Fractional compact bone masses per bone group (mi,COM) are also predicted by the model and compared to measured values; a high degree of correlation (r = 0.84) is found. Bone groups for which the agreement between the model and experimental values of mi,COM was poor had tissue-to-calcium weight ratios about 1.5 times those for bones that agreed well. Metabolically defined surface in PCM is initial activity fraction per Ca fraction in a given skeletal component for intravenously injected alkaline earth (Sae) radionuclides; comparisons are made to similarly defined surface (Sact) values from 239Pu injection studies. The patterns of Sae and Sact distribution throughout the skeleton are similar

  6. Pharmacokinetic comparisons of S-oxiracetam and R-oxiracetam in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wusan; Ji, Hui; Li, Tingting; Jia, Yuanwei; Xie, Haitang

    2016-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic comparison and conformational stability study of S-oxiracetam (S-ORT) and R-oxiracetam (R-ORT) in beagle dogs was used to investigate the possible mechanism of different effects of two oxiracetam enantiomers through a random crossover design. After drug administration to beagle dogs, blood samples were collected at different time points for pharmacokinetic analysis using the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Parts of plasma samples were used for conformation transformation studies using a normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic (NP HPLC) method. The study showed that oxiracetam enantiomers maintained their original conformation when administered orally to beagle dogs. Concentrations of S-ORT were significantly higher than R-ORT 1.5 and 2 h after administration; the AUC0-∞ of S-ORT after oral administration tended to be higher than that of R-ORT, which showed that the different effects between S-ORT and R-ORT may be partly associated with their distinctive absorption at least. PMID:27279070

  7. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation. PMID:20665232

  8. Incidence of liver tumors in beagles with body burdens of 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetravalent 239Pu or trivalent 241Am in a citrate buffer, given via a single intravenous injection to beagles, induced very pronounced liver changes, usually at relatively long postinjection times. The lesions consisted of cell injury or cell necrosis which was followed by nodular hyperplasia and a significant incidence of primary liver tumors. The most frequent neoplasm was the bile duct adenoma, followed by the bile duct carcinoma. A lesser number of sarcomas were also induced, especially fibrosarcomas. The number of hepatic cell tumors was low. An abnormally high incidence of both hyperplastic nodules and primary liver tumors occurred at long postinjection times and at average doses extending down to ∼10 rads. The various nodular lesions and liver tumors frequently occurred as incidental findings in dogs dying from other causes, especially bone cancer. In comparison to bone neoplasia, the liver was a much less important target organ in the high-dose level groups, but in some of the low-dose groups, especially in the 241Am groups, the risk of radiation-induced liver cancer was approximately equal to or exceeded the risk of skeletal tumors. However, in any projection of the risks observed in this animal model to man, one should be mindful that the beagle skeleton is approximately 25 times more sensitive to radiation-induced bone neoplasia than is the human skeleton (Mays et al., 1976) and that the radiosensitivity difference for the beagle and human liver is unknown. 41 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Baseline trace metals in gastropod mollusks from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Stripeikis, Jorge; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Tudino, Mabel Beatriz

    2012-05-01

    With the aim to evaluate the mollusk Nacella (P)magellanica as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of the Beagle Channel, more than one hundred individuals of the gastropod were sampled, separated in viscera and muscle, and then examined with respect to the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Collection was performed in seven strategic locations along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in two campaigns during 2005 and 2007. Samples of surrounding seawater in the different sites were obtained and tested for the same metals as well. The accumulation capacity of Nacella (P)magellanica and thus its aptitude as biomonitor, was evaluated through the calculus of the preconcentration factors of the metals assayed. A discussion involving the comparison with other mollusks previously tested will be given. Several statistical approaches able to analyze data with environmental purposes were applied. Non parametric univariate tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were carried out to assess the changes of the metal concentrations with time (2005 and 2007) in each location. Multivariate methods (linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors) were also applied to obtain a more reliable site classification. Johnson's probabilistic method was carried out for comparison between different geographical areas. The possibility of employing these results as heavy metals' background levels of seawater from the Beagle Channel will be debated. PMID:22350107

  10. Analysis of acamprosate in beagle dog plasma by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Jeong-Hwa; Park, Seok; Park, Chun-Woong; Ha, Jeong-Myung; Jeong, Ki-Woo; Lee, Dong-Soo; Park, Eun-Seok

    2008-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and specific analytical method was developed and validated to quantify acamprosate calcium in beagle dog plasma. The method employs a single plasma protein precipitation, and the analytes are separated by chromatography on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column and analyzed by mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method has a chromatographic run time of 1.25 min and a linear calibration curve over the range 200-10000 ng/mL (r(2)>0.9994). The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within 10.0% for the analyte. Acamprosate was stable during all sample storage, preparation, and analytical periods. This method was employed in a pharmacokinetic study of an acamprosate 333 mg enteric-coated tablet in 8 male beagle dogs that received single 666 mg doses (333 mg x 2 tablets). The proposed method enables identification and quantification in pharmacokinetic studies of acamprosate in beagle dog plasma. PMID:18787794

  11. Pharmacokinetics study of extended release formulations of buspirone hydrochloride in Beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Meng-cun; LI Jing-lai; CHEN Yan; WANG Xiao-ying; QIAO Jian-zhong; ZHANG Zhen-qing; RUAN Jin-xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) properties of extended release formulations of buspirone hydrochloride in Beagle dogs. Methods A randomized, two period, two treatment, two sequence crossover bioequivalenee study was designed; six healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups, each group was orally given buspirone tablets or buspirone extended capsule containing 15 mg buspirone hydrochloride. Blood samples (about 1 mL) were collected in heparinized tubes before dosing and at 0.33, 0.67, 1,2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24 h after administration, and were then immediately centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. The pharmacokinetics (PK) properties of the drugs were evaluated using the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Results The mean tmax was 4.7, 0.8 h and Cmax values was 1.8, 6.9 μg·L-1, respectively for the sustained-release test (capsule) and reference formulation (tablet). When compared to the tablets, the residence time of the sustained capsules was dramatically prolonged and Cmax Was reduced (P<0.01). The initial release speed was slow and stable. The bioavailability was similar to the common tablets. Conclusions The sustained capsule had showed good pharmacokinetics property of sustained-release in the Beagle dogs.

  12. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Progress report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  14. SU-C-303-03: Dosimetric Model of the Beagle Needed for Pre-Clinical Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, M; Sands, M; Bolch, W [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Large animal models, most popularly beagles, have been crucial surrogates to humans in determining radiation safety levels of radiopharmaceuticals. This study aims to develop a detailed beagle phantom to accurately approximate organ absorbed doses for therapy nuclear medicine preclinical studies. Methods: A 3D NURBS model was created subordinate to a whole body CT of an adult beagle. Bones were harvested and CT imaged to offer macroscopic skeletal detail. Samples of trabecular spongiosa were cored and imaged to offer microscopic skeletal detail for bone trabeculae and marrow volume fractions. Results: Organ masses in the model are typical of an adult beagle. Trends in volume fractions for skeletal dosimetry are fundamentally similar to those found in existing models of other canine species. Conclusion: This work warrants its use in further investigations of radiation transport calculation for electron and photon dosimetry. This model accurately represents the anatomy of a beagle, and can be directly translated into a useable geometry for a voxel-based Monte Carlo radiation transport program such as MCNP6. Work supported by a grant from the Hyundai Hope on Wheels Foundation for Pediatric Cancer Research.

  15. Spectral variability on primitive asteroids of the Themis and Beagle families: space weathering effects or parent body heterogeneity?

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasier, S; Perna, D; Campins, H; Barucci, M A; Nesvorny, D

    2016-01-01

    Themis is an old and statistically robust asteroid family populating the outer main belt, and resulting from a catastrophic collision that took place 2.5$\\pm$1.0 Gyr ago. Within the old Themis family a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. We present the results of a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near infrared range of 22 Themis and 8 Beagle families members. The Themis members investigated exhibit a wide range of spectral behaviors, while the younger Beagle family members look spectrally bluer with a smaller spectral slope variability. The best meteorite spectral analogues found for both Themis and Beagle families members are carbonaceous chondrites having experienced different degrees of aqueous alteration, prevalently CM2 but also CV3 and CI, and some of them are chondrite samples being unusual or heated. We extended the spectral analysis including the data available in the literature on Themis and Beagle families members, and we looked for correlations betwe...

  16. SU-C-303-03: Dosimetric Model of the Beagle Needed for Pre-Clinical Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Large animal models, most popularly beagles, have been crucial surrogates to humans in determining radiation safety levels of radiopharmaceuticals. This study aims to develop a detailed beagle phantom to accurately approximate organ absorbed doses for therapy nuclear medicine preclinical studies. Methods: A 3D NURBS model was created subordinate to a whole body CT of an adult beagle. Bones were harvested and CT imaged to offer macroscopic skeletal detail. Samples of trabecular spongiosa were cored and imaged to offer microscopic skeletal detail for bone trabeculae and marrow volume fractions. Results: Organ masses in the model are typical of an adult beagle. Trends in volume fractions for skeletal dosimetry are fundamentally similar to those found in existing models of other canine species. Conclusion: This work warrants its use in further investigations of radiation transport calculation for electron and photon dosimetry. This model accurately represents the anatomy of a beagle, and can be directly translated into a useable geometry for a voxel-based Monte Carlo radiation transport program such as MCNP6. Work supported by a grant from the Hyundai Hope on Wheels Foundation for Pediatric Cancer Research

  17. The effects of programmed administration of human parathyroid hormone fragment (1-34) on bone histomorphometry and serum chemistry in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobnig, H.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    PTH treatment can result in dramatic increases in cancellous bone volume in normal and osteopenic rats. However, this potentially beneficial response is only observed after pulsatile treatment; continuous infusion of PTH leads to hypercalcemia and bone abnormalities. The purpose of these studies was to determine the optimal duration of the PTH pulses. A preliminary study revealed that human PTH-(1-34) (hPTH) is cleared from circulation within 6 h after sc administration of an anabolic dose of the hormone (80 microg/kg). To establish the effects of gradually extending the duration of exposure to hPTH without increasing the daily dose, we programmed implanted Alzet osmotic pumps to deliver the 80 microg/kg x day dose of the hormone during pulses of 1, 2, and 6 h/day, or 40 microg/kg x day continuously. Discontinuous infusion was accomplished by alternate spacing of external tubing with hPTH solution and sesame oil. After 6 days of treatment, we evaluated serum chemistry and bone histomorphometry. As negative and positive controls, groups of rats received pumps that delivered vehicle only and 80 microg/kg x day hPTH by daily sc injection, respectively. Dynamic and static bone histomorphometry revealed that the daily sc injection and 1 h/day infusion dramatically increased osteoblast number and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis, whereas longer infusion resulted in systemic side-effects, including up to a 10% loss in body weight, hypercalcemia, and histological changes in the proximal tibia resembling abnormalities observed in patients with chronic primary hyperparathyroidism, including peritrabecular marrow fibrosis and focal bone resorption. Infusion for as little as 2 h/day resulted in minor weight loss and changes in bone histology that were intermediate between sc and continuous administration. The results demonstrate that the therapeutic interval for hPTH exposure is brief, but that programmed administration of implanted hormone is a feasible

  18. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego Littoral paleoenvironments during the beginning of the Holocene marine transgression in Lapataia Bay, Beagle Channel, National Park of Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.The Aserradero Lapataia 1 and 2 sites present clayey silty sediments including mollusk shell; Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra and Yoldia sp. Besides, dinoflagelate cysts, covers of benthonic foraminifera and copepod eggs are dominant. The microflora is represented by sporomorphs and fresh to salty water microplancton. Radiocarbon dates on Mulinia edulis shells yielded ages of 8094 ± 43 (AA74047 and 8167 ± 43 (AA74048 yr B.P. At Arroyo Baliza, clayey silts were found including Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, among others, accompanied by acritarchs and remnants of copepods. This association suggests marginal marine environments, with low to moderate salinity, and high nutrient concentration in the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating on Venus antiqua shells yielded 2844 ± 34 yr B.P. (AA74046. Marine deposits of the Aserradero

  19. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Birkett, Michael A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed, the beagle, is mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in beagle odour. Ectoparasite location of animal hosts is affected by variation in these odour components and their ratios. The aim of this study was to quantify the release rate, and the ratio, of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde from beagles. The odour of three beagles was collected, for four days, over one week (day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7). The compounds were identified using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and authentic standards of compounds were used to generate external calibration curves for quantification. Both compounds were found in all dogs on all days. The amount of benzaldehyde was always higher than that of 2-hexanone and so their ratio varied from unity, on average (over time) being 3.128±0.365, 1.902±0.390, 1.670±0.671ngmL(-1) for beagle 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant (p<0.05, F-test) effect of time. The overall mean was 2.233±0.387ngmL(-1). These results further previous findings by documenting the presence of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde in beagle odour samples covering a 7-day period. This knowledge enables development of repellents to protect dogs from R. sanguineus s. l. infestation. PMID:27085013

  20. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  1. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  2. Localization of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of laboratory Beagle dogs: an ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzoni Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In dogs Helicobacter spp. are found in all gastric regions usually localized in the surface mucus, gastric glands and parietal cells. The aim of this study was to detail the distribution of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of asymptomatic Beagle dogs and their intracellular localization within parietal cells, in order to evaluate species-specific pathogenetic effects on gastric cells. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was investigated by immunohistochemistry, TEM, and PCR in the fundic mucosa of six Beagle dogs. Helicobacter spp. were found in all dogs examined, and H. bizzozeronii and H. felis were identified by PCR and confirmed by TEM. In the lumen of the fundic glands, co-localization was common. H. bizzozeronii was present in larger numbers than H. felis in both intraluminal and intraparietal localization. The amounts of H. bizzozeronii were similar in superficial and basal portions of the glands. H. felis was predominantly localized in the superficial portions of gastric glands but almost absent from the base. Within parietal cells, most Helicobacter organisms were intracanalicular, but intact and degenerate Helicobacter organisms were also visualized free in the cytoplasm or in secondary lysosomes. No specific degenerative lesions were found in infected parietal cells. Helicobacter organisms were also observed within macrophages in the lamina propria. In conclusion, there is a differential distribution of H. bizzozeronii and H. felis in the fundic mucosa of Beagle dogs, and their intracellular localization in parietal cells and macrophages suggests novel pathogenic scenarios for the development of immune response and maintenance of chronic gastritis in dogs.

  3. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  4. [Pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in Beagle dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He-Li; Zhang, Wen-Ping; Yang, Fu-Ying; Wang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Wen-Cheng; Dang, Hong-Wan

    2013-05-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in healthy adult Beagle dogs following single and multiple oral dose administration. A randomized, cross-over study was conducted with nine healthy adult Beagle dogs assigned to three groups. Each group was arranged to take atorvastatin calcium (A), pioglitazone hydrochloride (B), atorvastatin calcium and pioglitazone hydrochloride (C) orally in the first period, to take B, C, A in the second period, and to take C, A, B in the third period for 6 days respectively. The blood samples were collected at the first and the sixth day after the administration, plasma drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS, a one-week wash-out period was needed between each period. The pharmacokinetic parameters of drug combination group and the drug alone group were calculated by statistical moment method, calculation of C(max) and AUC(0-t) was done by using 90% confidence interval method of the bioequivalence and bioavailability degree module DAS 3.2.1 software statistics. Compared with the separate administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max) and AUC(0-t)) of joint use of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium within 90% confidence intervals for bioequivalence statistics were unqualified, the mean t(max) with standard deviation used paired Wilcoxon test resulted P > 0.05. There was no significant difference within t1/2, CL(int), MRT, V/F. Pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium had pharmacokinetic interaction in healthy adult Beagle dogs. PMID:23888699

  5. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns

  6. BEAGLE: An Application Programming Interface and High-Performance Computing Library for Statistical Phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Daniel L.; Darling, Aaron; Zwickl, Derrick J.; Beerli, Peter; Holder, Mark T.; Lewis, Paul O.; Huelsenbeck, John P.; Ronquist, Fredrik; Swofford, David L.; Cummings, Michael P.; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is fundamental to our understanding of most aspects of the origin and evolution of life, and in recent years, there has been a concentration of interest in statistical approaches such as Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood estimation. Yet, for large data sets and realistic or interesting models of evolution, these approaches remain computationally demanding. High-throughput sequencing can yield data for thousands of taxa, but scaling to such problems using serial computing often necessitates the use of nonstatistical or approximate approaches. The recent emergence of graphics processing units (GPUs) provides an opportunity to leverage their excellent floating-point computational performance to accelerate statistical phylogenetic inference. A specialized library for phylogenetic calculation would allow existing software packages to make more effective use of available computer hardware, including GPUs. Adoption of a common library would also make it easier for other emerging computing architectures, such as field programmable gate arrays, to be used in the future. We present BEAGLE, an application programming interface (API) and library for high-performance statistical phylogenetic inference. The API provides a uniform interface for performing phylogenetic likelihood calculations on a variety of compute hardware platforms. The library includes a set of efficient implementations and can currently exploit hardware including GPUs using NVIDIA CUDA, central processing units (CPUs) with Streaming SIMD Extensions and related processor supplementary instruction sets, and multicore CPUs via OpenMP. To demonstrate the advantages of a common API, we have incorporated the library into several popular phylogenetic software packages. The BEAGLE library is free open source software licensed under the Lesser GPL and available from http://beagle-lib.googlecode.com. An example client program is available as public domain software. PMID:21963610

  7. A comparison of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA for chelating 241Am in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a comparative study of the efficiency of removing body burdens of 241Am in beagles subjected to chelation therapy with either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA are given. It is shown that on an equimolar basis the efficacy of the calcium salt is not greater than the zinc salt for treatments begun 2 weeks after radionuclide injection. The authors suggest that due to the much greater toxicity which has been shown for Ca-DTPA, it appears that Zn-DTPA should replace Ca-DTPA as treatment of choice in human cases. (U.K.)

  8. Liver tumors in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to 144CeCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant hepatic neoplasms developed in 9 of 55 Beagle dogs (16 percent) exposed to 144CeCl3 in CsCl aerosol (seven primary hepatic hemangiosarcomas, one hepatocellular carcinoma and one intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma). Cerium-144 was rapidly translocated from the lung to the liver and skeleton; the liver received the highest cumulative beta dose. The latent periods of hepatic hemangiosarcomas appeared to be dose-related; death from hepatic hemangiosarcoma occurred earlier in dogs which received higher beta doses

  9. Accuracy of sonographic diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum using the enhanced peritoneal stripe sign in beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Song Yeon; Park, Ki Tae; Yeon, Seong Chan; Lee, Hee Chun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of estimating the smallest amount of abdominal free gas detectible in a large population of beagles by ultrasonography. Healthy dogs were randomly divided into three groups: group A that received 0.1 mL of air injected into the peritoneal cavity, group B that received 0.2 mL of air injected into the peritoneal cavity, and group C that received 0.5 mL of intraperitoneal air. Randomly, some dogs in each group did not recei...

  10. Growth and production of the venerid bivalve Eurhomalea exalbida in the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Lomovasky, B.; Brey, Thomas; Morriconi, E.; Calvo, J.

    2002-01-01

    Growth, mortality and productivity of the hard clam E. exalbida from Ushuaia Bay, Beagle Channel were investigated. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated to be H = 73.98 mm, K = 0.180 y 1, t0 = 0.147 y. Maximum individual production amounted to 2.742 g shell free wet mass (SFWM) at 49.5 mm shell height. Animals between 40 mm and 70 mm shell height contribute most to overall population somatic production P of 133.89 g SFWM m-2 y-1. Mean annual biomass B amounted ...

  11. Exploraciones osteológicas de la salud de las poblaciones humanas del Canal Beagle

    OpenAIRE

    Suby, Jorge A.; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio; Piana, Ernesto Luis

    2011-01-01

    Algunas evidencias acerca de la salud de las poblaciones aborígenes han comenzado a ser reportadas en varias regiones de Patagonia Austral. Por el contrario, hasta el momento carecemos de información comparable para la región del canal Beagle. El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar los resultados de las investigaciones bioarqueológicas y paleopatológicas de los restos humanos recuperados en excavaciones realizadas en la margen norte del canal durante la primera década del siglo XXI. Estos e...

  12. Mischiuen III, un contexto funerario singular en el Canal Beagle (Tierra del Fuego)

    OpenAIRE

    Vila-Mitjà, Assumpció; Casas, Alicia; Oriol Vicente, Campos

    2006-01-01

    (ESP)Presentamos aquí los trabajos realizados en un contexto funerario singular, Mischiuen III, así como los primeros resultados obtenidos. Este estudio aporta nuevos datos para la comprensión de las sociedades cazadoras- recolectoras de Tierra del Fuego, y se enmarca en los proyectos de investigación etnoarqueológica que venimos desarrollando en la costa argentina del canal Beagle desde finales de los años 80. Al mismo tiempo se presentan los resultados de la aplicación de nuevas metodología...

  13. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239PuO2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  14. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  15. Deposition of inhaled LMFBR-fuel-sodium aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial alveolar deposition of LMFBR-fuel aerosols in beagle dogs amounted to 30% of the inhaled activity, but only 5% of the total inhaled activity was deposited in dogs exposed to sodium-fuel aerosols. Aerosol deposition in the gastrointestinal tract amounted to 4% of the initial body burden of fuel-aerosol exposed dogs and 24% of the burden of animals receiving sodium-fuel aerosols. Preliminary analytical data for the dog exposures appear to agree with rodent data for deposition and distribution patterns of aerosols of similar sodium: fuel ratios

  16. Clinical Efficacy of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine with Meloxicam for Postoperative Analgesia in Beagle Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Wilsey, Amanda S; Jenkins, Gary J; Medina, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and plasma buprenorphine concentrations of sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and buprenorphine after subcutaneous administration in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, randomized, blinded design, 20 healthy adult female Beagle dogs underwent routine ovariohysterectomy and received multimodal analgesia consisting of meloxicam and one of two buprenorphine formulations. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either SRB (0.2 mg/kg SC, once) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d). Blinded observers assessed all dogs by using sedation scores, pain scores, temperature, HR, RR, and general wellbeing. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine SC if the postoperative pain score exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Tukey–Kramer multiple comparison. Age, body weight, anesthetic duration, surgical duration, sevoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between groups. Dogs in both formulation groups had comparable postoperative sedation and pain scores. One dog from each formulation group had breakthrough pain requiring rescue analgesia. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations remained above a hypothesized therapeutic concentration of 0.6 ng/mL for 136.0 ± 11.3 and 10.67 ± 0.84 h for SRB and buprenorphine, respectively. Based on the results of this study, multimodal analgesic regimens consisting of meloxicam and either buprenorphine or SRB are equally efficacious in managing pain associated with an ovariohysterectomy and show comparable side effects. PMID:25255072

  17. Lifetime effects of long-term exposures to strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graded doses of injected 226Ra or ingested 90Sr were given to 804 beagles in early life. The median survival times of the various irradiated groups at higher exposures were lower than the control value of 14.7 years. The 226Ra group with the highest total skeletal dose had a median survival of 4.5 years. For 90Sr the highest group had a median survival of 2.2 years. Normal life spans were evident in treatment groups with average skeletal doses of 226Ra or of 2600 rads from 90Sr. The life-shortening effects of 226Ra and 90Sr are related to the tumors produced from the radionuclide exposure. The significant causes of death among the 226Ra-treated beagles were primary bone cancers, mostly osteosarcomas. Among dogs exposed to 90Sr, significant numbers of deaths were from primary bone cancer, myeloproliferative disease, and squamous-cell carcinoma of the gingiva. In general, more of these effects were produced in the groups receiving higher doses and dose rates; at lower doses the effects, when present, appeared later than they did at higher doses. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. The removal of inhaled 239Pu from beagle dogs by bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelatan therapy for removing 239Pu from beagle dogs after inhalation of 239Pu aerosols having different solubilities has been investigated. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239PuCl4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900 and 11500C. Groups of six beagle dogs were exposed to each of the aerosols. Subsequently, three dogs in each group were treated by lavage and intravenous injections of DTPA. The remaining three dogs in each group served as untreated controls. It was found that bronchopulmonary lavage treatment was effective in removing nearly half of the 239Pu activity from the lung regardless of the aerosol production temperature. This early removal of 239Pu activity resulted in a significant reduction in daily dose rate and therefore cumulative α dose to lung. The effectiveness of DTPA treatment depended on aerosol production temperature, and was effective in reducing accumulation of 239Pu in liver and skeleton of the dogs that inhaled aerosols produced at 3250 and 6000C by enhancing urinary excretion of 239Pu. (U.K.)

  19. Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

    2008-05-01

    Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

  20. Effects of dietary protein and ethanol intake on pregnant beagles fed purified diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, B R; Anderson, J J; Pick, J R

    1986-04-01

    Maternal weight gain of beagles was approximately 50% lower when ethanol was given twice daily at a dose of 1.8 g/kg body weight with either control protein (17% energy from protein) or low protein (8.5%) diet as compared to isocalorically sucrose-treated animals. Similarly, pup birth weights were about 27% lower from beagles given ethanol with either diet when compared to those from sucrose-treated bitches. Two weeks after beginning ethanol treatment, pregnant bitches fed either diet had higher hematocrit values and lower plasma concentrations of albumin and calcium as compared to sucrose-treated animals. Low dietary protein treatment, rather than ethanol, lowered maternal concentrations of red blood cell folate during pregnancy. As compared to sucrose-treated bitches, ethanol prevented folate levels in red blood cells from returning to the normal range by the 9th wk of pregnancy in animals fed low dietary protein. These data show that ethanol consumption and low dietary protein intake, independently of each other, significantly depress maternal weight gain, pup birth weight and some nutritionally related parameters of the mother. PMID:3958813

  1. Lymphocytopenia induced in beagle dogs by inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium, we gave 124 beagle dogs a single exposure of 239PuO2 2 to 3 years ago at six different levels, i.e., 4, 20, 80, 300, 1100, or 5800 nCi mean initial alveolar depositions. Another group (20 dogs) served as controls. All dogs were about 18 months old. At the four highest exposure levels, a chronic lymphocytopenia developed which correlated with the initial alveolar plutonium burden in regard to magnitude of depression and time of development after exposure. The nadir occurred near 10 months after exposure in dogs receiving 5800, 1100, and 300 nCi, with corresponding lymphocyte levels 40, 55, and 75 percent, respectively, of those observed in control dogs. In the 80-nCi level the nadir occurred about 2 years after exposure at approximately 80 percent of control values. At the two lowest doses, i.e., 4 and 20 nCi, no effect on lymphocyte concentrations was noted 3 years after exposure. The persistent lymphocytopenia related to plutonium inhalation may be of significance in the subsequent development of pulmonary neoplasms previously observed in beagles at this laboratory 8 to 11 years after initial lung depositions of 200 to 1000 nCi of 239Pu

  2. Effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound on repairing the periodontal bone of Beagle canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi Gu; Yong-Mei Li; Jing Guo; Li-Hua Zhang; Dong Li; Xiao-Dong Gai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repairing effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the Beagle canines periodontal bone defect. Methods: A total of 12 Beagle dogs with periodontal bone defect model were randomly divided into control group, LIPUS group, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) group and LIPUS+GTR group, with three in each. After completion of the models, no other proceeding was performed in control group; LIPUS group adopt direct exposure to radiation line LIPUS processing 1 week after modeling; GTR group adopted treatment with GTR, following the CTR standard operation reference; LIPUS+GTR group was treated with LIPUS joint GTR. Temperature change before treatment and histopathological change of periodontal tissue after repair was observed. Results: There was no significant difference in temperature changes of periodontal tissue between groups (P>0.05). The amount and maturity of LIPUS+GTR group were superior to other groups; new cementum, dental periodontal bones of GTR group were superior to the control group but less than LIPUS group; new collagen and maturity of the control group is not high relatively. Conclusions: LIPUS can accelerate the calcium salt deposition and new bone maturation, thus it can serve as promoting periodontal tissue repair, and shortening the periodontal tissue repair time.

  3. Microanalysis of oligosaccharide HS203 in beagle dog plasma by postcolumn fluorescence derivatization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shumeng; Zhao, Xia; Li, Guangsheng; Yu, Guangli; Xing, Xiaoxu; Zeng, Yangyang; Wu, Jian; Wang, Jianing

    2012-06-20

    A rapid and sensitive postcolumn fluorescence derivatization method was developed for microanalysis of antidiabetic oligosaccharide HS203 in beagle dog plasma. After plasma protein was removed by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method, chromatographic separation was performed on an Asahipak GS-320 HQ column with a mobile phase of 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.7) and acetonitrile (83/17, v/v). The column effluent was monitored by fluorescence detection at 249 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as a postcolumn derivatizing reagent. A satisfactory resolution of the analyte was achieved and the limit of detection was found to be 4 ng (more sensitive than silver staining of HS203 in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). The method described above was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of HS203 and to monitor blood glucose level simultaneously in beagle dog. It is also possible to be applied for microanalysis of other oligosaccharides in biological samples. PMID:24750771

  4. Radiographic evaluation of obesity-caused oppression of the thoracic cavity in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracic radiographs of fifteen beagles with mild-to-moderate obesity revealed that oppression of the thoracic cavity increased with increasing degree of obesity. Oppression of the thoracic cavity was evaluated based on the length, depth, width and area of the thoracic cavity. To obtain thoracic radiographs at the terminal inspiration and expiration phases, thoracic fluororadiographs were recorded with a digital video camera. Bodyweight and the depth of the back fat layer at the seventh lumbar vertebra (DB, measured by ultrasonography) were used as indicators of the degree of obesity. The length of the thoracic cavity tended to become shorter and the depth and width of the thoracic cavity tended to increase as bodyweight increased and as DB increased. On the other hand, the area of the thoracic cavity was not clearly related to bodyweight or DB. These results suggest that oppression of the thoracic cavity due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm is compensated for by increases in the depth and width of the thoracic cavity in beagles with mild-to-moderate obesity

  5. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of aspirin with warfarin in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenlin; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Ping; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tingting; Pappoe, Faustina; Huang, Jihan; Tang, Haiqin

    2016-01-01

    1. Warfarin and aspirin are widely used in a wide spectrum of thromboembolic and atherothrombotic diseases. Despite the potential efficacy of warfarin-aspirin therapy, the safety and side effect of combined therapy remains unclear. 2. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and aspirin in beagles after single and multiple doses. 3. Coadministration of aspirin had no significant effects on the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of R- and S-warfarin after a single dose of warfarin, but significantly increase the AUC(0-t) and Cmax and dramatically decrease the clearance (CL) of R- and S-warfarin after multiple dose of warfarin. Accordingly, there was a slight increase in the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) after multiple dose of warfarin. 4. Coadministration of warfarin had no markedly effects on the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid after single or multiple dose of aspirin. Meanwhile, the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) were not significantly affected by warfarin. 5. Our animal study indicated that coadministration of aspirin with warfarin can cause significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions in beagles. However, more studies are urgently needed to assess related information of warfarin-aspirin drug interactions in healthy volunteers or patients. PMID:26548565

  6. Initial deposition and early clearance of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from exposures of 113 beagle dogs to 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols were analyzed for effects of aerosol properties on deposition and early clearance. The percent of inhaled aerosols deposited was not significantly dependent on particle size or aerosol concentration. The early clearance rate was significantly slower at the highest exposure levels than at medium and low levels

  7. Effects of plutonium on the immune system: IgG in beagle dogs exposed to plutonium and in nonexposed controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum IgG levels in plutonium-oxide-exposed and unexposed beagle dogs was assayed with the Mancini system. With this system, there was no significant difference between IgG levels of exposed dogs and controls, nor among exposed dogs with different degrees of lymphopenia. (U.S.)

  8. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF. PMID:27160397

  9. Spectral variability on primitive asteroids of the Themis and Beagle families: Space weathering effects or parent body heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Perna, D.; Campins, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Nesvorny, D.

    2016-05-01

    Themis is an old and statistically robust asteroid family populating the outer main belt, and resulting from a catastrophic collision that took place 2.5 ± 1.0 Gyr ago. Within the old Themis family a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. We present the results of a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near infrared range of 22 Themis and 8 Beagle families members. The Themis members investigated exhibit a wide range of spectral behaviors, including asteroids with blue/neutral and moderately red spectra, while the younger Beagle family members look spectrally bluer than the Themis ones and they have a much smaller spectral slope variability. Four Themis members, including (24) Themis, have absorption bands centered at 0.68-0.73 μm indicating the presence of aqueously altered minerals. The best meteorite spectral analogues found for both Themis and Beagle families members are carbonaceous chondrites having experienced different degrees of aqueous alteration, prevalently CM2 but also CV3 and CI, and some of them are chondrite samples being unusual or heated. The presence of aqueous altered materials on the asteroids surfaces and the meteorite matches indicate that the parent body of the Themis family experienced mild thermal metamorphism in the past. We extended the spectral analysis including the data available in the literature on Themis and Beagle families members, and we looked for correlations between spectral behavior and physical parameters using the albedo and size values derived from the WISE data. The analysis of this larger sample confirms the spectral diversity within the Themis family and that Beagle members tend to be bluer and to have an higher albedo. The differences between the two families may be partially explained by space weathering processes, which act on these primitive surfaces in a similar way than on S-type asteroids, i.e. producing reddening and darkening. However we see several Themis members

  10. Distribución batimétrica, espacial y temporal del macrozoobentos en el Canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Diez, M.

    2006-01-01

    El Canal Beagle (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) se encuentra en el sistema de canales fueguinos que representa el ambiente marino subantártico costero más estrechamente relacionado con la Antártida. Además, el Canal Beagle constituye una vía de intercambio de fauna y flora ente los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la composición, abundancia y biomasa del macrozoobentos en el Canal Beagle como también la producción secundaria de los ensambles bentónicos. D...

  11. Comments on: Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GH z Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We read with great interest an article by Shokri et al. entitled "Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GH z exposure on apoptosis, sperm parameters and testicular histomorphometry in rats: a time course study" that is published in the latest issue of the Cell Journal (Vol.17, 2015: 322-331. In this article, Shokri et al. have presented their findings obtained in an experiment on an animal model. These researchers exposed rats to the 2.45 GHz radiation in a chamber with two Wi-Fi antennas on opposite walls of a box. The exposed animals in this study showed a decrease in sperm parameters. We have previously shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by Wi-Fi routers or mobile phone jammers can adversely affect the sperm quality (1-3. The paper published by Shokri et al. is seriously flawed. The first major shortcoming of this paper is its exposure geometry. The authors stated that their exposure system was "a chamber (180 cm×80 cm×70 cm, designed for whole-body exposure of free-moving rats to a Wi-Fi signal. Two Wi-Fi antennas (NanoStation Loco M2, 2.45 GHz, 8.5 dBi, Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. USA were placed at the center of two sides of the chamber". It should be noted that in this case, the power density can be calculated using the below equation: S=P•G/4πR2 Where S=Power density P=Power input to antenna G=Antenna gain In this light, the geometry used in the study of Shokri et al. makes a very inhomogeneous distribution of power densities. The second shortcoming comes from this point that the authors claimed that their study was performed on a basis that could not affect the hormonal balance "A previous study applied a restrainer to fix space between antenna and rat. Since it was a stressful condition that could probably affect hormonal balance of animals, we tried to assess the effect of radiation on the free moving animals". However, these authors only had a control group and did not use a sham-exposed group to control the animals’s stress

  12. Assessment of bone formation and bone resorption in osteoporosis: a comparison between tetracycline-based iliac histomorphometry and whole body 85Sr kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone formation and resorption have been measured in patients with idiopathic osteoporosis by histomorphometry of 7.5-mm trephine biopsies and in the whole body by 85Sr radiotracer methodology and calcium balances. The studies were synchronized and most were preceded by double in vivo tetracycline labeling. Correlations between histological and kinetic bone formation indices were better when better when based on the extent of double tetracycline labels than on measurements of osteoid by visible light microscopy. Correction of the kinetic data for long-term exchange, using 5 months' serial whole body counting of retained 85Sr, improved the fit of the kinetic to the histological data. A statistical analysis of the measurement uncertainties showed that the residual scatter in the best correlations (between exchange-corrected bone formation rates and double-labeled osteoid surface indices) could be attributed to measurement imprecision alone. The exchange-corrected resorption rate correlated fairly well with iliac trabecular resorption surfaces, and using a volume referent rather than a surface referent for the histological index improved the statistical fit when patients with therapeutically accelerated bone turnover were included. A much better correlation was obtained by including osteoid volume acting as an independent predictor of bone resorption in a bivariate regression with a resorption surface index. The residual errors could then be accounted for by known measurement uncertainties. Whereas osteoid taking a double label closely predicted the kinetic rate of bone formation, further analysis suggested that osteoid that took no label or a single label was more closely related to bone resorption, presumably as a secondary result of the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption

  13. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  14. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi of 90Sr per kilogram of body weight. High levels of exposure have caused pulmonary fibrosis and radiation pneumonitis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects which included cancer of the lung, heart and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Six dogs died during the past year and two of them had hemangiosarcoma primary to a tracheobronchial lymph node. This was a new finding in this study and indicates the importance of considering the radiation dose to thoracic lymph nodes which continually accumulate radioactive particles after inhalation exposure to relatively insoluble radioactive aerosols

  15. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.02 to 96 μCi of 90Sr per kilogram of body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects which included cancer of the lung, heart and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Three control dogs and two 90Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the liver; the other exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes. One control dog died during routine anesthesia, one died with hepatocellular carcinoma and the third died with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

  16. Bioavailability of water-soluble CoQ10 in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosek, Mirko; Butinar, Janos; Lukanc, Barbara; Fir, Maja Milivojevic; Milivojevic, Luka; Krizman, Mitja; Smidovnik, Andrej

    2008-08-01

    The bioavailability of a novel water-soluble inclusion complex of CoQ10, prepared in our laboratory was determined and compared with the bioavailability of commercially available oil-based form of CoQ10. Experimental work consisted of single dose comparative bioavailability study on seven beagle dogs, with a 14-day washout period between treatments. Identification and quantification of CoQ10 was done with HPLC-MS method using positive APCI ionization and SIM mode, M+ m/z 863.4. The bioavailability results confirm that the water-soluble formulation has nearly three times higher AUC(0-48 h), two times higher Cmax, and Tmax is shortened from 6 to 4 h. PMID:18495407

  17. Clearance patterns for 111In-oxide particles deposited in specific airways of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has incorporated long-term retention of radioactive particles in conducting airways into its newly approved respiratory tract dosimetry model. This model is purported to provide a better basis for assessing risk associated with human inhalation exposures to radioactive particles. However, applying the new model requires an understanding of particle retention patterns in conducting airways of the lung. Studies are being conducted at ITRI to quantify long-term retention patterns for particles deposited at specific sites in conducting airways of Beagle dogs. The dog was selected as a model because long-term retention and clearance patterns for particles deposited in the lungs of dogs and humans are similar

  18. Biomarkers and heavy metal bioaccumulation in mussels transplanted to coastal waters of the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Duarte, Claudia A; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-03-01

    Mussels coming from a mussel farm at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) were transplanted to four sites inside Ushuaia Bay for 2 and 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of coastal waters of Ushuaia Bay by measuring catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, total lipid content, bioaccumulation of heavy metals and condition index in transplanted mussel Mytilus edulis chilensis. Biomarkers except condition index showed significant differences among exposure times as well as among tissues. Digestive gland presented the highest catalase activity, malondialdehyde level and total lipid content. Digestive gland also was the main target tissue of accumulation of iron and copper, while gill accumulated the highest levels of zinc. A principal component analyzes with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations based on physicochemical conditions and biochemical responses of each studied area. PMID:19913913

  19. Growth and production of the venerid bivalve Eurhomalea exalbida in the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomovasky, Betina J.; Brey, Thomas; Morriconi, Elba; Calvo, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    Growth, mortality and productivity of the hard clam Eurhomalea exalbida from Ushuaia Bay, Beagle Channel, were investigated. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated to be H ∞ = 74 mm, K = 0.18 y -1, t 0 = 0.15 y. Maximum individual production amounted to 2.74 g shell-free wet mass (SFWM) at 49.5 mm shell height. Animals between 40 mm and 70 mm shell height contributed most to overall population somatic production P of 134 g SFWM m -2 y -1. Mean annual biomass B amounted to 1123 g SFWM m -2 y -1. Annual P/B ratio and mortality rate Z were estimated to be 0.12 y -1 and 0.14 y -1, respectively. Slow growth and low turnover make this population less suitable for sustainable commercial exploitation.

  20. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations. PMID:21550069

  1. Radium-226-induced bone lesions in beagle dogs treated by amputation: clinical, radiological, and histologic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a colony of beagle dogs that had received intravenous injections of 226Ra there was a subgroup of dogs, each of which developed a painful lesion of a long bone. These bone lesions had their inception in bizarre, progressively expansile resorption cavities in which the process of normal bone tissue replacement was defective. On occasion, bone sarcomas arose in some of the sites of perturbed bone repair. This radiation-induced disturbance of the normal bone remodeling process with its preneoplastic spectrum of radiographic and histologic lesions was termed radiation-osteodystrophy. Lesions were studied by sequential radiography prior to the onset of clinical signs. Because of the painful nature of the lesion and difficulty experienced by the dogs in walking, full leg amputations were performed. This not only provided relief from clinical signs, but also permitted the dog to continue to live, allowing study of subsequently identified radiation-induced lesions

  2. Flora bucal en perros de la raza Beagle con enfermedad periodontal inducida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera García, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa enfermedad periodontal afecta a los perros durante toda su vida y se debe a la acumulación de placa dental bacteriana en las coronas dentales a lo largo de la encía, lo que conlleva a una reacción inflamatoria de la misma, conocida como gingivitis. Con el fin determinar la flora bucal en perros con enfermedad periodontal inducida se estudiaron 10 canes de la raza Beagle que previamente fueron sometidos a una intervención quirúrgica para inducir la enfermedad.SummaryPeriodontal diseases affect the dogs all its life and this is due to the accumulation of bacterial dental plaque along the gums as results this provokes a well known inflammatory reaction defined as gingivitis. The purpose of this paper was to determine the bucal flora in dogs with periodontal disease induced.

  3. Lifetime tumor risk coefficients for beagle dogs that inhaled cerium-144 chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Reported here is one of the life-span radionuclide toxicology studies being conducted at ITRI in Beagle dogs. These studies are examining the life-span health risks of inhaled {Beta}-, {gamma}- and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides to expand available knowledge on these risks especially for the many cases for which human data are not available. The outcomes of these studies are providing important information on dosimetry and dose-response relationships for these inhaled radionuclides and the relative importance of a broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors. A number of these studies are currently coming to completion. Much of the ITRI effort is being directed to final reviews of the dosimetric, clinical, and pathologic results and writing summary manuscripts. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, specifically those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited, bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 144}Ce.

  4. Pyovagina and stump pyometra in a neutered XX sex-reversed Beagle: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 18-month-old, neutered male beagle presented with acute abdominal signs and a suppurative infection of the urogenital tract. Chromosomal sex was female (78, XX), gonadal sex was male (testicles), and phenotypic sex was ambiguous, with evidence of both male and female duct systems. The internal and external genitalia consisted of epididymides, an underdeveloped uterus with an immature spermatic cord, communication between the uterus or cranial vagina and the membranous urethra, a urethrographically male urethra, a hypoplastic os penis, and a hypoplastic penis with hypospadia. Based on these findings and the familial history of a similarly affected litter mate, the dog was diagnosed as having the XX male syndrome with pyovagina and uterine stump pyometra. Radiographic and ultrasonographic investigations are described, and abnormalities of chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex are discussed

  5. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi of 90Sr/kg body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects, including cancer of the lung, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph modes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Two control dogs and two 90Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the spleen; the other exposed dog died with pulmonary thrombosis. One control dog died of pulmonary carcinoma, and the other control dog died of a carcinoma of the bladder. The remaining 19 exposed and 11 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation

  6. Expression of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus sequences in Beagle dog tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeled cDNA synthesized from RNA extracted from 238PuO2-, 239PuO2-, and 90Sr-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs, from nontumor tissue from 239PuO2-exposed dogs, and from unexposed dog lung and liver tissue produces strong hybridization signals with a plasmid (pKSma) that contains Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KMSV) sequences. At least 90 percent of the KMSV sequences are expressed in these dog tissues, including sequences corresponding to p21 K-ras, qp70 envelope glycoprotein, and at least one other proviral sequence. The expression of Kirsten ras and other sarcoma virus sequences may have important implications for the interpretation of carcinogenesis studies in these dogs. (author)

  7. Toxicity of 91Y inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 91Y in fused aluminosilicate particles, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from 11 to 360 μCi (0.4-13 MBq) 91Y/kg body weight. These 96 dogs, plus 12 controls, were maintained for life-span observation of toxic and carcinogenic effects. Dogs with the highest lung burdens died at early times with radiation pneumonitis. At later times, tumors were seen in lungs, nasal cavity, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes; these organs received the highest radiation doses. Observations are continuing on the 5 exposed and 3 control dogs that remain alive 5120 to 5605 days after exposure. 2 figures, 1 table

  8. Study on Plasma Concentration and Bioavailability of Wogonin in Beagle's Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-chun; CHEN Fei-hu; DONG Hai-jun; GAO Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentration of wogonin in dog plasma and investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability by different administrations of wogonin in Beagle's dogs. Methods LC-MS/MS was employed in determining the concentration of wogonin with the selected ion monitoring model after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate of dog plasma samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.105 μg/L. Target ions were at m/z 285.0→270.0 for wogonin and 373.3→305.3 for finasteride. In a randomized, self-control, and cross-over study, six male Beagle's dogs were treated with different administration methods in three test periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS software (Ver. 2.0). Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.105-107.36 μg/L for wogonin in dog plasma samples. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of ig administration (native drug of 15 mg/kg and solution preparation of 5 mg/kg) and iv route were as follows: Cmax (2.5 ± 1.1), (7.9 ± 3.3), and (6838.7 ± 1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7 ± 0.3) and (0.3 ± 0.2) h for the both former, AUC0-1 (7.1 ± 2.0), (21.0 ± 3.2), and (629.7 ±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native and solution of wogonin were (0.59 ± 0.35)% and (3.65 ± 2.00)%, respectively. Conclusion The validated method is convenient, sensitive, and specific, and the improvement of wogonin solubility could remarkably increase the absolute bioavailability.

  9. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles in beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs have continued during the past year to define the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. These 124 dogs were assigned to the longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly to achieve lung burdens of approximately 1.5 to 12 μCi/kg and assigned for sacrifice at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the longevity dogs, 33 dogs having initial lung burdens of 16 to 94 μCi 90Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 2373 days after exposure. Thirty-one dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung or heart between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The remaining exposed dogs and controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1022 to 2803 days after exposure

  10. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  11. Effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid membrane on the healing of one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (TC-PLGA) and non-blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLGA) barrier membrane on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs. It can be concluded that when used for guided tissue regeneration TC-PLGA membranes show a beneficial effect on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

  12. Effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid membrane on the healing of one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il-Young [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ui-Won [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Sung [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Keun [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoo-Sung [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jung-Kiu [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong-Kwan [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (TC-PLGA) and non-blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLGA) barrier membrane on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs. It can be concluded that when used for guided tissue regeneration TC-PLGA membranes show a beneficial effect on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs.

  13. Histomorphometry and Bone Matrix Mineralization Before and After Bisphosphonate Treatment in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Paired Transiliac Biopsy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; McMillan, Hugh J; Ma, Jinhui; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder causing progressive muscle weakness. To prolong independent ambulation, DMD patients are treated with glucocorticoids, which, in turn, can increase bone fragility. In a cohort with vertebral fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate (iv BP) therapy stabilized vertebrae and reduced back pain. To characterize the effects of glucocorticoid therapy and bisphosphonate treatment on bone tissue and material properties, paired transiliac biopsy samples (before and after on average 2.4 years of iv BP) from 9 boys with DMD were studied for histomorphometry and bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) and compared to reference values. Before iv BP, the boys had low cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and cortical thickness (Ct.Wi) (both on average 56% of the healthy average, p < 0.001 versus reference), and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) in the lower normal range (on average 74% of the healthy average). The average degree of mineralization of cancellous (Cn.CaMean) and cortical compartments (Ct.CaMean) was 21.48 (20.70, 21.90) wt% and 20.42 (19.32, 21.64) wt%, respectively (median [25th, 75th percentiles]), which was not different from reference. After iv BP, BV/TV and Ct.Wi were, on average, unchanged. However, at the individual patient level, BV/TV Z-scores increased in 2, remained unchanged in 4, and declined in 3 patients. Additionally, on average, MS/BS decreased (-85%, p < 0.001), Cn.CaMean (+2.7%) increased, whereas the heterogeneity of cancellous (Cn.CaWidth -19%) and cortical bone mineralization (Ct.CaWidth -8%, all p < 0.05) decreased versus baseline. The changes in bone mineralization are consistent with the antiresorptive action of iv BP. At the same time, our observations point to the need for novel therapies with less or absent bone turnover suppression, including the fact that bone turnover was low even before bisphosphonate therapy, that bone turnover declined further (as expected) with treatment

  14. Effects of 16-month treatment with the cathepsin K inhibitor ONO-5334 on bone markers, mineral density, strength and histomorphometry in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ochi, Yasuo; Mori, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuaki; Nakanishi, Yasutomo; Tanaka, Makoto; Bruce, Mark; Deacon, Steve; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effects of ONO-5334, a cathepsin K inhibitor, on bone markers, BMD, strength and histomorphometry in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ONO-5334 (1.2, 6 and 30mg/kg/day, p.o.), alendronate (0.05mg/kg/2weeks, i.v.), or vehicle was administered to OVX monkeys (all groups N=20) for 16months. A concurrent Sham group (N=20) was also treated with vehicle for 16months. OVX significantly increased bone resorption and formation markers and decreased BMD in lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, proximal tibia and distal radius. Alendronate suppressed these parameters to a level similar to that in the Sham-operated monkeys. ONO-5334 at doses 6 and 30mg/kg decreased bone resorption markers to a level roughly half of that in the Sham group, while keeping bone formation markers level above that in the Sham monkeys. Changes in DXA BMD confirmed that ONO-5334 at doses 6 and 30mg/kg increased BMD to a level greater than that in the Sham group in all examined sites. In the proximal tibia, in vivo pQCT analysis showed that ONO-5334 at doses 6 and 30mg/kg suppressed trabecular BMD loss to the sham level. However, ONO-5334 increased cortical BMD, cortical area and cortical thickness to a level greater than that in the Sham group, suggesting that ONO-5334 improves both cortical BMD and cortical geometry. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that ONO-5334 suppressed bone formation rate (BFR) at osteonal site in the midshaft femur but did not influence OVX-induced increase in BFR at either the periosteal or endocortical surfaces. Unlike alendronate, ONO-5334 increased osteoclasts surface (Oc.S/BS) and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatise 5b (TRAP5b) activity, highlighting the difference in the mode of action between these two drugs. Our results suggest that ONO-5334 has therapeutic potential not only in vertebral bones, but also in non-vertebral bones. PMID:26921823

  15. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, I; Detilleux, J; Cuvelier, C; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on daily energy requirement in Beagle dogs, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of ad libitum feeding with a high energy diet on energy consumption, body weight gain and blood metabolites in these spayed dogs. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were used. Ovariectomy induced a significant decrease of daily energy requirement in dogs. Ad libitum feeding, initiated 6 months after spaying, induced a significant increase in consumption in spayed dogs. This overconsumption was greatest during the first month of ad libitum feeding but continued for the entire 4 months of this period. When fed ad libitum, dogs gained excess body weight without significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin, at short term. These data suggest that energy intake should be strictly controlled to avoid excess weight gain in spayed dogs. PMID:15059235

  16. Experimental therapeutic effect of combined cytokines on beagle dogs exposed to 4.5 Gy γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of combined administration of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11), recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) on acute radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Sixteen beagle were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-rays to establish ARS models, and were divided into irradiation control group, supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group. After irradiation irradiation control group was given no treatment, the dogs in supportive care group received purely symptomatic treatment, while combined cytokines treatment group received rhIL-11 50 μg/(kg·d) subcutaneously (0-14 d) and rhIL-2 1 x 106 U/d(29-43 d) besides symptomatic treatment. Manifestation and characteristics of ARS (authors)

  17. Dynamics of Alloplastic Bone Grafts on an Early Stage of Corticotomy-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Joo Choi; Dong-Yeol Lee; Tae-Woo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological...

  18. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, HUI; Wang, Ya-Jing; YANG, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF effic...

  19. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles

    OpenAIRE

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected...

  20. Absorbed dose distribution patterns in the beagle thorax after inhalation of 90Sr--90Y fused clay particles. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was designed to examine absorbed dose patterns in the Beagle dog thorax after inhalation of polydisperse fused montmorillonite clay particles labeled with 90Sr-90Y. Sixteen dogs were exposed nose-only to achieve initial lung burdens of 91 to 200 μCi. Dogs are being serially sacrificed and photographic data and autoradiographic data produced for a series of parallel planes approximately 1 cm apart through the thorax. Data analysis will include definition of absorbed dose patterns in the Beagle thorax at 8 days, 64 days, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-exposure. To date, 8-day, 64-day, and 1-year animals have been sacrificed and partially analyzed. The result of this experiment will be a better understanding of deposition and absorbed dose patterns and allow a better correlation between absorbed dose and biological response for Beagle dogs exposed to relatively insoluble aerosols contaminated by energetic beta-emitting radionuclides. In addition, results will allow quantitating anomalies in deposition patterns, such as the striated pattern near ribs previously observed in this laboratory. (U.S.)

  1. Histologi dan Histomorfometri Testis dan Epididimis Muncak (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak pada Periode Ranggah Keras (HISTOLOGY AND HISTOMORPHOMETRY OF THE TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS OF MUNTJAC (MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK MUNTJAK DURING HARD ANTLER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the histology and histomorphometry of testis and epididymisof muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak during hard antler period. The tissues of the testis and epididymisof an adult male muntjac were processed for histological examination and stained with haematoxylineosine(HE. The parenchyma of muntjac’s testis during hard antler period showed tubuli seminiferi waslined with germinal epithelium: spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid that differentiated intospermatozoa. Sertoli cells were found among the germinal cells. In addition, Leydig cells were foundaround the blood vessel of interstitial tissue along with macrophages. Diameter of the seminiferous tubuleand epithelial thickness were 176,60±7,06 ?m and 50,27±3,62 ?m respectively. The epididymal duct wassubdivided into three segments: caput, corpus and cauda. They were lined predominantly withpseudostratified columnar epithelium which was varied in its thickness. The largest diameter of epididymalduct was found in cauda region (324,26±25,79 ?m, while caput epididymidis had the thickest of epithelialcell (62,21±4,21 ?m and tended to ce thinner in corpus (49,53±3,01 ?m and cauda epididymidis(16,30±2,27?m. The density of spermatozoa was observed the most in the lumen of cauda region comparedto caput and corpus epididymidis. In conclusion, the structure of histology and histomorphometry of theseminiferous tubule of testis and epididymal duct of muntjac were similar with small ruminants andother Cervidae during hard antler period.

  2. Bone sarcoma induction by 224Ra in Beagles: An interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1963-1968, 20 young adult Beagle dogs were given a single intravenous injection of 224Ra that was unintentionally contaminated with 210Pb and 228Th. All of these dogs have died, eight with bone sarcomas. In addition, 128 Beagle dogs were given purified 224Ra in one, ten or fifty weekly injections during 1977-1979. The acute lethal dosage (LD50) for a single injection was about 400 kBq 224Ra/kg (11 μCi 224Ra/kg). As of September 14, 1987, at the highest skeletal dose of 3 Gy from purified 224Ra, bone sarcomas occurred in 5 of 6 dogs at an average ± SD of 2069 ± 302 days after the start of injections (no survivors), in 4 of 6 dogs at 2485 ± 1,110 days after the start of 10 injections (healthy survivor) and in 1 of 8 dogs at 3066 days after a single injection (3 healthy survivors). At 3 Gy the toxicity of 224Ra relative to 239Pu, based on the ratio of skeletal doses at equal tumor appearance times, was 1.0 for 50 injections of 224Ra, 0.7 for 10 injections, and 0.4 for one injection. In contrast, the effectiveness per Gy of a 224Ra-equivalent dose from a single injection of 224Ra contaminated with 228Th and 210Pb was equal to that from 239Pu, assuming that the 224Ra-equivalent dose equaled the 224Ra dose plus the 228Th dose pus 0.1 of the 210Pb dose. A possible explanation is that protracted irradiation from the 1.91-yr half-life 228Th and the 22.3-yr half-life 210Pb may have 'activated' residual damage from the short-lived, 3.62 day half-life 224Ra, possibly by stimulating the division of damaged stem cells to replace the bone cells killed by the protracted alpha particle irradiation. An important spin off from the study is experimental support for the assumption that the bone sarcoma effectiveness for 210Pb is similar to that from long-lived, 1600 yr half-life 226Ra. (author)

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr fused clay particles in beagle dogs. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of 90Sr in fused clay particles in Beagle dogs have continued with a view toward defining the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a relatively insoluble form. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused montmorillonite clay particles labeled with 90Sr to achieve graded initial lung burdens (ILB) of 3.7 to 94 μCi/kg body weight; 12 control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused clay particles. These 84 dogs were assigned to the 90Sr fused clay longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly (AMAD 1.9 to 2.5 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.6 to 2.0) and assigned for sacrifice (Series II) at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the 72 longevity dogs, 32 dogs having ILBs of 29 to 94 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 477 days post-exposure. Fourteen dogs with ILBs of 15 to 36 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 34,000 to 68,000 rads have died from primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas between 644 and 1214 days post-exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma, another epidermoid carcinoma of the lung and a third, a squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity. The remaining 26 exposed dogs and 12 controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1070 to 1707 days post-exposure. Dogs in the sacrifice series have been sacrificed to 1536 days post-exposure. (U.S.)

  4. Effect of moderate treadmill exercise on some physiological parameters in untrained Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Casella, Stefania; Panzera, Michele; Giannetto, Claudia; Fazio, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the modifications of some physiological parameters during moderate treadmill exercise in seven healthy Beagle dogs. All animals were submitted to treadmill exercise consisting of walking (15 min), trotting (20 min) and walking (10 min). At every step, rectal temperature (RT) was measured, and the mean heart rate (HR) was assessed. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before starting the treadmill exercise session (at rest), after the end of walking (15 min), trotting (20 min) and walking (10 min), and after 30 min of passive recovery. For immediate assessment of lactate and glucose concentration, blood was analyzed with portable blood lactate and blood glucose analyzers, respectively. Blood was also transferred into sterile glass tubes containing K(3)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K(3)-EDTA) for evaluation of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant effect of treadmill exercise (P<0.05) on RT, HR, lactate, glucose, RBC and Hct. Considering these significant variations, the knowledge of RT, HR, glucose and lactate concentrations, RBC, and Hct, the most suitable and sensitive indicators of response to treadmill exercise in untrained dogs, is essential in order to evidence the individual levels of exercise tolerance, to investigate exercise-related problems and to design specific and individual treadmill protocols. PMID:23095814

  5. Effects of x-irradiation of young female beagles on life span and tumor incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causes of death and the occurrence of neoplasia in female beagle dogs were evaluated retrospectively for 57 unexposed and 296 exposed dogs given single or fractionated whole-body x-irradiation exposures of 100 or 300 R. Some dogs subsequently were bred, and all were observed for the duration of their lives. The pathology for these dogs was derived from clinical records, gross-necropsy reports, tissue slides, and Formalin-fixed tissues. The results of this study indicated dose-related shortening of life span was clearly evident; causes of death due to either neoplasia (50%) or nonneoplastic disease (50%), with few exceptions, were similar in control and irradiated dogs; the incidences of neoplasms were not significantly greater for irradiated dogs than for controls, but the latency period decreased as dose increased; protraction increased survival in dogs given 300 R but not 100 R, which is attributable solely to amelioration of incidence rates of nonmammary neoplasia; and the cumulative rates of death due to mammary tumors were the same in dogs exposed to 100 R and 300 R. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Lifetime radiation risks from low-dose rate radionuclides in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the largest, long-term (25-yr) animal studies on the effects of low-dose internal irradiation is almost completed. Some 335 beagles were given continuous exposure to graded 90Sr [low linear energy transfer (LET)] in their diets (D-dogs) through adulthood. A second group (R-dogs) was given fractionated doses of 225Ra (high LET) as young adults. A third group of 44 was given a single injection of 90Sr as adults (S-dogs) to compare single to continuous dosages. All dogs were followed through their lifetimes. Only one of the 848 dogs is still alive. The animals were whole-body counted over their entire life span and were examined frequently for assessment of medical status. There were no acute radiation lethalities. Analyses of the large data base from these dogs have begun and preliminary indications are that 90Sr, which was tested over a 1500-fold skeletal dose rate range, does not cause significant life shortening at average accumulation skeletal doses of ∼2500 rads (25 Gy) and that a curvilinear dose response curve for life shortening was seen at higher accumulation doses. The data will be discussed in terms of modern epidemiological concepts and quantifications will be related to certain parameters of human risk from acute or chronic radiation exposures

  7. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4 to 3550 kBq) of 90Sr/kg body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects, including cancer of the lung, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Two control dogs and four 90Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the heart and pulmonary adenoma, another exposed dog died with angiosarcoma of tracheobronchial lymph nodes, another exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the heart, and the fourth exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of tracheobronchial lymph nodes. One control dog died with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and the other control dog died with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The remaining 15 exposed and 9 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. 2 figures, 1 table

  8. Nasal carcinomas in beagle dogs after inhalatioon of relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to relatively soluble forms of three beta-emitting radionuclides and are being held for life span observation to evaluate hazards associated with nuclear power production. Dogs were exposed to graded activity levels of 91YCl3, 144CeCl3 or 90SrCl2. With 91YCl3 and 144CeCl3, significant radiation dose was delivered to liver, respiratory tract, and skeleton. With 90SrCl2, the dose was essentially to skeleton. Nasal cavity squamous cell carcinomas have been the most frequent neoplasms in the 91Y and one of the most frequent in the 144Ce study while relatively few have been seen after 90Sr exposure. Also one nasal cavity hemangiosarcoma was seen in the 144Ce study. The 90Sr-exposed dogs have survived longer after exposure and have higher skeletal radiation doses than do the dogs exposed to 91Y or 144Ce. The greater incidence of nasal carcinomas can be explained by the finding of high concentrations of the lanthanides, 91Y and 144Ce, associated with the nasal turbinate epithelium

  9. Current status of life-span studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagles that inhaled 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4, in dose-level groups of 20 dogs, with initial lung burdens of ∼2, 15, 70, 300, 1100, or 5500 nCi, are now 11, 9, or 5 years postexposure. Lung tumors, bone tumors, and radiation pneumonitis, the plutonium-exposure-related causes of death observed to date, have occurred in the two, three, and four highest dose-level groups exposed to 238PuO2, 239Pu(NO3)4, and 239PuO2, respectively. No plutonium-exposure-related deaths have thus far been observed in dose-level groups exposed to less than ∼40 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. Plutonium-exposure-related effects not directly related to the cause of death include chronic lymphopenia, chronic neutropenia, sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia in the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. No plutonium-exposure-related effects have thus far been observed in dose-level groups that received less than ∼15 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Biokinetics aand dosimetry of inhaled 238PuO2 in the beagle dog: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporal and spatial distributions of 238Pu have been measured during the course of a dose-response study of the biological effects of inhaled 238PuO2 in Beagle dogs. These measurements were done on the dose-response study animals, as well as a separate group of dogs exposed to similar aerosols and killed serially out to 4 y after exposure. The data from this latter group provided the basis for the development of a biokinetic/dosimetric model for 238PuO2 in dogs. Since the publication of this model, several important findings have been made that affected the dosimetric evaluations. The first involved the discovery of significant quantities of natural uranium (U) in the feces samples. The U was measured with the plutonium (Pu), which inflated the values for purported Pu in feces. The second finding involved the addition of Pu biokinetics data from the dose-response dogs, which increased the period of observation from 4 y to 15 y; these later data were not consistent with the earlier model predictions. The purpose of this investigation was (1) to remove the analytical bias in the 238Pu radiochemical data due to the U and (2) to modify the original model of Mewhinney and Diel, taking into account all data from both studies

  11. Study on toxicity of danshensu in beagle dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Li, Shenjun; Li, Chunmei; Zhu, Xiaoyin; Li, Min; Liu, Zhifeng

    2009-09-01

    Danshensu (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid), a natural phenolic acid, is isolated from root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, toxicity of danshensu was evaluated in male and female dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion. Beagle dogs were treated with danshensu at doses of 17, 50, and 150 mg/kg/day, and observed for 90 days followed by recovery periods. Measurements included clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, temperature, electro-cardiography (EGC), hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, gross necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology. No significant adverse effects on these parameters were observed. The only treatment-related finding was a hard knot at injection site observed in the 150 mg/kg group after 2-3 weeks continuous administration, and returned to normal after 3-4 days withdrawal. From these results, it might be concluded that danshensu did not produce any significant cumulative toxicity at the doses administered, as reflected by the various parameters investigated. PMID:19778246

  12. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption. PMID:27156779

  13. Effect of inhaled 90Y in fused clay particles on the gastrointestinal tract of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 90Y in fused clay particles to study the radiation dose to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and effects resulting from clearance of the upper respiratory tract after the deposition of high initial body burdens of inhaled 90Y. Focal colonic lesions were found in 2 dogs, 8 and 12 days after inhalation of 90Y which resulted in transient GI burdens (GIB) of 18 and 34 mCi. Similar, but less severe, lesions were found in 2 dogs sacrificed 27 days after exposure with GIBs of 18 and 32 mCi. No GI lesions were found in 6 dogs with GIBs of 9 to 18 mCi. Two of the 10 dogs had thermoluminescent dosimeters surgically implanted in the GI tract lumen and submucosa. Highest radiation doses were measured in the colon. One dog, with measured doses to the colon of 3200 to 5700 rads, had focal colitis when sacrificed 8 days after exposure. The other dog, with doses to colon of 1000 to 2800 rads had no GI lesions at sacrifice 8 days after exposure. Although focal colitis was found, no dogs died due primarily to GI injury. Other significant findings were nasal dermatitis and radiation pneumonitis. The latter was more severe and life threatening than the GI injury. (U.S.)

  14. Deposition of Crocidolite asbestos and glass microfibers inhaled by the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The respiratory tract deposition of neutron activated Crocidolite asbestos and glass microfibers was determined in two groups of four Beagle dogs. The dogs were given 60-minute, nose-only inhalation exposures to an aerosol of either asbestos or glass fibers. The radioactivity in tissues and excreta four days after exposure was used to determine the fraction of inhaled fibers deposited in the upper respiratory tract and the deep lung. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), count median diameter (CMD) and count median length (CML) were determined from fibers sampled during exposure. Crocidolite asbestos fibers had an AMAD of 1.8 μm, a CMD of 0.25 μm and a CML < 5 μm. The fraction of inhaled mass deposited in deep lung was 13-19%, while total deposition in the respiratory tract was 54-72%. Glass microfibers had an AMAD of 2.5 μm, a CMD of 0.15 μm and a CML of 5.4 μ. Five to 17% of the mass of glass fiber was deposited in the deep lung; total respiratory tract deposition was 45-64%. The deposition patterns were similar for these small asbestos and glass fibers inhaled by dogs and in good agreement with previous predictions made for man. 24 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  15. Upper gastrointestinal examinations: a radiographic study of clinically normal Beagle puppies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 24 upper gastrointestinal examinations were performed on four weanling beagle puppies over six weeks, using liquid barium (10 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension] and barium food (8 g/kg of crushed kibble dog food and 7 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension) as contrast media. The radiographic appearance was similar to that noted in adult dogs except for the consistent location of the pylorus on or near the midline. Duodenal pseudoulcers were seen more often with liquid barium and the caecal shadows were identified more often with the longer examination time with barium food. The stomach of the puppies appeared to have discriminatory emptying function; that is, semi-solid food was emptied from the stomach at a slower rate (210 to 450 minutes) than liquid (60 to 90 minutes). Solid meals emptied faster in puppies than in adult dogs. Dosages of 13 to 15 mg/kg body weight for the liquid barium examination and 14 g of ground kibble and 16 ml of barium sulphate suspension per m2 of body surface area for the barium food examination are suggested as more appropriate for contrast studies in puppies

  16. Impact of release characteristics of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms on its pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun; Jie-Ming Shi; Tian-Hong Zhang; Kun Gao; Jing-Jing Mao; Bing Li; Ying-Hua Sun; Zhong-Gui He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of release behavior of sustained-release dosage forms of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms, including commercial 12-h sustained-release tablets and 24-h sustained-release pellets prepared in our laboratory, was examined. The two dosage forms were orally administrated to beagle dogs, and then the in vivo formulation was achieved by mixing slow- and rapid-of the sustained-release pellets were scarcely influenced by the pH of the dissolution medium. Release from the 12-h sustained-release tablets was markedly quicker than that from the 24-h sustained-release pellets, the cumulative release up to 12-h was 99.9% vs68.7%. From release pellets had longer tmax and lower Cmax compared to the 12-h sustained-release tablets, the tmax being 2.67±0.52 h vs9.83±0.98 h and the Cmax being 1 334.45±368.76 ng/mL vs 893.12±292.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, the AUC0-tn preparations were statistically bioequivalent. Furthermore,percentage absorption in vivo and the cumulative percentage release in vitro.CONCLUSION: The in vitro release properties of the dosage forms strongly affect their pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo. Therefore, managing the in vitro release behavior of dosage forms is a promising strategy for obtaining the optimal in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics and safe therapeutic drug concentration-time curves.

  17. Omental leiomyosarcoma with unusual giant cells in a Beagle dog - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Toyoshima, Megumi; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Beagle dog was presented with a 2-month history of intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. The dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Iwate University for further evaluation, and a splenic tumour was suspected on the basis of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgery identified a large, solid, light-pink mass on the greater omentum with blood-coloured ascites in the abdominal cavity, and resection was performed. Microscopically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped tumour cells and scattered osteoclast-like giant cells. Most spindle-shaped cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, and smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas osteoclast-like giant cells were positive only for vimentin. On the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of leiomyosarcoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells developing from the greater omentum in a dog. PMID:27342093

  18. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Xihai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brooks, Antone L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lovaglio, Jamie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patton, Kristin M. [Battelle Toxicology Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); McComish, Stacey [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Tolmachev, Sergei Y. [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Morgan, William F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  19. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis

  20. Bovine Colostral Antibody Against Verotoxin 2 Derived from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Resistance to Proteases and Effects in Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Mariko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Tagata, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    A bovine colostral antibody against verotoxin (VT) 2 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was administered orally to beagle dogs. The antibody remained in the dogs’ small intestine for at least 2 h, whereas little serum antibody remained 1.5 h after administration. Furthermore, the antibody activity of secretory IgA did not change until 2 h after administration; however, the activity of IgG and IgM antibodies decreased by approximately 60% and 40% at 2 h after administration, respectively. Seven beagl...

  1. Chov psů plemene beagle v ČR a některé etologické aspekty reprodukce

    OpenAIRE

    Šabatová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Beagle is one of favourite dog breeds in the world. Beagle is bred in the Czech Republic for only 20 years but despite this fact it became very popular not only as hunting breed but mainly as family breed. Reproduction of bred animal is for breeders one of the most important function of the organism. Ethological aspects of dogs´ reproduction are related to successful breeding. Dog has been domesticated for very long time, despite this fact its social behaviour has not changed n...

  2. Dynamics of Alloplastic Bone Grafts on an Early Stage of Corticotomy-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Joo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological findings, augmented corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement might enhance the condition of the periodontal tissue and the stability of the outcomes of orthodontic treatment.

  3. Dynamics of alloplastic bone grafts on an early stage of corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological findings, augmented corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement might enhance the condition of the periodontal tissue and the stability of the outcomes of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25276787

  4. Study of bone formation in the mandibular alveolar process of the young adult beagle by tetracycline label analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandibular alveolar processes of young, adult beagles were observed to determine several aspects of tissue-level bone turnover. The animals had been previously labeled with a double tetracycline (TC) regimen, and analysis carried out on the resulting label distributions and patterns. Analysis of the fraction of bone surface incorporating TC showed that about 1.5 percent of surfaces are double labeled, 16 percent are single labeled, and 75 percent of surfaces are bare of label. The apposition rate for formation sites was found to be approximately 1.54 μm/day

  5. Population dynamics of the venerid bivalve, Tawera gayi (Hupé, 1854) in the Ushuaia Bay, Beagle Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Lomovasky, B.; Brey, Thomas; Morriconi, E.

    2005-01-01

    Growth, productivity and potential for exploitation of the clam Tawera gayi from shallow waters (3 to 5 m) of Ushuaia Bay, Beagle Channel were investigated. Mean abundance and biomass in the study area were 1091 ± 737 ind m^-2 and 901.83 g SFWM m^-2 (shell free wet mass) respectively. Individual growth was described best by the von Bertalanffy growth model with the parameter values H? = 28.03 mm, K = 0.288 y^1, t0 = -0.34 (r^2 = 0.83). Annual production of the population was estimated to be 1...

  6. Artes y métodos de pesca desarrollados en el Canal de Beagle, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Izzo, A.; Isla, M.; Salvini, L; Bartozzetti, J.D.; Garcia, J.C. (Juan); Roth, R.R.; Prado, L.; Ercoli, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and application of different fishing gears tested in the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) with the supervision of the technical personnel of INIDEP Fishing Gear Group, the support of the General Directorate of Natural Resources (known today as SRNyAH) of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province and the participation of local fishermen. Activities started as a result of an agreement between the INIDEP and the SRNyAH ratified i...

  7. Removal of inhaled industrial mixed oxide aerosols from Beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted in 15 adult Beagle dogs to evaluate lung lavage and chelation therapy for the removal of inhaled particles of mixed actinide oxides. The dogs were divided into three groups of five dogs each. Each group was exposed to an aerosol from a different industrial process. Group 1 was exposed to mixed oxide material which had been calcined at 7500C collected from a ball milling process. Group 2 was exposed to mixed oxide material from a centerless grinding operation which had been previously heat treated to 17500C. The third group was exposed to 239PuO2 not containing uranium from a V-blending procedure which had been heat treated at 8500C. After exposure, three dogs in each group were given ten lung lavages and 18 intravenous injections of calcium trisodium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA). All dogs were sacrificed 64 days after inhalation exposure. The tissues were radioanalyzed for plutonium and americium. Fluorimetric analyses for uranium in the tissues are in progress. The urine, feces and lavage fluid are also being analyzed for plutonium, americium and uranium. The distribution of plutonium and americium expressed as percentages of the sacrifice body burden was similar in the tissues of the treated and unteated dogs. The lungs contained most of the radionuclides with a small amount in the liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The percentage of the sacrifice body burden of americium and plutonium that was present in the lung was less in the treated dogs and was higher in the TBLN's and skeleton than in the untreated dogs. The ratio of Pu/Am was higher in the lungs than in the original material obtained from the industrial sites suggesting a shorter retention time for americium than plutonium to 64 days in the dog

  8. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and PK/PD relationship of cefquinome for Escherichia coli in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y F; Zhao, D H; Yu, Y; Yang, X; Shi, W; Peng, Y B; Liu, Y H

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of cefquinome in Beagle dogs were determined by intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) injection at a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight (BW). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cefquinome against 217 Escherichia coli isolated from dogs were also investigated. After IV injection, the plasma concentration-time curve of cefquinome was analyzed using a two-compartmental model, and the mean values of t1/2α (h), t1/2β (h), Vss (L/kg), ClB (L/kg/h) and AUC (μg·h/mL) were 0.12, 0.98, 0.30, 0.24 and 8.51, respectively. After IM and SC administration, the PK data were best described by a one-compartmental model with first-order absorption. The mean values of t1/2Kel , t1/2Ka , tmax (h), Cmax (μg/mL) and AUC (μg·h/mL) were corresponding 0.85, 0.14, 0.43, 4.83 and 8.24 for IM administration, 0.99, 0.29, 0.72, 3.88 and 9.13 for SC injection. The duration of time that drug levels exceed the MIC (%T > MIC) were calculated using the determined MIC90 (0.125 μg/mL) and the PK data obtained in this study. The results indicated that the dosage regimen of cefquinome at 2 mg/kg BW with 12-h intervals could achieve %T > MIC above 50% that generally produced a satisfactory bactericidal effect against E. coli isolated from dogs in this study. PMID:25776615

  9. Studies of the effects of FK506 on renal allografting in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T; Nagata, M; Nakajima, K; Suzuki, T; Sakamoto, K; Enomoto, K; Gunji, Y; Uematsu, T; Goto, T; Hori, S

    1987-12-01

    The immunosuppressive activities of a newly discovered macrolide extracted from Streptomyces tsukubaensis, FK506, were examined using 38 renal allografts in the beagle dog. The median survival time was 15.5 days in dogs without treatment, 61 days with a dose of 0.08 mg/kg/day and 176 days with a dose of 0.16 mg/kg/day of intramuscularly administered FK506. Prolongation of survival was statistically significant when compared with controls (P = 0.02, 0.0044, respectively). None of 6 recipient dogs receiving the agent at a dose of 0.16 mg/kg/day encountered rejection during the treatment course. Three of them survived over 200 days. Oral administration of FK506 at a dose of 0.32 mg/kg/day did not prolong the median survival time (20.5 days) compared with the placebo treated control (16.5 days), but oral treatment with 1.0 mg/kg/day resulted in all of the recipient dogs surviving over 130 days. Histological studies of 7 kidney graft biopsy specimens of the dogs surviving over 3 months revealed no cell infiltration or only some degree of reversible interstitial cell infiltration, but vascular and glomerular changes were not observed in any of the specimens. Irregularity of nuclear shape and cytoplasmic vacuolation of the pars recta of the proximal tubules were observed in one dog each. Liver biopsy specimens showed no consistent evidence of hepatocellular damage. Three dogs died of intussusception 2-3 weeks posttransplant. The dogs treated intramuscularly with 0.32 mg/kg/day suffered from anorexia. Two dogs receiving oral treatment at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg developed papilloma of the skin around day 60, but the tumors disappeared by day 120. We conclude that FK506 is a powerful immunosuppressant in the dog with tolerable side effects. PMID:2447688

  10. Toxicity of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 144CeCl3 in Beagle dogs are being conducted to assess the biological consequences of inhaling 144Ce such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Studies on the organ distribution of inhaled 144CeCl3 have shown that the 144Ce deposited in the lung is translocated at a moderately rapid rate to liver and skeleton and that significant radiation doses are accumulated by all three organs. Fifty-five dogs that inhaled 144CeCl3 and 15 control dogs are being observed for their life span. The 144Ce dogs have long-term retained burdens with values ranging from 20 to 2900 μCi. Forty-five of the dogs exposed to 144CeCl3 have died; eight from 21 to 44 days after inhalation with severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia; two at 138 and 144 days with radiation pneumonitis; three from 309 to 874 days with hepatic necrosis; one at 510 days with marrow aplasia; one at 375 days with pulmonary fibrosis; and 30 from 799 to 4085 days, most with neoplasms or myeloproliferative disorders. In this last group, one dog had an osteosarcoma, five had squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal cavity (two also having primary pulmonary neoplasms), six had hemangiosarcomas of the liver, one had a hemangiosarcoma of the nasal cavity, two had myelogenous leukemia, one had myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, one had spinal cord ependymomas, one had a malignant melanoma (also an ependymoma) and two had mammary adenocarcinomas. Three dogs had primary pulmonary neoplasms including two with bronchogenic adenocarcinomas and one with an adenoma. Seven did not have malignant neoplasms. Two of these had severe myelomalacia, one had pulmonary edema, three had congestive heart failure and one had diffuse hepatic lipidosis with severe hepatic degeneration

  11. Toxicity of inhaled 90SrCl2 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 90SrCl2 in the Beagle dog are continuing in an effort to provide a basis for assessing the consequences of inhaling 90Sr such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to aerosols containing 90Sr resulting in initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 μCi 90Sr/kg body weight. Forty-eight of these dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Twenty-five unexposed dogs serve as controls. The long-term retained burden (LTRB) in these dogs ranged from 1 to 120 μCi 90Sr/kg. Twenty-four dogs with a mean LTRB of 38 μCi 90Sr/kg have been assigned to a sacrifice study. Two of these dogs and one control dog were sacrificed at five days, one month and one year after inhalation of 90Sr. To date, 51 90Sr-exposed dogs have died or have been euthanized, six during the first 31 days after inhalation of 90Sr with bone marrow aplasia and 45 between 585 and 4236 days after inhalation of 90Sr. The latter group includes 12 dogs with bone-related hemangiosarcomas, 16 with osteosarcomas, three with fibrosarcomas, three with osteochondrosarcomas, one with osteochondrofibrosarcoma, two with leukemia, one with a baso-squamous carcinoma of the skull, one with a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla, one with a squamous cell carcinoma of the frontal sinus, one with a hemangiosarcoma of the heart, one with a myxosarcoma of the skull, one with transitional cell carcinoma, one with bronchioalveolar carcinoma, one with an epileptic seizure, one with pneumonia, one with cerebellar hemorrhage and three with a malabsorption syndrome

  12. Toxicity of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 144CeCl3 in the Beagle dog are continuing to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of inhaling 144Ce such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Studies on the tissue distribution of inhaled 144CeCl3 have shown that the 144Ce deposited in lung is translocated at a moderately rapid rate to liver and skeleton and that significant radiation doses are accumulated by all three organs. Fifty-five dogs that inhaled 144CeCl3 and 15 control dogs were placed in a longevity study and are being observed for their lifespan. The 144Ce dogs had long-term retained burdens with values ranging from 20 to 2900 μCi. Thirty-one of the dogs exposed to 144CeCl3 have died; 8 at 21 to 44 days after inhalation with signs attributed to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia; 2 at 138 and 144 days with radiation pneumonitis; 3 at 309 to 874 days with hepatic necrosis; 1 at 510 days with marrow aplasia; 1 at 375 days with pulmonary fibrosis; and 16 at 799 to 3081 days, most with neoplasms or myeloproliferative disorders. In this last group, 1 dog had an osteosarcoma, 3 had squamous cell carcinomas of the maxilla, 2 of the latter also having primary pulmonary neoplasms, 5 had hemangiosarcomas of the liver, 1 had a hemangiosarcoma of the nasal cavity, 2 had myelogenous leukemia, 1 had myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, 1 had spinal cord ependymomas, and 2 did not have neoplasms. One of these had severe myelomalacia and the other diffuse hepatic lipidosis with severe degeneration. Two controls died; 1 with a thyroid carcinoma and 1 with aspiration pneumonia. Serial observations are continuing on the 24 surviving 144CeCl3 dogs and 13 control dogs. (U.S.)

  13. Toxicity of 91Y inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the radiation hazards due to inhalation of 91Y in fused aluminosilicate particles have been undertaken in Beagle dogs to assess the biological consequences of inhaling a relatively insoluble, energetic beta emitter with an intermediate effective half-life in the lung. A radiation-dose pattern study in which 30 dogs were serially sacrificed from 0 to 320 days after inhalation exposure to 91Y in fused aluminosilicate particles has been completed. A longevity study is in progress in which 96 dogs were exposed to achieve initial lung burdens ranging from 11 to 300 μCi 91Y in fused aluminosilicate particles/kg body weight and 12 dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 56 dogs have died in the longevity study between 113 and 2841 days after exposure. Forty of these dogs, with cumulative radiation doses to lung between 8,300 and 60,000 rads, died with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis at 113 to 1011 days after exposure. Fifteen dogs that died between 1115 and 2841 days after exposure with cumulative doses to lung ranging from 16,000 to 25,000 rads had pulmonary carcinomas. One dog that died at 1847 days after exposure with a cumulative dose to lung of 9,700 rads had a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen. Forty exposed dogs with doses to lung of 2,400 to 18,000 rads and 12 control dogs remain alive from 2563 to 3116 days after inhalation exposure and will continue to be studied throughout the remainder of their life span to determine the relationship between radiation dose, dose rate and biologic effects

  14. Toxicity of 91Y inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the radiation hazards due to inhalation of 91Y in fused aluminosilicate particles have been undertaken in Beagle dogs to assess the biological consequences of inhaling a relatively insoluble, energetic beta emitter with an intermediate effective half-life in the lung. A radiation-dose pattern study in which 30 dogs were serially sacrificed from 0 to 320 days after inhalation exposure to 91Y in fused aluminosilicate particles has been completed. A longevity study is in progress in which 96 dogs were exposed to achieve initial lung burdens ranging from 11 to 300 μCi 91Y in fused aluminosilicate particles/kg body weight and 12 dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 52 dogs have died in the longevity study between 113 and 2514 days after exposure. Forty of these dogs, with cumulative radiation doses to lung between 8,300 and 60,000 rads, died with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis at 113 to 1011 days after exposure. Eleven dogs that died between 1115 and 2376 days after exposure with cumulative doses to lung ranging from 16,000 to 25,000 rads had pulmonary carcinomas. One of these dogs also had a mediastinal hemangiosarcoma. One dog that died at 1847 days after exposure with a cumulative dose to lung of 9,700 rads, had a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen. Four exposed dogs, alive from 2206 and 2669 days after exposure with doses to lung of 15,000 to 17,000 rads, have radiographic lesions suggestive of lung tumors. Forty-four exposed dogs with doses to lung of 2,400 to 18,000 rads and 12 control dogs remain alive from 2198 to 2751 days after inhalation exposure and will continue to be studied throughout the remainder of their life span with attention directed toward determining the relationship between radiation dose, dose rate and biologic effects

  15. Estimation of initial lung deposition of inhaled 238PuO2 in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies to determine the life-span dose-effect relationship of inhaled 238PuO2 in dogs require an estimate of initial lung deposition (ILD) to calculate the radiation dose to several organs. Ideally, this estimate of ILD is obtained by a summation of plutonium body burden at death plus all the plutonium excreted during the life of the dog. However, the high costs of excreta collection and of plutonium analyses for all excreta from each dog made it necessary to approximate the ILD by other less expensive methods. These methods could introduce error into the estimate of ILD and, consequently, into the radiation dose calculation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential error for several methods of estimating ILD. Thirteen beagle dogs were given a single 5- to 30-min exposure to 238PuO2 aerosols, resulting in estimated ILD of 0.85 to 11.7 μCi of plutonium-238. Plutonium analyses of the tissues at death and of all excreta from these dogs were used for this evaluation. The estimate of ILD, obtained by summation of the plutonium body burden at death plus all the plutonium excreted, was compared to the estimated ILD obtained by the plutonium whole-body retention function for each dog, using all excreta data; the mean plutonium whole-body retention function for each dog, using all excreta data; the plutonium whole-body retention function for each dog, using partial excreta data; and a mean plutonium whole-body retention function for all dogs, using partial excreta data. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of intravenously administered 137CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biologic consequences of exposure to 137Cs such as occurs in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposure produced by 137Cs are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. Sixty-six dogs were entered into the study: six with a mean initial 137Cs body burden of 3780 μCi/kg and five groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial 137Cs body burdens of 2820, 1940, 1420, 970 and 0 μCi/kg. Seventeen of the dogs injected with 137CsCl have died: 11 at 19 to 81 days after injection and cumulative whole-body doses of 860 to 1400 rads died with severe bone marrow damage and resultant pancytopenia; two at 2471 and 2707 days after injection and cumulative doses of 690 and 1800 rads with a neurofibrosarcoma of the liver and a mast cell tumor of the skin; four at 693 to 2148 days after injection and cumulative doses of 840 to 2000 rads with shock, aspiration pneumonia, severe arthritis and renal amyloidosis. Two control dogs died; one at 647 days with auto-immune hemolytic anemia and one at 2442 days with renal amyloidosis. Serial observations are continuing on the 37 137CsCl dogs and 10 control dogs. The 137CsCl dogs now alive have cumulative whole-body doses of 550 to 2200 rads at 2777 to 3031 days after injection

  17. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of intravenously administered 137CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biologic consequences of exposure to 137Cs such as occurs in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposure produced by 137Cs are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. Sixty-six dogs were entered into the study: six with a mean initial 137Cs body burden of 3780 μCi/kg and five groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial 137Cs body burdens of 2820, 1940, 1420, 970 and 0 μCi/kg. Eighteen of the dogs injected with 137CsCl have died: 11 from 19 to 81 days after injection and cumulative whole-body doses of 860 to 1400 rads died with severe bone marrow damage and resultant pancytopenia; two at 2471 days and at 2707 days after injection and cumulative doses of 690 and 1800 rads with a neurofibrosarcoma of the liver and a mast cell tumor of the skin; five from 693 to 3162 days after injection and cumulative doses of 840 to 2000 rads with shock, aspiration pneumonia, severe arthritis, renal amyloidosis and congestive heart failure. Three control dogs died; one at 647 days with auto-immune hemolytic anemia, one at 2442 days with renal amyloidosis and one at 3088 days with disseminated complex mammary adenocarcinoma. Serial observations are continuing on the 36 137CsCl dogs and nine control dogs. The 137CsCl dogs now alive have cumulative whole-body doses of 550 to 2200 rads from 2777 to 3031 days after injection

  18. Late effects of protracted whole-body irradiation of beagles by cobalt-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So that a stronger basis for extrapolation of low-level radiation effects to man can be provided, existing data from small laboratory animals are being supplemented by studies in a longer lived animal, the dog. Beagle dogs are exposed to continuous cobalt-60 irradiation either throughout life or until predetermined total doses are accumulated. The radiation-specific excess-mortality rate and associated causes of death will be related to both dose rate and total dose. The ongoing studies also emphasize the pathogenesis of myelogenous leukemia. At dose rates of 3.75 to 26.25 rads/day, given continuously, responses were consistent, highly dose-rate dependent, and limited primarily to the hematopoietic system. At rates as low as 0.3 rad/day, the hematopoietic system is still the limiting factor for survival, but below 3.75 rads/day present evidence suggests that the responses are independent of dose rate. Longitudinal studies of peripheral blood and bone marrow detected four preclinical phases of myelogenous leukemia. These phases were characterized by standard hematologic end points, ultrastructural features, in vitro cloning assays, and the acute radiation sensitivity of stem cells. Results suggest that an induced error-prone repair mechanism is the basis for the onset of radiation-induced myelogenous leukemia. Interim data from dogs given terminated exposures suggest that the types of tumors and times to death are different from controls but the numbers of tumors are not yet greater than in controls. 26 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Effect of glucocorticoid administration on adrenal gland size and sonographic appearance in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Pascaline; Daminet, Sylvie; Smets, Pascale M Y; Duchateau, Luc; Travetti, Olga; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of glucocorticoids on the adrenal gland using ultrasonography. Eleven healthy beagles were used in a prospective placebo-controlled study. All dogs received hydrocortisone at 10 mg/kg twice a day per os for 4 months or a gelatin capsule twice a day per os as a placebo. Clinical and endocrinologic examination of the dogs and ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal echogenicity, shape, and measurement of the length and height of the cranial and caudal pole were performed at baseline (TO), at 1 (T1) and 4 months (T4) after the beginning of treatment, and 2 months after the end of the treatment including 1 month of tapering and 1 month without treatment (T6). The dogs were assigned randomly to the glucocorticoid (n = 6) and placebo groups (n = 5). At T1, the difference between the two groups for the height of the cranial and caudal pole was not ultrasonographically remarkable despite a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0165 and P = 0.0206). Decreased height and length of entire gland were observed at T4 (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0015, and P = 0.0035, respectively). Percentages of atrophy were variable between dogs. Both adrenal glands regained normal size and shape 1 month after cessation of glucocorticoid administration. As not all dogs developed marked adrenal gland atrophy and the degree of atrophy varied widely between individuals, ultrasonography cannot be the technique of choice to detect iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Ultrasonographic changes are reversible within 1 month after the end of glucocorticoid administration. PMID:22092685

  20. Biological effects of repeated exposure of beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment is being conducted to study the behavior and long-term biological effects in Beagle dogs of 144Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles in repeated inhalation exposures for comparison with similar data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every eight weeks for two years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. The 144Ce-exposed dogs received increasing or relatively constant beta radiation dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Exposures in the first and second groups were planned to yield a cumulative absorbed dose to lung of approximately equal to 35,000 rads and those in the third group approximately equal to 17,000 rads within two years after the first exposure. Singly exposed dogs that had died with pulmonary tumors when this experiment was initiated had cumulative doses to death of 29,000 to 61,000 rads. All 13 exposures have been completed. One dog in the 4.5-μCi 144Ce/kg body weight group died at 771 days after first exposure with emaciation, adrenal cortical degeneration and bone marrow aplasia. One control dog died accidentally during anesthesia. During the past year, two additional dogs have died. One dog in the repeated 2.5-μCi 144Ce/kg body weight group died at 1256 days after the first exposure with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis and a control dog died at 1052 days with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The remaining 32 dogs appear to be in good physical condition except for a persistent lymphopenia at approximately equal to 4 years after the first exposure. They are being maintained for life span observations

  1. Toxicity of inhaled 90Y in fused clay particles in beagle dogs. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 90Y in fused clay in the Beagle dog are being continued to assess the consequences of inhalation of an energetic beta emitter that has a short effective half-life in the lung. A radiation dose pattern study in which 12 dogs were sacrificed in pairs at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 days post-inhalation exposure has been completed. A longevity study in which 89 dogs have been exposed to 90Y fused clay with initial lung burdens ranging from 80 to 5200 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused clay is in progress. The 90Y was retained in lung with a half-life similar to its physical half-life (64 hours) and with only small quantities translocated to tracheobronchial lymph nodes, skeleton, and liver. The infinite radiation doses to lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, skeleton, and liver for an initial lung burden of 100 μCi 90Y/kg of body weight were estimated to be 1600, 170, 0.54, and 0.38 rads, respectively. Thirty-eight of 39 dogs with doses to lung from 9300 to 70,000 rads have died at 7.5 to 903 days post-exposure. The one surviving dog in this dose range has radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis at 1316 days post-exposure. All the dogs that died had radiation pneumonitis. The dog that died at 903 days post-exposure with a dose to lung of 11,000 rads also had 2 small pulmonary adenomas. Fifty exposed dogs with doses to lung of 1300 to 7900 rads are surviving with no significant abnormalities at 1278 to 1834 days post-exposure and will be studied for the remainder of their lifespan. (U.S.)

  2. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  3. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in Beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of intravenously administered 137CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biologic consequences of exposure to 137Cs that might occur in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposure produced by 137Cs are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. Sixty-six dogs were entered into the study: six with a mean initial 137Cs body burden of 3780 μCi/kg and five groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial 137Cs body burdens of 2820, 1940, 1420, 970 and 0 μCi/kg. Twenty-two of the dogs injected with 137CsCl have died: 11 with cumulative whole-body doses of 860 to 1400 rads died from 19 to 81 days after injection with severe bone marrow damage and resultant pancytopenia; four with cumulative whole-body doses of 690 to 1900 rads have died between 2471 and 3386 days post injection with neurofibrosarcoma of the liver, dermal mast cell tumor, hemangiosarcoma of the right atrium, and squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus and soft palate; seven with cumulative doses of 840 to 2200 rads from 693 to 3529 days after injection with shock, aspiration pneumonia, severe arthritis, renal amyloidosis, congestive heart failure, leiomyoma of bladder and urethra, and brain and spinal cord edema. Four control dogs have died: one at 647 days with auto-immune hemolytic anemia, one at 2442 days with renal amyloidosis, one at 3088 days with disseminated complex mammary adenocarcinoma and one at 3265 days with chronic interstitial nephritis. Serial observations are continuing on the 32 137CsCl injected dogs and eight control dogs. The 137CsCl injected dogs now alive have cumulative whole-body doses of 550 to 1500 rads from 3508 to 3762 days after injection

  4. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p 14C]PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. [14C]EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for [14C]PEA and 7.9 hr for [14C]EEA. Only trace amounts of 14CO2 (14C]PEA or [14C]EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with [14C]PEA being excreted more rapidly than [14C]EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  5. Age and Diet Affect Gene Expression Profile in Canine Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Middelbos, Ingmar S.; Brittany M Vester; Lisa K Karr-Lilienthal; Schook, Lawrence B; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated gene transcription in canine skeletal muscle (biceps femoris) using microarray analysis to identify effects of age and diet on gene expression. Twelve female beagles were used (six 1-year olds and six 12-year olds) and they were fed one of two experimental diets for 12 months. One diet contained primarily plant-based protein sources (PPB), whereas the second diet contained primarily animal-based protein sources (APB). Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays were used to hybridiz...

  6. Radiation dose patterns in beagle dogs following inhalation of monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols of 238PuO2. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose patterns in organs and tissues of the Beagle dog are being determined after inhalation of monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of 238PuO2. Aerosols employed in the study were 0.7, 1.4 and 2.7 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) monodisperse aerosols and 1.4 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) polydisperse aerosol. Twenty-six Beagle dogs received inhalation exposure to each aerosol to achieve initial lung burdens (ILB) of 0.07 μCi/kg body weight with sacrifice of two animals at 4 hours, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 365, 512 and 730 days and 4, 6 and 8 years after inhalation exposure. Excreta collections were performed on all animals for the first 21 days after inhalation exposure and then three-day collections were taken at 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks and at six-month intervals thereafter. Information derived from this study will be instrumental in developing a description of the radiation dose to tissues and organs as related to particle size of the inhaled aerosol and will provide a basis for interpretation of biological response being measured in a companion dose-response study. The radiation dose pattern study is in progress with data now available on 238Pu in tissues of animals sacrificed through 64 days after inhalation. Work is continuing on radiochemical analysis of tissues and excreta preparatory to expression of the data in terms of initial lung burden for each animal

  7. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ning Ho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable purified fibrillar collagen and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP ceramic composite versus collagen alone and a bovine xenograft-collagen composite in beagles. Collagen plugs, bovine graft-collagen composite and HA/β-TCP-collagen composite were implanted into the left and right first, second and third mandibular premolars, and the fourth molar was left empty for natural healing. In total, 20 male beagle dogs were used, and quantitative and histological analyses of the extraction ridge was done. The smallest width reduction was 19.09% ± 8.81% with the HA/β-TCP-collagen composite at Week 8, accompanied by new bone formation at Weeks 4 and 8. The HA/β-TCP-collagen composite performed well, as a new osteoconductive and biomimetic composite biomaterial, for socket bone preservation after tooth extraction.

  8. Trace quantification of 1-triacontanol in beagle plasma by GC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfeng; Fan, Ali; Zhu, Xiaojie; Lu, Yang; Deng, Shuhua; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xijing

    2015-05-01

    1-Triacontanol (TA), a member of long chain fatty alcohol, has recently been received great attention owing to its antitumor activity. In this study, an accurate, sensitive and selective gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of TA in beagle plasma using 1-octacosanal as the internal standard (IS) for the first time. With temperature programming, chromatographic separation was carried out on an HP-5MS column, using helium as carrier gas and argon as collision gas, both at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. TA was analyzed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, with the precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 495.6 → 97.0 and m/z 467.5 → 97.0 for TA and the IS, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation, linearity, intra- and interday precision, accuracy, stability, extraction recovery and matrix effect of TA were within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of TA in beagles. PMID:25331188

  9. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. PMID:27012374

  10. Contact heat thermal threshold testing in beagle dogs: baseline reproducibility and the effect of acepromazine, levomethadone and fenpipramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Marina Verena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this methodology article a thermal threshold testing device designed to test nociception in cats was assessed in six dogs. The purpose of this study was to investigate baseline reproducibility of thermal thresholds obtained by the contact heat testing device, to assess the influence of acepromazine and levomethadone and fenpipramide in dogs. The relationship between change in nociceptive thermal threshold and the opioid′s plasma concentration was determined. Six adult beagle dogs received levomethadone (0.2 mg/kg, acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg or saline placebo by intramuscular injection (IM in a randomized cross-over design. Three baseline nociceptive thermal threshold readings were taken at 15 minutes intervals prior to treatment. Further readings were made at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330, 360, 420 and 480 minutes after injection. A sedation score was assigned at every reading. Four saline placebo treatments were performed to assess baseline reproducibility. Levomethadone serum concentrations were measured prior and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after drug dosing in a separate occasion. Results Acepromazine did not seem to increase the thermal threshold at any time. After levomethadone there was a significant rise of the thermal threshold between 15 to 120 minutes at serum concentrations between 22.6-46.3 ng/mL. Baseline reproducibility was stable in adult beagle dogs. Conclusion The thermal threshold testing system is a suitable device for nociceptive threshold testing in dogs.

  11. Toxicity of inhaled 90SrCl2 in beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 90SrCl2 in the Beagle dog are continuing in an effort to provide a basis for assessing the consequences of inhaling 90Sr such as might be released in certain nuclear accidents. Seventy-two dogs have been exposed to aerosols containing 90Sr resulting in initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 μCi 90Sr/kg. Forty-eight of these dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Twenty-five unexposed dogs served as controls. The long-term retained burdens in these dogs range from 1 to 120 μCi 90Sr/kg. Twenty-four dogs with a mean long-term retained burden of 38 μCi 90Sr/kg have been assigned to a sacrifice study. Two of these dogs and 1 control dog were sacrificed at 5 days, 1 month, and 1 year after inhalation of 90Sr. To date, 44 90Sr dogs have died or have been euthanized, 6 during the first 31 days after inhalation of 90Sr with bone marrow aplasia and 38 between 585 and 3473 days after inhalation of 90Sr. The latter group includes 12 dogs with hemangiosarcomas, 15 with osteosarcomas, 3 with fibrosarcomas, 3 with osteochondrosarcomas, 1 with osteochondrofibrosarcoma, 2 with leukemia, 1 with a baso-squamous carcinoma, 1 with a malignant giant cell tumor, 1 with a myxosarcoma, 1 with a transitional cell carcinoma, 1 with an epileptic seizure, 1 with pneumonia, and 1 with cerebellar hemorrhage (5 dogs had both a hemangiosarcoma and an osteosarcoma). The skeletons of the dogs dying with neoplasms received initial radiation dose rates of 4 to 55 rads/day and cumulative doses to death of 3300 to 22,000 rads. Six control dogs have died, 3 during the last year. One had renal amyloidosis, 1 had atheromatosis and arteriosclerosis, and 1 had aspiration pneumonia. Serial observations are continuing on the 22 surviving 90Sr dogs and 16 controls. (U.S.)

  12. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the biological effects of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs are being conducted to define the biological consequences of inhaling this radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 34 dogs having initial lung burdens of 8.9 to 94 μCi 90Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 33,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis between 159 and 2596 days after exposure. Twenty-nine dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung, heart or mediastinum between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. During the past year one dog was euthanized 2753 days after exposure (34,000 rads lung dose) as a result of an hemangiosarcoma which developed in a rib and spread widely. Another dog died 2830 days after exposure (35,000 rads lung dose) with a squamous cell carcinoma in the lung. An additional dog was euthanized 2636 days after exposure (12,000 rads lung dose) with widespread hemangiosarcoma of unknown origin. The remaining 36 exposed dogs and 18 controls are surviving at 1387 to 3168 days after exposure

  13. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of enalapril in male beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Cristina E; Mendes, Gustavo Duarte; Faro, Renato; Rezende, Vinicius M; Lagos, Rodolfo Monaco; Astigarraga, Rafael E B; Antunes, Edson; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2007-04-01

    1. Pharmacological compounds that release nitric oxide (NO) have been useful tools in the evaluation of the broad role of NO in physiopathology and therapeutics. The present study compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of enalapril and an NO-releasing enalapril molecule (NCX899) in conscious male beagles. The effects of both enalapril and NCX899 in the arterial hypertension and bradycardia induced by acute NO inhibition in anaesthetized dogs were also investigated. 2. Dogs received either NCX899 (4 micromol/kg, i.v.) or enalapril (4 micromol/kg, i.v.), after which plasma concentrations of the analytes and metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 3. In the NCX899 group, the area under the time-course curve (AUC(0-24h)) was 29.18 +/- 4.72, 229.37 +/- 51.32 and 5159.23 +/- 514.88 microg.h/L for the analytes nitro-enalapril, enalapril and enalaprilat, respectively. In the enalapril group, the AUC(0-24h) was 704.53 +/- 158.86 and 4149.27 +/- 847.30 microg.h/L for the analytes enalapril and enalaprilat, respectively. Statistical analysis of data from both groups showed a significant difference for the analyte enalapril, but not for enalaprilat. Moreover, NCX899 and enalapril were equally effective in inhibiting the activity of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme. 4. In anaesthetized dogs, i.v. administration of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 0.1-10 mg/kg) significantly elevated arterial blood pressure, with concomitant bradycardia. The compound NCX899 significantly attenuated both arterial hypertension and bradycardia, whereas enalapril had no significant effect. 5. In conclusion, the present results showed that the NO-releasing derivative of enalapril NCX899 presents a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship similar to its parent compound enalapril. Moreover, NCX899 (but not enalapril) was effective in protecting against the cardiovascular changes

  14. Accelerated blood clearance phenomenon upon cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers in beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang CL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chunling Wang,1 Xiaobo Cheng,2 Yuqing Su,1 Ying Pei,3 Yanzhi Song,1 Jiao Jiao,1 Zhenjun Huang,1 Yanfei Ma,1 Yinming Dong,1 Ying Yao,1 Jingjing Fan,1 Han Ta,1 Xinrong Liu,1 Hui Xu,1 Yihui Deng1 1College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Deli Wei Biological Technology Co, Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Shenyang Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The cross-administration of nanocarriers modified by poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, named PEGylated nanocarriers, a type of combination therapy, is becoming an increasingly important method of long-term drug delivery, to decrease side effects, avoid multidrug resistance, and increase therapeutic efficacy. However, repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers induces the accelerated blood clearance (ABC phenomenon, prevents long circulation, and can cause adverse effects owing to alterations in the biodistribution of the drug. Although the nature of the ABC phenomenon that is induced by repeated injections of PEGylated nanocarriers has already been studied in detail, there are few reports on the immune response elicited by the cross-administration of PEGylated nanocarriers. In this study, we investigated the ABC phenomenon induced by the intravenous cross-administration of various PEGylated nanocarriers, including PEGylated liposomes (PL, PEG micelles (PM, PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles (PSLN, and PEGylated emulsions (PE, in beagle dogs. The results indicated that the magnitude of the immune response elicited by the cross-administration was in the following order (from the strongest to the weakest: PL, PE, PSLN, PM. It is specifically PEG in the brush structure that elicits a significant immune response, in both the induction phase and the effectuation phase. Furthermore, the present study suggests that there is a considerable difference between the effect of repeated injections and

  15. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in the beagle dog. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of intravenously administered 137CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biologic consequences of exposure to 137Cs such as might occur in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposure produced by 137Cs are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. Sixty-six dogs were entered into the study; 6 with a mean initial 137Cs body burden of 3780 μCi/kg, and 5 groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial 137Cs body burdens of 2820, 1940, 1420, 970, and 0 μCi/kg. All six of the highest level dogs died 19 to 33 days post-injection with cumulative whole-body doses of 950 to 1400 rads. Three dogs in the 2820 μCi/kg level died at 24 to 27 days post-injection with cumulative whole-body doses of 860 to 910 rads. One dog in the 2820 μCi/kg level and one dog in the 1940 μCi/kg level died at 77 and 81 days after injection with cumulative whole-body doses of 1300 to 1400 rads. These early deaths were attributed to severe bone marrow damage which was reflected in an early dose related pancytopenia. A dog injected with 1900 μCi/137Cs/kg died 693 days post-injection with necropsy findings attributed to shock. A dog injected with 2800 μCi/kg died 1594 days post-injection with aspiration pneumonia and a dog with 2900 μCi/kg was euthanized 1704 days post-injection with severe arthritis. A control dog died 647 days after initiation of the study with clinicopathological manifestations of auto-immune hemolytic anemia. Forty 137Cs dogs and 11 controls are surviving at 2047 to 2301 days after being placed on experiment. The surviving 137Cs dogs had initial body burdens that ranged from 880 to 3000 μCi/kg and received cumulative whole-body doses of 550 to 2200 rads. Serial observations are continuing on all survivors. (U.S.)

  16. Toxicity of inhaled 91Y fused clay in beagle dogs. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the radiological hazards due to inhalation of 91Y in fused clay particles are being conducted in Beagle dog to aid in assessing the biological consequences of inhaling a relatively insoluble, energetic β-emitter with a short-to-intermediate effective half-life in the lung. These consist of two parallel efforts involving inhalation of 91Y in fused clay particles: (1) a radiation dose pattern study in which 30 dogs were serially sacrificed from 0 to 320 days post-exposure, and (2) a longevity study in which 96 dogs received initial lung burdens ranging from 11 to 360 μCi 91Y/kb body weight and 12 control dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused clay. The aerosols ranged in size from 1.5 to 2.6 μm AMAD. Total body deposition of 91Y ranged between 40 and 50 percent of the inhaled activity with about 22 percent deposited in the alveolar region of the lung. The 91Y deposited in the alveolar region was retained with a mean effective half-life of 50 days whereas the whole-bo effective half-life was 53 days. Small quantities of 91Y were translocated to the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and skeleton. Concentration in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes exceeded that of the lung by 50 days after exposure. To date, 42 dogs have died in the longevity study between 113 and 1388 days post-exposure. Forty of these dogs with cumulative radiation doses to lung from 8300 to 60,000 rads died with clinico-pathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis at 113 to 1011 days post-exposure. Two dogs that died at 1115 and 1388 days p/st-exposure, respectively, with cumulative doses to lung of 23,000 and 25,000 rads had primary malignant pulmonary epithelial neoplasms. All survivors will be observed over their total lifespan with particular attention directed toward relating the radiation dose distribution with the resulting clinico-pathologic effects. (U.S.)

  17. Comparison of the Effect of Vitamin K2 and Risedronate on Trabecular Bone in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rats: A Bone Histomorphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideo; Tadeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yeh, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of vitamin K2 and risedronate on trabecular bone in glucocorticoid (GC)-treated rats. Materials and Methods Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley female rats, 3 months of age, were randomized by the stratified weight method into 5 groups according to the following treatment schedule: age-matched control, GC administration, and GC administration with concomitant administration of vitamin K2, risedronate, or vitamin K2 + risedronate. GC (methylprednisolone sodium succinate, 5...

  18. Algunas consideraciones sobre la deshidratación en perros beagle antes de su uso en investigaciones biomédicas - Some considerations on the dehydration in beagle dogs before their use in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arencibia Arrebola, Daniel Francisco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl agua y los electrolitos son elementos vitales para la vida, debenmantenerse en constante equilibrio en el interior del organismo, dentro de límites de variación muy estrechos. Para ello los mamíferos poseen mecanismos que compensan las agresiones del medio, que tienden a romper este equilibrio. Estos reciben el nombre de mecanismos reguladores (el riñón, la hormona antidiurética y la aldosterona. Las alteraciones patológicas del equilibrio hidrosalino o lo que es igual, el equilibrio del agua y del sodio, se conocen como contracciones y expansiones del volumen del espacio extracelular. Una de las causas fundamentales de disminución de peso, la aparición de animales con anemia y desfavorable estado físico en los perrosde la raza beagle lo constituyen los cuadros de diarreas, vómitos einapetencia por otras enfermedades sobre todo en la etapa de cuarentena o durante nuestras investigaciones biomédicas las cuales impiden que se utilicen animales aptos y sanos para dicho fin. En el presente trabajo tenemos como objetivo realizar una guía práctica sobre como clasificar, diagnosticar y tratar la deshidratación en perros beagle, para de esta forma llegar al final delos estudios con la mayor calidad y cantidad de animales requeridos,asegurando la rapidez con la cual contrarrestar los efectos desfavorables que ocasiona la deshidratación. Para un buen diagnóstico, pronóstico y tratamiento es fundamental saber el tipo de deshidratación, cantidad de líquido perdido, estado de salud integral del animal y fluidos con los que contamos.SummaryThe water and electrolytes are vital elements for the life; they should be stay in constant balance inside the organism, among limits of very narrow variation. For it the mammals possess mechanisms that compensate the aggressions of the environment that spread to break this balance. These receive the name of mechanisms regulators (the kidney, antidiuretic hormone and the aldosterone. The

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Skeletal Histomorphometry at 6 and 24 Months Across Four Bone Envelopes in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Receiving Teriparatide or Zoledronic Acid in the SHOTZ Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; Recker, Robert R; Brown, Jacques P; Bolognese, Michael A; Recknor, Christopher P; Kendler, David L; Lewiecki, E Michael; Hanley, David A; Rao, Sudhaker D; Miller, Paul D; Woodson, Grattan C; Lindsay, Robert; Binkley, Neil; Alam, Jahangir; Ruff, Valerie A; Gallagher, Eileen R; Taylor, Kathleen A

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we reported the effects of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZOL) on bone formation based on biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry of the cancellous envelope at month 6 in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who participated in the 12-month primary Skeletal Histomorphometry in Subjects on Teriparatide or Zoledronic Acid Therapy (SHOTZ) study. Patients were eligible to enter a 12-month extension on their original treatment regimen: TPTD 20 μg/day (s.c. injection) or ZOL 5 mg/year (i.v. infusion). A second biopsy was performed at month 24. Here we report longitudinal changes between and within each treatment group in the cancellous, endocortical, intracortical, and periosteal bone envelopes in patients with evaluable biopsies at months 6 and 24 (paired data set: TPTD, n = 10; ZOL, n = 9). Between-group differences are also reported in the larger set of patients with evaluable biopsies at month 6 (TPTD, n = 28; ZOL, n = 30). Data from the cancellous envelope at month 6 or month 24 provided a reference to compare differences across envelopes within each treatment group. The 24-month results extend our earlier report that TPTD and ZOL possess different tissue-level mechanisms of action. Moreover, these differences persisted for at least 2 years in all four bone envelopes. Few longitudinal differences were observed within or across bone envelopes in ZOL-treated patients, suggesting that the low bone formation indices at month 6 persisted to month 24. Conversely, the magnitude of the effect of TPTD on bone formation varied across individual envelopes: median values for mineralizing surface (MS/BS) and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) at month 6 were approximately 3-fold to 5-fold higher in the endocortical and intracortical envelopes compared to the cancellous envelope. Although MS/BS and BFR/BS declined in these envelopes at month 24, median values continued to exceed, or were not significantly different from, those in the

  20. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsung; Suh, Sangil; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  1. Tissue characteristics of high- and low-incidence plutonium-induced osteogenic sarcoma sites in life-span beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of information gathered from the 239Pu life-span study in beagles at the University of Utah, the tissue features were found to be characteristic of high-incidence bone-tumor sites compared to low-incidence sites included more hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow; greater trabecular bone mass; greater bone remodeling rates; greater mineral apposition rates; greater density and activity of bone surface cells; greater density of putative bone-cell precursors; greater initial uptake of plutonium on bone surfaces; and greater marrow vascular volumes and a venous sinusoidal bed. Although most of these studies are not yet complete, the information being collected should contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas. This should aid in predicting the types and characteristics of osseous tissues where radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas may arise in humans. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Integration of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Indices of Orbifloxacin in Beagle Dogs after a Single Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Hwang, Mi-Hyun; Cheng, Henrique; Park, Seung-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of orbifloxacin were studied in beagle dogs after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. An absolute bioavailability of 100.1% ± 4.76%, a terminal half-life of 4.23 ± 0.2 h and 3.95 ± 0.15 h after i.v. and i.m. administration, a steady-state volume of distribution of 1.61 ± 0.13 liters/kg, and clearance of 0.31 ± 0.03 liters/h/kg were observed. Orbifloxacin showed rapid, concentration-d...

  3. In vivo distribution and excretion studies and in vitro blood studies on the kinetics of lead-203 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the kinetics of the distribution of lead-203 in body fluids have been carried out in vitro, and in animal studies using beagle dogs. In vitro, the distribution of carrier free lead-203 between plasma and cells of canine blood at 370C was measured after the addition of isotope. In animal studies, activity in plasma was measured for about 150 hours, and activity in blood cells, urine and feces measured for about 400 hours after exposure to lead-203. Linear compartmental models for distribution of the isotope are presented for both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. The models contain compartments for both untransformed lead, for isotope added in saline or citric acid, and transformed lead, as obtained by lead-203 incubation in plasma

  4. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  5. Cutaneous mastocytosis with a mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit in a young laboratory beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Kashiwagi, Emi; Masuno, Koichi; Fujisawa, Kae; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Matsushima, Shuuichi; Torii, Mikinori; Takasu, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous mastocytosis, which resembles a subset of urticaria pigmentosa in humans, is rare in dogs. We herein report unrepresentative neoplastic proliferation of mast cells in ventral skin removed routinely from a nine-month-old female laboratory beagle dog at necropsy. A histological examination revealed diffuse extensive cellular infiltration from the superficial to deep dermis in most parts of the skin around the fourth and fifth mammary papilla without nodule formation. Tumor cells were fairly monomorphic, well-differentiated mast cells with round nuclei of small distinct nucleoli and moderate to abundant, slightly eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. A perivascular arrangement of mast cells was noted at the margin of the lesions. Infiltration of eosinophils and degeneration of collagen were not observed in the dermis. Cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed based on these features. A sequence analysis of lesions revealed the deletion of Gln555 to Ile570 within the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit (exon 11). PMID:26989302

  6. [Pharmacokinetics of 6beta-naltrexol after single and multiple intramuscular injections in Beagle dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling-Di; Liu, Jun; Dong, Hua-Jin; Cui, Meng-Xun; Yao, Xia-Jun; Liu, Yong-Shao; Gong, Zheng-Hua; Gong, Ze-Hui

    2009-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 6beta-naltrexol (6beta-NOL) following single intramuscular administration and multiple intramuscular injection once per day for seven days was studied in 4 Beagle dogs. Plasma concentration of 6beta-NOL in dogs was analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical detection with naloxone (NLX) as internal standard. After single intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) 6beta-NOL, the plasma concentration-time curve of the drug was found to fit to a two compartment model with first-order absorption. The main parameters of single dosing were as follows: t1/2alpha was (0.26 +/- 0.23) h, t1/2beta was (4.77 +/- 1.65) h, C(max) was (81.65 +/- 5.61) ng x mL(-1), t(peak) was (0.27 +/- 0.07) h, CL(s) was (1.20 +/- 0.06) L x kg(-1) x h(-1), V/F(c) was (1.94 +/- 0.15) L x kg(-1), and AUC(0-t) was (166.82 +/- 7.68) ng x h x mL(-1), separately. After multiple intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) 6beta-NOL once per day for seven days, the plasma concentration-time curve of the drug fitted to a two compartment model with first-order absorption too. The main parameters of the last dosing were as follows: t1/2alpha was (0.19 +/- 0.18) h, t1/2beta was (5.79 +/- 1.50) h, C(max) was (79.82 +/- 10.5) ng x mL(-1), t(peak) was (0.18 +/- 0.08) h, CL(s) was (1.12 +/- 0.07) L x kg(-1) x h(-1), V/F(c) was (2.10 +/- 0.27) L x kg(-1), and AUC(0-t) was (173.23 +/- 9.49) ng x h x mL(-1), separately. The difference of the parameters between the first and the last dosing was not significant, showing that the plasma kinetics of 6beta-naltrexol was not changed after multiple administrations. In the course of multiple administration, the peak and valley concentration of plasma 6beta-naltrexol were (79.03 +/- 10.3) and (1.50 +/- 0.93) ng x mL(-1), respectively. No clear adverse events were noted during this study. These results showed that plasma 6beta-naltrexol fits to a two compartment model with first-order absorption in

  7. Pharmacokinetics and enhanced oral bioavailability in beagle dogs of cyclosporine A encapsulated in glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Jie Lai1,2, Yi Lu1, Zongning Yin2, Fuqiang Hu3, Wei Wu11School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, 2West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 3School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, ChinaAbstract: Efforts to improve the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CyA remains a challenge in the field of drug delivery. In this study, glyceryl monooleate (GMO/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles were evaluated as potential vehicles to improve the oral bioavailability of CyA. Cubic nanoparticles were prepared via the fragmentation of a bulk GMO/poloxamer 407 cubic phase gel by sonication and homogenization. The cubic inner structure formed was verified using Cryo-TEM. The mean diameters of the nanoparticles were about 180 nm, and the entrapment efficiency of these particles for CyA was over 85%. The in vitro release of CyA from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12 h. The results of a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of CyA from cubic nanoparticles as compared to microemulsion-based Neoral®; higher Cmax (1371.18 ± 37.34 vs 969.68 ± 176.3 ng mL-1, higher AUC0–t (7757.21 ± 1093.64 vs 4739.52 ± 806.30 ng h mL-1 and AUC0–∞ (9004.77 ± 1090.38 vs 5462.31 ± 930.76 ng h mL-1. The relative oral bioavailability of CyA cubic nanoparticles calculated on the basis of AUC0–∞ was about 178% as compared to Neoral®. The enhanced bioavailability of CyA is likely due to facilitated absorption by cubic nanoparticles rather than improved release.Keywords: nanoparticles, cubosomes, cyclosporine A, glyceryl monooleate, oral drug delivery, bioavailability, beagle dogs

  8. Pu and Am decorporation in beagles: effects of magnitude of initial Ca-DTPA injection upon chelation efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effects of magnitude of initial DTPA injection upon chelation efficacy, five young adult beagles were each given an intravenous injection of 237+239Pu(IV) citrate + 241Am(III) citrate, followed by a single intravenous injection of Ca-DTPA 0.5 hr later. Amounts of this chelating agent administered were 3, 10, 30, 100, and 300 μmole Ca-DTPA/kg body mass. Animals were sacrificed 7 days later. Total-body retention of both plutonium and americium was influenced strongly by the amount of DTPA administered, although the removal of Pu by DTPA was less pronounced than that of Am; and in the range of 30 μmole/kg, an increase of DTPA administration by a factor of 2 resulted in only a 25% decrease in residual body content. Plutonium retention at 7 days was reduced from about 77% in the dog given 3 μmole/kg to 14% in the animal injected with 300 μmole/kg. Corresponding values for americium were 40 and 9%. Also, liver content of both Pu and Am was reduced significantly by larger amounts of administered DTPA, decreasing from 18 to 2% for Pu with increasing levels of DTPA, and from 21 to 1% for Am. If there is a level of Ca-DTPA administration at 30 min after injection in a beagle at which no additional chelation of Pu or Am is produced with increasing dosage, it is greater than 300 μmole/kg. In a 70-kg human, this would be equivalent to the injection of 10 g Ca-DTPA

  9. Scintigraphic tracking of mesenchymal stem cells after portal, systemic intravenous and splenic administration in healthy beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Mathieu; Hunt, Geraldine B; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed to treat liver disease in the dog. The objective of this study was to compare portal, systemic intravenous and splenic injections for administration of mesenchymal stem cells to target the liver in healthy beagle dogs. Four healthy beagle dogs were included in the study. Each dog received mesenchymal stem cells via all three delivery methods in randomized order, 1 week apart. Ten million fat-derived allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells labeled with Technetium-99m (99mTc)-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime(HMPAO) were used for each injection. Right lateral, left lateral, ventral, and dorsal scintigraphic images were obtained with a gamma camera equipped with a low-energy all-purpose collimator immediately after injection and 1, 6, and 24 h later. Mesenchymal stem cells distribution was assessed subjectively using all four views. Pulmonary, hepatic, and splenic uptake was quantified from the right lateral view, at each time point. Portal injection resulted in diffuse homogeneous high uptake through the liver, whereas the systemic intravenous injection led to mesenchymal stem cell trapping in the lungs. After splenic injection, mild splenic retention and high homogeneous diffuse hepatic uptake were observed. Systemic injection of mesenchymal stem cells may not be a desirable technique for liver therapy due to pulmonary trapping. Splenic injection represents a good alternative to portal injection. Scintigraphic tracking with 99mTc-HMPAO is a valuable technique for assessing mesenchymal stem cells distribution and quantification shortly after administration. Data obtained at 24 h should be interpreted cautiously due to suboptimal labeling persistence. PMID:25582730

  10. In vitro release and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs of meloxicam from Eudragit FS 30 D-coated pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunsheng; Huang, Jian; Jiao, Yan; Shan, Li; Liu, Yan; Li, Ying; Mei, Xingguo

    2006-09-28

    The objective of this study was to develop meloxicam-loaded colon-specific pellets coated with Eudragit FS 30 D and further evaluate their in vitro release and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs. Meloxicam-loaded cores (drug loading, 4.8%, w/w) were prepared by layering drug-binder (HPMC)-solubilizer (beta-cyclodextrin) solution onto nonpareils (710-850 microm) and then coated with a copolymer of methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid (Eudragit FS 30 D). The obtained pellets with 15% (w/w) coating level had a spherical form and a smooth surface with coating thickness approximately 28 microm. The in vitro drug release from the pellets was pH-dependent with sufficient gastric resistance (pH 1.2: no release; pH 6.8: 6%; pH 7.0: 52%; pH 7.2: 100%; pH 7.4: 100%, after 3 h incubation). In vivo study was carried out using pentagastrin-pretreated beagle dogs. The onset of meloxicam absorption from the coated pellets with 15% (w/w) Eudragit FS 30 D (3.0+/-0.8 h) was significantly delayed (pmeloxicam plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-->96)(h) was not significantly different between the two preparations (p>0.05), although AUC(0-->96)(h) obtained after oral administration of coated pellets (142.5+/-59.6 microg h/ml) was lower than that obtained after administration of uncoated drug-layered cores (180.8+/-61.9 microg h/ml). These results suggested that meloxicam could be delivered to the colon with 15% (w/w) coating level of Eudragit FS 30 D and this polymer coating had no significant influence on the relative bioavailability of meloxicam of the pellets. PMID:16806752

  11. Novel fenofibric acid-loaded controlled release pellet bioequivalent to choline fenofibrate-loaded commercial product in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Mustapha, Omer; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Hun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-07-25

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel fenofibric acid-loaded controlled release pellet showing enhanced, or equivalent to, bioavailability compared with two commercially available products containing fenofibrate or choline fenofibrate. The effect of solubilizing agents on drug solubility and the impact of fillers on core properties were investigated. Among them, magnesium carbonate most improved drug solubility, and κ-carrageenan provided the best spherical cores. The fenofibric acid-loaded pellet was prepared with magnesium carbonate and κ-carrageenan employing the extrusion/spheronizing technique followed by coating with ethylcellulose. Furthermore, dissolution and pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs were performed compared to the fenofibrate-loaded commercial tablet (FCT) and choline fenofibrate-loaded commercial mini-tablet (CFCM). This fenofibric acid-loaded pellet showed controlled release of the drug in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and 0.025 M sodium laurylsulfate within 4h. Furthermore, this pellet and CFCM exhibited similar dissolution profiles. Plasma concentrations greater than 1,000 ng/ml were maintained from 30 min to 8h, suggesting a sustained release pattern. Also, the fenofibric acid-loaded pellet gave significantly higher AUC and Cmax values than FCT, indicating that it improved the bioavailability of fenofibrate due to enhanced solubility and sustained release. In addition, this pellet and CFCM were not significantly different in terms of pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC, Cmax and Tmax. Thus, this pellet was bioequivalent to CFCM in beagle dogs. In conclusion, this fenofibric acid-loaded controlled release pellet would be a potential alternative to the choline fenofibrate-loaded commercial product. PMID:26024820

  12. Histomorphometry in the quantitative analysis of osteoporosis in rat models%骨计量学方法在骨质疏松模型中的定量观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺禄; 魏学磊; 熊光宜; 徐丽娜; 王军

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to clearly clarify the relationships between bone architecture and osteoporosis , namely, quantitatively evaluate the values of bone quality, a comparative analysis of samples of osteoporosis models was performed by bone tissue histomorphometry and 3-D reconstruction of micro-CT images, and to explore the values of those two techniques. Methods Thirty healthy adult female Spraque-Dawley rats were included in this study. The rats were randomly divided into sham group, ovariectomized group and ovariectomy + alendronate sodium group (n = 10, each). The rats were sacrificed at 100 days after drug administration. The bone mass density ( BMD) of the whole femur was measured and his-tological sections of the undecalcified bone tissue of the distal end of femur were prepared for morpho-metric observation. A region of 2 mm3 bone tissue beneath the epiphyseal plate of the distal end of femur was used for morphometric measurement to make 3-D reconstruction of micro-CT images ( eXplore Locus SP, GE, USA) using software Micview V2. 1. 2. Results The bone mass density in the ovariecto-mized gourp was (19. 16 ±2. 97)% , significantly decreased than that (53.00 ±3. 20)% in the sham group [ ( 53. 00 ± 3. 20) % ] , ( P < 0. 001) , and was ( 40. 40 ± 3. 07 ) after the alendronate sodium treatment, significantly improved than that of the ovariectomized gourp ( P < 0. 001). There were significant differences in the values of tetracycline labeling rate, osteoid surface density, average osteoid formation surface thickness, mineralization apposition rate and bone mineralization delay time between the' sham group and ovariectomied groups, and between the ovariectomized and alendronate sodium treatment groups( P < 0. 05 ) . The 3-D' reconstruction of micro-CT observation showed that the bone trabec-ular volume ratio ( BV/TV ) and bone surface/bone volume ratio, BS/BV) were similar to those obtained by histomorphometry, except that the absolute values were smaller. The

  13. Hydroacoustical evidence of the expansion of pelagic swarms of Munida gregaria (Decapoda, Munididae) in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf, and its relationship with habitat features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Cabreira, Ariel G.; Madirolas, Adrián; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2016-08-01

    Squat lobsters are highly diversified and widespread decapods, of which only three species form pelagic swarms. Here we infer the expansion of Munida gregaria populations in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf by means of acoustic surveys of pelagic swarms. We also describe the habitat characteristics in which these swarms occur. Acoustic data was collected during three multidisciplinary scientific cruises on board of the R/V Puerto Deseado during 2009, 2012 and 2014. Despite differences in the environmental conditions between the two surveyed areas, between 2009 and 2014 pelagic swarms increased their occurrence and abundance both in the Beagle Channel and on the Argentine Patagonian Shelf. Towards the end of the studied period, pelagic swarms of M. gregaria occurred in new locations, supporting the notion of a population expansion. Within the Beagle Channel swarm expansions were more marked than on the Patagonian Shelf. We here postulate that M. gregaria expansions occur in association with productive areas of the Argentine continental shelf, such as frontal zones, favoured by the squat lobster phenotypic plasticity that permit to exploit resources in both the neritic and benthic environments. At a regional scale on the Patagonian Shelf, three main groups of pelagic swarms of M. gregaria were clearly associated to respective frontal zones. The information presented here is necessary to understand fluctuations in both distribution and abundance patterns of a key species on the Argentine continental shelf. These fluctuations could be direct or indirect indicators of changes in the ecosystem.

  14. Liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Simultaneous Determination of Metformin and Glimepiride in Beagle Dog Plasma and Bioequivalence Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jing; SHI Xiao-wei; DU Ying-feng; XIANG Bai; WANG Shuai; CAO De-ying

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used for the simultaneous determination of metformin and glimepiride in beagle dog plasma with glipizide as internal standard(IS).After simplified protein precipitation with methanol,both the analytes and IS were chromatographed on a Zorbax CN column via gradient elution with methanol(containing 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate) and 5 mmol/L aqueous ammonium acetate as the mobile phase.Detection was performed by multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) scanning via ESI source operated in positive ionization mode.Specificity,linearity,accuracy,precision,recovery,matrix effect and stability were validated for metformin and glimepiride in beagle dog plasma.The calibration curves were linear in a concentration range of 10--10000 ng/mL for metformin and 4--4000 ng/mL for glimepiride with both correlation coefficients higher than 0.99.The recoveries obtained for the analytes and IS were all between 82.7% and 101.2%.The method exhibited excellent performance in terms of selectivity,robustness,short analytical time and simplicity of sample preparation.Finally,the proposed method was applied to a bioequivalence study of self-made bilayer tablet and commercial formulation containing 500 mg of metformin and 1 mg of glimepiride in beagle dogs.

  15. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  16. Preformulation characterization and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs of JFD, a novel anti-obesity drug for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Li, Yanyou; Zhou, Yuanda; Chen, Xiaoping; Shan, Li; Wei, Jun; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    JFD (N-isoleucyl-4-methyl-1,1-cyclopropyl-1-(4-chlorine)phenyl-2-amylamine·HCl) is a novel investigational anti-obesity drug without obvious cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to characterize the key physicochemical properties of JFD, including solution-state characterization (ionization constant, partition coefficient, aqueous and pH-solubility profile), solid-state characterization (particle size, thermal analysis, crystallinity and hygroscopicity) and drug-excipient chemical compatibility. A supporting in vivo absorption study was also carried out in beagle dogs. JFD bulk powders are prismatic crystals with a low degree of crystallinity, particle sizes of which are within 2-10 μm. JFD is highly hygroscopic, easily deliquesces to an amorphous glass solid and changes subsequently to another crystal form under an elevated moisture/temperature condition. Similar physical instability was also observed in real-time CheqSol solubility assay. pK(a) (7.49 ± 0.01), log P (5.10 ± 0.02) and intrinsic solubility (S0) (1.75 μg/ml) at 37 °C of JFD were obtained using potentiometric titration method. Based on these solution-state properties, JFD was estimated to be classified as BCS II, thus its dissolution rate may be an absorption-limiting step. Moreover, JFD was more chemically compatible with dibasic calcium phosphate, mannitol, hypromellose and colloidal silicon dioxide than with lactose and magnesium stearate. Further, JFD exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profiling in beagle dogs and the pharmacokinetic parameters T(max), C(max), AUC(0-t) and absolute bioavailability were 1.60 ± 0.81 h, 0.78 ± 0.47 μg/ml, 3.77 ± 1.85 μg·h/ml and 52.30 ± 19.39%, respectively. The preformulation characterization provides valuable information for further development of oral administration of JFD. PMID:24694186

  17. Therapeutic effects of combined cytokines on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy γ-rays irradiation in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of combined cytokines on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-rays irradiation in beagles, and to provide experimental evidences for the clinical treatment of extremely severe myeloid acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: 16 beagles were given 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-rays total body irradiation, and then randomly assigned into irradiation control group, supportive care group and cytokines group. In addition to supportive care, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) were administered subcutaneouly to dogs in cytokines group. Peripheral blood hemogram was examined once every two days. Bone marrow and peripheral blood were collected to proceed colony cultivation 4 d pre-irradiation and 1 and 45 d post-irradiation. Conventional histopathological sections sternum were prepared to observe the histomorphology changes. Results: After irradiation, the population of all kinds of cells in peripheral blood declined sharply. WBC nadir was elevated (1.04 x 109 /L, but 0.28 x 109 /L and 0.68 x 109 /L for the irradiation control group and the supportive care group separately), the duration of thrombocytopenia was shortened (24 days, but 33 days for the supportive care group) and red blood cell counts were maintained in the range of normal values after cytokines treatment in combination. The colony forming efficiency of haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow and peripheral blood decreased obviously 1 d post irradiation, but recovered to the level of that before irradiation 45 d post irradiation after supportive care and cytokines treatment. Hematopoietic cells disappeared in bone marrow of animals in irradiation control group, but hematopoietic functions were recovered after cytokines were administrated. Conclusions: RhG-CSF, rhIL-11 and rhIL-2 used in combination could elevate WBC nadir, accelerate the

  18. Desempenho e histomorfometria intestinal de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade recebendo melhoradores de crescimento Performance and intestinal histomorphometry of broiler chickens at 1 to 21 days of age fed growth promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiana de Siqueira Nunes Ramos; João Batista Lopes; Silvana Maria Medeiros de Sousa Silva; Francisco Eduardo Soares Silva; Mabell Nery Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para avaliar o desempenho produtivo e a histomorfometria dos segmentos do intestino delgado em frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes aditivos melhoradores de crescimento: ração controle (sem melhorador de crescimento); ração controle + antibióticos (colistina e bacitracina de zinco); ração controle + probiótico; ração controle + prebiótico; ração controle + probiótico + prebiótico. As aves foram distribuíd...

  19. IgG isotype profile is correlated with cardiomegaly in Beagle dogs infected with distinct Trypanosoma cruzi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Paulo M M; Veloso, Vanja M; Gollob, Kenneth J; Afonso, Luis C C; Caldas, Ivo S; Vianna, Priscila; de Lana, Marta; Chiari, Egler; Bahia, Maria T; Galvão, Lúcia M C

    2008-07-15

    A systematic study following infection by various strains of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and the simultaneous monitoring of the humoral immune response together with the elicited cellular response, could add greatly to our understanding of differences between strains of this important human pathogen. In that sense, acute and chronic infections with distinct T. cruzi strains (Y, Berenice-78 and ABC) in Beagle dogs were studied through a longitudinal evaluation of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes (by ELISA and flow cytometry (FC)), as well as measurements of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation over a 100-week period, and their correlation with cardiomegaly. Our results show that infected animals presenting cardiomegaly showed lower or absent levels of IgG1 during the chronic phase of the infection, when compared to those that did not show an increase in heart weight. In that manner, our results suggest that IgG1 could be used as a marker for cardiac pathogenicity in Chagas disease. PMID:18439688

  20. Removal of inhaled 241Am oxide particles of various sizes from beagle dogs using lung lavage and chelation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined treatments of lung lavage and chelation therapy were evaluated for the removal of inhaled 241AmO2 aerosols in Beagle dogs. Groups 1 to 3 were exposed to monodisperse particles of 241AmO2 of 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) respectively; a fourth group was exposed to polydisperse particles of 241AmO2 with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 μm. Treatment consisted of 5 lung lavages of the right and left lungs. Treated dogs were also given 18 intravenous injections of DTPA. The dogs were sacrificed 64 days after inhalation exposure. The amount of 241Am removed from lung in the lavage fluid for Groups 1 to 4 represented 41, 46, 42 and 33 % of the initial lung burden, respectively. The amount of 241Am excreted in the urine from the treated dogs in excess of that excreted by the untreated dogs for Groups 1 to 4 was 20, 19, 8 and 26 %, respectively. More 241Am was excreted in the urine from dogs that inhaled smaller particle sized aerosols. As a result of the removal of 241Am activity, the 64-day cumulative absorbed radiation doses to lung, liver and skeleton were reduced by 50, 90 and 85 %, respectively. (author)

  1. Removal of inhaled 241Am oxide of various particle sizes from beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of 241Am oxide aerosols of various particle sizes from the lung was studied in 24 Beagle dogs. There were four groups of dogs with six dogs per group and each group inhaled an aerosol of 241Am oxide of a different particle size or particle size distribution. The four aerosols had sizes of: 0.75 μm AD, sigma/sub g/ 1.1; 1.5 μm AD, sigma/sub g/ 1.1; 3.0 μm AD, sigma/sub g/ 1.1; or 1.5 μm AMAD and sigma/sub g/ of 1.6. Three of the dogs in each group were treated with 10 lung lavages, the first lavage performed 2 days after exposure and the last lavage on day 49 after exposure. Each of these treated dogs was also given 100 mg diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) intravenously daily for 4 days after 241Am exposure and twice per week thereafter to the end of the study. Daily excreta collections were made on each of the dogs until sacrifice at 64 days after exposure. The sacrifice body burden (SBB) was much lower for all of the treated dogs compared to the untreated dogs. The 241Am activity found in the recovered lavage fluid was two to four times greater than the sacrifice body burden. These results suggest that the treatment procedures were effective in reducing the lung and body burden of 241Am

  2. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification. PMID:27119092

  3. The fossil mammals collected byCharles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernicola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringthe first two years of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected aconsiderable number of fossil mammals from various localities in Argentina andUruguay. Among these remains are those of large mammals that Darwin informallyassigned to Megatherium and Mastodon, the only large taxa thenknown for South America, and of small and mediumsized mammals that Darwinrecognized as representing at least two rodents and a horse. The study ofDarwin's collection was entrusted to Richard Owen, who described eleven taxabetween 1837 and 1845, including the six following ones: Toxodon platensis,Macrauchenia patachonica, Equus curvidens, Scelidotherium leptocephalum,Mylodon darwini and Glossotherium sp. This contribution provides asynthesis of Darwin's preliminary assignments and evaluates the reasons thatled him to recognize only megatheres and mastodonts for the large fossilremains. Also, it discusses the current taxonomic status of the taxa describedor erected by Owen between 1837 and 1845 and the influence that Owen'staxonomic and phylogenetic conclusions had on the development of Darwin's ideason evolution.

  4. The pharmacokinetics of the β2-adrenoceptor agonist, tulobuterol, in Beagle dogs following transdermal and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Kim, T H; Park, H J; Choi, Y J; Kang, J H; Song, K H; Koo, T S; Seo, K W

    2016-02-01

    Tulobuterol is a β2-adrenergic agonist that was the first bronchodilator approved as a transdermal patch for humans. Previous studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of tulobuterol in humans but not in the veterinary species. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of tulobuterol was examined in healthy Beagle dogs after transdermal and intravenous administration. The Cmax was 2.09 ng/mL at 16.0 h for a 0.2 mg/kg patch and 4.85 ng/mL at 13.6 h for a 0.4 mg/kg patch. The effective blood level in humans is 1-3 ng/mL, a concentration achieved using the 0.2 mg/kg patch in dogs. In conclusion, application of a 0.2 mg/kg tulobuterol patch to healthy dogs led to an apparently effective blood concentration for 24 h. PMID:26639828

  5. Screw- vs cement-implant-retained restorations: an experimental study in the Beagle. Part 1. Screw and abutment loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, Bartolomeo; Scarano, Antonio; Leghissa, Giulio; Carusi, Giorgio; Thams, Ulf; Roman, Fidel San; Piattelli, Adriano

    2005-01-01

    The causes of implant failures can be biological or mechanical. The mechanical causes include fracture of the implant, fracture of the abutment, and loosening of the abutment. Numerous studies show that abutment loosening constitutes one of the marked implant postsurgery complications requiring clinical intervention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of the screw loosening in screwed or cemented abutments. Six adult male Beagles were used. In each dog, the first molars and 2 premolars were extracted. The sutures were removed after 7 days. After 3 months, 10 implants were placed in each dog, 5 in the right mandible and 5 in the left mandible. The abutments either were screwed in (n=30) by applying a total strength of 30 N/cm or were cemented (n=30). After 12 months, 8 (27%) loosened screws were present in screwed abutments, whereas no abutment loosening was observed in cemented abutments (P = .0001). Screwed abutments are often submitted to nonaxial loads that determine screw and abutment loosening. PMID:16265854

  6. Trace metal content in sediments and autochthonous intertidal organisms from two adjacent bays near Ushuaia, Beagle Channel (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia Alejandra; Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in sediments, mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) and limpets (Nacella magellanica) from the Industrial zone (IZ); fuel dock (FD) and Ushuaia Peninsula (UP) on the Beagle Channel. In sediments, seasonal variations showed high values of Cu and Pb in spring and Zn in autumn. Comparing among sites, Cd concentration was superior in UP (2.07 μg/g); while Pb was maximum in FD (41.00 μg/g). In mussels, a higher bioaccumulation in winter was found. Mussels from UP showed the highest bioaccumulation of Cu (5.95 μg/g) and those from FD presented the highest of Zn (170.15 μg/g). A seasonal trend was not found for limpets, while differences among sites were observed for Cd being the highest at IZ (3.02 μg/g). Although pollution level found was low, anthropic activities at the studied sites could result in deterioration, further monitoring is recommended. PMID:22681905

  7. Retention patterns in beagle dogs repeatedly exposed to aerosols of 137Cs-labeled fused clay particles. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide an experimental evaluation of the adequacy of extrapolating single inhalation exposure kinetics to the repeated exposure situation, 12 Beagle dogs were given 10, 20, or 40 weekly, 10-min inhalation exposures to 137Cs in fused clay particles. Whole-body counting immediately before and after each exposure and at other intervals has been used to assess the kinetics of buildup and retention of the deposited material. Current analyses indicate that neither the deposition percentage nor the rate of buildup of 137Cs in the lung was affected by the number of exposures. Two dogs each were sacrificed at 7 days after 10, 20, or 40 inhalation exposures. Tissue analyses indicated that 96 percent of the body burden was in the lung, 0.3 to 1 percent in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and the remainder mainly in other soft tissues. Preliminary analysis of the whole-body retention data obtained after the last inhalation exposure for the six remaining living dogs indicates that the 137Cs is being retained somewhat more tenaciously than was observed in dogs that received a single inhalation exposure to a similar aerosol. Observations are continuing on these six dogs. (U.S.)

  8. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of beagle dogs to aerosols of 144Ce in fused clay particles I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was initiated to study the biological behavior and long-term effects of repeated inhalation exposures to 144Ce in fused clay particles compared with those seen in Beagle dogs that received a single exposure as young adults. The 36 dogs, divided into four equal groups, are exposed every 8 weeks to achieve the following: to maintain lung burdens of 9 and 4.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight in the first and second groups, respectively; to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight in the third group with each exposure and to expose controls (fourth group) to fused clay containing stable cerium. With these exposure sequences, the 144Ce-exposed dogs will receive increasing or maintained β dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Exposures to the first and third groups will produce a cumulative absorbed dose to lung of approximately equal to 35,000 rads and those to the second group will yield approximately equal to 17,000 rads within 2 yr after the first exposure. Single exposure dogs that had died with pulmonary neoplasia when this experiment was initiated had cumulative doses to death of 29,000 to 61,000 rads. Six of the planned 13 exposures have been completed to date. All exposed dogs are surviving and will be maintained for lifespan observation. (U.S.)

  9. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification. PMID:27119092

  10. Effect of posture and anaesthesia on the distribution of pulmonary perfusion and lung configuration in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of posture and anaesthesia on the topographical distribution of pulmonary perfusion in canine lungs, the changes in lung shape, configuration and regional perfusion were assessed in healthy beagle dogs, using a repeated 99mTc perfusion scintigraphic procedure. The general shape of the lung images was similar in standing and prone postures, except for a relative increase of the more ventral zone in the prone posture, ascribed to vertical flattening of the lung associated with enlargement of the ventral zones. Configuration changes revealed a shift of the parenchyma towards the more caudal parts in the prone posture, which suggests a parenchymal compression of the paradiaphragmatic lung zones. The prone posture induced a decreased perfusion to the caudal third of the lung. Anaesthesia induced significant changes in lung shape without an obvious direction. The perfusion to the more ventral as well as to the more cranial zones was reduced. Differences in the perfusion distribution are thought to be mainly due to the pressure exerted by the abdominal content through the diaphragm and to the shift of the blood towards better ventilated lung regions

  11. Analysis of the toxicity and radioprotective effect of the chemical radioprotector WR 2721 in dogs (beagles). Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine the efficacy of the radioprotective agent Aminopropylamino-enthylthiophosphate (WR 2721) in larger animals, 43 adult male dogs (beagles) were exposed to gamma rays. The LD50sub(/)30 values were determined by probit analysis. The LD50sub(/)30 value for unprotected control animals has been found to be around 274 rd, while for animals pretreated with 150 mg WR 2721/kg body weight this value lay at about 632 rd. Hence the DRF due to WR 2721 is 2.3, i.e. the midlethal dose of irradiation for protected animals was higher by the 2.3 fold against control animals. The protective action of WR 2721 could also be observed at the lesser post-irradiation decrease of thrombocytes, leucocytes and lymphocytes and at the quick recovery of bone-marrow. The symptoms of radiation sickness were observed in the protected dogs only after exposure to high doses (650 and 750 rd). All data on clinical-chemical parameters of sera were subjected to variance and discriminant analyses. On the bases of these clinical data the animals could be classified with 90% certainty into their exposure doses. The discriminant analyses of these data allowed the prediction whether an experimental animal would die before or after the 10th day p.r. or survive the assault. These clinical data have obvious relevance to the problem of biological dosimetry. (orig.)

  12. Bupivacaine 0,25% versus ropivacaine 0,25% in brachial plexus block in dogs of beagle breed
    Bupivacaína 0,25% versus ropivacaína 0,25% no bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães da raça beagle

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Ignácio Wakoff; Rodrigo Mencalha; Natália Soares Souza; Carlos Augusto dos Santos Sousa; Mariana do Desterro Inácio e Sousa; Paulo Oldemar Scherer

    2013-01-01

    The brachial plexus block (BPB) is a regional anesthesia technique which enables the attainment of surgical procedures distal scapulohumeral articulation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.25% without vasoconstrictor in BPB guided by electrical stimulation in dogs. Thirteen male and female beagle dogs underwent a BPB using bupivacaine and ropivacaine 0.25% (4mg/kg), both alone and in different times. The anesthesic block was performed in the right forel...

  13. Development of novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet with enhanced stability: Physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Jin Cheul; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet (PBMST) with enhanced stability as a bioequivalent to the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet. Numerous prasugrel base-loaded microspheres were prepared with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), colloidal silica and various acidifying agents using a spray-drying process, and the physicochemical properties, solubility and stability were investigated. The PBMSTs were prepared and their dissolution, pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs and stability were evaluated compared to commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablets. Among the acidifying agents tested, phosphoric acid provided the greatest increase in drug solubility, by as much as 110-fold. The prasugrel base-loaded microspheres composed of prasugrel base, HPMC, colloidal silica and phosphoric acid at a weight ratio of 10/10/5/2.5 provided an amorphous drug and reduced particle size of about 11.3μm. Moreover, it exhibited excellent solubility and improved stability compared to prasugrel base and hydrochloride. Moreover, PBMST drug dissolution was improved in comparison to the prasugrel base-loaded tablet (PBT), with similar dissolution to the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet at pH 1.2 and 4.0. PBMST provided significantly higher plasma concentrations of AUC and Cmax in beagle dogs compared to PBT. In particular, the AUC of PBMST was approximately four times greater than PBT, leading to improved oral bioavailability. There were no significant differences observed for all pharmacokinetic parameters between PBMST and the commercial prasugrel hydrochloride-loaded tablet, suggesting their bioequivalence in beagle dogs. Furthermore, the prepared PBMSTs were stable for at least six months. Therefore, this novel prasugrel base microsphere-loaded tablet could be a potential alternative for enhancing the stability and bioavailability of prasugrel. PMID:27451362

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation on the biological properties of intervertebral disc allografts: in vitro and in vivo studies in a beagle model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ding

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: An animal experiment about intervertebral disc allograft. OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility to decellularize disc allografts treated by 6°Co Gamma Irradiation, and simultaneously, to assess the possibility to make use of the decellularized natural disc scaffold for disc degeneration biotherapy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Studies of both animal and human disc allograft transplantation indicated that the disc allograft may serve as a scaffold to undertake the physiological responsibility of the segment. METHODS: Experiment in vitro: 48 discs of beagles were harvested and divided randomly into four groups including a control group and three irradiated groups. Immediate cell viability and biomechanical properties of the discs were checked and comparisons were made among these groups. Experiment in vivo: 24 beagles accepted single-level allografted disc treated with different doses of gamma irradiation. Plain X-rays and MRIs were taken before and after surgery. Then, the spinal columns were harvested en bloc from the sacrificed beagles and were examined morphologically. RESULTS: There were significant differences of both the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus immediate cell viabilities among the various groups. There were no obvious differences of the biomechanical properties among the four groups. The disc height and range of motion decreased significantly in all groups as time went on. The observed indexes in irradiated groups were much smaller than those in the control group, but the indexes in 18-kGy group were larger than those in 25-kGy and 50-kGy groups. Both MRI and macroscopic findings showed that the segmental degeneration in the control and 18-kGy group was less severe than that in 25-kGy and 50-kGy groups. CONCLUSION: Gamma Irradiation can decellularize disc allograft successfully to provide natural scaffold for the study of degenerative disc disease therapy, and also can be used as an effective method to produce

  15. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos humanos de Península Mitre y del Canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Kozameh, Livia Febes; Panarello, Héctor; Tessone, Augusto; Testa, N; Valencio, Susana; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis comparativo de los valores isotópicos del carbono (δ13C) medidos sobre gelatina ósea extraída de restos humanos procedentes de Península Mitre y del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego. Paralelamente, se discute esta información con aquella recabada a partir de otros estudios referidos a rastros fisiológicos y patológicos del esqueleto y del aparato masticatorio efectuados en ambas regiones. Los resultados señalan que, si bien en los análisis de ...

  16. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos óseos humanos de la región del canal Beagle, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Tessone, Augusto; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio; Valencio, Susana; Panarello, Héctor

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer las particularidades de la dieta de grupos cazadores-recolectores, que habitaron la región del canal Beagle durante el Holoceno medio y tardío, mediante el análisis de isótopos estables del carbono sobre el colágeno de sus restos óseos. Se dan a conocer los valores de la 8¹³C obtenidos en cinco individuos. Seis determinaciones efectuadas previamente por otros autores en la misma región señalaron una variación mayor que la esperada en base a la informació...

  17. Establishment of a Method to Measure Length of the Ulnar Nerve and Standardize F-wave Values in Clinically Normal Beagles

    OpenAIRE

    HIRASAWA, Shun; Shimizu, Miki; MARUI, Yuumi; KISHIMOTO, Miori; OKUNO, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    We designed a new method of measuring the length of the ulnar nerve and determining standard values for F-wave parameters of the ulnar nerve in clinically normal beagles. Nerve length must be precisely measured to determine F-wave latency and conduction velocity. The length of the forelimb has served as the length of the ulnar nerve for F-wave assessments, but report indicates that F-wave latency is proportional to the length of the pathway traveled by nerve impulses. Therefore, we measured t...

  18. Development and validation of a rapid and sensitive UHPLC–MS/MS method for the determination of paliperidone in beagle dog plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Hongming Chen; Longshan Zhao; Guangjing Li; Donglei Leng; Panqin Ma; Lijin Tong; Tianhong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of paliperidone extended-release tablets in vivo, a simple and rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of paliperidone in beagle dog plasma. Paliperidone and diazepam (internal standard) were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether, and then separated on a C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 2.6 μm) under gradient elution with methanol–0.1% ...

  19. The Beagle 2 entry descent and landing system (EDLS) software - development and re-use of software for the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Martin

    2002-07-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to the Beagle 2 Mars probe and the associated mission, followed by a description of Logica's software responsibility on this programme. The approach taken during software development and implementation of the missioncritical entry, descent and landing system software is then described. This has focussed on maximising re-use of expertise from similar programmes such as Huygens and Rosetta. At the same time effort was devoted to ensure that re-use was enabled within the programme as well as opening up the possibility for re-use on subsequent missions. Finally, the lessons learned are highlighted and a number of conclusions are drawn.

  20. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet

  1. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed repeatedly to a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to study the deposition, retention and long-term biological effects for comparison with data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every 8 weeks for 2 years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. These goals were: to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight with each exposure; to reestablish lung burdens of 9 or 4.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight and to expose controls to fused aluminosilicate particles containing nonradioactive cerium. With these exposure sequences, the 144Ce-exposed dogs received increasing or relatively constant beta radiation dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Following completion of the exposure series, the dogs are being observed for the development of long-term biological effects. To date, 11 dogs have died or were euthanized, nine exposed dogs and two controls. Although pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were a prominent finding in dogs exposed once to the same aerosol at a level that led to cumulative doses to lung similar to these repeatedly exposed dogs, only one has been observed in the repeatedly exposed dogs. Other effects of note to date include three pulmonary carcinomas, two hemangiosarcomas of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and one splenic hemangiosarcoma. Observations are continuing on the surviving 18 exposed and seven control dogs

  2. Mesozooplankton assemblages and their relationship with environmental variables: a study case in a disturbed bay (Beagle Channel, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Florencia; Dutto, M Sofía; Berasategui, Anabela A; Kopprio, Germán; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the seasonal and spatial analysis of the mesozooplankton community in a human-impacted subantarctic bay in Argentina and aimed to detect assemblages associated with environmental variability. Mesozooplankton samples and environmental data were obtained in the Ushuaia Bay (UB) seasonally, from August 2004 to June 2005, and spatially, from coastal (more polluted), middle (less influenced) and open sea water (free polluted) sampling stations. Remarkable seasonal changes on the mesozooplankton community were observed. Nitrogenated nutrients, chlorophyll a, salinity and temperature were the prevailing environmental conditions likely associated with the different mesozooplankton assemblages found in the bay. The copepods Eurytemora americana, Acartia tonsa, Podon leuckarti and Nematoda were particularly observed on the northwest coast of the bay, characterized by the highest level of urban pollution, eutrophicated by sewage and freshwater inputs from the Encerrada Bay which is connected to it. The stations situated in the northeast area, mostly influenced by freshwater input from rivers and glacier melting, showed low mesozooplankton abundances and an important contribution of adventitious plankton. The copepods Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus brevipes and Drepanopus forcipatus were mostly observed at the stations located near the Beagle Channel, characterized by open sea and free polluted waters. Our findings suggest that the variations observed in the mesozooplankton assemblages in the UB seem to be modulated by environmental variables associated with the anthropogenic influence, clearly detected on the coast of the bay. Certain opportunistic species such as A. tonsa and E. americana could be postulated as potential bioindicators of water quality in subantarctic coastal ecosystems. PMID:25204897

  3. Evaluation of the usefulness of novel biomarkers for drug-induced acute kidney injury in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaobing [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, A8 Hongda Middle Street, Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area, Beijing 100176 (China); Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730 (China); Ma, Ben; Lin, Zhi; Qu, Zhe; Huo, Yan; Wang, Jufeng [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, A8 Hongda Middle Street, Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area, Beijing 100176 (China); Li, Bo, E-mail: libo@nifdc.org.cn [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, A8 Hongda Middle Street, Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area, Beijing 100176 (China); Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730 (China)

    2014-10-01

    As kidney is a major target organ affected by drug toxicity, early detection of renal injury is critical in preclinical drug development. In past decades, a series of novel biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity were discovered and verified in rats. However, limited data regarding the performance of novel biomarkers in non-rodent species are publicly available. To increase the applicability of these biomarkers, we evaluated the performance of 4 urinary biomarkers including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), clusterin, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), relative to histopathology and traditional clinical chemistry in beagle dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin. The results showed that urinary NGAL and clusterin levels were significantly elevated in dogs on days 1 and 3 after administration of gentamicin, respectively. Gene expression analysis further provided mechanistic evidence to support that NGAL and clusterin are potential biomarkers for the early assessment of drug-induced renal damage. Furthermore, the high area (both AUCs = 1.000) under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve also indicated that NGAL and clusterin were the most sensitive biomarkers for detection of gentamicin-induced renal proximal tubular toxicity. Our results also suggested that NAG may be used in routine toxicity testing due to its sensitivity and robustness for detection of tissue injury. The present data will provide insights into the preclinical use of these biomarkers for detection of drug-induced AKI in non-rodent species. - Highlights: • Urinary NGAL, clusterin and NAG levels were significantly elevated in canine AKI. • NGAL and clusterin gene expression were increased following treatment with gentamicin. • NGAL and clusterin have high specificity and sensitivity for detection of AKI.

  4. The comparison of bolus tracking and test bolus techniques for computed tomography thoracic angiography in healthy beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Cassel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography thoracic angiography studies were performed on five adult beagles using the bolus tracking (BT technique and the test bolus (TB technique, which were performed at least two weeks apart. For the BT technique, 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent was injected intravenously. Scans were initiated when the contrast in the aorta reached 150 Hounsfield units (HU. For the TB technique, the dogs received a test dose of 15% of 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent, followed by a series of low dose sequential scans. The full dose of the contrast agent was then administered and the scans were conducted at optimal times as identified from time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation in HU was measured in the aorta (Ao and right caudal pulmonary artery (rCPA. Additional observations included the study duration, milliAmpere (mA, computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI[vol] and dose length product (DLP. The attenuation in the Ao (BT = 660 52 HU ± 138 49 HU, TB = 469 82 HU ± 199 52 HU, p = 0.13 and in the rCPA (BT = 606 34 HU ± 143 37 HU, TB = 413 72 HU ± 174.99 HU, p = 0.28 did not differ significantly between the two techniques. The BT technique was conducted in a significantly shorter time period than the TB technique (p = 0.03. The mean mA for the BT technique was significantly lower than the TB technique (p = 0.03, as was the mean CTDI(vol (p = 0.001. The mean DLP did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.17. No preference was given to either technique when evaluating the Ao or rCPA but the BT technique was shown to be shorter in duration and resulted in less DLP than the TB technique.

  5. The Osteogenesis Effect and Underlying Mechanisms of Local Delivery of gAPN in Extraction Sockets of Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcheng Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A plastic and biodegradable bone substitute consists of poly (l-lactic-co-glycolic acid and 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate has been previously fabricated, but its osteogenic capability required further improvement. We investigated the use of globular adiponectin (gAPN as an anabolic agent for tissue-engineered bone using this scaffold. A qualitative analysis of the bone regeneration process was carried out using μCT and histological analysis 12 weeks after implantation. CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography superimposition was used to characterise the effect of the different treatments on bone formation. In this study, we also explored adiponectin’s (APN influence on primary cultured human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells gene expressions involved in the osteogenesis. We found that composite scaffolds loaded with gAPN or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 exhibited significantly increased bone formation and mineralisation following 12 weeks in the extraction sockets of beagle dogs, as well as enhanced expression of osteogenic markers. In vitro investigation revealed that APN also promoted osteoblast differentiation of primary cultured human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (h-JBMMSCs, accompanied by increased activity of alkaline phosphatase, greater mineralisation, and production of the osteoblast-differentiated genes osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and collagen type I, which was reversed by APPL1 siRNA. Therefore, the composite scaffold loaded with APN exhibited superior activity for guided bone regeneration compared with blank control or Bio-Oss® (a commercially available product. The composite scaffold with APN has significant potential for clinical applications in bone tissue engineering.

  6. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior and long-term biological effects in Beagle dogs of 144Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles in repeated inhalation exposures are being studied for comparison with data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every 8 weeks for 2 years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. These goals were: to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight with each exposure in the first group; to reestablish lung burdens of 9 or 4.5 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight in the second and third groups, respectively; and to expose controls (fourth group) to fused aluminosilicate particles containing stable cerium. With these exposure sequences, the 144Ce-exposed dogs received increasing or relatively constant beta radiation dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Exposures in the first and second groups were planned to yield a cumulative absorbed dose to lung of approx. = 35,000 rads and those in the third group approx. = 17,000 rads within two years after the first exposure. All 13 exposures have been completed. During the past year, one dog in the 9.0 μCi 144Ce/kg body weight group died at 1558 days after the first exposure with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The remaining 24 144Ce-exposed and seven control dogs generally appear to be in good physical condition with exception of a persistent lymphopenia at approx. = 5 years after the first exposure. They are continuing to be maintained for life span observations

  7. Insights into radionuclide-induced lung cancer in people from life-span studies in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In life-span studies, beagle dogs were exposed one time by inhalation to an aerosol containing a beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclide in a relatively soluble or insoluble chemical form. After exposure dogs were observed for late-occurring biological effects. Lung cancer has been a predominant observation for radionuclides inhaled in a relatively insoluble form because most of the absorbed dose was delivered to the lung and contiguous tissues. Approximately 130 lung cancers were observed in dogs exposed to inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides; tumors occurred with absorbed doses to lung ranging from 1100 to 68,000 rads. With inhaled alpha emitters lung tumors occurred at doses between 530 and 8400 rads. Dose rate pattern was shown to be an important factor in the induction of lung cancer by inhaled beta emitters. Doses of low-LET irradiation delivered in a matter of days can be as much as 8 times more effective per unit of dose than radiation doses delivered over a more protracted period of time. Tumors also have occurred in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of dogs that inhaled relatively insoluble forms of beta emitters. From these studies, the risk of lung cancer from inhaled beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides was compared to determine the importance of LET and other dose-effect modifying factors on resulting risks and on extrapolation to human inhalation exposure. Attention also was given to the risk of cancer in tracheobronchial lymph nodes, on the basis of the results of these studies and the current ICRP computational method in which lymph nodes are included with lung for purposes of dose and risk calculation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Evaluation of the usefulness of novel biomarkers for drug-induced acute kidney injury in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As kidney is a major target organ affected by drug toxicity, early detection of renal injury is critical in preclinical drug development. In past decades, a series of novel biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity were discovered and verified in rats. However, limited data regarding the performance of novel biomarkers in non-rodent species are publicly available. To increase the applicability of these biomarkers, we evaluated the performance of 4 urinary biomarkers including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), clusterin, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), relative to histopathology and traditional clinical chemistry in beagle dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin. The results showed that urinary NGAL and clusterin levels were significantly elevated in dogs on days 1 and 3 after administration of gentamicin, respectively. Gene expression analysis further provided mechanistic evidence to support that NGAL and clusterin are potential biomarkers for the early assessment of drug-induced renal damage. Furthermore, the high area (both AUCs = 1.000) under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve also indicated that NGAL and clusterin were the most sensitive biomarkers for detection of gentamicin-induced renal proximal tubular toxicity. Our results also suggested that NAG may be used in routine toxicity testing due to its sensitivity and robustness for detection of tissue injury. The present data will provide insights into the preclinical use of these biomarkers for detection of drug-induced AKI in non-rodent species. - Highlights: • Urinary NGAL, clusterin and NAG levels were significantly elevated in canine AKI. • NGAL and clusterin gene expression were increased following treatment with gentamicin. • NGAL and clusterin have high specificity and sensitivity for detection of AKI

  9. Neoplastic and other pathologic effects of fractionated fast neutrons or photons on the thorax and anterior abdomen of beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine adult male beagle dogs received either fast-neutron or photon irradiation to the right hemithorax and right rostral abdomen. Twenty-four dogs (six per group) received fast neutrons (15 MeV) to total doses of 1000, 1500, 2250, or 3375 cGy in four fractions per week for six weeks. Fifteen dogs received 3000, 4500, or 6750 cGy of photons in an identical fractionation pattern. One photon-irradiated dog and 13 neutron-irradiated dogs died or were euthanatized because of hepatic and gastrointestinal disturbances 47 to 708 days after irradiation; 20 dogs died of other causes. These 34 dogs were necropsied and have been studied microscopically; the remaining five dogs are still alive seven years after irradiation. Neutron-induced lesions included hemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis, and atrophy of the heart, liver, pancreas, pylorus, duodenum, and kidney. All lesions were associated with degenerative and occlusive vascular changes including coronary arteriosclerosis. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons, assessed by clinical signs and by gross and microscopic pathology, is between 3 and 4.5 for pancreas, ∼4.5 for heart, pylorus, duodenum, and kidney, and greater than 6.75 for liver. Ten malignancies and two benign tumors developed in the irradiated field of six of 12 neutron-exposed dogs that survived over one year after irradiation. Two malignancies and one benign tumor arose in three of 12 photon-exposed dogs surviving over one year postirradiation. Only one neoplasm developed in the same field in 11 nonirradiated controls or in 62 dogs irradiated at sites other than the thorax or abdomen. The neutron RBE for neoplasia is approximately 6.75. 85 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of rivastigmine of different salt forms, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, in healthy Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cidan; Yang, Bei; Zhou, Tao; Duan, Gengli; Yu, Yingjia

    2011-08-01

    The bioequivalence of two brands of rivastigmine capsules, of different salt forms, was demonstrated in six healthy beagle dogs after a single oral dose in a randomized cross-over study. Reference (Rivastigmine hydrochloride, Sunve, CN) and test (Rivastigmine tartrate, Novartis, CH) products were administered to fasting beagles on two treatment days separated by a two-day washout period; blood samples were collected at specified time intervals, and the plasma was separated and analyzed for rivastigmine using a validated GC-MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), C(max), T(max) and t1/2 were compared statistically to evaluate bioequivalence between the two brands, using the statistical modules recommended by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any significant difference between the two formulations and 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptable ranges for bioequivalence. Based on these statistical inferences it was concluded that the two brands exhibited comparable pharmacokinetic profiles and that Sanwei's Rivastigmine hydrochloride was bioequivalent to Rivastigmine tartrate of Novartis, CH. PMID:21901981

  11. The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-09-12

    Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

  12. Development and validation of a rapid and sensitive UHPLC–MS/MS method for the determination of paliperidone in beagle dog plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of paliperidone extended-release tablets in vivo, a simple and rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of paliperidone in beagle dog plasma. Paliperidone and diazepam (internal standard were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether, and then separated on a C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 2.6 μm under gradient elution with methanol–0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. The compounds were detected using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI source. The validated method was linear over the concentration range of 1.00–1000.00 ng/ml and the lower limit of quantitation was 1.00 ng/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precision values were not more than 15% (relative standard deviation < 20% at low levels, while the accuracy was within ±10% of nominal values. The validated UHPLC–MS/MS method was successfully applied to an oral pharmacokinetic study of paliperidone extended-release tablets in a beagle dog.

  13. Myocyte repolarization modulates myocardial function in aging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Signore, Sergio; Qanud, Khaled; Borghetti, Giulia; Meo, Marianna; Cannata, Antonio; Zhou, Yu; Wybieralska, Ewa; Luciani, Marco; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Zhang, Eric; Matsuda, Alex; Webster, Andrew; Cimini, Maria; Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; D'Alessandro, David A; Wunimenghe, Oriyanhan; Michler, Robert E; Royer, Christopher; Goichberg, Polina; Leri, Annarosa; Barrett, Edward G; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H; Rota, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Studies of myocardial aging are complex and the mechanisms involved in the deterioration of ventricular performance and decreased functional reserve of the old heart remain to be properly defined. We have studied a colony of beagle dogs from 3 to 14 yr of age kept under a highly regulated environment to define the effects of aging on the myocardium. Ventricular, myocardial, and myocyte function, together with anatomical and structural properties of the organ and cardiomyocytes, were evaluated. Ventricular hypertrophy was not observed with aging and the structural composition of the myocardium was modestly affected. Alterations in the myocyte compartment were identified in aged dogs, and these factors negatively interfere with the contractile reserve typical of the young heart. The duration of the action potential is prolonged in old cardiomyocytes contributing to the slower electrical recovery of the myocardium. Also, the remodeled repolarization of cardiomyocytes with aging provides inotropic support to the senescent muscle but compromises its contractile reserve, rendering the old heart ineffective under conditions of high hemodynamic demand. The defects in the electrical and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes with aging suggest that this cell population is an important determinant of the cardiac senescent phenotype. Collectively, the delayed electrical repolarization of aging cardiomyocytes may be viewed as a critical variable of the aging myopathy and its propensity to evolve into ventricular decompensation under stressful conditions. PMID:26801307

  14. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  15. Observation of histopathology and histomorphometry of the bone and the reproductive system in ovariectomized rats%去卵巢大鼠骨、生殖系统组织病理学与形态计量学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁珊珊; 王永吉; 庞田田; 杨祎琦; 吴婕; 辛薇

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察去卵巢大鼠骨、生殖系统的组织病理学和形态计量学变化。方法将40只3月龄健康雌性SD大鼠随机分为两组,20只实施卵巢去除手术,20只实施假手术。术后3个月分别从两组大鼠中随机抽取7只,解剖后进行胫骨、股骨、子宫和阴道组织样品的取材,常规石蜡包埋、切片、H&E染色并观察。应用病理图像分析系统对胫骨、股骨、子宫和阴道进行形态计量学分析。结果去势组大鼠胫骨、股骨干骺端骨小梁面积百分率、骨小梁平均厚度均较假手术组减少( P<0.05),去势组骨小梁间距较假手术组增大(P<0.05);去势组大鼠子宫萎缩,子宫管径、子宫黏膜上皮厚度、子宫肌层厚度、以及子宫腺数量均较假手术组显著降低(P<0.05);阴道黏膜上皮的厚度较假手术组显著降低(P<0.05)。组织学观察显示去除卵巢后3个月大鼠呈现明显的骨质疏松症状以及生殖系统萎缩等。结论去卵巢大鼠除骨组织结构改变外,子宫和阴道组织学形态变化证实雌性动物子宫、阴道黏膜的形态受雌激素的直接调节。%Objective To observe the pathology and histomorphometry of the bone and reproductive system in ovariectomized rats.Methods Forty 3-month-old healthy female SD rats were randomly divided to 2 groups, 20 rats were surgically ovariectomized ( OVX) and another 20 rats were operated as sham control.Three months after the operation, 7 rats were randomly selected from each group.The rats were dissected and the tissues of the tibia, femur, uterus, and vagina were collected for histopathological and histomorphometric analysis.Results The areas and thickness of the trabecular bone of the tibia and femur in OVX animals decreased while the trabecular bone spacing increased comparing to those in the sham animals ( P <0.05 ) .In addition, the OVX aniamls had significant reduction in diameter of the

  16. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg(-1) b.w.), IM (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL(-1), 6.3 h × μg mL(-1), and 6.66 h × μg mL(-1), while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology. PMID:27536243

  17. Detection of myocardial metabolic abnormalities by 18F-FDG PET/CT and corresponding pathological changes in beagles with local heart irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the detection of radiation-induced myocardial damage in beagles by comparing two pre-scan preparation protocols as well as to determine the correlation between abnormal myocardial FDG uptake and pathological findings. The anterior myocardium of 12 beagles received radiotherapy locally with a single X-ray dose of 20 Gy. 18F-FDG cardiac PET/CT was performed at baseline and 3 months after radiation. Twelve beagles underwent two protocols before PET/CT: 12 hours of fasting (12H-F), 12H-F followed by a high-fat diet (F-HFD). Regions of interest were drawn on the irradiation and the non-irradiation fields to obtain their maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Then the ratio of the SUV of the irradiation to the non-irradiation fields (INR) was computed. Histopathological changes were identified by light and electron microscopy. Using the 12H-F protocol, the average INRs were 1.18 ± 0.10 and 1.41 ± 0.18 before and after irradiation, respectively (p = 0.021). Using the F-HFD protocol, the average INRs were 0.99 ± 0.15 and 2.54 ± 0.43, respectively (p < 0.001). High FDG uptake in irradiation field was detected in 33.3% (4/12) of 12H-F protocol and 83.3% (10/12) of F-HFD protocol in visual analysis, respectively (p = 0.031). The pathology of the irradiated myocardium showed obvious perivascular fibrosis and changes in mitochondrial vacuoles. High FDG uptake in an irradiated field may be related with radiation-induced myocardial damage resulting from microvascular damage and mitochondrial injury. An F-HFD preparation protocol used before obtaining PET/CT can improve the sensitivity of the detection of cardiotoxicity associated with radiotherapy

  18. Detection of myocardial metabolic abnormalities by 18F-FDG PET/CT and corresponding pathological changes in beagles with local heart irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rul [Nursing College of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Song, Jianbo; Wu, Zhi Fang; Liu, Jian Zhang; Hao, Xin Zhong; Li, Sijin [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Guo, Min [Dept. of Cardiology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Li, Jianguo [Dept. of Radiological and Environmental Medicine, China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2015-08-15

    To determine the efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the detection of radiation-induced myocardial damage in beagles by comparing two pre-scan preparation protocols as well as to determine the correlation between abnormal myocardial FDG uptake and pathological findings. The anterior myocardium of 12 beagles received radiotherapy locally with a single X-ray dose of 20 Gy. 18F-FDG cardiac PET/CT was performed at baseline and 3 months after radiation. Twelve beagles underwent two protocols before PET/CT: 12 hours of fasting (12H-F), 12H-F followed by a high-fat diet (F-HFD). Regions of interest were drawn on the irradiation and the non-irradiation fields to obtain their maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Then the ratio of the SUV of the irradiation to the non-irradiation fields (INR) was computed. Histopathological changes were identified by light and electron microscopy. Using the 12H-F protocol, the average INRs were 1.18 ± 0.10 and 1.41 ± 0.18 before and after irradiation, respectively (p = 0.021). Using the F-HFD protocol, the average INRs were 0.99 ± 0.15 and 2.54 ± 0.43, respectively (p < 0.001). High FDG uptake in irradiation field was detected in 33.3% (4/12) of 12H-F protocol and 83.3% (10/12) of F-HFD protocol in visual analysis, respectively (p = 0.031). The pathology of the irradiated myocardium showed obvious perivascular fibrosis and changes in mitochondrial vacuoles. High FDG uptake in an irradiated field may be related with radiation-induced myocardial damage resulting from microvascular damage and mitochondrial injury. An F-HFD preparation protocol used before obtaining PET/CT can improve the sensitivity of the detection of cardiotoxicity associated with radiotherapy.

  19. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W. D.

    1994-04-01

    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  20. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos humanos de Península Mitre y del Canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozameh, Livia Febes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis comparativo de los valores isotópicos del carbono (δ13C medidos sobre gelatina ósea extraída de restos humanos procedentes de Península Mitre y del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego. Paralelamente, se discute esta información con aquella recabada a partir de otros estudios referidos a rastros fisiológicos y patológicos del esqueleto y del aparato masticatorio efectuados en ambas regiones. Los resultados señalan que, si bien en los análisis de rastros se encuentran ciertas diferencias, los valores isotópicos obtenidos dan cuenta de dietas análogas basadas predominantemente en la explotación de recursos marinos.

  1. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences. PMID:21704346

  2. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Jun, E-mail: anzai_jun@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro, E-mail: kitamura@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nozaki, Takenori, E-mail: tnozaki@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Toshie, E-mail: nagayasu_toshie@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Terashima, Akio, E-mail: terashima_akio@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Asano, Taiji, E-mail: asano_taiji@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Murakami, Shinya, E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  3. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Concomitant use of FGF-2 and β-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. → FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via β-TCP at the defects. → In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. → Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. → This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and β-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus β-TCP or β-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with β-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and β-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal regeneration following severe destruction by progressive

  4. Age difference in deposition of plutonium in organs of rats and the estimation of distribution in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in plutonium distribution in various organs, particularly the bones, of rats injected at different ages were examined in order to aid in estimating plutonium distribution in humans. Comparisons were made between rats and humans based on the bone histomorphometric and mineral density data. Male and female rats of three ages (3, 12, and 24 months old), respectively, received an injection of plutonium nitrate by two dose modalities; a fixed amount of plutonium without regard to age, sex, or body weight; per g of body weight. The rats were killed 2 weeks after the injection of plutonium. The amounts of plutonium deposited in the organs varied without regard to the body or organ weight; those in the skeleton increased from 3 to 12 months, reaching a peak at 12 months, but then decreased, along with the age-related changes in the bone surface, volume, and mineral density. Those in the liver, spleen and kidney decreased despite the body weight gain with age in both sexes. Age-related differences in the deposition of plutonium in humans were estimated based on the bone data characteristics obtained from the histomorphometry and bone mineral density for corresponding of ages between rats and humans. The results indicate that age is the most important factor in estimating the distribution of plutonium deposition in the early period after plutonium exposure, and that body or organ weight is not always a useful indicator, particularly in the aged. (author)

  5. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  6. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M

    2015-03-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone's microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to the new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal age- and tissue age-dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further support the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  7. Experimental Study on Anaphylactoid Reactions Induced by Shengmai Injection (New Production Process) on Beagle Dogs%生脉注射液(新工艺)致Beagle犬类过敏反应实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何萍; 李峰杰; 唐仁茂; 李贻奎; 郝伟; 丛旭东; 余学钊; 曹苏闽

    2012-01-01

    目的:对新、旧两种工艺生产的生脉注射液致Beagle犬类过敏反应的致敏性进行比较研究.方法:选用类过敏反应的敏感动物Beagle犬,随机分为3组,每组3只,分别注射5%葡萄糖注射液、旧工艺生脉注射液、新工艺生脉注射液.观察给药前至给药后24 h各犬的变化,根据反应症状轻重判定级别.给药前及停药后10 min取血,ELISA方法检测血清组胺含量,并结合反应症状级别,综合判定药物的致敏性.结果:旧工艺生脉注射液导致Beagle犬出现典型的类过敏反应症状,且血清组胺升高1倍以上,综合判定旧工艺生脉注射液致Beagle犬类过敏反应为阳性;新工艺生脉注射液可诱发Beagle犬出现不典型的类过敏反应症状,血清组胺升高1倍以上,综合判定新工艺生脉注射液诱发Beagle犬类过敏反应为可疑.结论:旧工艺生产的生脉注射液可诱发Beagle犬出现典型的类过敏反应,其致敏性强.与旧工艺生脉注射液相比,改进工艺后的生脉注射液引发Beagle犬类过敏反应症状出现时间晚,程度轻,对Beagle犬的致敏性降低.%Objective; To compare the sensitization effect of old Shengmai injection and new Shengmai injection on Beagle dogs. Method: Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups, 3 dogs in each group. Each group was injected with 5% glucose injection, old Shengmai injection and new Shengmai injection. The changes of each dog were observed from injection before and after injection until 24 hours, and the response level were determined according to the severity of the symptoms. Blood samples were collected before injection and at 10 min after injection for measuring histamine content in plasma by ELISA. Sensitization of the injection was comprehensively determined by combined the response level of symptoms and the histamine level. Result; The old Shengmai injection led to beagle dogs showing typical symptoms of anaphylaetoid reactions and elevating serum

  8. Initial research of screening for the differentially expressed proteins in beagles irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-rays by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the mechanisms of cytokines on acute radiation disease in irradiation beagles. Methods: The sera of beagles irradiated with 4.5 Gy γ-rays with cytokines treatment was collected at different time points post irradiation. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was differentially expressed proteins with significance, and the amino acid sequences should be determined. Results: High resolution 2-DE gel map was obtained. There were six differentially expressed proteins in sera of irradiated beagles at different time points. Four protein spots were successfully identified by MS. A significant spot was identified as serum amyloid A (SAA) by HD-MS, with relative molecular mass of 13 077 and isoelectric point of 6.26. Expression of SAA was not found 1 d pre-irradiation and 36 d post-irradiation, but increased slightly 1 d (0.2166) and significantly 14 d post-irradiation (0.4577). Conclusions: The expression of serum amyloid A was consistent with the process of acute radiation injury, which might indicate the turnover of the disease. (authors)

  9. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  10. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeong Soo Kim,1 Kwang Ho Cha,1 Seung Yeob Kang,1 Donghan Won,1 Sun Woo Jang,1 Miwon Son,1 Moon Ho Son,1 Ho Jung Choi,2 Young Won Lee,2 Myung Joo Kang3 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 3College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Chungnam, South Korea Objective: DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR tablets of DA-9601.Method: In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day or GR (twice daily tablets for 15 days.Results: Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3 was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy.Conclusion: Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence

  11. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  12. Aging mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Kuro-o, Makoto; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Aging (senescence) has long been a difficult issue to be experimentally analyzed because of stochastic processes, which contrast with the programmed events during early development. However, we have recently started to learn the molecular mechanisms that control aging. Studies of the mutant mouse, klotho, showing premature aging, raise a possibility that mammals have an “anti-aging hormone.” A decrease of cell proliferation ability caused by the telomeres is also t...

  13. Happy Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秉中

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a normal physiological process in human life.The decline in the ability to repair and regenerate predisposes the aging person to develop disabling problems in the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.Full awareness of aging problems and advocations on the means to prevent their occurrence are mounting.European and US groups rely on scientific,target-oriented means to treat aging manifestations. Oriental medicine aims at prevention,using nutrition and exercise to maintain internal harmony.

  14. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  15. Creative Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  16. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  17. Ageing Polulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    An ageing society is characterised by an increasing median age of the population. The purpose of this chapter is to document the existing knowledge about the association between population ageing and health care expenditure, and to supplement this overview by a summary of our original research. S...

  18. Incidence of bone cancer in beagles after inhalation of 90SrCl2 or 238PuO2: Implications for estimation of risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the life-span studies conducted with beagle dogs, bone cancer has been in two studies the predominant effect at death. These studies involved dogs that inhaled 90SrCl2, which is very soluble in body fluids; and dogs that inhaled 238PuO2, which is initially insoluble but eventually becomes fragmented and more soluble. Both radionuclides were deposited in the skeleton after dissolution in the lung and absorption into the bloodstream. All dogs in the 90Sr study are dead, and all living dogs in the 238Pu study are at least 7 years postexposure. Results from these two studies were compared to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of chronic beta and alpha radiation delivered from these two radionuclides. These data also were used to estimate the risk of bone cancer in man by using comparisons with data from the 90Sr-, 239Pu-, and 226Ra-injected dogs at the University of Utah and data on humans who ingested 226Ra or were injected with 224Ra. Such comparisons provided a link between studies in laboratory animals and the available human data. In this way risks of bone cancer in humans from inhaled plutonium or strontium were estimated, even though currently no human cases of bone cancer are known to have resulted from the inhalation of either of these radionuclides. 15 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Urodynamic parameters and plasma LH/FSH in spayed Beagle bitches before and 8 weeks after GnRH depot analogue treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Barth, Andrea; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi

    2006-12-01

    The pathophysiology of urinary incontinence due to spaying remains unknown. Incontinent bitches can be treated successfully with depot preparations of GnRH-analogues and there are differences in plasma gonadotropin levels between continent and incontinent spayed bitches. It is therefore assumed that the supraordinated hormones, GnRH, FSH, and/or LH, have an effect on the urodynamic parameters. In this study, the potential influence of these hormones on the lower urinary tract was investigated by measuring urethral pressure profiles and cystometry. Simultaneously, plasma concentrations in 10 spayed Beagle bitches were determined 5 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after treatment with the GnRH analogue leuprolide. Within 1 week of GnRH analogue administration, plasma FSH and LH levels decreased from 72.5 and 7.7 to 7.75 and 0.72ng/mL, respectively. These plasma gonadotropin levels correspond with those of intact bitches during anoestrus. Urethral pressure profiles indicated that the treatment had no significant effect on maximum urethral closure pressure, functional and total length of the urethra, or area of the closure pressure curve. The data obtained by cystometry regarding mean bladder threshold volume showed a significant increase from 109 to 172mL. The improvement in bladder function after the application of GnRH-application is presumably a direct effect of the GnRH as a relationship between the plasma gonadotropin levels and the urodynamic parameters could not demonstrated. PMID:16876857

  20. The effects of hydroxyapatite/calcium phosphate glass scaffold and its surface modification with bovine serum albumin on 1-wall intrabony defects of beagle dogs: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Yoo-Jung; Jung, Ui-Won; Chae, Gyung-Joon; Kim, Chang-Sung; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 l (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Keun [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shchoi726@yuhs.ac

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of biphasic hydroxyapatite/calcium phosphate glass (HA/CPG) scaffold and its surface modification with bovine serum albumin (BSA) on periodontal regeneration. 1-wall intrabony defects were surgically created on five beagle dogs. HA/CPG scaffolds, with a hydroxyapatite (HA)/calcium phosphate glass (CPG) ratio of 95:5 by weight (%) and surface modification done by 2% bovine serum albumin, were used. The control group received surgical flap operation, and the experimental groups were filled with HA/CPG scaffolds and HA/CPG(BSA) scaffolds. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks after surgery. Histological findings revealed better space maintenance in the experimental groups than the control group, and showed new bone formation intermittently in between the residual material particles. The newly formed bone was mostly woven bone and the residual particles were undergoing resorption. Cementum regeneration was observed with limited root resorption in all the groups. Histometric analysis also revealed greater mean values in new bone formation, cementum regeneration and bone area than the control group in both experimental groups. However, similar findings were presented between HA/CPG and HA/CPG(BSA). The result of the present study revealed the newly fabricated HA/CPG scaffold to have a potential use as a bone substitute material.

  1. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. I. The pulmonary lipid composition, physiology, and pathology after inhalation by beagle dogs of 144Ce-labeled fused clay aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three groups of four beagle dogs inhaled a 144Ce-labeled fused clay aerosol; two additional dogs per group, exposed to a stable cerium-labeled fused clay aerosol, were used as controls. At monthly intervals, one diaphragmatic lobe of each of two dogs exposed to 144Ce and one control animal from each group was lavaged with isotonic saline. The recovered lavage solutions were centrifuged to isolate lung cells (mostly macrophages) and surfactant for lipid analyses. The groups were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 6 mo after exposure, when the lungs of the dogs exposed to 144Ce had average cumulative radiation doses of 23, 36, and 59 krad, respectively. Chronic irradiation of the lung resulted in a progressive radiation pneumonitis which was assessed clinically and pathologically at various intervals. At sacrifice, the lungs were analyzed for 144Ce and the right apical and diaphragmatic lobes were minced and lyophilized and the lipids were extracted. Total lipids from all lung samples were determined gravimetrically and individual compounds were identified, isolated, and quantitated. The quantities of lipid in lung tissue, in pulmonary cells, and in surfactant increased as a function of time and radiation dose. Neutral lipids (sterol esters and triglycerides) accounted for most of the increase. (U.S.)

  2. Purification and characterization of the major whey proteins from the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and the beagle (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, S; Brew, K

    1986-05-01

    The major whey proteins of the milks of the dolphin, manatee, and beagle were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography and characterized and identified by molecular weight determination, amino acid analysis, N-terminal sequencing, and activity measurements. The major whey protein components from all three species were found to be monomeric beta-lactoglobulins. These proteins were all active in binding retinol. Dolphin milk contained two beta-lactoglobulins (designated 1 and 2) which showed a slight difference in molecular weight and considerably divergent N-terminal sequences, whereas the other milks only contained a single form of beta-lactoglobulin. alpha-Lactalbumins were purified from dolphin and dog milks and were active in promoting lactose synthesis by bovine galactosyltransferase. The dolphin protein had an N-terminal sequence more similar to ruminant alpha-lactalbumins than to those known from other species. Although alpha-lactalbumin activity has been detected in manatee milk at low levels, the corresponding protein was not isolated. In addition, dog milk was found to contain high levels of lysozyme (greater than 1.0 mg/ml), which were identified by activity and sequencing. The functional and evolutionary implications of these results are discussed. PMID:3707136

  3. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.

  4. Quantitative pathological studies on bone marrow radiation injury treated with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of nuclear organizer region associated protein (Ag-nor) Staining and image analysis, the authors quantitatively studied the effect of rhGM-CSF on bone marrow hemopoiesis of 14 beagle dogse irradiated with 5.5 Gy 60Co γ-rays and treated with low (10 μg/kg·d) and high (20 μg/kg·d) dose of rhGM-CSF for 20 days. The dogs were sacrificed in 30 days after radiation to remove sternum. The results showed that high dose of rhGM-CSF obviously improved the reconstitution of bone marrow hemopoiesis. It may increase hemopoietic cells and monocyte lineages, and promote proliferation of these cells. All of these changes were compared with those of the controls, and the results indicate that the differences were significant (P<0.01 or <0.05). The authors hold that rhGM-CSF can be used to treat bone marrow radiation injury. The probable mechanism of rhGM-CSF therapy is discussed

  5. The effects of hydroxyapatite/calcium phosphate glass scaffold and its surface modification with bovine serum albumin on 1-wall intrabony defects of beagle dogs: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of biphasic hydroxyapatite/calcium phosphate glass (HA/CPG) scaffold and its surface modification with bovine serum albumin (BSA) on periodontal regeneration. 1-wall intrabony defects were surgically created on five beagle dogs. HA/CPG scaffolds, with a hydroxyapatite (HA)/calcium phosphate glass (CPG) ratio of 95:5 by weight (%) and surface modification done by 2% bovine serum albumin, were used. The control group received surgical flap operation, and the experimental groups were filled with HA/CPG scaffolds and HA/CPG(BSA) scaffolds. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks after surgery. Histological findings revealed better space maintenance in the experimental groups than the control group, and showed new bone formation intermittently in between the residual material particles. The newly formed bone was mostly woven bone and the residual particles were undergoing resorption. Cementum regeneration was observed with limited root resorption in all the groups. Histometric analysis also revealed greater mean values in new bone formation, cementum regeneration and bone area than the control group in both experimental groups. However, similar findings were presented between HA/CPG and HA/CPG(BSA). The result of the present study revealed the newly fabricated HA/CPG scaffold to have a potential use as a bone substitute material.

  6. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G M; Tellier, Siri;

    2016-01-01

    curvilinear pattern with the lowest point at middle age but increases thereafter up to very old age. OBJECTIVE: To shed further light on this paradox, we reviewed the existing literature on how scholars define successful ageing and how they weigh the contribution of health and functioning to define success....... METHODS: We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns. The......BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a...

  7. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  8. Ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing management is generally defined in a broad sense covering not only ageing management of hardware (structures, systems and components), but also management issues such as keeping up with developments in state-of-the-art technology and the latest management practices. The importance assigned to traditional ageing management, in terms of issues related to hardware degradation problems, is clearly very high. The other aspects, for example developments in engineering or management, are considered important as well, but are less emphasized. Plant ageing management is composed of the following necessary elements, which are all linked together: understanding and knowledge of ageing-related damage mechanisms, including benchmarking of the consequences of damage mechanisms into macroscopic behaviour of materials and structures under applicable conditions; predictive models to extrapolate behaviour of systems, structures or components up to a defined time; qualified methods for detection and surveillance of ageing degradation; qualified mitigation, repair and replacements measures; reliable plant documentation, including optimisation of the ageing management programme based on current understanding and knowledge and periodic self-assessment; availability of a technical service and knowledge base. The subject of plant ageing management has gained increasing attention over the past years, notably as more nuclear power plants across the world are being considered for lifetime extension. In this context, the NEA has conducted numerous technical studies to assess the impact of ageing mechanisms on safe and reliable plant operation. International research activities have also been initiated or are under way to provide the technical basis for decision making. This article provides an overview of some of the activities and accomplishments of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Working Group on the Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures

  9. Beagle I and II Voyages: Charles Darwin's rocks and the quest for Mars rock; the Open University's virtual microscope has both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Tindle, A. G.; Anand, M.; Gibson, E. K.; Pearson, V. K.; Pemberton, D.; Pillinger, C.; Smith, C. L.; Whalley, P.; Kelley, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration is in itself a fascinating subject, and a strong draw to engaging the public in understanding science. Nearly two hundred years ago Charles Darwin took part in an exploration of the Earth, and more recently we have begun to explore the solar system and in particular the surface of Mars. The engagement is made easier if an element of exploration is involved in the public engagement, using modern internet and even mobile technologies. The Open University combines all those aspects in a series of virtual microscopes for Earth science that are freely available on the web, installed in museums, or built into its teaching material. The basis of the virtual microscope is a mosaic of several hundred microscopic images of each thin section taken in plane polarised light, between crossed polars and in reflected light, which are then assembled into three high resolution images. Rotation movies for selected points in the thin section illustrate changing optical properties such as birefringence. The user is able to pan and zoom around to explore the section, studying the mineralogy and rock texture, and view the rotation movies linked to points in the section to see the changing birefringence colours. We have created several collections of terrestrial rocks, mainly for teaching purposes, and outreach directly linked to exploration: Charles Darwin returned from the Voyage of the Beagle with a large variety of rock samples, and although thin sections were not being made at that time, they were created from his rocks in the late 19th century. The historic material is part of the "Darwin the Geologist" exhibition at the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge. Our Darwin virtual microscope includes hand specimen illustrations and thin sections together with documentation and an interactive map allow internet users and museum visitors alike to have a close look at Darwin's rocks and study the petrology of them. Charles Darwin explored distant horizons on Earth in the 19th century

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Subcutaneous Single Doses of Pegylated Human G-CSF Mutant (PEG30-rhG-CSF) in Beagle Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongming Cai; Zhengmin Chen; Ling Jiang; Ming Li; Changxiao Liu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEG30-rhG-CSF administered to beagle dogs at three different dosages with PEG20-rhG-CSF administered at one dosage,and to provide an experimental basis for clinical trials.METHODS Beagle dogs received single,subcutaneous doses of PEG30-rhG-CSF at 100,200 and 400 μg/kg or PEG20-rhG-CSF at 200 μg/kg.PEG30-rhG-CSF and PEG20-rhG-CSF concentrations in serum were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).WBC,ANC and PLT counts of whole blood samples were measured using fully automated analytic instrumentation.Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were calculated using DAS 2.0 statistical analysis software.RESULTS The pharmacokinetic parameters of PEG30-rhG-CSF calculated from the serum concentration data determined by ELISA were as follows:the mean elimination half-life (t1/2ke) was 40.6 h (33.5~45.4 h);the mean time to reach peak concentration (Tmax) was 19.2 h (11.7~24.0 h);the drug clearance from the serum (CL) was decreased with increasing doses:the peak concentration (Cmax) and the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) were increased with increasing doses.For PEG20-rhG-CSF,the half-life was shorter (12 h) and Tmax was achieved much earlier (10 h) relative to PEG30-rhG-CSF.The AUC of PEG30-rhG-CSF was much greater than that of PEG20-rhG-CSF,and the relative bioavailability with a subcutaneous injection was 158.7%.Administration of single doses of PEG30-rhG-CSF resulted in substantial increases in the absolute neutrophil count (ANC).The time to reach ANCmax (ANCTmax) was 72 h.The maximum observed absolute neutrophil counts (ANCmax) and the area over the baseline effect curve (AOBEC) was increased with increasing doses.The effect-elimination half-life (t1/2E) ranged from 60 h to 80 h after subcutaneous administration.The PLT count was slightly elevated 8-12 h after s.c.injection,and declined after 24 h.CONCLUSION The mean elimination half-life of PEG30-rh

  11. Pharmacokinetics of cefalexin sustained-release tablet in beagle dogs%头孢氨苄缓释片犬体内药动学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭磊; 张茜; 李荣; 臧洪梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective The pharmacokinetic of cefalexin sustained-release tablet in beagle dogs were performed with cefalexin capsule as the control. Methods Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by HPLC method after a single oral dose of the referenced formulation and the tested formulation. Results The linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5~50μg/mL for cefalexin. The relative recovery of cefalexin at high, medium and low concentrations were ≥80%. Both inter-and intra-day RSD were ≤5% for cefalexin. The limit of detection for cefalexin was 0.5μg/mL. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cefalexin capsules referenced formulation and the tested formulation were shown as follows: Cmax were (35.02±8.67) and (22.8±74.11)μg/mL, AUC0-∞ (164.59±17.79) and (201.15±89.87) μg/(h·mL), Tmax were (2.1±1.0) and (4.2±0.4)h. The relative bioavailability of tested formulation was (104.4±21.4)%. Conclusion The tested formulation is bioequivalent with the referenced formulation.%目的 以上市头孢氨苄普通胶囊为参比制剂,考察24h给药一次的头孢氨苄缓释片beagle犬体内药动学.方法 Beagle 犬单剂量口服受试制剂和参比制剂,采用HPLC法进行生物等效性评价.结果 方法学研究结果显示线性范围0.5~50μg/mL,高中低相对回收率均大于80%,日内日间精密度均小于15%,最低定量限0.5μ.g/mL.参比制剂与受试制剂药动学参数分别为:Cmax为(35.02±8.67)和(22.8±74.11)μg/mL,AUC0-∞为(164.59±17.79)和(201.15±89.87)μg/(h·mL),Tmax为(2.1±1.0)和(4.2±0.4)h.受试制剂相对生物利用度为(104.4±21.4)%.结论 两种制剂生物等效.

  12. Enhancing in vivo Bioavailability in Beagle Dogs of GLM-7 as a Novel Anti-Leukemia Drug through a Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yu, Ning; Guo, Rui; Yang, Meiyan; Shan, Li; Huang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Shao, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoping; Gao, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    GLM-7 is a novel anti-leukemia drug in the pre-clinical study. The previous study shows that GLM-7 is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. In this study, we employed the self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of GLM-7. The GLM-7 SEDDS formulation was prepared using MCT as oil, ovolecithin as surfactant and Transcutol as co-surfactant, and the formulation parameters were optimized by the response surface methodology. The optimized GLM-7 SEDDS formulation showed a stable liquid state, and can automatically emulsify to form the isotropic emulsion once exposure to the water phase. The generated emulsion showed the spherical shape, and had an average size of about 399 nm and a zeta potential of about -42 mV. Compared to the GLM-7 dissolution less than 1.4% from pure GLM-7 powder (reference), the GLM-7 SEDDS formulation could remarkably enhance the in vitro dissolution to 83% in the medium of 0.1N HCL. The in vivo oral bioavailability of GLM-7 SEDDS formulation was investigated in beagle dogs. The results demonstrated that the GLM-7 SEDDS formulation significantly enhanced the plasma concentrations of GLM-7, and the Cmax reached to 878 ng/ml and was 9.2 folds as high as the Cmax 95.85 ng/ml of reference. Moreover, the area under the curve (AUC) of GLM-7 SEDDS formulation was 13.6 times higher than that of reference, which suggested that the SEDDS formulation remarkably increased the oral bioavailability of GLM-7. PMID:26166152

  13. Blocking the Function of Inflammatory Cytokines and Mediators by Using IL-10 and TGF-β: A Potential Biological Immunotherapy for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in a Beagle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The debilitating effects of lower back pain are a major health issue worldwide. A variety of factors contribute to this, and oftentimes intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD is an underlying cause of this disorder. Inflammation contributes to IDD, and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β, play key roles in the pathology of IDD. Therefore, the development of treatments that inhibit the expression and/or effects of TNF-α and IL-1β in IDD patients should be a promising therapeutic approach to consider. This study characterized the potential to suppress inflammatory cytokine production in degenerative intervertebral disc (NP cells by treatment with IL-10 and TGF-β in a canine model of IDD. IDD was induced surgically in six male beagles, and degenerative NP cells were isolated and cultured for in vitro studies on cytokine production. Cultured degenerative NP cells were divided into four experimental treatment groups: untreated control, IL-10-treated, TGF-β-treated, and IL-10- plus TGF-β-treated cells. Cultured normal NP cells served as a control group. TNF-α expression was evaluated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; moreover, ELISA and real-time PCR were also performed to evaluate the effect of IL-10 and TGF-β on NP cell cytokine expression in vitro. Our results demonstrated that IL-10 and TGF-β treatment suppressed the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α and inhibited the development of inflammatory responses. These data suggest that IL-10 and TGF-β should be evaluated as therapeutic approaches for the treatment of lower back pain mediated by IDD.

  14. Assessment of anti-depressant effect of nelumbinis semen on rats under chronic mild stress and its subchronic oral toxicity in rats and beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hwan-Suck

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we examined the antidepressant effects of Nelumbinis Semen (NS. In this study, we assessed the anti-depressant effects of NS in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress (CMS models of depression and its oral toxicity in rats and dogs. Methods In the forced swimming test, NS was intraperitoneally injected before 24 h, 5 h and 1 h of forced swimming test. And the rats were forced to swim for 5 min, the duration of immobility was observed. In CMS models, animals were exposed to a variety of CMS for 8 weeks in order to induce depression-like symptoms. They were treated with NS for the last four weeks of the 8-week CMS and then an open field test was conducted. The anti-depression effects were evaluated based on a measured index, which consisted of visiting counts, start latency, rearing number and grooming time. In the toxicological studies, NS was administered to rats by gavages for 13 weeks at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day. To assess the toxicity of NS in beagle dogs, NS was administered orally for 28 days at doses of 0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg/day. Results 400 mg/kg of NS had the lowest immobility times in forced swimming test. And NS significantly reversed the decreased visiting counts, rearing number and grooming time caused by CMS. In addition, NS treatment significantly decreased the start latency. No treatment-related toxicity was detected during 13 weeks administration in rats and 28 days administration in dogs. Conclusions Based on the results of this study and previous reports that have examined the anti-depressive effects of NS, NS holds great promise for use in the treatment of depression without causing any adverse effects or toxicities.

  15. Screw vs cement-implant-retained restorations: an experimental study in the beagle. Part 2. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the peri-implant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, Bartolomeo; Artese, Luciano; Scarano, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado; Perrotti, Vittoria; Piattelli, Maurizio; Thams, Ulf; San Roman, Fidel; Piccirilli, Marcello; Piattelli, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    Crestal bone loss has been reported to occur around dental implants. Even if the causes of this bone loss are not completely understood, the presence of a microgap between implant and abutment with a possible contamination of the internal portion of the implants has been suggested. The aim of this study was to see if there were differences in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, microvessel density (MVD), proliferative activity (MIB-1), and inflammatory infiltrate in the soft tissues around implants with screwed and cemented abutments. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were inserted in the mandibles of 6 Beagle dogs. Ten 3.5- x 10-mm root-form implants were inserted in each mandible. A total of 60 implants (30 with screwed abutments and 30 with cemented abutments) were used. After 12 months, all the bridges were removed and all abutments were checked for mobility. A total of 8 loosened screws (27%) were found in the screwed abutments, whereas no loosening was observed in cemented abutments. A gingival biopsy was performed in 8 implants with cemented abutments, in 8 implants with screwed abutments, and in 8 implants with unscrewed abutments. No statistically significant differences were found in the inflammatory infiltrate and in the MIB-1 among the different groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the MVD between screwed and cemented abutments (P = .2111), whereas there was a statistically significant difference in MVD between screwed and unscrewed abutments (P = .0277) and between cemented and unscrewed abutments (P = .0431). A low intensity of VEGF was prevalent in screwed and in cemented abutments, whereas a high intensity of VEGF was prevalent in unscrewed abutments. These facts could be explained by the effects induced, in the abutments that underwent a screw loosening, by the presence of bacteria inside the hollow portion of the implants or by enhanced reparative processes. PMID:16526575

  16. Impact of Tetrahydropalmatine on the Pharmacokinetics of Probe Drugs for CYP1A2, 2D6 and 3A Isoenzymes in Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Liang, Aihua; Zhang, Yushi; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2016-06-01

    Tetrahydropalmatine (Tet) exhibit multiple pharmacological activities and is used frequently by clinical practitioners. In this study, we evaluate the in vivo effects of single and repeated oral Tet administrations on CYP1A2, 2D6 and 3A activities in six beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, open-label, crossover study. A cocktail approach, with dosages of the probe drugs caffeine (3.0 mg/kg), metoprolol (2.33 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.45 mg/kg), was used to measure cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic activities. The cocktail was administered orally as a single dose (12 mg/kg) 1 day prior to and 4 days after repeated oral Tet administrations (12 mg/kg three times daily). The probe drugs and their metabolites in plasma were quantified simultaneously by a validated HPLC technique, and non-compartmental parameters were used to evaluate metabolic variables for assessment of CYP inhibition or induction. Tet had no or minor impact on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine and metoprolol, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrates, respectively. However, Tet increased AUC0-24 h and decreased AUCratio(0-24 h) (1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam ratio) for midazolam statistically significant, both in single or multiple dosing of Tet, with up to 39 or 57% increase for AUC0-24 h and 29% or 22 decrease for AUCratio(0-24 h), respectively, in line with previous in vitro findings for its CYP3A4 inhibition. The extensive use of Tet and herbal medicines containing Tet makes Tet a candidate for further evaluation of CYP3A-mediated herb-drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990021

  17. Acute toxicological study of Shenzhi Jiannao Capsule on Beagle Dogs%参知健脑胶囊对Beagle犬的急性毒理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大勇; 韩振蕴; 范吉平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the acute toxicity reaction of Beagle dogs after poured Shenzhi Jiannao Capsule into their stomachs to provide reference for toxicity study of dosing repeatedly before clinical research and safe use of drugs in clinical research. Methods: Six Beagle dogs were randomly divided into three groups, including QDTMTL, QDTMTM and QDTMTH with one male and one female in every group. The drug administration was oral gavage. The dosages of original design were designed as 1 000, 2 000 and 5 000 mg/kg, but due to vomitting of QDTMTM and QDTMTH after oral gavage, the actual dosage of QDTMTM was both approximately 2 OOOmg/kg, and the actual dosage of QDTMTH were approximately 2 209 and 3 092 mg/kg. There was a 14-day clinical observation after dose, and among that period, the animals' weight, temperature, ECG, blood cell count, blood coagulation, blood biochemistry, eye examination were observed. Afer clinical observation, all the dogs were euthanized, and observed for the gross anatomy. Results: In the period of test, there wasn't animal death or articulo mortis; there wasn't abnormal clinical reaction found in QDTMTL, but transient vomiting and loose stools after oral gavage were observed in QDTMTM and QDTMTH. However, there wasn't abnormal clinical reaction from morrow to end of the experiment. There wasn't any regularly change of drug-related in the results of all the animals 'weight, temperature, ECG, blood cell count, blood coagulation, blood biochemistry, eye examination. There was no change abnormal in the gross anatomy of animals'tissue and viscera. Conclusion: In this experiment condition, the safe dose of single gavage of Shenzhi Jiannao Capsule for Beagle dogs is 1 000 mg/kg, and MTD is greater than 3 000 mg/kg.%目的:观察Beagle犬灌胃给予参知健脑胶囊后,所出现的急性毒性反应情况,为临床前反复给药的毒性研究和临床安全用药提供参考.方法:试验用Beagle犬6只,随机分为3组,分别

  18. The fossil mammals collected byCharles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle Los mamíferos fósiles colectados por Charles Darwin en América del Surdurante su viaje a bordo del HMS Beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernicola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringthe first two years of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected aconsiderable number of fossil mammals from various localities in Argentina andUruguay. Among these remains are those of large mammals that Darwin informallyassigned to Megatherium and Mastodon, the only large taxa thenknown for South America, and of small and mediumsized mammals that Darwinrecognized as representing at least two rodents and a horse. The study ofDarwin's collection was entrusted to Richard Owen, who described eleven taxabetween 1837 and 1845, including the six following ones: Toxodon platensis,Macrauchenia patachonica, Equus curvidens, Scelidotherium leptocephalum,Mylodon darwini and Glossotherium sp. This contribution provides asynthesis of Darwin's preliminary assignments and evaluates the reasons thatled him to recognize only megatheres and mastodonts for the large fossilremains. Also, it discusses the current taxonomic status of the taxa describedor erected by Owen between 1837 and 1845 and the influence that Owen'staxonomic and phylogenetic conclusions had on the development of Darwin's ideason evolution.Durantelos dos primeros años de su viaje a bordo del HMS Beagle, Charles Darwincolectó en distintas localidades de Argentina y Uruguay un considerable númerode mamíferos fósiles. Entre estos se cuentan los grandes mamíferos queinformalmente Darwin asignó a Megatherium y Mastodon, únicosgrandes taxones conocidos hasta ese momento para América del sur y entre lospequeños y medianos mamíferos reconoció la presencia de al menos dos tipos deroedores y un caballo. El estudio posterior de todos los ejemplares colectadospor Darwin fue llevado a cabo Richard Owen, quien entre 1837 y 1845 describióonce taxones, entre los cuales, seis eran nuevos taxones: Toxodon platensis,Macrauchenia patachonica, Equus curvidens, Scelidotherium leptocephalum,Mylodon darwini y Glossotherium sp. En esta contribución se brindauna síntesis de las

  19. Asentamiento de estadios tempranos de las centollas Lithodes santolla y Paralomis granulosa (Decapoda: Lithodidae en colectores artificiales pasivos en el Canal Beagle, Argentina Recruitment of young-of-the-year lithodids Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa in artificial passive collectors in the Beagle Channel, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tapella

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En el sector argentino del Canal Beagle, la pesquería de Lithodes santolla se encuentra colapsada y cerrada desde 1994, mientras que la del centollón Paralomis granulosa está estable, aunque por el crecimiento lento de la población no podría soportar alta presión de pesca. En este estudio se determinó la profundidad de reclutamiento de los estadios bentónicos tempranos y se evaluó la efectividad de colectores artificiales pasivos como oferta de refugio. En 2002 se fondearon colectores "SAC" en tres estratos de profundidad: 10(-20, 20-40 y 40-90 m. En 2003, se colocaron colectores "Cajón" en dos estratos de profundidad: 10(-20 y 20-40 m. En marzo de cada temporada se retiraron los colectores y se registró el número y tamaño de L. santolla y P. granulosa, y se determinó el taxón más abundante en cada colector. Los individuos del primer año de vida, i.e. The L. santolla fishery in the Argentinean sector of the Beagle Channel collapsed and has been closed since 1994. Landings of P. granulosa in this sector are stable, but will not allow it to withstand heavy fishing pressure. In this study, we determined the recruitment depth of the early benthic stages of both lithodid species, and evaluated the effectiveness of passive artificial collectors as potential sources of refuge. In 2002, "SAC" collectors were deployed in three depth strata: 10(-20, 20-40, and 40-90 m. In 2003, "Cajón" collectors were deployed in two depth strata: 10(-20 and 20-40 m. The collectors were retrieved, respectively, in March 2003 and 2004, and the number and size of L. santolla and P. granulosa were recorded, along with the most abundant taxon in each collector. For both species, young-of-the-year individuals (i.e., < 5 mm carapace length were found recruited in the collectors. Recruitment of the first benthic stages of L. santolla and P. granulosa occurs only to 40 m depth. L. santolla appears to select environments dominated by polychaetes and, to a lesser

  20. Healthy Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, Cees van der

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin

  1. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  2. Martian ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects of this paper are a discussion of the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, a comparison of currently proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, a report on our work of dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of our crater frequency data and those published by other authors. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data: model 1, with nearly equal Martian and lunar cratering rates around (ca.) 4- to 10-km crater sizes, and model II. equivalent to model I for ages >3.5 x 109 years but with a factor of 2 higher Martian cratering rate at ages 9 years. Those model cratering chronologies are applied to the data. The interpretation of all crater frequency data available and tractable by our methodology leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized essentially by two epochs of activity. The division between the two epochs is measured at a cumulative crater frequency value for 1-km craters (crater retention age) of N(1) = 8 x 10-4 (km-2) corresponding to an absolute age of ca. 3 x 109 years (applying model I cratering chronology) and of ca. 1.5 x 109 years (applying model II cratering chronology). In the ancient epoch all major events like emplacement of the plains lavas, the piling up of most volcanic constructs, and large-scale erosion of channels and mensae (highland/northern lowland boundary) have taken place. During the younger epoch, only the big Tharsis shield volcanoes were active, and some minor erosion took place. This means that Mars is not a youthful planet but an ancient one with respect to most of its surface features

  3. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of SKLB010, an investigational anti-inflammatory compound, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xia; Tang, Minghai; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xianhuo; Ma, Liang; Zheng, Hao; Hu, Jia; Chen, Xiang; Duan, Xingmei; Chen, Lijuan

    2011-09-10

    SKLB010 is currently under development as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute hepatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the pre-clinical pharmacokinetics of SKLB010 in beagle dogs. An ultra performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of SKLB010 in dog plasma, using rosiglitazone as the internal standard (I.S.). Plasma samples were prepared by a simple solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The analyte and internal standard were separated by an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm) column with a mobile phase of methanol-water (80/20, v/v) over 2 min. Detection was based on the multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 234.10→147.92 (SKLB010) and m/z 356.15→150.00 (I.S.). The method was validated according to FDA guidelines on bio-analytical method validation. The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described above was successfully applied to reveal the single- and multi-pharmacokinetic profiles of SKLB010 in beagle dogs and should be extendable to pharmacokinetic studies in other species as well. PMID:21680128

  4. Premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  5. Clinical Investigation of Beagle's Ehrlichiosis Experimentally Produced with E.platys and E.canis%比格犬人工感染埃立克体病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉海; 潘华; 佟世德; 孙洋; 胡永辉; 宋阳

    2001-01-01

    为了表述比格犬感染埃立克体(Ehrlichia)后的临床表现,用已确证为E.platys和E.canis混合感染的犬血对5条比格犬进行了人工感染,并对临床和血液学变化进行了观察。埃立克体病的潜伏期为6~29天,其后的临床表现为急性发热、眼结膜苍白、厌食、精神沉郁、体重严重减轻、腹泻带血、多处有淤血斑点出现、6~45天内全部死亡。血液学变化显示血红蛋白和白细胞明显减少(P<0.001,P<0.05)。由此可见,比格犬对2种埃立克体(E.canis和E.platys)混合感染的敏感性很高,严重的临床表现与美国学者普遍认为的亚临床状态相左,这可能是中国Gzh981株(E.platys)和Gzh982株(E.canis)与国外株在毒力上的差异所致。%To elucidate the clinical aspect of Beagle's,five Beagles were inoculated with blood samples that had been proved to be positive for E.plays and E.canis.The inoculated Beagles had a latency of about 5 to 29 days,and the followed clinical appearances were characterized by acute fever,anorexia,pale mucous membranes,depression,weakness,serious weight loss,and diarrhea with blood stools.Ecchymoses and petechiae of blood commonly occurred at mulitiple sites.The death occurred as early as the sixth day and all died within 45 days,WBC counts and hemoglobin values significantly decreased(p<0.001,p<0.05).It can be seen from the results that Beagles are more susceptible to the coinfection of E.platys and E.canis,and display the acute febrile clinical presentations which are different from what American researchers considered that the Beagle's ehrlichiosis was of subclinical.The acute forms of infections in this study might also attributed to the virulence differences between Chinese strain Gzh981(E.platy),Gzh982, and foreign strains.

  6. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    prevention strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful......Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...

  7. Aging Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando;

    2014-01-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high...... statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets...

  8. Age management

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvilová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor‘s thesis focuses on Age Management and its areas of influence. This term is most often discussed in connection with a problem which is currently common for all European Union countries – the ageing of society. In the near future, the structure of society is very likely to be altered drastically as a consequence of this phenomenon and due to the severity of the effects, it is necessary to begin addressing this problem. The first part of the thesis concerns itself with processing d...

  9. Determination of the Tissue Distribution and Excretion by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of the Nonadecapeptide 14C-Moli1901 in Beagle dogs after Intratracheal Instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, D E; Dingley, K H; Ubick, E; Dix, K J; Molina, L

    2004-07-02

    Administration of {sup 14}C-Moli1901 (duramycin, 2622U90), a 19 amino acid polycyclic peptide by intratracheal instillation (approximately 100 {micro}g) into the left cranial lobe of the lung of beagle dogs resulted in retention of 64% of the dose in the left cranial lobe for up to 28 days. In this study, we used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify Moli901 following administration of only 0.045 {micro}Ci of {sup 14}C-Moli901 per dog. Limits of quantitation of AMS were 0.03 (urine) to 0.3 (feces) ng equiv. Moli1901/g. Whole blood and plasma concentrations of {sup 14}C were <5ng/ml at all times after the dose. Concentrations of {sup 14}C in whole blood and plasma declined over the first day after the dose and rose thereafter, with the rise in plasma concentrations lagging behind those in whole blood. During the first 3 days after the dose, plasma accounted for the majority of {sup 14}C in whole blood, but after that time, plasma accounted for only 25-30% of the {sup 14}C in whole blood. Tissue (left and right caudal lung lobe, liver, kidney, spleen, brain) and bile concentrations were low, always less than 0.25% the concentrations found in the left cranial lung lobe. Approximately 13% of the dose was eliminated in urine and feces in 28 days, with fecal elimination accounting for about 10% of the dose. The data presented here are consistent with that obtained in other species. Moli1901 is slowly absorbed and excreted from the lung, and it does not accumulate in other tissues. Moli1901 is currently in the clinic and has proven to be safe in single dose studies in human volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients by the inhalation route. No information on the disposition of the compound in humans is available. This study in dogs demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining that information using {sup 14}C-Moli1901 and AMS.

  10. Complete Biological Evaluation of Therapeutical Radiopharmaceuticals in Rodents, Laboratory Beagles and Veterinary Patients - Preclinical Distribution-, Kinetic-, Excretion-, Internal Dosimetry-, Radiotoxicological-, Radiation Safety- and Efficacy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development of various novel therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals is a huge demand in many laboratories world-wide. Beside of multiple bone metastases pain-palliation and radiosynovectomy agents a number of specific radiopharmaceutical applicants mainly for oncological applications are in the pipeline. Numerous in vitro methods are available in the first line to test the radiolabelling efficiency, the possible radioactive and non-labelled impurities, the stability of the label at different conditions and mediums, and some specific characteristics of radiopharmaceutical applicants eg.: receptor binding assays, antigen-antibody assays. But, still before human clinical trials there are several questions to be solved in regards of toxicology, radiotoxicology, radiation safety and maybe most importantly the efficacy tasks. All these issues cannot be answered without animal tests. Several decades back animal tests in radiopharmacy meant only standard bioassays in a large number of healthy rodents. Later on pathological models eg.: human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient animals came-out and through them radiopharmaceutical tumor-uptake by the targets were available to evaluate in vivo as well. Xenografts are still popular and widely used models in the field but instead of wide-scaled bioassays nowadays repeated scintiscans or hybrid images (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) are more and more often used to answer kinetic-, excretion-, tumor uptake, internal dosimetry (Minimum Effective Dose, Maximum Tolerable Dose, critical organ doses, tumor doses) questions. Greater animals like laboratory Beagles are more closely in size, clinical and metabolic parameters to the human objects so playing a more perfect role of human medical doctor and especially veterinary patients. Easy to understand that many of the spontaneously occurring companion animal diseases are a good model of human pathological diseases. The need of a better diagnosis and treatment of that animals meets with

  11. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90Sr (P = 0.041)

  12. Evaluation of renal function in rhesus monkeys and comparison to beagle dogs following oral administration of the organic acid triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchalk, C; Finco, D R; Quast, J F

    1997-03-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of triclopyr (3,5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) on renal function following oral administration in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey. Male rhesus monkeys were orally administered triclopyr by gavage at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day, 7 days/week for 28 days, after which the dosage was increased to 20 mg/kg/day for 102 consecutive days. Groups of male dogs were administered either a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg triclopyr or were fed a diet spiked with triclopyr at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for 47 consecutive days. The following functional and clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated: exogenous phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) excretion, inulin and para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance (monkeys only), endogenous serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at multiple time points during the study. Creatinine, BUN, and inulin clearance were within the normal range from both species following triclopyr administration which indicates that repeated administration of triclopyr in the dog and monkey had no effect on glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In monkeys, the percentage excretion of PSP and PAH appeared to increase following triclopyr administration (20 mg/kg/day), suggesting that these weak organic acids may be competing for the same plasma protein-binding site enhancing their clearance. More importantly, these data strongly suggest that triclopyr is not competing with PSP or PAH for the active secretory site within the monkey kidney proximal tubules. In contrast, PSP clearance studies in dogs clearly demonstrated that triclopyr administration (5 mg/kg) can significantly decrease the percentage PSP excretion even following a single dose administration. The decrease in percentage PSP was reversible and inversely related to the plasma triclopyr concentration. Overall, these data clearly indicate that triclopyr effectively competes with PSP for the active secretory site within the dog kidney proximal tubules. In contrast, the monkey

  13. An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological

  14. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  15. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for treating age spots include: Improved appearance. Enhanced self-esteem. Promotion of better skin health. What you need ... 480px View Render 320px View Connect with ASDS: Facebook LinkedIn YouTube Twitter Quick Links About ASDS Advocacy ...

  16. Histomorfometria e índice proliferativo (Ki-67 no carcinoma escamocelular in situ de pregas vocais Histomorphometry and proliferative index in squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vocal cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2012-12-01

    cords by comparing the area of involved epithelium, nuclear diameter, and proliferative index with transition and normal squamous epithelia. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among 1,400 surgical and biopsy specimens of laryngeal lesions (1994-2006, five cases (0.35% were selected and compared according to age with two controls with normal epithelium. Furthermore, all of them were identified and submitted to morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis (Ki-67. RESULTS: After comparing dysplastic with transition and normal squamous epithelia, it was observed an increased nuclear diameter in dysplastic epithelium. Additionally, there was no significant difference in nuclear diameter per layer between dysplastic and transition epithelia. Moreover, the proliferative index was higher in dysplastic epithelium with stained nuclei in all layers and lower in normal and transition epithelia with nuclei concentrated on the basal and parabasal layers. CONCLUSION: Dysplastic epithelium occupies larger areas. Nuclear diameter is similar in dysplastic and transition epithelia. However, the latter has uniform nuclei, in contrast with pleomorphism in dysplastic epithelium. The proliferative index (Ki-67 contributes to the differential diagnosis of intraepithelial lesions of the vocal cords, inasmuch as in severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma there is a higher number of stained nuclei, which are seen in all epithelial layers.

  17. Experimental Study on Acute Toxicity of Piperphentonamine Hydrochloride in Rats and Beagle Dogs%盐酸椒苯酮胺对大鼠和Beagle犬的急性毒性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 李茹冰; 张强; 陈新; 尹雁; 朱晋辉; 樊鸿浩; 邓乐君; 付岩霖

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate acute toxicity of piperphentonamine hydrochloride (PPTA) in rats and Beagle dogs, and to calculate maximum dosage and evaluate its safety. METHODS:SD rats were given relevant medicine via ig or iv,at a sin-gle dose of 50 mg/kg,every 4-6 h,for consecutive 3 times,150 mg/kg in total;after 14 d treatment,the toxicity reaction and body weight of rats were observed in PPTA group (n=40) and solvent control group (n=20). Beagle dogs were given PPTA ivgtt,at maximal single dose of 200 mg/kg;after 14 d of treatment,Beagle dogs of PPTA group(n=4)and solvent control group (n=3) were observed in respects of general physiological index,body weight,body temperature,ECG index,blood pressure, plasma electrolyte,urine,ophthalmology and pathological index,etc. RESULTS:There was no obvious abnormality in rats after ig administration of PPTA. One-off action instability occurred after iv within minutes;no abnormality was found for 14 days;the increase of body weight of rats in treatment groups was normal. Transient conjunctival congestion,nausea and vomiting,saliva-tion,mild edema eyelids and rear limb weakness were observed in Beagle dogs during dosing;only one Beagle dog suffered from hematuria caused by hemorrhage of bladder. 14 d after medication,there was no statistical significance in body weight and tempera-ture of Beagle dogs between treatment groups and solvent control group(P>0.05). No abnormal changes due to drug toxicity reac-tion were observed. CONCLUSIONS:LD50 values of PPTA in rats via ig and iv are over 150 mg/kg. Beagle dogs did not died at the single dose of 200 mg/kg PPTA,ivgtt. The abnormal signs of animals may be the side effects of PPTA. The main toxic reaction of PPTA may be hemorrhage of bladder and other.%目的:观察盐酸椒苯酮胺(PPTA)对大鼠和Beagle犬的急性毒性反应,计算最大给药量并评价其安全性.方法:对SD大鼠分别ig和iv给药,单次剂量为50 mg/kg,间隔4~6 h,连续3次,总剂量为150 mg

  18. Healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie;

    2009-01-01

    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  19. Aging Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Cosco, Theodore D; David Brehme; Nora Grigoruta; Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann; Liis Lemsalu; Ruth Meex; Angela Schuurmans; Neslihan Sener

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven lan...

  20. Golden Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      Sometimes, a moment can announce the end of an age. The gold market is like that. Within two transaction days, the gold slumped by 13%and saw a 25%tumble from the high point in August 2011. According to the classic investment theory, a 20%-above decline means the shift from“a bull”to“a bear”market.   The super bear market of gold has lasted a dozen years. But the bull-to-bear shift was completed within only 20 minutes. Wall Street’s analysts and ordinary Chinese people had different understandings to the golden age.   Expecting a bear market, Wall Street continuously dumped gold, resulting in a diving of gold price. Seeing the benefits, leisure Chinese madams made a gold rush, causing a slight bounce of gold price. On April 23, renowned investment bank Goldman Sachs suspended the short sale. So,“Chinese aunts”beating back Wall Street’s analysts became the hottest topic online for the time being.   What are the decisive factors for the crash of gold price? Will the gold market complete a real bull-to-bear shift? Will the golden age of gold be farther or nearer?

  1. Aging Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore D Cosco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  2. Ice ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth's climate undergoes great changes in cycles of 104 to 105 years. Deep sea sediments contain proof of these changes. The critical parameter is the O18/O16 isotope ratio. The astronomical theory is discussed of ice ages based on the changes in the shape of the Earth's orbit around the sun. Forecasts for the future are given - in the coming years the climate is expected to get warmer owing to increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and then a long cooler period is expected to follow. (M.D.)

  3. 壳聚糖/聚乳酸羟基乙酸组织工程化神经植入犬体内的慢性生物相容性%Chronic biocompatibility of chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tissue engineered nervetransplanted into Beagles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奇; 杨宇民; 吴坚; 胡文; 顾晓松

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term biocompatibility test within 2 months has showed that chitosan, polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid have no toxicity in rat peripheral nerve, which can be used as tissue engineered nerve materials.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the chronic biocompatibility of the chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) tissue engineered nerve transplanted into beagles.METHODS: The tissue engineered nerve was prepared through inserting the PLGA filaments into chitosan conduits, and then transplanted into beagles bridging sciatic nerve 50 mm defect, and autologous nerve graft was taken as control at the same time.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The status, appetite and activity of beagles which were transplanted with chitosan/PLGA tissue engineered nerve were good and the weight gain were similar to the autologous nerve graft group. Hematology and serum biochemical tests results after 2, 4, 6 months were also similar to the control group and there were no significant difference between two groups. Necrosis and degeneration was not found in the regenerated nerve as well as the surrounding tissues. And the tissue biopsies of the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and other major organs were not abnormal. The chronic biocompatibility of the chitosan/PLGA tissue engineered nerve which was transplanted into Beagles for 6 months was good.%背景:2 个月以内短期生物相容性实验显示,壳聚糖、聚乳酸和聚羟基乙酸对大鼠外周神经均无毒性,可作为组织工程化神经材料.目的:评价壳聚糖/聚乳酸羟基乙酸组织工程化神经植入Beagle 犬体内6 个月后的慢性生物相容性.方法:在壳聚糖神经导管中插入聚乳酸羟基乙酸纤维制备成组织工程化神经,移植桥接Beagle 犬坐骨神经50mm 缺损,同时以Beagle 犬50mm 自体神经移植作为对照组.结果与结论:植入壳聚糖/聚乳酸羟基乙酸组织工程化神经6 个月后,Beagle 犬精神、食欲、活动等一般情况良好,体质量增

  4. Aging Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inchang Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelidsharmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most importantgoal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and inthis process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons haveto be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a doublefold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing furtherdrooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the droopingeyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to preparefor these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amountof skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with adecreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases,excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions ofsoft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skinflap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive lookingappearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a naturallook. In this article, the author’s own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty aredescribed specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips.

  5. Toxicity of inhaled 238PuO2 in Beagle dogs: A. Monodisperse 1.5 μm AMAD particles. B. Monodisperse 3.0 μm particles. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of 238PuO2 that resulted in graded levels of 238Pu in the lung. All dogs are being studied for their life span. One hundred and thirty-seven dogs that had initial lung burdens ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 μCi 238Pu/kg body weight (0.37 to 56 kBq/kg) have died, 8 with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, 8 with lung tumors, 88 with bone tumors, 10 with liver tumors, and 25 of miscellaneous causes. Eighteen control dogs have died. Observations are being continued on 8 exposed and 6 control dogs alive at 4577-5274 days after exposure. (author)

  6. Histomorphometry of umbilical vessels of intrauterine growth restricted neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta S. Kotrannavar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: IUGR is associated with significant structural changes in umbilical vessels of full term neonates. These changes are more obvious in HUV than human umbilical artery (HUA. It can be detected prenatally and used as an indicator of impending IUGR. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 129-134

  7. Relationships between static histomorphometry and ultrasound in the human calcaneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, K D; Rich, P A; Smith, P C; Barry, E B

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship(s) between histomorphometric measurements of cancellous bone structure and ultrasound. Ultrasonic measurements were made using a CUBA research system consisting of a pair of 1 Mhz unfocused transducers. Speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) were determined in 15 human cadaveric heels, with mean precision for all measurements coefficients of variation (CV) = 0.6% and 12%, respectively. The calcaneus was dissected and a 7.5 mm transcortical cylinder was removed from the path of ultrasound (US) transmission. The cortices were removed and the remaining cancellous core was sectioned into approximately 5 mm blocks, numbered from 1 to 6 (medial-lateral). Histomorphometric measurements were performed on decalcified, 5 microm-thick sections from blocks 1-6 using an automatic color image analysis system. There were significant differences between blocks 1 and 3-6 for BS/TV, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb. Sp (all P < 0.001), all decreasing in a medial-lateral direction (except Tb.Sp), implying that the medial portion of the calcaneus had more trabeculae with less spacing between them than the lateral portion. Furthermore, Tb.Th and BS/BV variables were uniform across the calcaneus, suggesting that individual trabeculae were of similar dimension. We found no significant correlations between US and histomorphometric parameters either averaged over all blocks or by using each block region separately. In conclusion, this study does not support the notion that US measurements of SOS and BUA through the heel reflect calcaneal cancellous bone structure, however, further studies using larger sample sizes may be warranted. PMID:10341018

  8. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  9. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs. PMID:24115102

  10. Studies on mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant human interleukin-11 and recombinant human interleukin-2 on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy γ-rays irradiation in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-ray irradiation in beagles, and to provide experimental evidence for the clinical treatment of extremely severe myeloid acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: Sixteen beagle dogs were given 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-ray total body irradiation (TBI), then randomly assigned into irradiation control group, supportive care group or cytokines + supportive care (abbreviated as cytokines) group. In addition to supportive care, rhG-CSF, rhIL-11 and rhIL-2 were administered subcutaneously to treat dogs in cytokines group. The percentage of CD34 + cells, cell cycle and apoptosis of nucleated cells in peripheral blood were examined by Flow cytometry. Results: After 4.5 Gy 60Co γ-ray irradiation, the CD34 + cells in peripheral blood declined obviously (61.3% and 52.1% of baseline for irradiation control and supportive care group separately). The cell proportion of nucleated cells in G0/G1 phase was increased notably notably (99.27% and 99.49% respectively). The rate of apoptosis (26.93% and 21.29% separately) and necrosis (3.27% and 4.14%, respectively) of nucleated cells were elevated significantly when compared with values before irradiation (P0/G1 phase blockage of nucleated cells became more serious (99.71%). The rate of apoptosis (5.66%) and necrosis (1.60%) of nucleated cells were significantly lower than that of irradiation control and supportive care groups 1 d after exposure. Conclusions: Cytokines maybe mobilize CD34 + cells in bone marrow to peripheral blood, indce cell block at G0/G1 phase and reduce apoptosis, and eventually cure hematopoietic injuries induced by irradiation. (authors)

  11. Aging blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Inchang

    2013-09-01

    In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips. PMID:24086798

  12. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Skin Care and Aging Heath and Aging Skin Care and Aging Dry Skin and Itching Bruises Wrinkles Age Spots ... doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866-503-7546 ( ...

  13. Population aging and legal retirement age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the preferred legal retirement age. What is revealed is the crucial role that the indirect ???macro??? effects resulting from a change in the legal retirement age play in the optimal decision. Two Social Security systems are studied. Under a defined contribution scheme aging lowers the preferred legal retirement age. However, under a defined pension scheme the retirement age is delayed. This result shows the relevance of correctly c...

  14. IGF-1 Regulates Vertebral Bone Aging Through Sex-Specific and Time-Dependent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Mitschelen, Matthew C; Farley, Julie A; Logan, Sreemathi; Yan, Han; Ungvari, Zoltan; Hodges, Erik L; Csiszar, Anna; Ikeno, Yuji; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Sonntag, William E

    2016-02-01

    Advanced aging is associated with increased risk of bone fracture, especially within the vertebrae, which exhibit significant reductions in trabecular bone structure. Aging is also associated with a reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Studies have suggested that the reduction in IGF-1 compromises healthspan, whereas others report that loss of IGF-1 is beneficial because it increases healthspan and lifespan. To date, the effect of decreases in circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we delineate the consequences of a loss of circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging in male and female Igf(f/f) mice. IGF-1 was reduced at multiple specific time points during the mouse lifespan: early in postnatal development (crossing albumin-cyclic recombinase [Cre] mice with Igf(f/f) mice); and in early adulthood and in late adulthood using hepatic-specific viral vectors (AAV8-TBG-Cre). Vertebrae bone structure was analyzed at 27 months of age using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry. Consistent with previous studies, both male and female mice exhibited age-related reductions in vertebral bone structure. In male mice, reduction of circulating IGF-1 induced at any age did not diminish vertebral bone loss. Interestingly, early-life loss of IGF-1 in females resulted in a 67% increase in vertebral bone volume fraction, as well as increased connectivity density and increased trabecular number. The maintenance of bone structure in the early-life IGF-1-deficient females was associated with increased osteoblast surface and an increased ratio of osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of NF-κB-ligand (RANKL) levels in circulation. Within 3 months of a loss of IGF-1, there was a 2.2-fold increase in insulin receptor expression within the vertebral bones of our female mice, suggesting that local signaling may compensate for the loss of circulating IGF-1. Together, these data

  15. Bupivacaine 0,25% versus ropivacaine 0,25% in brachial plexus block in dogs of beagle breedBupivacaína 0,25% versus ropivacaína 0,25% no bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães da raça beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ignácio Wakoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus block (BPB is a regional anesthesia technique which enables the attainment of surgical procedures distal scapulohumeral articulation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.25% without vasoconstrictor in BPB guided by electrical stimulation in dogs. Thirteen male and female beagle dogs underwent a BPB using bupivacaine and ropivacaine 0.25% (4mg/kg, both alone and in different times. The anesthesic block was performed in the right forelimb and as control group the block proceeded in the left forelimb using a solution of sodium chloride 0.9% in volume corresponding to the drug in the contralateral limb. The block was performed after the localization of the radial nerve with the aid of eletrical stimulation, which was infiltrated half the volume of anesthetic calculated and subsequently the remaining solution was administered on the median nerve. We evaluated sensitive and motor latencies and sensitive and motor block total time by clamping technique. In the present study, a technique for electrical stimulation was effective in 100% of animals. Bupivacaine had lower motor latency period, however, the sensitive latency between the two groups showed no statistically significant differences. In the block total time, bupivacaine obtained time significantly higher. Clinical signs characteristic of Horner’s syndrome were present in 15% of animals treated with bupivacaine. Furthermore, two animals presented signs of cardiotoxicity in bupivacaine group. The use of bupivacaine (4mg/kg without vasoconstrictor in dogs brachial plexus block provided longer analgesia and motor blockade, however, ropivacaine at the same dose and concentration was found to be free of deleterious effects associated of cardiovascular instability, hemodynamic and respiratory. O bloqueio do plexo braquial (BPB é uma técnica de anestesia regional que possibilita a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos distais a articula

  16. Effects of age on histological parameters of the sweat glands of Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Bueno de Mattos Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sweat glands are important in thermoregulation of cattle in a warm environment as they help dissipate heat through evaporation. Studies on gland histology are important to define its secretion potential and the capacity of perspiration and heat removal. The objective of this study was to determine, by histomorphometry, glandular epithelium height, the depth of the gland, length of the glandular portion and number of glands per cm2 of the sweat glands of the three age groups of Nellore cattle. Thirty females were used in this study. They were equally divided into calves, heifers and cows. Histological sections were obtained and analyzed by digital images in Trinocular BX40 Olympus microscope coupled to an Oly - 200 camera, connected to a computer. The images were obtained with microscope with 2x, 4x, 10x and 40x magnification objectives. The measurements were performed using HL Image 97 program. The height of glandular epithelium, depth of the glands, length and density of the glandular portion per cm2 , were all analyzed. The calves showed greater height of the glandular epithelium than heifers (P = 0.0024, and cows (P = 0.0191. The depth of the gland was not influenced by age. Cows had higher length of secretory portion than heifers (P = 0.0379 and calves (P = 0.0077. Heifers had a greater number of sweat glands per cm2 of skin than cows (P = 0.023. In cattle, the height of glandular epithelium and the density decreases as animals get older. On the other hand, the length of the secretor portion increases but with no changes in the depth of the sweat glands

  17. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  18. Correlation between hepatic CT perfusion imaging and portal vein pressure in normal Beagles%肝脏CT灌注成像与门静脉压力相关性的动物实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元为; 陈伟建; 张启瑜; 梁盼; 杨博洋

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨正常比格犬门静脉压力与肝脏CT血流灌注参数的相关性.方法:采用螺旋CT对24只犬行肝脏灌注成像扫描,去卷积法计算肝脏血流灌注参数,包括血流量(blood flow,BF)、血容量(blood volume,BV)、平均通过时间(mean transit time,MTT)、肝动脉分数(hepatic arterial fraction,HAF)、肝动脉灌注量(hepatic arterial perfusion,HAP)、门静脉灌注量(portal venous perfusion,PVP).扫描后3 d内开腹,采用玻璃水柱法测定门静脉压力.利用直线回归与相关分析门静脉压力与肝脏CT血流灌注参数的相关性.结果:(1)正常比格犬实测门静脉压力值为(13.57±1.15)cmH2O.(2)正常比格犬门静脉压力与BF、PVP呈负相关,与HAF呈正相关,其中以PVP相关性最显著(r=-0.764,P<0.05),两者关系的直线回归方程为Y=16.507-0.037X.结论:肝脏CT灌注成像为无创、有效监测门静脉压力提供了一种新途径.%Objective To evaluate the correlation between the parameters of spiral CT perfusion imaging and portal vein pressure in normal Beagles. Methods Twenty-four normal beagles were selected to receive hepatic spiral CT perfusion imaging. The parameters of hepatic perfusion , including blood flow (BF) , blood volume (BV) ,mean transit time ( MTT) , hepatic arterial fraction ( HAF) , hepatic arterial perfusion ( HAP) , and portal venous perfusion (PVP) , were calculated hy the method of deconvolution. The portal vein pressure was measured by glass column method in laparotomy surgery three days after CT imaging. Results Portal vein pressure of the beagles were ( 13.57 ± 1.15) cmH2O. Portal vein pressure was negatively correlated with the BF and PVP , but was positively correlated with HAF. PVP was the most significant parameter that correlated with portal vein pressure (r = -0.764,P<0.05) , and their linear regression equation was Y = 16.507-0.037X. Conclusion CT perfusion imaging is a new non-invasive and eff'ective method for assessing portal vein

  19. Evaluation of furcation perforation repair by MTA and Cav-Hycal in beagle dog%两种材料修复比格犬髓室底穿孔的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯惠敏; 侯本祥; 卫书盛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of MTA and Cav-Hycal for the repair of beagle dogs'furcation perforations. Methods Thirty-six premolars of three adult beagle dogs with the root canals filled were randomly divided into two groups. Furcation perforations were made and repaired with either MTA or Cav-Hycal. Twenty-four molars served as the positive and negative contros. Fureation perforations were made and covered with polyvinychlorid in positive control and no furcation perforations were made in negative control The periodontal status were evaluated 1, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Results At one week, all experimental teeth showed normal. At 4 weeks, minor to severe bone loss were observed in the two experimental groups. The teeth in positive group showed periodontal pockets with severe bone loss. At 12 weeks, the bone defects were entirely or partly repaired in 12 cases of either MTA or Cav-Hycal group with no periodontal pockets. The bone defects in the positive control group became bigger and the periodontal pockets became deeper. The teeth in negative control group showed nomal. There was no significant difference between MTA and Cav-Hycal group( P >0. 05). Conclusion The effect of MTA and Cav-Hycal on the repair of furcation perforations in beagle dogs was similar.%目的:评价MTA和光固化氢氧化钙修复比格犬牙齿髓室底穿孔的效果.方法:3只成年比格犬的36颗前磨牙根管治疗后做髓室底穿孔模型,随机分为两组,分别采用MTA和光固化氢氧化钙修复穿孔.另外24颗磨牙根管治疗后随机分为阳性和阴性对照组,阳性对照组做髓室底穿孔模型后以聚氯乙烯膜覆盖穿孔,阴性对照组不穿孔.分别于术后1,4,12周进行牙周检查及X线影像学评价.结果:术后1周,各组牙周及X线片检查未见异常.术后4周,两实验组各12例牙周未见异常,各6例牙周破坏,所有样本不同程度骨质破坏;阳性对照组12例牙周破坏伴重度骨质破坏.术后12

  20. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  1. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  2. The Biology of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  3. Dietary and behavioral interventions protect against age related activation of caspase cascades in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Berchtold, Nicole; Astarita, Giuseppe; Saing, Tommy; Piomelli, Daniele; Cotman, Carl W

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX) or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR), can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX) reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular health and are the

  4. Dietary and behavioral interventions protect against age related activation of caspase cascades in the canine brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Snigdha

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR, can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular

  5. 附子不同炮制品灌胃Beagle犬的急性毒性研究%Acute Toxicity Study on Intragastric Administration of Different ProcessedRadix Aconiti Lateralis PraeparataProducts to Beagle Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉琴; 张雪; 董艳红; 代良萍; 彭成; 谢晓芳

    2015-01-01

    This article was aimed to study the acute toxicities on intragastric administration of differentRadix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparataprocessed products to Beagle dogs. A total of 16 healthy and qualified Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the blank group,Pao-Fu-Pian(PFP) group,Pao-Tian-Xiong(PTX) group andHei-Shun-Pian(HSP) group according to the body weight. The intragastric administration of 4 g crude herb per kg was given. Before medication, 1 h, 24 h, and 3, 7, 14 days after medication, the body weight, food consumption, rectal temperature, electrocardiogram, blood routine and blood biochemistry were measured. The results showed that after medication, all dogs in three experimental groups were depressed. And there were significant differences in the electrolytes of blood. Among them, the HSP group was the most obvious one. The red blood cells, blood sugar and triglycerides of dogs in the PFP group had significant difference. The lymphocytes and blood sugar had significant difference of dogs in the PTX group. However, after the medication of HSP, the lymphocytes of the dogs were decreased significantly. It was concluded that the toxicity of three processed products followed the order of HSP > PFP > PTX.%目的:探讨附子不同炮制品灌胃Beagle犬的急性毒性。方法:取健康、合格Beagle犬16只,按体质量随机分为空白组、刨附片组、炮天雄组和黑顺片组。以4 g生药/kg灌胃给药,实验前及给药后1 h、24 h和第3、7、14天测定体质量、耗食量、肛温、心电图及血常规、血生化。结果:3个实验组Beagle犬在给药后均精神萎靡,血液电解质有显著性差异,其中黑顺片组最明显;刨附片组犬的红细胞、血糖和甘油三酯有显著性差异;炮天雄组犬的淋巴细胞和血糖有显著性差异,而黑顺片给药后犬的淋巴细胞显著降低。结论:3个炮制品毒性大小依次为黑顺片>刨附片>炮天雄。

  6. Variation of radon retention parameters for radium-burdened dog skeletons as a function of exposure age and dosage level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 was administered to 36 beagles at various levels in eight semimonthly injections at ages 60 to 160, 120 to 220, or 435 to 535 days. Approximately 400 individual radon retention values were obtained from γ-ray spectra taken at intervals over the life span of the animals. Radon retention was fitted by regression analysis to a power function of the form At/sup b/ (t = time after injection midpoint). Mean values and associated standard errors of the parameters anti A (SE) and anti b (SE), for animals of both sexes given 10 μCi/kg body weight at injection midpoint ages of 110, 170, and 485 days were [3.11 (0.15 SE); 0.293 (0.006 SE)], [5.31 (0.38 SE); 0.214 (0.006 SE)], and [6.08 (0.21 SE); 0.200 (0.007 SE)], respectively. The smaller coefficients, A (t = 1-day intercept), and larger exponents, b (rate parameter), found for earlier ages at injection are attributed to age-dependent differences in the mineral density of bone and the intrabone radium distribution pattern. The mean values of the parameters for animals receiving total dosages 226Ra dosage levels are interpreted in terms of radiation damage to bone which alters the degree of mineralization in regions of radium deposition

  7. Biliverdin Reductase-A correlates with inducible nitric oxide synthasein in atorvastatin treated aged canine brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Di Domenico; Marzia Perluigi; Eugenio Barone

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and neuropathology. Recent preclinical and epidemiological studies proposed statins as a possible therapeutic drug for Alzheimer’s disease, but the exact mechanisms of action are stil unknown. Biliverdin reductase-A is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in cel ular stress responses. It not only transforms biliverdin-IX alpha into the antioxidant bilirubin-IX alpha but its serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity is able to modulate cel signaling networks. We previously reported the beneficial effects of atorvastatin treatment on biliverdin reductase-A and heme oxygenase-1 in the brains of a well characterized pre-clinical model of Alzheimer’s disease, aged beagles, together with observed improvement in cognition. Here we extend our knowledge of the effects of atorvastatin on inducible nitric oxide synthase in parietal cortex, cerebel um and liver of the same animals. We demonstrated that atorvastatin treatment (80 mg/day for 14.5 months) to aged beagles selectively increased inducible nitric oxide synthase in the parietal cortex but not in the cerebel um. In contrast, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein levels were significantly decreased in the liver. Significant positive correlations were found between biliverdin reductase-A and inducible nitric oxide synthase as wel as heme oxygenase-1 protein levels in the parietal cortex. The opposite was observed in the liver. Inducible nitric oxide synthase up-regulation in the parietal cortex was positively associated with improved biliverdin reductase-A functions, whereas the oxidative-induced impairment of biliverdin reductase-A in the liver negatively affected inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, thus suggesting a role for biliverdin reductase-A in atorvastatin-dependent inducible nitric oxide synthase changes. Interestingly, increased inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in the parietal cortex were not

  8. Southernmost Andes and South Georgia Island, North Scotia Ridge: Zircon U-Pb and muscovite {40Ar }/{39Ar } age constraints on tectonic evolution of Southwestern Gondwanaland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, Samuel B.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.

    1996-11-01

    Zircon U-Pb and muscovite {40Ar }/{39Ar } isotopic ages have been determined on rocks from the southernmost Andes and South Georgia Island, North Scotia Ridge, to provide absolute time constraints on the kinematic evolution of southwestern Gondwanaland, until now known mainly from stratigraphic relations. The U-Pb systematics of four zircon fractions from one sample show that proto-marginal basin magmatism in the northern Scotia arc, creating the peraluminous Darwin granite suite and submarine rhyolite sequences of the Tobifera Formation, had begun by the Middle Jurassic (164.1 ± 1.7 Ma). Seven zircon fractions from two other Darwin granites are discordant with non-linear patterns, suggesting a complex history of inheritances and Pb loss. Reference lines drawn through these points on concordia diagrams give upper intercept ages of ca. 1500 Ma, interpreted as a minimum age for the inherited zircon component. This component is believed to have been derived from sedimentary rocks in the Gondwanaland margin accretionary wedge that forms the basement of the region, or else directly from the cratonic "back stop" of that wedge. Ophiolitic remnants of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin preserved in the Larsen Harbour complex on South Georgia yield the first clear evidence that Gondwanaland fragmentation had resulted in the formation of oceanic crust in the Weddell Sea region by the Late Jurassic (150 ± 1 Ma). The geographic pattern in the observed age range of 8 to 13 million years in these ophiolitic materials, while not definitive, is in keeping with propagation of the marginal basin floor northwestward from South Georgia Island to the Sarmiento Complex in southern Chile. Rocks of the Beagle granite suite, emplaced post-tectonically within the uplifted marginal basin floor, have complex zircon U-Pb systematics with gross discordances dominated by inheritances in some samples and Pb loss in others. Of eleven samples processed, only two had sufficient amounts of zircon for

  9. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  10. Life-span effects of ionizing radiation in the beagle dog: A summary account of four decades of research funded by the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 40 years ago, the US Atomic Energy Commission made a far- reaching commitment to the support of life-span radiation-effects studies in a relatively long-lived animal, the beagle dog. Something in the range of 200 million dollars has already been spent on a group of closely related experiments, many of which are only now coming to fruition. Responsible fiscal management of these studies, directed toward securing an optimum return from past investments, and toward creative planning of future directions, requires a comprehensive view of this total effort. This report is designed to provide that comprehensive view. This is primarily intended as a research management document. Evaluation and interpretation are tasks for those directly involved in conducting these experiments. The limited objective of the present document is to describe what has been done, to give some of the background for why it was done, to describe results already realized and applications that have been made of these results -- all in a manner designed to display the total effort rather than piecemeal details. While proposing no specific answers to the questions ''Where do we go from here?''it is hoped that the document will provide a basis for approaching that question in an informed manner. The maintenance of a continuity of scientific understanding and direction in these experiments, which often continue beyond the initiating investigators' working life, is no small part of the problem involved in conducting these experiments

  11. Life-span effects of ionizing radiation in the beagle dog: A summary account of four decades of research funded by the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, the US Atomic Energy Commission made a far- reaching commitment to the support of life-span radiation-effects studies in a relatively long-lived animal, the beagle dog. Something in the range of 200 million dollars has already been spent on a group of closely related experiments, many of which are only now coming to fruition. Responsible fiscal management of these studies, directed toward securing an optimum return from past investments, and toward creative planning of future directions, requires a comprehensive view of this total effort. This report is designed to provide that comprehensive view. This is primarily intended as a research management document. Evaluation and interpretation are tasks for those directly involved in conducting these experiments. The limited objective of the present document is to describe what has been done, to give some of the background for why it was done, to describe results already realized and applications that have been made of these results -- all in a manner designed to display the total effort rather than piecemeal details. While proposing no specific answers to the questions ''Where do we go from here.''it is hoped that the document will provide a basis for approaching that question in an informed manner. The maintenance of a continuity of scientific understanding and direction in these experiments, which often continue beyond the initiating investigators' working life, is no small part of the problem involved in conducting these experiments.

  12. Frontal and Profile Photographs, the “Truth” and the Memory. From the Beagle Etchings (1839 and the Anthropological Photography (by the End of the 19th Century to the Current Identification Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Penhos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of front and profile typologies from the 19th century to these days. From a reflection on the photographic image and its relationship with truth and memory, a three stages review is outlined taking into account the official report of the so called Beagle journey and the etchings that illustrate it (1826-1836, the photographs taken to the Patagonian indigenous groups who were defeated after the military campaigns started in 1879 in Argentina as well as some cases of artists and human rights activists who appropriated the typology in the last 30 years. In the etchings and photographs, a tension between the romanticism conception and a positivistic point of view is evidenced. On the one hand, the indian transformation through a civilizatory education contrasted, on the other hand, with the objectivation of the indigenous bodies entrusted to scientific inquiry. On their behalf, the contemporary cases pose a shift in the interpretation of the representation in the construction of a historical memory: the posthumous nature of photography getting along with another dimension linked to its capacity of giving a renewed existence to the dead and ensuring a transcendence that defies forgetfulness.

  13. The Effects of Long-Term Training with Increasing Load on the Bone Histomorphometry of Female Rats%长期递增负荷运动对雌性大鼠胫骨上段骨组织形态计量学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓红; 郑陆; 朱一力; 李青南; 王宏梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the effects of long-term training with progressively increasing load on the bone metabolism of female rats. Methods 3-month-old female rats with regular estrous cycle were randomly divided into 8 groups, and the rats in the 8 groups underwent 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15-week treadmill training with progressively increasing load, re-spectively. Corresponding control groups and basic control group were also recruited. All rats were injected with tetracycline (25 mg/kg) on the 14th and 13th day, and calcein (5 mg/kg) on the 4th and 3rd day before they were sacrificed. The bone sections of right proximal tibia without decalcification were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Results During the 15-week training: ? The bone mineral density of the rats increased initially and then gradually decreased to its minimun by the end of 15 weeks: ? The percent trabecular bone area (%Tb.Ar) , number of trabecular bone (Tb.N) and thickness of trabecular bone (Tb.Th) decreased significantly, and resolving power of trabecular bone (Tb.Sp) increased significantly. (3) parameters of bone formation and bone resorption, including %L.Pm, MAR, BFR/BS, BFR/BV, Oc.N, and Oc.Pm% showed an increase tendency following an initial drop, and bottomed out eventially on the 1 lth week. Conclusions 15-week training with progressively increasing load seriously affects the BMD and bone histomorphometry of female rats. Overload training significantly aggravates bone formation, especially bone resorption, and finally decreases BMD of female rats.%目的:探讨长期递增负荷运动对骨代谢影响的可能机制.方法:将动情周期规律的3月龄雌性大鼠随机分为8组,分组进行2、4、6、8、9、11、13、15周的递增负荷运动,并设立同期对照组和基础对照组.在造模过程中监控体重、体成分、阴道脱落细胞、血生化及骨密度等指标的变化.所有大鼠被处死前13、14

  14. Effect of intermittent injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone on bone histomorphometry of ovariectomized rats%间歇性注射重组甲状旁腺激素对去卵巢大鼠骨组织形态计量学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克勤; 陈家伟; 李青南; 李光富; 田小芸; 黄莲芳; 包丽华; 王美莲

    2002-01-01

    OVXE received vehicle injection. The proximal tibiae of all rats were processed without decalcification for quantitive bone histomorphometry. RESULTS: The percent trabecular area (ThAr) of OVXEP was significantly greater than that of OVXE ( P <0.05), and was similar to that of OVXB ( P > 0.05), but was smaller than that of ShamE ( P < 0.05); the trabecular thickness (TbTh) of OVXEP was thicker than any other group (all, P <0.05); the trabecular number (ThN) of OVXEP was only slightly higher than that of OVXE; the percent labeled perimeter (LPm), mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate with bone area as referent (BFR/BV) of OVXEP were all higher than those of ShamE and OVXE respecfvely ( P < 0.01 ), whereas the osteoclast number (N of Oc) of OVXEP was similar to those of ShamE and OVXE (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Short-term intermittent injection of rhPTH1-84 can prevent further bone loss in 9-month-old rats 3 months after ovariectomy, the mechanisms of this therapy are that PrH could increase ThbTh while not alter TbN, and promote bone-forming activity while not influence bone-resorptive activity.

  15. Change in the amount of epsilon-hexosyllysine, UV absorbance, and fluorescence of collagen with age in different animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin and aorta collagen specimens of Wistar rats, white mice, beagle dogs, cats, horses, and human necropsies of different ages were examined with respect to the content of glycated products. The data presented show that (a) glycation and accumulation of the chromophore(s) are comparable in collagen samples from different species of comparable age; (b) glycation and pigmented accumulation increase markedly during the first 5-10 years of age; (c) the extent of glycation is different in different tissues (in particular, glycation of aortal collagen is about twice that of skin collagen); and (d) collagen pigmentation as followed by fluorescence is comparable in aortal and skin collagen (except below 10 years); pigmentation measured by absorbance at 350 nm is, on the contrary, lower in aortal than in skin collagen. Based on the assumption of constant blood glucose level during the life span, it appears feasible to conclude that the degree of nonenzymatic collagen glycation reflects the time period for which the protein was exposed to the action of sugars. This period, because of increased cross-linking, is likely to be extended in older animals. Other factors, such as differences in collagen turnover between different tissues and the intensity of the removal process of the glycated products, should be taken into consideration as well

  16. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health ... to discuss with your doctor. Sexual Health and Aging: Keep the Passion Alive (Copyright © Mayo Foundation) - This ...

  17. Administration on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  18. Aging changes in sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004018.htm Aging changes in sleep To use the sharing features ... cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. ...

  19. Spectral ageing a new age perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rawlings, S; Rawlings, Katherine M Blundell & Steve

    2002-01-01

    We present an up-to-date critique of the physical basis for the spectral ageing method. We find that the number of cases where this method may be meaningfully applied to deduce the ages of classical double radio sources is small indeed. This critique is much more than merely a re-expression of anxieties about the calibration of spectral ageing (which have been articulated by others in the past).

  20. New concept of age(ing: Prospective age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the last century was the century of world population growth, according to demographers, the XXI century will be century of population aging. Statistics undoubtedly show that number of elderly will continue it’s growth in the future. If old age is seen as period of life with reduced physical and mental capabilities and increased disability, and demographic aging as increase of dependent population, trends are quite disturbing, at least in certain societal segments. In developed countries, this population category is no longer treated as passive or as a "burden of society" and efforts are made for better social inclusion of older people. In contrast to growing interest in this phenomenon, the concepts that define the aging of the population remained stagnant. The aim of this paper is to introduce into domestic literature the term "prospective age" as a dynamic category which is more affected with socio-historical conditions, not only with biological as traditional definition of aging suggested. Papers written by Sanderson and Scherbov offer new methodological options for study of population aging, because it takes into account the biometric rather than chronological approach. Calculation of prospective years is a simple operation that requires pair of the same number of remained life expectancy from life tables for two different periods (the year of concern is index, and the one we are comparing with is standard year, so that phrase "40s is the new 30s" or "70s the new 60s" gets scientific foundation. Average remaining years of life represent a realistic indicator suggesting increased capacity, activity and vitality of individuals, which is due to accepted demographic parameters still considered old. „Prospective threshold“ is defined as the age when life expectancy falls below 15 years (it is subjective choice made by Sanderson and Scherbov, which is also used in this paper and during the elaboration of these ideas three demographic

  1. Aging of gaseous detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire ''nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can ''prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the ''SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Visual Signs of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Rexbye

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

  3. National Institute on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  4. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ... Prevention To decrease the risks from immune system aging: Get the flu and pneumonia vaccines, and any ...

  5. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  6. Corrected Age for Preemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age ...

  7. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  8. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  9. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  10. Components of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to a reduction in attentional resources that are assumed to result from alterations in the aging brain. A core ability that is subject to age-related decline is visual attention, which enables individuals to select the most important information for conscious processing and action. However, visual attention is considered a conglomerate of various functions and the specific components underlying age differences in performance remain little understo...

  11. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

    representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed to...

  12. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...

  13. Age and Farmer Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1994-01-01

    Farmer productivity by age was estimated, allowing for differences because of efficiency and returns to scale. Using Census of Agriculture data, estimates vary by state, but returns to scale average 1.07. Efficiency increases average 4.5 percent every ten years of age, to the age interval 35 to 44, and then decreases at that same rate.

  14. Peroxisomes in yeast ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by the progressive decline in cellular functions that eventually leads to death. In human, ageing is associated with several age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the years, research performed in several simpler sho

  15. PerformAge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2012-01-01

    ), I do not want to paint a uniformly rosy picture of aging and old age, but unfold an opening up of life taking the heroines and heroes of aging life to the open road in search of themselves and new roles in life as a quest of self-knowledge, self-development – a role for the future. Different...

  16. Hodgkin's disease and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...

  17. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  18. Ageing Management of CARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper introduced the ageing management of CARR, including the ageing management system, instances of ageing components, difficulties we met and follow up plan, and put forward some suggestions on strengthening and promoting ageing management. We hope to enhance international exchange and collaboration. It is a great challenge to do research on how to manage ageing effectively in the beginning of life, but it will enhance the safety of reactor operation, extend the life of the reactor and improve the quality of operation, making this work very meaningful

  19. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  20. Carcinogenesis and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis

  1. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  2. Wages, productivity and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Dostie, Benoît

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we estimate age based wage and productivity differentials using linked employer-employee Canadian data from the Workplace and Employee Survey 1999-2003. Data on the firm side is used to estimate production functions taking into account the age profile of the firm's work-force. Data on the workers' side is used to estimate wage equations that also depend on age. Results show concave age-wage and age-productivity profiles. Wage-productivity comparisons show that the productivit...

  3. UV, stress and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  4. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M

    2015-06-01

    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  5. Aging male syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valer Donca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging Male Syndrome is a medical condition through which men could pass between the ages of 35 and 65, when testosterone levelsin their body decline considerably. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest and debate throughout theworld. In contrast to female menopause, the process of aging in the male genital system is slow and highly variable between individuals. Thecharacteristic symptoms of Aging Male Syndrome include weakness, depression, fatigue and changes in body hair and skin, decreased sexualdesire, decreased lean body mass accompanied by increased visceral fat, decreased bone mineral density. Aging Male Syndrome is usually diagnosedby testing the blood for testosterone levels. The usual treatment method for Aging Male Syndrome includes testosterone injections,testosterone patches, testosterone gels and oral preparations.

  6. Skin mirrors human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  7. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices and...... elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities in their...... socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey: perspective on the reduced capacity of dogs to excrete this organic acid relative to the rat, monkey, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchalk, C; Nolan, R J

    1997-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) were measured in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey and compared with the kinetics observed in rats and humans. In addition, studies were conducted in anesthetized dogs to better understand the mechanism by which [14C]triclopyr is eliminated in this species. Triclopyr was dissolved in distilled water, and administered as a single oral dose of 0.5, 5, or 20 mg/kg to three male dogs. A single male rhesus monkey was given an intravenous dose of 30 mg [14C]triclopyr/kg body wt on two occasions separated by 10 days. Anesthetized male dogs, were implanted with venous, arterial, and urethral catheters and given increasing amounts of triclopyr to produce plasma triclopyr levels ranging from 0.3 to 27 microg eq/mL. In the monkey, triclopyr was rapidly eliminated from the plasma (t1/2 = 6.3 hr) with >95% of the urinary 14C activity excreted within 24 hr postdosing. In the dog, orally administered triclopyr was rapidly and effectively absorbed at every dose level with virtually all of it excreted in the urine by 72 hr postdosing. However, the kinetics were slightly nonlinear, and the fraction of the dose excreted in the urine decreased with increasing dose. Several nonlinear processes may collectively contribute to the modest nonlinear pharmacokinetics in the dog. Plasma protein binding of triclopyr in the dog ranged from 94 to 99%, was nonlinear, and was an important determinant in the renal clearance of triclopyr. The nonlinear plasma protein binding indicates that glomerular filtration became disproportionately more important as plasma triclopyr concentration increased. There was good evidence for a high-affinity low-capacity active-secretory process that was saturated by low plasma triclopyr concentrations. As plasma triclopyr concentrations increased, tubular reabsorption begins to exceed secretion, resulting in decreased renal clearance. The volume of distribution, normalized for body weight

  9. 左乙拉西坦缓释片的制备与体内外相关性研究%Preparation and in vitro-in vivo correlation in Beagle dogs of levetiracetam sustained-release tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍衢; 王悦; 王永禄; 李学明; 毛利娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To prepare levetiracetam sustained release tablets, and investigate in vitro-in vivo correlation in Beagle dogs. Methods: Mixed HPMC and EC matrix was used to prepare levetiracetam sustained release tablets. The in vitro release characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetics in dogs of the tablets were investigated. Results: Higuchi model was optimal for the description of drug release profile. The mean elimination half-lives (t1/2 ) after administration of conventional tablets, reference sustained release tablets and our sustained release tablets were (2.09±0.45), (5.35±0.76) and (7.44±1.48) h, respectively. The peak levels were (1.184± 0. 38) , (3. 87 ± 0. 37 ) and (4. 07 ± 0. 56) hj AUCs were calculated to be ( 175. 40 ± 15. 47 ) , (240. 93 ± 19.73) and (251.47 ± 13. 22) μg·h·Ml-1, respectively. Conclusion: The levetiracetam sustained release tablets exhibit the sustained release characteristics in vitro, and show a good correction in vitro release and in vivo absorption.%目的:研制左乙拉西坦缓释片并考察其体外释放及犬体内药动学.方法:以羟丙甲基纤维素,乙基纤维素为混合骨架材料制备日服一次的缓释片,测定其体外释放度和Beagle犬口服单剂量缓释片后血浆中药物的浓度,推算药动学参数.结果:自制缓释片体外释放符合Higuchi模型.左乙拉西坦普通片,上市缓释片和自制缓释片的有关药动学参数如下:t1/2分别为(2.09±0.45),(5.35±0.76),(7.44±1.48)h,T( peak)分别为(1.184±0.38),(3.87±0.37),(4.07±0.56)h,AUC分别为为(175.40±15.47),(240.93±19.73),(251.47±13.22) μg·h·mL-1.结论:自制缓释片具体良好的缓释特性.体外释放和体内吸收有良好的相关性.

  10. Healthy Aging in China

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist.

  11. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  12. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Honigman, Roberta; David J. Castle

    2006-01-01

    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome.

  13. We Are Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and ...

  14. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity and...

  15. Age, wage and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace. However, other studies find no evidence of such an age related pay-productivity gap. We perform an analysis of the relationship between age, wage and productivity using a matched worker-firm pane...

  16. Hodgkin's disease and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I

    1989-01-01

    506 unselected, previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Finsen Institute between 1969 and 1983. The prognostic significance of age, sex, stage, systemic symptoms, histologic subtype, number of involved nodal regions, total tumour burden (peripheral + intrathoracic...... modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...

  17. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  18. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Wu; Janchun Yu; Aiqin Zhu; Hiroshi Nakanishi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and ...

  19. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems to be...

  20. Aging, Trade, and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Chisik, Richard; Onder, Harun; Qirjo, Dhimitri

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the role of demand-driven changes arising from population aging and how they affect the pattern of international trade as well as trade and immigration policy. An aging society can see a welfare-reducing reduction in its share of manufacturing output and this reduction is magnified by a decrease in trade costs (an increase in globalization). Immigration can ameliorate ...

  1. Biology of ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Living systems owe their survival and health to a series of complex biochemical pathways of maintenance and repair. These defense systems create the homeodynamic space of an individual, which is characterized by stress tolerance, molecular damage control and continuous remodeling. Ageing, age-rel...

  2. Healthy ageing through music

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Rosie; Bisschop Boele, E.H.; Smilde, Rineke

    2012-01-01

    Presentation in session ‘Healthy Ageing through Music’. Presentations: - Rineke Smilde: Music and Dementia - Evert Bisschop Boele: Creative Workshops with the Elderly - Rosie Burt-Perkins: Healthy ageing through instrumental music learning World Conference ISME, Thessaloniki, Greece, 20/7/2012

  3. The ageing spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contain 15 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of age on the appearance of magnetic resonance images of the spine; Potential for image analysis in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the aging spine; Potential of x-ray diffraction computed tomography for discriminating between normal and osteoporotic bone; and Spinal fusion in the elderly

  4. The age of Schumpeter

    OpenAIRE

    Giersch, Herbert

    1983-01-01

    The centenary of Schumpeter's birth coincides with a revival of Schumpeterian economics. Could the third quarter of this Century justly be called the age of Keynes (Hicks, 1974), the fourth quarter has a fair chance of becoming the age of Schumpeter. Before giving substance to this proposition, I shall present a Short introduction to Schumpeter's life, work and paradigm.

  5. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace

  6. A Respectable Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, Clifford H.

    1983-01-01

    Contrasts the relatively abundant information on the young with the paucity of research knowledge on the aged, and asserts that psychologists have too few solutions to coping with the problems of aging. Suggests the integration of older adults into all aspects of society through structural change. (Author/AOS)

  7. Aging, longevity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.;

    2011-01-01

    Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of...

  8. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  9. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and %22lessons learned%22 that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (~40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted %22lessons learned%22 which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues (%22necking%22) for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  10. Snubber aging assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the environments and mechanisms that degrade snubber performance need to be better understood. This paper describes the Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program in-plant aging research conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collet snubber aging, testing, and maintenance data. The research methodology, evaluations, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the paper. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations. (orig.)

  11. Gene and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Farhud

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nCollection of multiple processes that increase the chronological age of an organism leading to death is defined as aging, and even though important, it is poorly understood. Recent research has shown that aging is due to biochemical and genetic changes, in interaction with environmental effects, including diet and nutrition. Most knowledge on aging is based on ge­netic model system, but its molecular mechanisms are still not very clear. Discoveries in molecular biology have made way to look for candidate genes influencing lifespan. Furthermore, new investigations have stressed on the roles of mitochondria as the major generators and direct targets of reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews some recent literature on genes and ag­ing in model system, then discusses the role of mitochondria and nutrients in human aging.

  12. Overview of facial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Kenneth; Beer, Jacob

    2009-12-01

    Facial aging is a multidimensional, multifactorial process. The aging face has traditionally been treated by each specialty in a different manner. However, by understanding the process from the perspective of different specialties, each physician may better treat the spectrum of facial aging. Whether or not the facial plastic surgeon injects products to restore volume, uses lasers to resurface the epidermis and dermis, incorporates cosmeceuticals to enhance and maintain improvements in the skin integrity and appearance, or relaxes muscles with botulinum toxins, he or she can best advise patients and address facial aging by having a functional understanding of these various modalities. With this knowledge, the facial plastic surgeon can parse the component of facial aging that enables him or her to correct each with the appropriate treatment. PMID:20024868

  13. Epigenetics and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have revealed that progressive changes to epigenetic information accompany aging in both dividing and nondividing cells. Functional studies in model organisms and humans indicate that epigenetic changes have a huge influence on the aging process. These epigenetic changes occur at various levels, including reduced bulk levels of the core histones, altered patterns of histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, and altered noncoding RNA expression, during both organismal aging and replicative senescence. The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability. Strikingly, certain types of epigenetic information can function in a transgenerational manner to influence the life span of the offspring. Several important conclusions emerge from these studies: rather than being genetically predetermined, our life span is largely epigenetically determined; diet and other environmental influences can influence our life span by changing the epigenetic information; and inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes can influence life span of model organisms. These new findings provide better understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic information, these studies highlight exciting avenues for therapeutic intervention in aging and age-associated diseases, including cancer. PMID:27482540

  14. [Normal aging and cognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  15. Three ages of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles A.; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1989-01-01

    A central question for any planet is the age of its surface. Based on comparative planetological arguments, Venus should be as young and active as the Earth (Wood and Francis). The detection of probable impact craters in the Venera radar images provides a tool for estimating the age of the surface of Venus. Assuming somewhat different crater production rates, Bazilevskiy et al. derived an age of 1 + or - 0.5 billion years, and Schaber et al. and Wood and Francis estimated an age of 200 to 400 million years. The known impact craters are not randomly distributed, however, thus some area must be older and others younger than this average age. Ages were derived for major geologic units on Venus using the Soviet catalog of impact craters (Bazilevskiy et al.), and the most accessible geologic unit map (Bazilevskiy). The crater counts are presented for (diameters greater than 20 km), areas, and crater densities for the 7 terrain units and coronae. The procedure for examining the distribution of craters is superior to the purely statistical approaches of Bazilevskiy et al. and Plaut and Arvidson because the bins are larger (average size 16 x 10(6) sq km) and geologically significant. Crater densities define three distinct groups: relatively heavily cratered (Lakshmi, mountain belts), moderately cratered (smooth and rolling plains, ridge belts, and tesserae), and essentially uncratered (coronae and domed uplands). Following Schaber et al., Grieve's terrestrial cratering rate of 5.4 + or - 2.7 craters greater than 20 km/10(9) yrs/10(6) sq km was used to calculate ages for the geologic units on Venus. To improve statistics, the data was aggregated into the three crater density groups, deriving the ages. For convenience, the three similar age groups are given informal time stratigraphic unit names, from youngest to oldest: Ulfrunian, Sednaian, Lakshmian.

  16. Forever young or ageing naturally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, R.P.J.; Naldini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Age and ageing can be felt as negative occurrences. For monuments however, old age is traditionally considered to be a positive quality. Without a certain age the nomination of monument hardly applies. Ageing can be seen as the work of time, which has always been valued: ageing was sometimes even ar

  17. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  18. Vitamin D and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, J. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Aging affects the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D; calcitriol), the active form of vitamin D. Production of 1,25(OH)2D is reduced by 50% as a result of an age-related decline in renal function, although serum 1,25(OH)2D levels are maintained in part by secondary hyperparathyroidism. Aging also causes a decrease in calcium absorption that precedes the decrease in 1,25(OH)2D by 10 to 15 years. Because 1,25(OH)2D is dependent on an adequate supply of the substrate vitamin D, the...

  19. [Epidermal aging and anti-aging strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wolff, L

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial senescence is a complex process depending on intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors (e.g., UV or IR light, tobacco smoke) and must be seen in the context of the aging process especially of the corium and the subcutis. Morphological alterations become apparent in the form of epithelial atrophy, structural changes within the basal membrane, and a decrease in cell count of melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Signs of cellular senescence are reduced proliferation of keratinocytes, cumulation of dysplastic keratinocytes, various mutations (e.g., c-Fos/c-Jun, STAT3, FoxO1), as well as multiple lipid or amino acid metabolic aberrations (e.g., production of advanced glycation endproducts). This causes functional changes within the physical (lipid deficiency, water distribution dysfunction, lack of hygroscopic substances), chemical (pH conditions, oxygen radicals), and immunological barrier. Prophylactically, barrier-protective care products, antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, B3, E, polyphenols, flavonoids), sunscreen products/measurements, and retinoids are used. For correcting alterations in aged epidermis, chemical peelings (fruit acids, β-hydroxy acid, trichloroacetic acid, phenolic compounds), non-ablative (IPL, PDL, Nd:YAG) as well as ablative (CO2, Erbium-YAG) light-assisted methods are used. PMID:26636143

  20. Aging Random Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, S

    1997-01-01

    Aging refers to the property of two-time correlation functions to decay very slowly on (at least) two time scales. This phenomenon has gained recent attention due to experimental observations of the history dependent relaxation behavior in amorphous materials (``Glasses'') which pose a challenge to theorist. Aging signals the breaking of time-translational invariance and the violation of the fluctuation dissipation theorem during the relaxation process. But while the origin of aging in disordered media is profound, and the discussion is clad in the language of a well-developed theory, systems as simple as a random walk near a wall can exhibit aging. Such a simple walk serves well to illustrate the phenomenon and some of the physics behind it.