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Sample records for aged 5-11 years

  1. Predicting dyslexia at age 11 from a risk index questionnaire at age 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-08-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A questionnaire was given to caretakers of 120 5-year-old children, and a risk index score was calculated based on questions regarding health, laterality, motor skills, language, special needs education and heredity. An at-risk group (n = 25) and matched controls (n = 24) were followed until age 11, when a similar questionnaire and literacy tests were administered to the children who participated in the follow-up study (22 at risk and 20 control). Half of the at-risk children and two of the control children at age 5 were identified as having dyslexia at age 11 (8 girls and 5 boys). It is concluded that it is possible to identify children at the age of 5 who will have dyslexia at the age of 11 through a questionnaire approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mathematics year 5 answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine administered to children 10 or 11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gary S; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Sheng, Xiaohua; Decker, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Boosting immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis through the use of Tdap vaccines is routinely recommended at 11 to 12 years of age; some states, however, require Tdap for entry into middle school, which may begin at 10 years of age. This study was conducted to determine whether Tdap5 (Adacel), which is licensed for use in children beginning at 11 years of age, is as safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds as it is in 11-year-olds. Children who had received 5 previous doses of any diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were enrolled in a phase IV clinical trial; 646 10-year-olds and 645 11-year-olds completed the study, which involved a single intramuscular dose of Tdap5 along with pre- and postvaccination serologies. Postvaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody to pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbria types 2 and 3) of 10-year-olds were noninferior to those of 11-year-olds, as were booster response rates for all pertussis antibodies, except for those to fimbrial antigens (94% and 97%, respectively). Seroprotection rates among 10-year-olds for tetanus and diphtheria were noninferior to those in 11-year-olds. Rates of injection site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and unsolicited adverse events, adverse reactions, and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. These data support the conclusion that Tdap5 is safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01311557.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Cognitive development in children up to age 11 years born after ART-a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuscia, Anna; Mills, Melinda C

    2017-07-01

    How does the cognitive development of children conceived after ART (IVF and ICSI) - measured as cognitive skills at age 3, 5, 7 and 11 years - differ over time from those born after natural conception (NC)? Improved measures of cognitive development up to age 5 years were recorded in children conceived with ART compared to NC, which attenuates by 11 years, with ART children still scoring slightly better than NC children. Results on the cognitive outcomes of children conceived after ART have been highly contradictory. Some have shown that ART children have an impaired behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive development and higher risk of mental disorders. Others have reported no increased risk or difference. Cognitive development has not been previously examined using latent growth curve models from ages 3 to 11 years, also including appropriate attention to confounding parental characteristics. Longitudinal data for the first five waves (2000-2012) of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were used, which is a two-stage sample of all infants born in 2000-2001 and resident in the UK at 9 months of age, drawn from the Department of Social Security Child Benefit Registers. A final sample of N = 15 218 children (125 IVF and 61 ICSI), from 14 816 families was used. Information was available for all waves for 8298 children. Four additional follow-up surveys were conducted in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2012. Our sample includes children born within a union (married or cohabiting parents) and where information on cognitive scores was available for at least two measurement points. Cognitive development was assessed with the British Ability Scales. At age 3 and 5 years (wave 2 and 3), children completed the naming vocabulary component, which measures expressive verbal ability. At age 7 years (wave 4), verbal cognitive abilities were assessed through the word reading test, and at age 11 years (wave 5) through a verbal similarity test. Two-tailed Student's t-tests examined differences

  5. Parent-only interventions for childhood overweight or obesity in children aged 5 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveman, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Johnson, Rebecca E; Robertson, Wendy; Colquitt, Jill L; Mead, Emma L; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2015-12-21

    Child and adolescent overweight and obesity have increased globally, and are associated with short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the efficacy of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions delivered to parents only for the treatment of overweight and obesity in children aged 5 to 11 years. We performed a systematic literature search of databases including the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS as well trial registers. We checked references of identified trials and systematic reviews. We applied no language restrictions. The date of the last search was March 2015 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions delivered to parents only for treating overweight or obesity in children aged 5 to 11 years. Two review authors independently assessed trials for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality using the GRADE instrument. Where necessary, we contacted authors for additional information. We included 20 RCTs, including 3057 participants. The number of participants ranged per trial between 15 and 645. Follow-up ranged between 24 weeks and two years. Eighteen trials were parallel RCTs and two were cluster RCTs. Twelve RCTs had two comparisons and eight RCTs had three comparisons. The interventions varied widely; the duration, content, delivery and follow-up of the interventions were heterogeneous. The comparators also differed. This review categorised the comparisons into four groups: parent-only versus parent-child, parent-only versus waiting list controls, parent-only versus minimal contact interventions and parent-only versus other parent-only interventions.Trial quality was generally low with a large proportion of trials rated as high risk of bias on individual risk of bias criteria.In trials comparing a parent-only intervention with a parent-child intervention, the body mass index (BMI) z score change showed a mean difference (MD

  6. Ethnic variability in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years: is ethnic-specific calibration of bioelectrical impedance required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lee

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration.In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698. Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution.In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance+0.18*weight.Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

  7. Trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish national birth cohort at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Olsen, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-11-01

    We prospectively examined trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cell phone use was assessed at ages 7 and 11 years, and we examined use patterns by age, by year of birth, and in relation to specific individual characteristics. There was an increase in cell phone use from age 7 (37%) to 11 years (94%). There was a clear pattern of greater reported cell phone use among children at age 7 years with later birth year, but this trend disappeared at age 11. Girls and those who used phones at age 7 talked more often and for longer durations at age 11 years. Low socio-economic status and later year of birth were associated with voice calls at age 7 but not at age 11 years. At age 11 most used cell phones for texting and gaming more than for voice calls. Further, children who started using cell phones at age 7 years were more likely to be heavy cell phone voice users at age 11 years, making early use a marker for higher cumulative exposure regardless of year of birth. As cell phone technology continues to advance, new use patterns will continue to emerge, and exposure assessment research among children must reflect these trends.

  8. Occlusal caries risk assessment using Cariogram analysis in student aged 11-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Wardani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Introduction: Basic Health Research 2013 showed Dental Caries Index in school age student in West Java was lower than the expected target, with occlusal surface as most affected part. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk status of dental caries in school age student by using cariogram analysis. Methods: Observational research. Study was conducted on 30 student aged 11-12 years with caries high risk on occlusal surfaces. Purposive sampling was taken from students of SDN Cikawari and SDN Mekarjaya Bandung Regency with high DMF-S index. Inclusion criteria: male and female, aged 11-12 years, good systemic health, SDN Mekarjaya and SDN Cikawari Bandung Regency students. Exclusion criteria: suffering from systemic disorder, currently in long-term antibiotic therapy, orthodontic appliance usage. Case history, eating habits and intake of fluoride, caries experience, salivary volume and buffering capacity of each sample was examined using cariogram examination method. Results: The cariogram analysis showed 43% chance of caries avoidance. Diet control was 23.3%, includes two factors: sugary foods and eating frequency. Bacteria control was 11.9% by evaluating both bacterial factors (the amount of plaque and the bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Vulnerability control was 14.4%, including caries prevention by the continuation of fluorine program and other conditions control that affect salivary secretions. Conclusion: Based on cariogram analysis found that all samples who had occlusal surfaces caries were at a high risk category, but still having moderate potential of avoiding new caries occurrence by controlling risk factors. Keywords: Cariogram analysis, Occlusal caries, Aged 11-12 years

  9. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years.A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India.Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia.Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  10. [Expression of the emotions in the drawing of a man by the child from 5 to 11 years of age].

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    Brechet, Claire; Picard, Delphine; Baldy, René

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the development of children's ability to express emotions in their human figure drawing. Sixty children of 5, 8, and 11 years were asked to draw "a man," and then a "sad", "happy," "angry" and "surprised" man. Expressivity of the drawings was assessed by means of two procedures: a limited choice and a free labelling procedure. Emotionally expressive drawings were then evaluated in terms of the number and the type of graphic cues that were used to express emotion. It was found that children are able to depict happiness and sadness at 8, anger and surprise at 11. With age, children use increasingly numerous and complex graphic cues for each emotion (i.e., facial expression, body position, and contextual cues). Graphic cues for facial expression (e.g., concave mouth, curved eyebrows, wide opened eyes) share strong similarities with specific "action units" described by Ekman and Friesen (1978) in their Facial Action Coding System. Children's ability to depict emotion in their human figure drawing is discussed in relation to perceptual, conceptual, and graphic abilities.

  11. Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Dietrich, Kim N; Xu, Yingying; Xie, Changchun; Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment. To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years. We used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16±3weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility. Median serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5years, but not at age 8years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated

  12. Maternal-infant relationship quality and risk of obesity at age 5.5 years in a national US cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in infancy. In addition it is not known whether the increased risk is associated with the mother’s or the child’s contribution to the relationship quality. Methods We analyzed data (n = 5650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of U.S. children born in 2001 and followed until they entered kindergarten. At 9 months of age, the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) was used to assess the quality of observed playtime interactions between mothers and infants, yielding separate scores for maternal and infant behaviors. Obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) at age 5.5 years was based on measured weight and height. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of obesity at 5.5 years of age was higher among children in the lowest quartile of maternal NCATS score (20.2% [95% CI: 17.2%, 23.2%]) than in the highest quartile (13.9% [11.3%, 16.5%]), but maternal NCATS score was not significantly associated with obesity after adjustment for race/ethnicity, maternal education and household income. The prevalence of obesity at 5.5 years of age was similar among children in the lowest quartile of infant NCATS score (17.4% [14.4%, 20.3%]) and in the highest quartile (17.6% 14.4%, 20.8%]), and was not changed with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Maternal-infant relationship quality, assessed by direct observation at 9 months of age in a national sample, was not associated with an increased risk of obesity at age 5.5 years after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24564412

  13. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD.

  14. Brain regional α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping, used as an index of 5-HT synthesis, in healthy adults: absence of an age effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco; Sakai, Yojiro; Morais, Jose A.; Diksic, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies suggest that selective aspects of the brain serotonin (5-HT) system change during the aging process. Here, we assessed the effects of aging on the brain regional α-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-[ 11 C]MTrp) trapping rate constant (K*; μl.g -1 .min -1 ), which, with certain assumptions, could be taken as a proxy of 5-HT synthesis. Thirty-six healthy right-handed subjects had positron emission tomography (PET) scans following injection with α-[ 11 C]MTrp [18 males aged 46.6 ± 22.2 years (range 20-80 years) and 18 females aged 33.0 ± 15.5 years (range 20-80 years)]. The trapping rate constant, K*, was calculated with the graphical method for irreversible ligands using the sinus-venous input function. A priori selected volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined using an automatic algorithm. VOI analysis showed no correlation between age and brain regional K* values. As reported by others, significant age-related reductions of gray matter were observed in the thalamus and frontal and cingulate cortices; even with partial volume correction there was still no significant relationship between K* and age. Further exploratory SPM voxelwise correlation between age and α-[ 11 C]MTrp trapping, using p = 0.05 (uncorrected), as well as voxel-based morphometry, was in agreement with the VOI analysis. The dissociation between age-related changes in brain anatomy and this index of serotonin synthesis suggests independent mechanisms underlying the normal aging process. (orig.)

  15. Factor Analysis of the HK-WISC at 11 Age Levels between 5 and 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), across 11 age groups in the standardization sample of Chinese children (N=1,100). Results indicated that the three factors, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, and Freedom from Distractibility, identified in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  16. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were trace...

  17. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S D; Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Rush, M A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS---To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class. METHODS---Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932. Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449 of th...

  18. Age and sex effects on 5-HT(4) receptors in the human brain: a [(11)C]SB207145 PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Haahr, Mette T; Marner, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies indicate that the 5-HT(4) receptor activation influence cognitive function, affective symptoms, and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevalence of AD increases with aging, and women have a higher predisposition to both AD and affective disorders than men....... This study aimed to investigate sex and age effects on 5-HT(4) receptor-binding potentials in striatum, the limbic system, and neocortex. Positron-emission tomographic scans were conducted using the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 in a cohort of 30 healthy subjects (mean age 44 years; range 20 to 86 years; 14...... in the limbic system. The lower limbic 5-HT(4) receptor binding in women supports a role for 5-HT(4) receptors in the sex-specific differences in emotional control and might contribute to the higher prevalence of affective diseases and AD in women. The relatively stable 5-HT(4) receptor binding with aging...

  19. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  20. The Relationship between Psychological Health and Attitude toward Christianity among Pupils Aged 11 to 15 Years in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Advocates of the secularization thesis describe radical decline in the significance of the Christian tradition among young people in England. In this context, a sample of 5,808 pupils age 11 to 15 years provided data about their religious identity and practice and completed the short-form Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (as a…

  1. Brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping, used as an index of 5-HT synthesis, in healthy adults: absence of an age effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sakai, Yojiro [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); University of Tokyo, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Morais, Jose A. [McGill University, Department of Geriatrics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Diksic, Mirko [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada)

    2007-08-15

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies suggest that selective aspects of the brain serotonin (5-HT) system change during the aging process. Here, we assessed the effects of aging on the brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan ({alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp) trapping rate constant (K*; {mu}l.g{sup -1}.min{sup -1}), which, with certain assumptions, could be taken as a proxy of 5-HT synthesis. Thirty-six healthy right-handed subjects had positron emission tomography (PET) scans following injection with {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp [18 males aged 46.6 {+-} 22.2 years (range 20-80 years) and 18 females aged 33.0 {+-} 15.5 years (range 20-80 years)]. The trapping rate constant, K*, was calculated with the graphical method for irreversible ligands using the sinus-venous input function. A priori selected volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined using an automatic algorithm. VOI analysis showed no correlation between age and brain regional K* values. As reported by others, significant age-related reductions of gray matter were observed in the thalamus and frontal and cingulate cortices; even with partial volume correction there was still no significant relationship between K* and age. Further exploratory SPM voxelwise correlation between age and {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp trapping, using p = 0.05 (uncorrected), as well as voxel-based morphometry, was in agreement with the VOI analysis. The dissociation between age-related changes in brain anatomy and this index of serotonin synthesis suggests independent mechanisms underlying the normal aging process. (orig.)

  2. [Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, André

    2010-01-01

    monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Guérin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.0 ± 13.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826 children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (±2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the

  3. Do very preterm twins and singletons differ in their neurodevelopment at 5 years of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Blondel, Béatrice; Arnaud, Catherine; Fresson, Jeanne; Burguet, Antoine; Subtil, Damien; Marret, Stéphane; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Kaminski, Monique

    2013-11-01

    Twins have inconsistently shown poorer outcomes than singletons. Although a high proportion of twins are born very preterm, data are sparse on the long-term outcomes in very preterm twins. The objective of this study was to compare mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm singletons and twins and to study outcomes in relation to factors specific to twins. Birth cohort study Etude Epidemiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels (EPIPAGE). Nine regions in France. All very preterm live births occurring from 22 to 32 weeks of gestation in all maternity wards of nine French regions in 1997 (n=2773). Neurodevelopmental status, including cerebral palsy, and a cognitive assessment with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, with scores on the Mental Processing Composite (MPC) scale, was available for 1732 and 1473 children at 5 years of age, respectively. Among live births, twins had higher hospital mortality than singletons (adjusted (a)OR: 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9)). Among survivors, there was no crude difference at 5 years between twins and singletons in the prevalence of cerebral palsy (8.0% vs 9.1%, respectively), MPC <70 (9.5% vs 11.1%) and mean MPC (94.6 vs 94.4). However, after adjustment for sex, gestational age, intrauterine growth restriction and social factors, twins were more likely to have lower MPC scores (mean difference: -2.4 (95% CI-4.8 to 0.01)). Live born twins had a higher risk of mortality when birth weight discordance was present (aOR:2.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 4.8)), but there were no differences in long-term outcomes. Compared with very preterm singletons, twins had higher mortality, no difference with respect to severe deficiencies, but slightly lower MPC scores at 5 years.

  4. Associations between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms measured at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M D Thompson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. METHODS: Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. RESULTS: Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11 if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen.

  5. Associations between Acetaminophen Use during Pregnancy and ADHD Symptoms Measured at Ages 7 and 11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John M. D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Wall, Clare R.; Murphy, Rinky; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. Methods Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics) were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. Results Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11) if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised). Conclusions These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen. PMID:25251831

  6. Malaria Parasitemia in Children Aged less than 5 Years Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fever is the commonest manifestation and Children aged less than 5 years are most vulnerable. An appraisal of this disease among these children is important to reducing the impact of the disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence and identify factors affecting malaria parasitemia in febrile children aged less than 5 ...

  7. Advanced paternal age and mortality of offspring under 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhoj, S K; Jespersen, Louise Norman; Nissen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study question: Do children born to fathers of advanced age have an increased risk of dying before the age of 5 years? Summary answer: Children born to fathers aged 40 years or more have an increased risk of dying in early childhood due to an excess risk of fatal congenital anomalies, malignancies...... and external causes. What is known already: Advanced paternal age has previously been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and some long term health problems in the offspring. This is possibly due to specific point mutations, a condition known to increase in the sperm with increasing paternal age....... Study design, size, duration: A Danish population-based register study, designed as a prospective cohort study, of 1 575 521 live born children born from 1978 to 2004. The age of the child (in days) was used as the underlying time and the children entered the cohort the day they were born and were...

  8. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  9. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  10. Follow-up of 5- to 11-year-old children treated for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Klokker, Mads

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Determine the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and relate this to cumulative exposure to hypoxia, hypocapnia and hypotension. Describe chronic health problems among 5- to 11-year-old children treated for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). METHODS: The index...... group consisted of 85 children and a reference group was matched for age, sex and municipality of current residence. Questionnaires were sent to the families. The families in the index group were asked to participate in an examination of their child's hearing. RESULTS: Seven children (11%) had SNHL...... therapy compared with 8% in the reference group (chi-square test, p = 0.028). In the index group five children had cerebral palsy and two had developmental delay. Nineteen percent in the index group and 5% in the reference group had remedial education (chi-square test, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Children...

  11. Australian children with cleft palate achieve age-appropriate speech by 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Antonia; Parkin, Melissa; Broome, Kate; Purcell, Alison

    2017-12-01

    Children with cleft palate demonstrate atypical speech sound development, which can influence their intelligibility, literacy and learning. There is limited documentation regarding how speech sound errors change over time in cleft palate speech and the effect that these errors have upon mono-versus polysyllabic word production. The objective of this study was to examine the phonetic and phonological speech skills of children with cleft palate at ages 3 and 5. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Eligible participants were aged 3 or 5 years with a repaired cleft palate. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) Articulation subtest and a non-standardised list of mono- and polysyllabic words were administered once for each child. The Profile of Phonology (PROPH) was used to analyse each child's speech. N = 51 children with cleft palate participated in the study. Three-year-old children with cleft palate produced significantly more speech errors than their typically-developing peers, but no difference was apparent at 5 years. The 5-year-olds demonstrated greater phonetic and phonological accuracy than the 3-year-old children. Polysyllabic words were more affected by errors than monosyllables in the 3-year-old group only. Children with cleft palate are prone to phonetic and phonological speech errors in their preschool years. Most of these speech errors approximate typically-developing children by 5 years. At 3 years, word shape has an influence upon phonological speech accuracy. Speech pathology intervention is indicated to support the intelligibility of these children from their earliest stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  13. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  14. Long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release in children 5-11 years of age: results from a 12-month, open-label study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijman, Rien J M; Borgstein, Niels G; Ellsworth, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in children (aged 5-11 yr) with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label extension of a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolterodine ER. Patients had UUI...... suggestive of detrusor overactivity (>/=1 diurnal incontinence episode per 24h for >/=5 of 7 d) and >/=6 voids per 24h at baseline and had completed the 12-wk double-blind study. Patients received tolterodine ER (2mg once daily) for 12 mo. The primary end points were the incidence and severity of adverse......-blind tolterodine ER, n=221; placebo, n=97). The majority of patients were white (90%), mean+/-SD age was 7.6+/-1.5 yr, and 54% were boys. Forty-nine percent of patients reported >/=1 AE during the study, similar to that observed in the preceding 12-wk study (42%). The most frequent AEs were urinary tract infection...

  15. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  16. Is orthodontics prior to 11 years of age evidence-based? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnak, R; Johal, A; Fleming, P S

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether interceptive orthodontics prior to the age of 11 years is more effective than later treatment in the short- and long-term. Multiple electronic databases were searched, authors were contacted as required and reference lists of included studies were screened. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials were included, comparing children under the age of 11 years requiring interceptive orthodontic correction for a range of occlusal problems, to an untreated or positive control group. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently and in duplicate. Twenty-two studies were potentially eligible for meta-analysis, the majority related to growth modification. Other outcomes considered included correction of unilateral posterior crossbite, anterior openbite, extractions and ectopic maxillary canines. Meta-analysis was possible for 11 comparisons. For Class II correction in the short-term, meta-analyses demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in ANB (-1.4 degrees, 95 CI: -2.17, -0.64) and overjet (-5.81mm, 95 CI: -6.37, -5.25) with both functional appliances and headgear versus control. In the long-term, however, statistical significance was not found for the same outcomes. Treatment duration was prolonged with both functional appliances (6.85 months, 95 CI: 3.24, 10.45) and headgear (12.47 months, 95 CI: 8.67, 16.26) compared to adolescent treatments. Meta-analyses were not possible for comparisons of other interceptive treatments due to heterogeneity and methodological limitations. The results suggest a lack of evidence to prove that early treatment carries additional benefit over and above that achieved with treatment commencing later; however, this does not necessarily imply that early treatment is ineffective. Further high quality trials are required to assess the effectiveness of early treatment compared to later intervention. Interceptive orthodontics is variously recommended for a range of malocclusions both

  17. Agreement between children aged 5-6 years and their mothers in rating child oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto, Jenny; Tsakos, Georgios; Paiva, Saul Martins; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Celiberti, Paula; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2014-09-01

    Studies have assessed parent-child agreement on ratings of school-aged children's OHRQoL. There are, however, no studies on children younger than 7 years of age. The aim was to assess the agreement between children aged 5-6 years and their mothers regarding child's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 298 mother-child pairs (MCP), seeking the pediatric dental screening at the Dental School, University of São Paulo, completed the Brazilian version of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5), validated for children aged 5-6 years in Brazil. Agreement between total and items' scores was assessed using comparison and correlation analyses, by comparing the mean directional differences and by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values, respectively. The mean directional difference in the total scores was 0.13 (CI 95% -0.076; 0.338) and therefore not significant for MCP. The mean absolute difference for MCP was 1.26, representing 11% of the maximum possible score. The ICC for total score was 0.84 (CI 95% 0.798; 0.867) for MCP. Mothers do rate their young children's OHRQoL similarly to children's self-reports. When assessing OHRQoL of children aged 5-6 years, mothers may be reliable proxies for their young children. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Malpractice and radiologists, update 1986: an 11.5-year perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, L.

    1986-01-01

    All medical malpractice lawsuits filed in Cook County, IL, from January 1, 1980, through June 30, 1986, were reviewed and compared with similar data for the period of January 1, 1975, through December 30, 1979. A total of 11,203 suits were filed during the 11.5-year period; of these, 1391 (12%) were radiology related. The latter were categorized into six groups. The largest was missed radiologic diagnoses, which accounted for 40% of the total. The remaining groups included complications, 19%; failure to order, 17%; radiation therapy, 11%; slip and fall, 5%; and miscellaneous, 8%. Over the 1975-1986 period, the rise in the number of suits alleging radiologic misses outpaced all other groups. Although the most common type of miss continues to involve fractures, the frequency of missed carcinomas has grown at a disproportionately faster rate. Misses specifically involving CT, nuclear medicine, and sonography also are becoming more prevalent. Radiographic misses continue to occur at an average rate of 30%, with little hope of improvement. Methods to combat the rising number of malpractice suits are discussed. It is concluded that although programs to educate radiologists on risk management should continue, the ultimate solution may be a more enlightened public attitude as to what actually constitutes malpractice, and institution of tort reform measures by federal and state legislatures

  19. Histological comparison of long-bone cortex between 11-year-old giant cow with dermal dysplasia and the child cow aged 8.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Yoshihisa

    2012-02-01

    Young calves are known to be formed with laminar bone in long-bone cortex during growing periods and the osteon formation begins later. Previously, we reported that an 11-year-old giant Holstein cow with dermal dysplasia showed a delayed osteon formation. An 8.5-year-old cow, born from the giant Holstein cow, also showed some dermal dysplasia and the outer-half layer of the child almost retained laminar bone similar to that of the mother, although the body weight was approximately normal. The mother had formed the inner circumferential lamella and the child was going to form the inner circumferential lamella, but their outer circumferential lamellas were not formed yet in both of them, when compared with a 12-years-old cow as a control of the mother. Therefore, we suggest on long-bone formation pattern that the child resembled the mother rather than the control, and that the child had more or less succeeded to the mother genes of delayed osteon formation as well as dermal dysplasia which seemed to be genetic collagen disorder, although there were mild gene appearances.

  20. Fibroadenoma in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 11p15.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takama, Yuichi; Kubota, Akio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Higashimoto, Ken; Jozaki, Kosuke; Soejima, Hidenobu

    2014-12-01

    Herein is described a case of breast fibroadenomas in a 16-year-old girl with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 11p15.5. She was clinically diagnosed with BWS and direct closure was performed for an omphalocele at birth. Subtotal and 90% pancreatectomy were performed for nesidioblastosis at the ages 2 months and 8 years, respectively. Bilateral multiple breast fibroadenomas were noted at the age of 16 and 17 years. In this case, paternal UPD of chromosome 11p15.5 was identified on microsatellite marker analysis. The relevant imprinted chromosomal region in BWS is 11p15.5, and UPD of chromosome 11p15 is a risk factor for BWS-associated tumorigenicity. Chromosome 11p15.5 consists of imprinting domains of IGF2, the expression of which is associated with the tumorigenesis of various breast cancers. This case suggests that fibroadenomas occurred in association with BWS. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in New Zealand children at 3.5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, D J; Thompson, J M D; Clark, P M; Robinson, E; Black, P N; Wild, C J; Mitchell, E A

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing in Western societies. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced exposure to environmental allergens and infections during early life. To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of AD at 3.5 years of age, especially those factors implicated by the hygiene hypothesis. The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study is a case-control study of risk factors for small for gestational age babies. Cases were born at term with birthweight 10th centile. The infants were assessed at birth, 1 year and 3.5 years of age. Data were collected by parental interview and examination of the child. AD was defined as the presence of an itchy rash in the past 12 months with three or more of the following: history of flexural involvement; history of generally dry skin; history of atopic disease in parents or siblings; and visible flexural dermatitis as per photographic protocol. Statistical analyses took into account the disproportionate sampling of the study population. Analysis was restricted to European subjects. Eight hundred and seventy-one children were enrolled at birth, 744 (85.4%) participated at 1 year, and 550 (63.2%) at 3.5 years. AD was diagnosed in 87 (15.8%) children seen at 3.5 years. The prevalence of AD did not differ by birthweight. AD at 3.5 years was associated with raised serum IgE > 200 kU L(-1), and wheezing, asthma, rash or eczema at 1 year. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for parental atopy and breastfeeding, AD at 3.5 years was associated with atopic disease in the parents: maternal atopy only, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-12.23; paternal atopy only, adjusted OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.09-11.75; both parents atopic, adjusted OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.02-18.50. There was a higher risk of AD with longer duration of breastfeeding: or = 6 months, adjusted OR 9.70, 95% CI 2.47-38.15 compared with never breastfed. These findings remained significant after adjusting for

  2. Body composition during early infancy and developmental progression from 1 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Admassu, Bitiya

    2018-01-01

    aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during...... variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate...... of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression...

  3. Parental media mediation styles for children aged 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Shari; Ip, Edward; Richardson, Irma; Klinepeter, Sara; Finch, Stacia; Krcmar, Marina

    2006-04-01

    Studies indicate that children use media (television, video, and computer) more than the recommended limit of 2 h/d, but little is known about parents' role in mediating their children's media use. Office-based survey. Data were collected on demographics, reported media behaviors, parental awareness about media effects, television in the bedroom, and parental concern. We developed logistic regression models to examine factors associated with the following 3 mediation approaches: restrictive, instructive, and unlimited. Pediatric Research in Office Settings practices. Parents with children aged 2 to 11 years (n = 1831) presenting for a well-child visit. Almost half of parents reported a single mediation approach, including restrictive for 23%, instructive for 11%, and unlimited for 7%, with 59% reporting the use of multiple strategies. Restrictive (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; Peffects, whereas a decreased awareness existed for those who used an unlimited approach (OR, 0.87; Pparental concern (OR, 1.77; Pchildren (OR, 1.41; Pparents permitted a television in the child's bedroom (OR, 2.13; Pparental practices and reinforce active media mediation strategies.

  4. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  5. Preschool Gender-Typed Play Behavior at Age 3.5 Years Predicts Physical Aggression at Age 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Karson T F; Li, Gu; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2018-05-01

    Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.

  6. The Gap in Noise test in 11 and 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ana Paula; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2010-01-01

    gap detection in 11 and 12-year-old children. to investigate temporal resolution through the Gap in Noise test in children of 11 and 12 years in order to establish criteria of normal development. participants were 92 children, with ages of 11 and 12 years, enrolled in elementary school, with no evidences of otologic, and/or neurologic, and/or cognitive disorders, as well as with no history of learning difficulties or school failure. Besides that, participants' hearing thresholds were within normal limits and their verbal recognition in the dichotic test of digits was equal or superior to 95% of hits. All were submitted to the Gap in Noise test. The statistical analysis was performed by non-parametric tests with significance level of 0.05 (5%). the average of the gap thresholds was 5.05 ms, and the average percentage of correct answers was 71.70%. There was no significant statistical difference between the responses by age (eleven and twelve years), by ear (right and left), by gender (male and female). However, when comparing the tests, it was observed that the 1st test showed a higher percentage of identifications of gap, statistically significant than the 2nd test. in 78.27% of the population of this study, the gap thresholds were up to 5 ms, response recommended as normality reference for the age group searched.

  7. Characterization of age/sex and the regional distribution of mGluR5 availability in the healthy human brain measured by high-resolution [11C]ABP688 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, Jonathan M.; Porras-Betancourt, Manuel; Massarweh, Gassan; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Kobayashi, Eliane; Rousset, Olivier G.; Rowley, Jared; Reader, Andrew J.; Labbe, Aurelie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. The radiopharmaceutical [ 11 C]ABP688 allows for in vivo quantification of mGluR5 availability using positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we aimed to detail the regional distribution of [ 11 C]ABP688 binding potential (BP ND ) and the existence of age/sex effects in healthy individuals. Thirty-one healthy individuals aged 20 to 77 years (men, n = 18, 45.3 ± 18.2 years; females, n = 13, 41.5 ± 19.6 years) underwent imaging with [ 11 C]ABP688 using the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT). We developed an advanced partial volume correction (PVC) method using surface-based analysis in order to accurately estimate the regional variation of radioactivity. BP ND was calculated using the simplified reference tissue model, with the cerebellum as the reference region. Surface-based and volume-based analyses were performed for 39 cortical and subcortical regions of interest per hemisphere. We found the highest [ 11 C]ABP688 BP ND in the lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The lowest [ 11 C]ABP688 BP ND was observed in the pre- and post-central gyri as well as the occipital lobes and the thalami. No sex effect was observed. Associations between age and [ 11 C]ABP688 BP ND without PVC were observed in the right amygdala and left putamen, but were not significant after multiple comparisons correction. The present results highlight complexities underlying brain adaptations during the aging process, and support the notion that certain aspects of neurotransmission remain stable during the adult life span. (orig.)

  8. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5-69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Bärnighausen, Till W; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E; Bailey, Robin L; Tukana, Isimeli N; Steer, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years. Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.

  9. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5-69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Parks

    Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease (RHD is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years.Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0 and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5 due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses.Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.

  10. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in children aged under 5 years in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dan; Oshin, Femi

    2015-04-01

    To determine the proportion of Salmonella cases in children aged reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) and to compare the severity of illness. To analyse all cases of salmonellosis reported to public health authorities in children aged under 5years in the South West of the UK from January 2010 to December 2013 for reptile exposure, age, serotype, hospitalisation and invasive disease. 48 of 175 (27%) Salmonella cases had exposure to reptiles. The median age of RAS cases was significantly lower than non-RAS cases (0.5 vs 1.0 year). RAS cases were 2.5 times more likely to be hospitalised (23/48) compared with non-RAS cases (25/127; p=0.0002). This trend continued in cases aged under 12 months, with significantly more RAS cases hospitalised (19/38) than non-RAS cases (8/42; p=0.003). Significantly more RAS cases had invasive disease (8/48: 5 bacteraemia, 2 meningitis, 1 colitis) than non-RAS cases (4/127: 3 bacteraemia, 1 meningitis). Reptile exposure was found in over a quarter of all reported Salmonella cases in children under 5years of age. RAS is associated with young age, hospitalisation and invasive disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of high body mass index in rural Appalachian children aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Bianco, Joseph A; Heh, Victor; Rettos, Jean; Huston, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In rural regions of the United States of America, estimates of pediatric obesity often exceed national averages. This problem may be particularly pronounced in Appalachian regions, where significant health and economic disparities abound. This study presents the findings of a body mass index (BMI) screening program for 6-11 year old children living in a rural Appalachian community. County-wide estimates of high BMI (>or=85th percentile) were obtained to understand the health status and needs of our pediatric community and to compare obesity prevalence rates with national averages. An additional aim was to identify subpopulations of children who may warrant clinical intervention due to demographic and behavioral risks factors of high BMI. A school-based BMI screening was conducted of 6-11 year old children in southeastern Ohio. Investigators collected 3 sets of height and weight measurements from approximately 2000 elementary school students between 2006 and 2007. Caregivers for a subset of this population also completed a health behaviors questionnaire. Thirty-eight percent of children had high BMI, with 17% at risk for overweight and 20.9% overweight. Boys were 23% more likely than girls to be overweight (chi(2)(1) = 95% CI = 1.08, 1.40) and 11% more likely to become overweight with each year of age (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.15). Overweight children were more likely to view television, eat meals at school, and live with a caregiver who smokes. Consistent with expectations, prevalence of high BMI in this sample of rural Appalachian children exceeds national averages. Prevalence of overweight varied by age and sex; boys are particularly vulnerable to developing obesity, especially as they age. Preliminary survey data suggest that eating breakfast at home and at school and increased hours of television viewing may be associated with higher BMI, especially in younger boys.

  12. Overweight and obesity in school children aged 5 to 11 years participating in food assistance programs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Monterrubio, Eric A; Morales-Ruan, María del Carmen; Moreno-Macías, Lidia B

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI) and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic regression models were adjusted. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% and 9%, respectively. No significant association between overweight and obesity and participation in Liconsa was found. Among school-aged children in the middle socioeconomic status quintile, those enrolled in the School Breakfast program were more likely to be overweight than those not enrolled (OR= 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). We found no association between the Liconsa and the School Breakfast programs and overweight or obesity in school-aged children.

  13. Associations among height, body mass index and intelligence from age 11 to age 78 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2016-09-29

    Intelligence is related to both height and body mass index (BMI) at various stages of life. Several studies have demonstrated longitudinal relationships between these measures, but none has established whether height and intelligence, or BMI and intelligence are linked from childhood through to older age. We assessed the relations between these measures over an interval of up to 67 years using data from the 36-Day Sample, an initially-representative sample of Scottish people born in 1936, assessed at age 11 years (N = 6,291) and again at 77-78 years (N = 722). This paper focuses on the 423 participants (6.7 % of the original sample) who provided relevant data in late adulthood. Height and intelligence were significantly positively associated in childhood (β = .23) and late adulthood (β = .21-.29). Longitudinal correlations also showed that childhood intelligence predicted late-adulthood height (β = .20), and childhood height predicted late-adulthood cognitive ability (β = .12-.14). We observed no significant relationship between BMI and intelligence either in childhood or in late adulthood, nor any longitudinal association between the two in this sample. Our results on height and intelligence are the first to demonstrate that their relationship spans almost seven decades, from childhood through to late adulthood, and they call for further investigation into the mechanisms underlying this lifelong association.

  14. Prospective long-term follow up of children with anorectal malformation: growth and development until 5years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hondel, Desiree; Sloots, Cornelius E J; Gischler, Saskia J; Meeussen, Conny J H M; Wijnen, Rene M H; IJsselstijn, Hanneke

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate growth and development in children with anorectal malformations and to analyze effects of type of malformation and comorbidities. Non-syndromal children with anorectal malformations were prospectively evaluated at 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 years. Biometrics were obtained at all visits. Mental and psychomotor function development was determined. 108 children (59% male) were included. 49% had a high malformation, and 46% had ≥ 1 additional major comorbidity. All growth parameters were below the norm at all ages (pChildren with ≥ 1 additional major anomaly had lower height at all ages; at 5 years, mean (95% CI) height was -1.83 (-2.7 to -1.1) and -0.70 (-1.3 to -0.1) in children with and without comorbidities, respectively (p=0.019). Mental development was normal, irrespective of the type of malformation or comorbidities. Motor development was delayed at all ages. At 5 years, motor development (n=30) was normal in 70%, borderline in 23%, and 7% had definitive motor problems (p=0.043). Non-syndromal children with anorectal malformations are at risk for growth impairment, especially those with additional major comorbidity. Mental development is normal. Motor development is slightly impaired. Supportive care should focus on growth, dietary management, and motor development besides defecation problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of age/sex and the regional distribution of mGluR5 availability in the healthy human brain measured by high-resolution [{sup 11}C]ABP688 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Jonathan M.; Porras-Betancourt, Manuel; Massarweh, Gassan; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Kobayashi, Eliane [McGill University, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rousset, Olivier G. [Johns Hopkins University, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rowley, Jared [McGill University, Translational Neuroimaging Laboratory, McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal (Canada); Reader, Andrew J. [McGill University, PET Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal (Canada); King' s College London, St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Labbe, Aurelie [McGill University, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational health, Montreal (Canada); Douglas Mental Health University Institute / Douglas Institut Universitaire en Sante Mentale, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal (Canada); Rosa-Neto, Pedro [McGill University, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); McGill University, Translational Neuroimaging Laboratory, McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. The radiopharmaceutical [{sup 11}C]ABP688 allows for in vivo quantification of mGluR5 availability using positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we aimed to detail the regional distribution of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 binding potential (BP{sub ND}) and the existence of age/sex effects in healthy individuals. Thirty-one healthy individuals aged 20 to 77 years (men, n = 18, 45.3 ± 18.2 years; females, n = 13, 41.5 ± 19.6 years) underwent imaging with [{sup 11}C]ABP688 using the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT). We developed an advanced partial volume correction (PVC) method using surface-based analysis in order to accurately estimate the regional variation of radioactivity. BP{sub ND} was calculated using the simplified reference tissue model, with the cerebellum as the reference region. Surface-based and volume-based analyses were performed for 39 cortical and subcortical regions of interest per hemisphere. We found the highest [{sup 11}C]ABP688 BP{sub ND} in the lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The lowest [{sup 11}C]ABP688 BP{sub ND} was observed in the pre- and post-central gyri as well as the occipital lobes and the thalami. No sex effect was observed. Associations between age and [{sup 11}C]ABP688 BP{sub ND} without PVC were observed in the right amygdala and left putamen, but were not significant after multiple comparisons correction. The present results highlight complexities underlying brain adaptations during the aging process, and support the notion that certain aspects of neurotransmission remain stable during the adult life span. (orig.)

  16. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-07-01

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p  0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  17. [Child malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Peru: trends and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Manuel; Gutiérrez, César; Cunha, Antonio J; Dávila, Miguel; Alarcón, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Analyze malnutrition and anemia trends in Peruvian children under 5 years of age and their association with determinants in the 2000-2011 period. Nutritional indicators for children under 5 years of age from the 2011 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), and their evolution based on data from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 ENDES, were analyzed. Chronic malnutrition (CM) (height/age ≤ 2 SD), acute malnutrition (AM), (height/weight ≤ 2 SD), and anemia trends were estimated. Associations were found with factors such as sex, age, area of residence (urban or rural), region of residence, mother's education, wealth quintile, availability of public water system, sewer availability, altitude, presence of other children in household, birth order, presence of diarrhea in previous 15 days, and presence of cough in previous 15 days. AM, CM, and anemia in Peruvian children under 5 years of age decreased from 2000-2011. This reduction was not uniform for the three conditions, with decreases of 1.1% to 0.4% recorded for AM, 31.6% to 19.6% for CM, and 50.4% to 30.7% for anemia. Although the factors analyzed were related to the prevalence of these three illnesses, calculation of the adjusted odds ratios showed significant differences for CM (mother's education, Sierra region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, presence of two or more children in household, and being the third or successive child) and anemia (child sex [higher in males], children under 2 years of age, Resto de costa region and Selva region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, availability of public water system, sewer availability, presence of two or more children in household, and presence of diarrhea within 15 days prior to the survey). For AM, differences were observed according to some factors but they were not significant in the adjusted model. In the 2000-2011 period, Peru achieved reduction of its CM, AM, and anemia rates. AM rates decreased to almost one-third, with overall

  18. Use of social media is associated with short sleep duration in a dose-response manner in students aged 11 to 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the association between social media and sleep duration among Canadian students aged 11-20. Data from 5242 students were obtained from the 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide, school-based survey that has been conducted every two years since 1977. We measured the respondents' sleep duration against the recommended ranges of 9-11 h per night at 11-13 years of age, 8-10 h at 14-17 and 7-9 h per night for those aged 18 years or more. Overall, 36.4% of students met or exceeded the recommended sleep duration and 63.6% slept less than recommended, with 73.4% of students reporting that they used social media for at least one hour per day. After adjusting for various covariates, the use of social media was associated with greater odds of short sleep duration in a dose-response manner (p for linear trend fashion among Canadian students aged 11-20. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children and its incidence under the age of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Antao, B; Bevington, O; Furness, P; Ninan, G K

    2012-06-01

    To analyse the incidence of BXO among paediatric circumcisions for preputial pathology, in particular in children under the age of 5 years. Retrospective review revealed 1769 paediatric circumcisions performed between 1997 and 2008 at our institution. Data were collected on patient's age, date when sample received by pathology department and histological findings for all the foreskin samples received and examined during the study period. Epidemiological data were obtained from the Office for National Statistics, UK. A total of 346 foreskin samples were received and BXO was found in 182 (52.6%). There were 31 children under the age of 5 years circumcised for preputial pathology. BXO was reported in 6 (19.3%) and chronic inflammation in 16 (51.6%) of these patients. The foreskin was reported normal in 2 (6.5%) and the remaining 7 (22.6%) patients had preputial cysts or other pathology. Epidemiological population data analysis revealed the incidence of BXO per year to be 3.01 cases/1000 boys under 15 years of age and 0.322 cases/1000 boys under 5 years. The incidence of BXO in boys noted in our study is higher than previously reported. BXO can result in significant complications and should be considered in children even under 5 years. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence in children aged 9-11 years, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca, Miladys; Morejón, Griselda; Cabrera, Niurka; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Orraca, Odalys

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common heritable genetic disorders in humans. It is characterized by formation of neurofibromas, with marked variability in expression. Half the cases are due to autosomal dominant inheritance; the rest arise from de novo mutations. Prevalence varies by population, and prevalence in Cuba is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the prevalence of neurofibromatosis 1 in a population of Cuban children aged 9-11 years old in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Pinar del Río Province in 2004, in which 19,392 children were assessed for neurofibromatosis 1. The study was conducted in two phases: the first, a survey of the entire population aged 9-11 years by genetic counselors in the province's schools; the second, assessment by clinical geneticists of children who met criteria for referral to the Provincial Medical Genetics Center. Neurofibromatosis 1 cases and first-degree relatives were examined to identify the origin of the mutation (de novo or inherited). Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence was calculated, as well as history of a first-degree relative with the disease and frequency of several principal clinical signs-café au lait spots, freckles in places unexposed to sunlight, presence of neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and characteristic bone lesions. RESULTS Of the eligible population, 99.3% was screened (10,034 boys and 9358 girls). Active case finding resulted in referral of 200 children to medical geneticists and the disease was confirmed in 17, for a prevalence of one case per 1141 children aged 9-11 years old. Café au lait spots were the most frequent sign (100%), followed by freckles in areas unexposed to sunlight (82.4%) and characteristic bone lesions (41.2%). Only 4 of the 17 cases were previously being treated for the disease. CONCLUSIONS Neurofibromatosis 1 has high prevalence in the group studied in Pinar del Rio Province and most cases are not detected in

  1. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5–69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755

  2. Growth and Mortality Outcomes for Different Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Criteria in Children Ages 1-5 Years: A Causal Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ann; Malateste, Karen; Renner, Lorna; Sawry, Shobna; N'Gbeche, Sylvie; Technau, Karl-Günter; Eboua, François; Tanser, Frank; Sygnaté-Sy, Haby; Phiri, Sam; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Cox, Vivian; Koueta, Fla; Chimbete, Cleophas; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Giddy, Janet; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Wood, Robin; Egger, Matthias; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-03-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modeling analysis in children ages 1-5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups, and regions. ART-naïve children of ages 12-59 months at enrollment with at least one visit before ART initiation and one follow-up visit were included. We estimated 3-year growth and cumulative mortality from the start of follow-up for different CD4 criteria using g-computation. About one quarter of the 5,826 included children was from West Africa (24.6%).The median (first; third quartile) CD4% at the first visit was 16% (11%; 23%), the median weight-for-age z-scores and height-for-age z-scores were -1.5 (-2.7; -0.6) and -2.5 (-3.5; -1.5), respectively. Estimated cumulative mortality was higher overall, and growth was slower, when initiating ART at lower CD4 thresholds. After 3 years of follow-up, the estimated mortality difference between starting ART routinely irrespective of CD4 count and starting ART if either CD4 count <750 cells/mm³ or CD4% <25% was 0.2% (95% CI = -0.2%; 0.3%), and the difference in the mean height-for-age z-scores of those who survived was -0.02 (95% CI = -0.04; 0.01). Younger children ages 1-2 and children in West Africa had worse outcomes. Our results demonstrate that earlier treatment initiation yields overall better growth and mortality outcomes, although we could not show any differences in outcomes between immediate ART and delaying until CD4 count/% falls below 750/25%.

  3. The Enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: Assessing the relationship between internalising symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9-11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eKennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalising symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven Year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS - a universal school-based program targeting internalising symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-month follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalising symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as nine years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalising symptomology.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age.

  5. Prevalence and predictors of anemia among children under 5 years of age in Arusha District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejo D

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dyness Kejo,1 Pammla M Petrucka,1,2 Haikel Martin,1 Martin E Kimanya,1 Theobald CE Mosha3 1Department of Food Biotechnology and Nutritional Sciences, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST, Arusha, Tanzania; 2College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 3Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania Abstract: Anemia is a global health problem affecting most developing countries. We examined the prevalence of anemia and its predictors among children under 5 years of age in Arusha District, Tanzania. Random sampling technique was used to identify 436 children aged 6–59 months. Anemia status was assessed by measuring hemoglobin concentration from blood sample obtained from a finger prick and HemoCue® Hb 201+ photometer. Demographic information and dietary intake data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anemia cut-off points were defined according to World Health Organization standards for children aged 6–59 months. Logistic regression using backward procedure was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs at 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Prevalence rate of anemia among under-fives was found to be 84.6% (n=369. Multivariable logistic regression identified the following predictors of anemia; low birth weight (adjusted OR (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–3.8, not consuming meat (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 3.2–12.9, not consuming vegetables (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–4.1, drinking milk (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.15.2, and drinking tea (AOR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.5–13.7. It was concluded that low birth weight and dietary factors (ie, low or nonconsumption of iron-rich foods like meat, vegetables, and fruits were predictors of anemia among under-five children living in this rural setting. Community education on exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods should be improved. Mothers and caretakers should be educated about

  6. Failure of siblings to thrive beyond 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a family in which parents had consanguinity, being children of real sisters. They had given birth to five children. In their family, children remained healthy from birth to pre-school age and then started having symptoms around the age of 5 years and two of them succumbed to this illness. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome Type-1 is a rare sporadic autosomal recessive disease. It is characterized by the existence of two or more endocrinal disorders. Patients may require lifelong hormone replacement therapy for survival.

  7. Association of adiposity measures with blood lipids and blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, Vicente Martínez; Aguilar, Fernando Salcedo; Martínez, Montserrat Solera; López, Mairena Sánchez; Gutiérrez, Ricardo Franquelo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2007-09-01

    To examine the association of body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST) and percentage body fat (%BF) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with blood lipids, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 1280 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the Cuenca province (Spain). Data collection was conducted under standardized conditions, taking several measurements of each variable to enhance accuracy. Analyses were performed using age-adjusted correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression adjusted for age, BMI, TST and %BF. Correlations between %BF and apolipoprotein (apo) B, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and DBP were higher than those for BMI and TST. In contrast, the correlations between BMI, and apo A-I and SBP were higher than those for %BF and TST. The results were similar across the sexes. The correlations between each of the three measures of body fatness, and blood lipids and blood pressure were highest in children with greatest BMI and %BF. When analyses were adjusted for the three body fatness measures, %BF showed stronger associations than did BMI or TST with blood lipids and blood pressure, with the exception of apo A-I and SBP, which were more closely associated with BMI. %BF from BIA is more strongly associated than either BMI or TST with most of the blood lipid fractions in schoolchildren aged 8-11 years.

  8. Concussions From Youth Football: Results From NEISS Hospitals Over an 11-Year Time Frame, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan A; Buzas, David; Morawa, Lawrence G

    2013-12-01

    Youth football programs across the United States represent an at-risk population of approximately 3.5 million athletes for sports-related concussions. The frequency of concussions in this population is not known. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over an 11-year span from January 2002 to December 2012, the authors reviewed the concussions sustained by athletes aged 5 to 13 years while playing football, as evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and captured by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. There were 2028 (national estimate, 49,185) young football players evaluated in NEISS EDs with concussion from 2002 to 2012. There were 1987 (97.9%) males and 41 (2.1%) females, with a mean age of 11.2 years. The total number of concussions reported increased with age and by year. The majority of concussions were treated in the outpatient setting, with 1878 (91.7%) being treated and released. The total number of head-to-head injury mechanisms mirrored the total number of concussions by year, which increased throughout the 11-year span. The total number of players experiencing a loss of consciousness increased throughout the study period but did not match the total number of concussions over the 11-year time period. Fractures occurred in 11 (0.5%) patients, with 2 being severe (1 skull fracture and 1 thoracic compression fracture). Within the 5- to 13-year age range, there were a significant number of young athletes who presented to EDs with concussion as a result of playing organized football. Older children may be at greater risk for sustaining concussions, fractures, and catastrophic injuries while playing football when compared with younger children. Younger children are more susceptible to long-term sequelae from head injuries, and thus, improved monitoring systems for these athletes are needed to assist in monitoring patterns of injury, identifying risk factors, and

  9. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in women aged 40-65 years with 11 years or more of formal education: a population-based household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. R. Valadares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in middle-aged women with 11 years or more of formal education. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out using an anonymous, self-response questionnaire. A total of 315 Brazilian-born women, 40-65 years of age with 11 years or more of schooling, participated in the study. The instrument used in the evaluation was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was calculated from the mean score of sexual responsiveness (pleasure in sexual activities, excitation and orgasm, frequency of sexual activities and libido. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were evaluated. Poisson multiple regression analysis was carried out and the prevalence ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 35.9% among our study population. Multiple regression analysis showed that sexual dysfunction was positively associated with older age (prevalence ratios=1.04; 95%CI:1.01-1.07 and with the presence of hot flashes (prevalence ratios=1.37; 95%CI:1.04-1.80. Having a sexual partner (PR=0.47; 95%CI:0.34-0.65 and feeling well or excellent (prevalence ratios= 0.68; 95%CI: 0.52-0.88 were factors associated with lower sexual dysfunction scores. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction was present in more than one-third of women that were 40-65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. Within that age group, older age and hot flashes were associated with higher sexual dysfunction scores, whereas feeling well and having a sexual partner were associated with better sexuality.

  10. Psychological Well-being Trajectories of Individuals with Dyslexia Aged 3-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Dyer, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Dyslexia has been associated with a range of psychological well-being issues in childhood. However, it is unclear if these difficulties stem from coping with academic struggles at school, or from other pre-existing diagnoses that sometimes co-occur with dyslexia. Using UK Millennium Cohort Study data (n = 7224) from 2003 to 2011, the present study compared psychological well-being development from ages 3-11 years for children with (1) dyslexia only; (2) special educational needs excluding dyslexia; (3) comorbid dyslexia and other special educational needs; and (4) no special educational needs. Growth curve modelling results controlling for race, gender, age and family income suggested that with the exception of conduct difficulties, psychological well-being issues related to dyslexia do not occur preschool; rather, they commence upon starting school. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Nonnatural deaths of children under the age of 5 years in Ontario, Canada: A retrospective autopsy analysis of 10 years (2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sakina Rizvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to unravel the common patterns observed among nonnatural deaths of children under 5 years and suggest ways to prevent such unnecessary deaths. The study was confined to the province of Ontario to allow the identification of regional specific patterns. The database at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario was searched for all pediatric deaths from the years 2006-2015. All nonnatural deaths for children under the age of 5 years, including sudden infant death syndrome, were selected for the study. Manner and cause of death along with the corresponding year were recorded in tables. In the 10-year period, 940 nonnatural deaths were identified in Ontario through autopsy records which are equal to approximately 36.7% of the total childhood deaths. There were 295 accidental cases (11.6% and 71 homicides (2.8%. The leading causes of nonnatural childhood deaths in Ontario were drowning, traffic accidents, blunt trauma, and asphyxia. Nonnatural deaths are preventable through education and training of parents. Implementation of educational interventions can significantly reduce nonnatural deaths of children in Ontario.

  12. Ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 5-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkova NP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nadezhda P Cvetkova, Kristina Hölldobler, Philipp Prahs, Viola Radeck, Horst Helbig, David Märker Department of Ophthalmology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate an optical coherence tomography (OCT and visual acuity (VA-guided, variable-dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab injection for treating patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD from 2007 to 2012. Design: This was a retrospective clinical study of 5 years follow-up in a tertiary eye center. Patients and methods: In this study, 66 patients with neovascular AMD (mean age of 74 years, SD 8.7 years were included. We investigated the development of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, the number of intravitreal injections, and the central retinal thickness measured with OCT (OCT Spectralis over 5 years of intravitreal treatment. Results: The mean number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 5 years was 8.8. The mean BCVA before therapy was 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR. After 5 years of therapy, the mean BCVA was 0.6 logMAR. In all, 16% of treated patients had stable VA over 5 years and 10% of study eyes approved their VA. The mean OCT-measured central retinal thickness at the beginning of this study was 295 µm; after 5 years of treatment, the mean central retinal thickness was 315 µm. There was an increase in central retinal thickness in 47.5% of examined eyes. Conclusion: Other studies showed VA improvement in OCT-guided variable-dosing regimens. Our study revealed a moderate decrease in VA after a total mean injection number as low as 8.8 injections over 5 years. In OCT, an increase in central retinal thickness over 5 years could be observed. Probably, this is due to deficient treatment when comparing the total injection number to other treatment regimens. Anti-VEGF therapy helps to keep the VA stable for a period of time, but cannot totally stop the progression of

  13. Prevalence of Dental Caries in 5 – 6 Years and 12 – 13 Years Age Group of School Children of Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Subedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. Methods: The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratifi ed cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and fi lled teeth index and decayed, missed and fi lled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. Results: A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically signifi cant (p < 0.001. The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be signifi cant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically signifi cant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. Conclusions: The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level. Keywords: Children, dental caries, DMF index.

  14. The 2015 Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) of mental health and well-being at age 11 years in an Australian population cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Kristin R; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Dean, Kimberlie; Brinkman, Sally A; Bore, Miles; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Robinson, Kim M; Stevens, Robert; Harris, Felicity; Carr, Vaughan J; Green, Melissa J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) was designed as a computerised self-report assessment of children’s mental health and well-being at approximately 11 years of age, conducted with a population cohort of 87 026 children being studied longitudinally within the New South Wales (NSW) Child Development Study. Participants School Principals provided written consent for teachers to administer the MCS in class to year 6 students at 829 NSW schools (35.0% of eligible schools). Parent or child opt-outs from participation were received for 4.3% of children, and MCS data obtained from 27 808 children (mean age 11.5 years, SD 0.5; 49.5% female), representing 85.9% of students at participating schools. Findings to date Demographic characteristics of participating schools and children are representative of the NSW population. Children completed items measuring Social Integration, Prosocial Behaviour, Peer Relationship Problems, Supportive Relationships (at Home, School and in the Community), Empathy, Emotional Symptoms, Conduct Problems, Aggression, Attention, Inhibitory Control, Hyperactivity-Inattention, Total Difficulties (internalising and externalising psychopathology), Perceptual Sensitivity, Psychotic-Like Experiences, Personality, Self-esteem, Daytime Sleepiness and Connection to Nature. Distributions of responses on each item and construct demarcate competencies and vulnerabilities within the population: most children report mental health and well-being, but the population distribution spanned the full range of possible scores on every construct. Future plans Multiagency, intergenerational linkage of the MCS data with health, education, child protection, justice and early childhood development records took place late in 2016. Linked data were used to elucidate patterns of risk and protection across early and middle child development, and these data will provide a foundation for future record linkages in the cohort that will track mental and physical health

  15. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Sonderen, L.; Tamminga, P.; Kok, J.H.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age

  17. Accidental head injuries in children under 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Fischer, T.; Chapman, S.; Wilson, B.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type and nature of head injuries sustained by children under the age of 5 years who present to a busy accident and emergency (A and E) department following an accidental fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included all children under the age of 5 years, who over an 8-month period were referred to our A and E Department with head injury following an accidental fall. Data were collected regarding the height of the fall, whether or not stairs were involved, the type of surface that the child landed on and the height of the child. This was correlated with any soft-tissue injury or skull fracture. RESULTS: A total of 72 children (aged 4 months to 4.75 years) fulfilled all the criteria for an accidental fall. The heights of the falls ranged from less than 50 cm to over 3 m, with the majority below 1 m. Of the falls, 49 were onto a hard surface and 23 were onto a soft surface. Of the 72 children, 52 had visible evidence of head injury, 35 (71%) of 49 being the result of falls onto hard surfaces and 17 (74%) of 23 onto soft (carpeted) surfaces. There was no significant difference in the type of surface that resulted in a visible head injury. A visible head injury was seen in all children who fell from a height of over 1.5 m and in 95% of children who fell over 1 m. Of the 72 children, 32 (44%) had skull radiographs performed in accordance with established guidelines and 4 (12.5%) were identified as having a fracture. Of the 3 linear parietal fractures 2 were inflicted by falls of just over 1 m (from a work surface) and 1 by a fall of 80 to 90 cm onto the hard-edged surface of a stone fire surround. The 4th was a fracture of the base of skull following a fall from more than 3 m (from a first-storey window). CONCLUSIONS: In the vast majority of domestic accidents children do not suffer significant harm. Skull fractures are rare and probably occur in less than 5% of cases. To cause a skull fracture the fall needs to be from over 1 m or, if from a

  18. Normative monocular visual acuity for early treatment diabetic retinopathy study charts in emmetropic children 5 to 12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M

    2009-07-01

    To provide normative data for children tested with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts. Cross-sectional study. A total of 252 Native American (Tohono O'odham) children aged 5 to 12 years. On the basis of cycloplegic refraction conducted on the day of testing, all were emmetropic (myopia < or =0.25 diopter [D] spherical equivalent, hyperopia < or =1.00 D spherical equivalent, and astigmatism < or =0.50 D in both eyes). Monocular visual acuity was tested at 4 m, using 1 ETDRS chart for the right eye (RE) and another for the left eye (LE). Visual acuity was scored as the total number of letters correctly identified, by naming or matching to letters on a lap card, and as the smallest letter size for which the child identified 3 of 5 letters correctly. Visual acuity results did not differ for the RE versus the LE, so data are reported for the RE only. Mean visual acuity for 5-year-olds (0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] [20/29]) was significantly worse than for 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds (0.05 logMAR [20/22] or better at each age). The lower 95% prediction limit for determining whether a child has visual acuity within the normal range was 0.38 (20/48) for 5-year-olds and 0.30 (20/40) for 6- to 12-year-olds, which was reduced to 0.32 (20/42) for 5-year-olds and 0.21 (20/32) for 6- to 12-year-olds when recalculated with outlying data points removed. Mean interocular acuity difference did not vary by age, averaging less than 1 logMAR line at each age, with a lower 95% prediction limit of 0.17 log unit (1.7 logMAR lines) across all ages. For monocular visual acuity based on ETDRS charts to be in the normal range, it must be better than 20/50 for 5-year-olds and better than 20/40 for 6- to 12-year-olds. Normal interocular acuity difference includes values of less than 2 logMAR lines. Normative ETDRS visual acuity values are not as good as norms reported for adults, suggesting that a child's visual acuity results should

  19. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF EMOTIONAL CONDITION OF HEALTHY SCHOOLCHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH POLLINOSIS AT THE AGE OF 11–17 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Muradova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative characteristics of emotional condition of healthy schoolchildren and children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old was performed with Spielberg-Hanin questionnaire on the basis of computer psychophysiological complex CPPC-99 «Psichomat».One hundred seventy-five healthy schoolchildren and 46 children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old were included to the study. No significant difference in reactive anxiety between children with pollinosis and healthy children was found. It was shown, that pollinosis (in 35% significantly and concomitant diseases, such as bronchial asthma (in 57 significant influence on personality anxiety, in comparison with healthy children (significant personality anxiety was found in 3% of cases. It was revealed, that all children from control group with high anxiety rate (3% were 17-year-old adolescents.

  20. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

  1. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Baio, Jon; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Bilder, Deborah; Charles, Jane; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Julie; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Lee, Li-Ching; Pettygrove, Sydney; Robinson, Cordelia; Schulz, Eldon; Wells, Chris; Wingate, Martha S; Zahorodny, Walter; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-04-01

    comprehensive evaluation was performed, the proportion of children with a previous ASD diagnosis, the specific type of ASD diagnosis, and any special education eligibility classification. For 2012, the combined estimated prevalence of ASD among the 11 ADDM Network sites was 14.6 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Estimated prevalence was significantly higher among boys aged 8 years (23.6 per 1,000) than among girls aged 8 years (5.3 per 1,000). Estimated ASD prevalence was significantly higher among non-Hispanic white children aged 8 years (15.5 per 1,000) compared with non-Hispanic black children (13.2 per 1,000), and Hispanic (10.1 per 1,000) children aged 8 years. Estimated prevalence varied widely among the 11 ADDM Network sites, ranging from 8.2 per 1,000 children aged 8 years (in the area of the Maryland site where only health care records were reviewed) to 24.6 per 1,000 children aged 8 years (in New Jersey, where both education and health care records were reviewed). Estimated prevalence was higher in surveillance sites where education records and health records were reviewed compared with sites where health records only were reviewed (17.1 per 1,000 and 10.7 per 1,000 children aged 8 years, respectively; pspecial education systems in providing comprehensive evaluations and services to children with developmental disabilities. Disparities by race/ethnicity in estimated ASD prevalence, particularly for Hispanic children, as well as disparities in the age of earliest comprehensive evaluation and presence of a previous ASD diagnosis or classification, suggest that access to treatment and services might be lacking or delayed for some children. The ADDM Network will continue to monitor the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years living in selected sites across the United States. Recommendations from the ADDM Network include enhancing strategies to 1) lower the age of first evaluation of ASD by community providers in accordance with the

  2. Infancy predictors of hyperkinetic and pervasive developmental disorders at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    of autism spectrum disorders were problems of oral-motor development OR 5.02 (95% CI: 1.63-15.42) and overall development OR 4.24 (95% CI: 1.35-13.33). A deviant pattern of activity and interests were predictive of autism spectrum disorder, OR 5.34 (95% CI 1.45-19.70) and hyperkinetic disorder, OR 4.71 (95......% CI: 1.28-17.39). Hyperkinetic disorder was furthermore predicted by mother-infant relationship problems, OR 8.07 (95% CI: 2.90-22.47). The significant associations between infant developmental problems and autism spectrum disorders persisted in multiple logistic regression analyses controlled.......20 (95% CI: 1.55-17.47). No significant infancy predictors were found regarding emotional and behavioural disorders at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: Predictors of autism spectrum/pervasive developmental disorders and hyperkinetic disorders at child age 5-7 years were identified between birth and child age...

  3. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Kato, Kayoko; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jia, Tao; Kalathil, Akil; Latremouille, John; Calafat, Antonia M

    2018-01-01

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Xiao

    Full Text Available Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG, left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network.

  5. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network.

  6. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Jon; Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F

    2018-04-27

    -IV-TR criteria, and describes characteristics of the population of children with ASD. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which made considerable changes to ASD diagnostic criteria. The change in ASD diagnostic criteria might influence ADDM ASD prevalence estimates; therefore, most (85%) of the records used to determine prevalence estimates based on DSM-IV-TR criteria underwent additional review under a newly operationalized surveillance case definition for ASD consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Children meeting this new surveillance case definition could qualify on the basis of one or both of the following criteria, as documented in abstracted comprehensive evaluations: 1) behaviors consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic features; and/or 2) an ASD diagnosis, whether based on DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Stratified comparisons of the number of children meeting either of these two case definitions also are reported. For 2014, the overall prevalence of ASD among the 11 ADDM sites was 16.8 per 1,000 (one in 59) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites, from 13.1-29.3 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Males were four times more likely than females to be identified with ASD. Prevalence estimates were higher for non-Hispanic white (henceforth, white) children compared with non-Hispanic black (henceforth, black) children, and both groups were more likely to be identified with ASD compared with Hispanic children. Among the nine sites with sufficient data on intellectual ability, 31% of children with ASD were classified in the range of intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] 85). The distribution of intellectual ability varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Although mention of developmental concerns by age 36 months was documented for 85% of children with ASD

  7. Estimated exposures to perfluorinated compounds in infancy predict attenuated vaccine antibody concentrations at age 5-years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Mogensen, Ulla B; Timmermann, Amalie; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) are highly persistent and may cause immunotoxic effects. PFAS-associated attenuated antibody responses to childhood vaccines may be affected by PFAS exposures during infancy, where breastfeeding adds to PFAS exposures. Of 490 members of a Faroese birth cohort, 275 and 349 participated in clinical examinations and provided blood samples at ages 18 months and 5 years. PFAS concentrations were measured at birth and at the clinical examinations. Using information on duration of breastfeeding, serum-PFAS concentration profiles during infancy were estimated. As outcomes, serum concentrations of antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria vaccines were determined at age 5. Data from a previous cohort born eight years earlier were available for pooled analyses. Pre-natal exposure showed inverse associations with the antibody concentrations five years later, with decreases by up to about 20% for each two-fold higher exposure, while associations for serum concentrations at ages 18 months and 5 years were weaker. Modeling of serum-PFAS concentration showed levels for age 18 months that were similar to those measured. Concentrations estimated for ages 3 and 6 months showed the strongest inverse associations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, particularly for tetanus. Joint analyses showed statistically significant decreases in tetanus antibody concentrations by 19-29% at age 5 for each doubling of the PFAS exposure in early infancy. These findings support the notion that the developing adaptive immune system is particularly vulnerable to immunotoxicity during infancy. This vulnerability appears to be the greatest during the first 6 months after birth, where PFAS exposures are affected by breast-feeding.

  8. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. METHODS Preterm children (n=102; 44males; 58 females) with a gestational

  9. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in women aged 24-45 years: a randomised, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee; Tresukosol, Damrong; Monsonego, Joseph; Ault, Kevin; Clavel, Christine; Luna, Joaquin; Myers, Evan; Hood, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Bryan, Janine; Taddeo, Frank J; Esser, Mark T; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Barr, Eliav; Saah, Alfred

    2009-06-06

    Although the peak incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection occurs in most populations within 5-10 years of first sexual experience, all women remain at risk for acquisition of HPV infections. We tested the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine in women aged 24-45 years. Women aged 24-45 years with no history of genital warts or cervical disease were enrolled from community health centres, academic health centres, and primary health-care providers into an ongoing multicentre, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were allocated by computer-generated schedule to receive quadrivalent HPV vaccine (n=1911) or placebo (n=1908) at day 1, and months 2 and 6. All study site investigators and personnel, study participants, monitors, and central laboratory personnel were blinded to treatment allocation. Coprimary efficacy endpoints were 6 months' or more duration of infection and cervical and external genital disease due to HPV 6, 11, 16, 18; and due to HPV 16 and 18 alone. Primary efficacy analyses were done in a per-protocol population, but intention-to-treat analyses were also undertaken. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00090220. 1910 women received at least one dose of vaccine and 1907 at least one dose of placebo. In the per-protocol population, efficacy against the first coprimary endpoint (disease or infection related to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) was 90.5% (95% CI 73.7-97.5, four of 1615 cases in the vaccine group vs 41/1607 in the placebo group) and 83.1% (50.6-95.8, four of 1601 cases vs 23/1579 cases) against the second coprimary endpoint (disease or infection related to HPV 16 and 18 alone). In the intention-to-treat population, efficacy against the first coprimary endpoint was 30.9% (95% CI 11.1-46.5, 108/1886 cases vs 154/1883 cases) and against the second coprimary endpoint was 22.6% (-2.9 to 41.9, 90/1886 cases vs

  10. Predicting an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in young children are prevalent. Identification of symptoms or other factors that are precursors of asthma exacerbations would be useful for early treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether diary symptoms and beta2-agonist use before an exacerbation...... could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...... of an exacerbation. These methods predicted 149 (66.8%) of the exacerbations with a very low false-positive rate of 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: No individual symptom was predictive of an imminent asthma exacerbation, but a combination of increased daytime cough, daytime wheeze, and nighttime beta2-agonist use 1 day before...

  11. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  12. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  13. Academic outcomes in Asian children aged 8-11 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with atomoxetine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Luis; Singh, Pritibha; Harrison, Gavan; Huang, Yu-Shu; Jin, Xingming; Cho, Soo Churl

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms and changes in academic outcome of Asian children treated with atomoxetine. This open-label study enrolled patients aged 8-11 years with DSM-IV-TR-defined ADHD, who were naïve to ADHD medications and met the symptomatic severity threshold of 1.5 standard deviations above the age and gender norm for the ADHDRS-IV-Parent:Inv (ADHDRS) total score. Data collection occurred for 24 weeks and included academic outcome, measured by the school grade average (SGA). Of 228 patients enrolled from China (n = 82), Taiwan (n = 76), and Korea (n = 70), 77.2% completed the study. Statistically significant (P < 0.001) baseline to last observation improvements in ADHDRS and SGA scores were observed. However, no linear correlation between change in ADHDRS total score and SGA (-0.083, P = 0.293) was observed. Despite significant independent improvements in core ADHD symptoms and academic grades over 24 weeks, the mean improvements observed in these measures did not appear to be correlated.

  14. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  15. [Prevalence of high blood pressure and their association with body mass index in children between 5 and 11 years of Nahbalam, Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saury-Paredes, Leonel Alejandro

    To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure in children aged between 5-11 years in the community of Nahbalam, Yucatan, and its association with the body mass index. A transversal study with children of the primary school "Lazaro Cardenas del Rio" was performed, measuring blood pressure, height, and weight of 259 girls and boys; systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure equal or greater than percentile 95 for gender, age, and height at three measures was considered as hypertension; prehypertension was considered as blood pressure equal or greater than percentile 90 but lower than percentile 95. A prevalence of 11.9% prehypertension and 6.1% hypertension was found. There is an association between hypertension and overweight and obesity (p ≤ 0.001). The prevalence of high blood pressure in children of the community of Nahbalam, Yucatan, is 18%. The children with overweight and obesity have an almost tenfold greater risk of hypertension than the eutrophic children (OR: 9.896; 95% CI: 2.738-35.764).

  16. Increased skeletal muscle 11βHSD1 mRNA is associated with lower muscle strength in ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alixe H M Kilgour

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and function with age, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. Glucocorticoids (GC in excess cause muscle weakness and atrophy. We hypothesized that GC may contribute to sarcopenia through elevated circulating levels or increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR signaling by increased expression of either GR or the GC-amplifying enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1 in muscle.There were 82 participants; group 1 comprised 33 older men (mean age 70.2 years, SD 4.4 and 19 younger men (22.2 years, 1.7 and group 2 comprised 16 older men (79.1 years, 3.4 and 14 older women (80.1 years, 3.7. We measured muscle strength, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, fasting morning plasma cortisol, quadriceps muscle GR and 11βHSD1 mRNA, and urinary glucocorticoid metabolites. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression adjusting for age, gender and body size.Muscle strength and size were not associated with plasma cortisol, total urinary glucocorticoids or the ratio of urinary 5β-tetrahydrocortisol +5α-tetrahydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisone (an index of systemic 11βHSD activity. Muscle strength was associated with 11βHSD1 mRNA levels (β -0.35, p = 0.04, but GR mRNA levels were not significantly associated with muscle strength or size.Although circulating levels of GC are not associated with muscle strength or size in either gender, increased cortisol generation within muscle by 11βHSD1 may contribute to loss of muscle strength with age, a key component of sarcopenia. Inhibition of 11βHSD1 may have therapeutic potential in sarcopenia.

  17. Acceptability, Precision and Accuracy of 3D Photonic Scanning for Measurement of Body Shape in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children Aged 5-11 Years: The SLIC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C K Wells

    Full Text Available Information on body size and shape is used to interpret many aspects of physiology, including nutritional status, cardio-metabolic risk and lung function. Such data have traditionally been obtained through manual anthropometry, which becomes time-consuming when many measurements are required. 3D photonic scanning (3D-PS of body surface topography represents an alternative digital technique, previously applied successfully in large studies of adults. The acceptability, precision and accuracy of 3D-PS in young children have not been assessed.We attempted to obtain data on girth, width and depth of the chest and waist, and girth of the knee and calf, manually and by 3D-PS in a multi-ethnic sample of 1484 children aged 5-11 years. The rate of 3D-PS success, and reasons for failure, were documented. Precision and accuracy of 3D-PS were assessed relative to manual measurements using the methods of Bland and Altman.Manual measurements were successful in all cases. Although 97.4% of children agreed to undergo 3D-PS, successful scans were only obtained in 70.7% of these. Unsuccessful scans were primarily due to body movement, or inability of the software to extract shape outputs. The odds of scan failure, and the underlying reason, differed by age, size and ethnicity. 3D-PS measurements tended to be greater than those obtained manually (p 0.90 for most outcomes.3D-PS is acceptable in children aged5 years, though with current hardware/software, and body movement artefacts, approximately one third of scans may be unsuccessful. The technique had poorer technical success than manual measurements, and had poorer precision when the measurements were viable. Compared to manual measurements, 3D-PS showed modest average biases but acceptable limits of agreement for large surveys, and little evidence that bias varied substantially with size. Most of the issues we identified could be addressed through further technological development.

  18. The 2015 Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) of mental health and well-being at age 11 years in an Australian population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Kristin R; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Dean, Kimberlie; Brinkman, Sally A; Bore, Miles; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Robinson, Kim M; Stevens, Robert; Harris, Felicity; Carr, Vaughan J; Green, Melissa J

    2017-06-23

    The Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) was designed as a computerised self-report assessment of children's mental health and well-being at approximately 11 years of age, conducted with a population cohort of 87 026 children being studied longitudinally within the New South Wales (NSW) Child Development Study. School Principals provided written consent for teachers to administer the MCS in class to year 6 students at 829 NSW schools (35.0% of eligible schools). Parent or child opt-outs from participation were received for 4.3% of children, and MCS data obtained from 27 808 children (mean age 11.5 years, SD 0.5; 49.5% female), representing 85.9% of students at participating schools. Demographic characteristics of participating schools and children are representative of the NSW population. Children completed items measuring Social Integration, Prosocial Behaviour, Peer Relationship Problems, Supportive Relationships (at Home, School and in the Community), Empathy, Emotional Symptoms, Conduct Problems, Aggression, Attention, Inhibitory Control, Hyperactivity-Inattention, Total Difficulties (internalising and externalising psychopathology), Perceptual Sensitivity, Psychotic-Like Experiences, Personality, Self-esteem, Daytime Sleepiness and Connection to Nature. Distributions of responses on each item and construct demarcate competencies and vulnerabilities within the population: most children report mental health and well-being, but the population distribution spanned the full range of possible scores on every construct. Multiagency, intergenerational linkage of the MCS data with health, education, child protection, justice and early childhood development records took place late in 2016. Linked data were used to elucidate patterns of risk and protection across early and middle child development, and these data will provide a foundation for future record linkages in the cohort that will track mental and physical health, social and educational/occupational outcomes into

  19. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  20. Determinants of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0 – 5 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the prevalence and determinants of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0 – 5 years in Uganda. Design: Cross-sectional study using the 2000/2001 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) dataset. Subjects: Information was derived from the women's questionnaire done on sampled mothers ...

  1. Trends in asthma mortality in the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudenz, Gustavo Silveira; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update on trends in asthma mortality in Brazil for two age groups: 0-4 years and 5-34 years. Data on mortality from asthma, as defined in the International Classification of Diseases, were obtained for the 1980-2014 period from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. To analyze time trends in standardized asthma mortality rates, we conducted an ecological time-series study, using regression models for the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups. There was a linear trend toward a decrease in asthma mortality in both age groups, whereas there was a third-order polynomial fit in the general population. Although asthma mortality showed a consistent, linear decrease in individuals ≤ 34 years of age, the rate of decline was greater in the 0- to 4-year age group. The 5- to 34-year group also showed a linear decline in mortality, and the rate of that decline increased after the year 2004, when treatment with inhaled corticosteroids became more widely available. The linear decrease in asthma mortality found in both age groups contrasts with the nonlinear trend observed in the general population of Brazil. The introduction of inhaled corticosteroid use through public policies to control asthma coincided with a significant decrease in asthma mortality rates in both subsets of individuals over 5 years of age. The causes of this decline in asthma-related mortality in younger age groups continue to constitute a matter of debate. Apresentar uma atualização das tendências da mortalidade da asma no Brasil em duas faixas etárias: 0-4 anos e 5-34 anos. Dados relativos ao período de 1980 a 2014 referentes à mortalidade da asma, conforme se definiu na Classificação Internacional de Doenças, foram extraídos Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Departamento de Tecnologia da Informação do Sistema Único de Saúde. Para analisar as tendências temporais das taxas

  2. Growth and Mortality Outcomes for Different Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Criteria in Children aged 1–5 Years: A Causal Modelling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ann; Malateste, Karen; Renner, Lorna; Sawry, Shobna; N’Gbeche, Sylvie; Technau, Karl-Günter; Eboua, François; Tanser, Frank; Sygnaté-Sy, Haby; Phiri, Sam; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Cox, Vivian; Koueta, Fla; Chimbete, Cleophas; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Giddy, Janet; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Wood, Robin; Egger, Matthias; Leroy, Valeriane

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modelling analysis in children aged 1–5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups and regions. Methods ART-naïve children of age 12–59 months at enrollment with at least one visit before ART initiation and one follow-up visit were included. We estimated 3-year growth and cumulative mortality from the start of follow-up for different CD4 criteria using g-computation. Results About one quarter of the 5826 included children was from West Africa (24.6%). The median (first; third quartile) CD4% at the first visit was 16% (11%;23%), the median weight-for-age z-scores and height-for-age z-scores were −1.5 (−2.7; −0.6) and −2.5 (−3.5; −1.5), respectively. Estimated cumulative mortality was higher overall, and growth was slower, when initiating ART at lower CD4 thresholds. After 3 years of follow-up, the estimated mortality difference between starting ART routinely irrespective of CD4 count and starting ART if either CD4 count<750 cells/mm3 or CD4%<25% was 0.2% (95%CI: −0.2%;0.3%), and the difference in the mean height-for-age z-scores of those who survived was −0.02 (95%CI: −0.04;0.01). Younger children aged 1–2 and children in West Africa had worse outcomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that earlier treatment initiation yields overall better growth and mortality outcomes, though we could not show any differences in outcomes between immediate ART and delaying until CD4 count/% falls below750/25%. PMID:26479876

  3. A novel homozygous mutation IVS6+5G>T in CYP11B1 gene in a Vietnamese patient with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Mai; Nguyen, Thu Hien; Ngo, Diem Ngoc; Vu, Chi Dung; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lien; Nong, Van Hai; Nguyen, Huy Hoang

    2015-07-10

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal cortex. CAH cases arising from impaired 11β-hydroxylase are the second most common form. Mutations in the CYP11B1 gene are the cause of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. This study was performed on a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and with premature development such as enlarged penis, muscle development, high blood pressure, and bone age equivalent of 5 years old at 2 years of chronological age. Biochemical tests for steroids confirmed the diagnosis of CAH. We used PCR and sequencing to screen for mutations in CYP11B1 gene. Results showed that the patient has a novel homozygous mutation of guanine (G) to thymine (T) in intron 6 (IVS6+5G>T). The analysis of this mutation by MaxEntScan boundary software indicated that this mutant could affect the gene splicing during transcription. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Causes of death among children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe H; Stein, Claudia E; Boschi Pinto, Cynthia; Rakovac, Ivo; Weber, Martin W; Dannemann Purnat, Tina; Amuah, Joseph E; Glenn, Scott D; Cercy, Kelly; Biryukov, Stan; Gold, Audra L; Chew, Adrienne; Mooney, Meghan D; O'Rourke, Kevin F; Sligar, Amber; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    The mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region has not been comprehensively studied. We assessed the distribution and trends of the main causes of death among children aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years from 1990 to 2016, for 51 countries in the WHO European Region. We used data from vital registration systems, cancer registries, and police records from 1980 to 2016 to estimate cause-specific mortality using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. For children aged 5-9 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were estimated to be 46·3 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 45·1-47·5) in 1990 and 19·5 (18·1-20·9) in 2016, reflecting a 58·0% (54·7-61·1) decline. For children aged 10-14 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were 37·9 (37·3-38·6) in 1990 and 20·1 (18·8-21·3) in 2016, reflecting a 47·1% (43·8-50·4) decline. In 2016, we estimated 10 740 deaths (95% UI 9970-11 542) in children aged 5-9 years and 10 279 deaths (9652-10 897) in those aged 10-14 years in the WHO European Region. Injuries (road injuries, drowning, and other injuries) caused 4163 deaths (3820-4540; 38·7% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 4468 deaths (4162-4812; 43·5% of total) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Neoplasms caused 2161 deaths (1872-2406; 20·1% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 1943 deaths (1749-2101; 18·9% of total deaths) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Notable differences existed in cause-specific mortality rates between the European subregions, from a two-times difference for leukaemia to a 20-times difference for lower respiratory infections between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and EU15 (the 15 member states that had joined the European Union before May, 2004). Marked progress has been made in reducing the mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years over the past 26 years in the WHO European Region. More deaths could be prevented, especially in

  5. Screening for elevated risk of liver disease in preschool children (aged 2-5years) being seen for obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacher, Daniel R; Ariza, Adolfo J; Fishbein, Mark H; Binns, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase can heighten concern for the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Guidelines recommend alanine aminotransferase screening of obese children start at the age of 10 years. We examined alanine aminotransferase values routinely obtained for tertiary obesity care among preschool (2-5years) and school-age children. Medical records of children attending a tertiary obesity clinic and with alanine aminotransferase measured within 6 months of the initial visit were reviewed. Children with known genetic abnormalities were excluded. Children were grouped by age to focus attention on groups not covered by screening guidelines. Associations with elevated alanine aminotransferase (>30 IU/L) were examined. A total of 284 records were analyzed (73 preschool, 143 young school-age (6-9 years), 68 older school-age (10-11years)). Children were primarily Hispanic and had body mass index ≥ 99th percentile (preschool children 92%, young school-age 73%, older school-age 59%). In all, 26% of preschool children had elevated alanine aminotransferase (young school-age 30%, older school-age 44%). Preschool children with elevated alanine aminotransferase had higher body mass index compared to preschool children with alanine aminotransferase ≤ 30 IU/L (median body mass index 27.8 kg/m(2) vs 24.0 kg/m(2); Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.003), but there was no disparity for elevated alanine aminotransferase related to Hispanic ethnicity. For older children, Hispanic ethnicity, not body mass index, predicted elevated alanine aminotransferase. Alanine aminotransferase elevation was common in these preschool children. Screening severely obese children for elevated alanine aminotransferase should begin at the age of 2 years.

  6. TIGA-CUB - manualised psychoanalytic child psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant conduct disorders and their primary carers: study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edginton, Elizabeth; Walwyn, Rebecca; Burton, Kayleigh; Cicero, Robert; Graham, Liz; Reed, Sadie; Tubeuf, Sandy; Twiddy, Maureen; Wright-Hughes, Alex; Ellis, Lynda; Evans, Dot; Hughes, Tom; Midgley, Nick; Wallis, Paul; Cottrell, David

    2017-09-15

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends evidence-based parenting programmes as a first-line intervention for conduct disorders (CD) in children aged 5-11 years. As these are not effective in 25-33% of cases, NICE has requested research into second-line interventions. Child and Adolescent Psychotherapists (CAPTs) address highly complex problems where first-line treatments have failed and there have been small-scale studies of Psychoanalytic Child Psychotherapy (PCP) for CD. A feasibility trial is needed to determine whether a confirmatory trial of manualised PCP (mPCP) versus Treatment as Usual (TaU) for CD is practicable or needs refinement. The aim of this paper is to publish the abridged protocol of this feasibility trial. TIGA-CUB (Trial on improving Inter-Generational Attachment for Children Undergoing Behaviour problems) is a two-arm, pragmatic, parallel-group, multicentre, individually randomised (1:1) controlled feasibility trial (target n = 60) with blinded outcome assessment (at 4 and 8 months), which aims to develop an optimum practicable protocol for a confirmatory, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT) (primary outcome: child's behaviour; secondary outcomes: parental reflective functioning and mental health, child and parent quality of life), comparing mPCP and TaU as second-line treatments for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant CD and inter-generational attachment difficulties, and for their primary carers. Child-primary carer dyads will be recruited following a referral to, or re-referral within, National Health Service (NHS) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) after an unsuccessful first-line parenting intervention. PCP will be delivered by qualified CAPTs working in routine NHS clinical practice, using a trial-specific PCP manual (a brief version of established PCP clinical practice). Outcomes are: (1) feasibility of recruitment methods, (2) uptake and follow-up rates, (3

  7. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L.; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S.; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N.; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F.

    2018-01-01

    years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, and describes characteristics of the population of children with ASD. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which made considerable changes to ASD diagnostic criteria. The change in ASD diagnostic criteria might influence ADDM ASD prevalence estimates; therefore, most (85%) of the records used to determine prevalence estimates based on DSM-IV-TR criteria underwent additional review under a newly operationalized surveillance case definition for ASD consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Children meeting this new surveillance case definition could qualify on the basis of one or both of the following criteria, as documented in abstracted comprehensive evaluations: 1) behaviors consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic features; and/or 2) an ASD diagnosis, whether based on DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Stratified comparisons of the number of children meeting either of these two case definitions also are reported. Results For 2014, the overall prevalence of ASD among the 11 ADDM sites was 16.8 per 1,000 (one in 59) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites, from 13.1–29.3 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Males were four times more likely than females to be identified with ASD. Prevalence estimates were higher for non-Hispanic white (henceforth, white) children compared with non-Hispanic black (henceforth, black) children, and both groups were more likely to be identified with ASD compared with Hispanic children. Among the nine sites with sufficient data on intellectual ability, 31% of children with ASD were classified in the range of intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] 85). The distribution of intellectual ability varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Although mention of

  8. Repair of symptomatic paraesophageal hernias in elderly (>70 years) patients results in sustained quality of life at 5years and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, Oleg V; Louie, Brian E; Farivar, Alexander S; Shultz, Dale; Aye, Ralph W

    2017-10-01

    Paraesophageal hernias (PEHs) involve herniation of stomach and/or other viscera into the mediastinum. These commonly occur in the elderly and can severely limit quality of life. Short term outcomes of repaired PEH demonstrated low morbidity and significant improvement in quality of life, but long-term data for all patients, especially the elderly, are lacking. Retrospective chart review of a prospectively collected database of patients aged 70 or greater with a symptomatic PEH repaired 5+ years ago. Quality of life data were assessed preoperatively, at 12-24 months, and at 5+ years using QOLRAD, GERD-HRQL, and DSS. We identified 137 patients who met the age criteria, with 69 patients undergoing surgery 5+ years ago. With ten patients were lost to follow-up, 59 patients were analyzed, including 24 males and 35 females. Median age at repair was 77 years. There were two 90-day mortalities, with one occurring within 30 days of surgery. Patients alive at evaluation had a median age of 74 years and were followed a median 7.4 years. From baseline, QOLRAD improved from 4 to 6.5, GERD-HRQL improved from 11 to 5, and swallowing improved from 11 to 38. During follow-up, 21 patients died. Deceased patients lived a median of 4 years after repair, with a median age at repair of 80 years. At a median time follow-up of 2 years, this group's QOLRAD improved from 5.1 to 7, GERD-HRQL improved from 16 to 4, and swallowing improved from 14.5 to 35. In elderly patients with symptomatic PEH undergoing surgical repair more than 5 years ago, there was sustained improvement in quality of life. This justifies surgical repair of symptomatic PEH in elderly patients.

  9. The Predictors of Diet Quality among Australian Children Aged 3.5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura J; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to promote healthy eating early in life. The aim of this study was to examine diet quality and its predictors among Australian preschool-aged children. Diet was assessed at age 3.5 years using multiple 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was assessed using an adapted version of the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). Potential predictors of diet quality were from questionnaires at age 3, 9, and 18 months and informed by the ecologic model of childhood overweight. Potential predictors included child's sex, age of introduction to solid foods, breastfeeding status, food acceptance, maternal nutrition knowledge, modeling of healthy eating, self-efficacy, education, and home food availability. Data from 244 children participating in the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity, and Nutrition Trial in 2008-2010 and follow-up data collection in 2011-2013 were examined. Diet quality at age 3.5 years. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between diet quality and each predictor. A multivariable logistic regression model accounting for influences of covariates, treatment arm, and clustering by group tested associations between diet quality and significant predictors from bivariate analyses. RC-DQI scores had a mean±standard deviation score of 62.8±8.3 points out of a maximum of 85 points. Breastfeeding status (odds ratio [OR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.10) and maternal modeling of healthy eating (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.03) were positively associated with RC-DQI scores. Both breastfeeding status (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.63 to 5.85) and modeling (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.88) remained positively associated with diet quality after adjustment for child age, body mass index z score, energy intake, treatment arm, and clustering. Breastfeeding status and modeling of healthy eating were independently associated with children's diet quality. Early intervention could assist mothers to practice these behaviors to provide support for improving

  10. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  11. Physical activity levels and patterns of 11-14 year-old Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Asci, F Hulya; Altintas, Atakan; Guven-Karahan, Bengu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age and gender differences in physical activity levels and various physical activity patterns of 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents and also determined if these differ between genders. Six hundred and fifty girls and 666 boys between the ages of 11 and 14 years constituted the sample of this study. Participants self-reported physical activity levels and patterns were determined by a Weekly Activity Checklist. A 2 x 4 (Gender x Age) MANOVA revealed overall significant main effect of gender and age on the physical activity level of adolescents; however, gender x age interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an age-related decline in physical activity level, an increase in participation in low activities, and a decrease in participation in moderate and vigorous activities in 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents. In addition it was found that boys were more active than girls and participated more in moderate and vigorous activities.

  12. Clinical Characteristics of Adult Dogs More Than 5 Years of Age at Presentation for Patent Ductus Arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, B G; Saunders, A B; Gordon, S G

    2017-05-01

    The median age at presentation for dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is closure is associated with a decrease in heart size and increased survival time, which are not well described in older dogs. To describe the clinical characteristics of dogs with PDA ≥5 years of age at the time of presentation to a veterinary referral hospital. 35 client-owned dogs. Retrospective case series. PDA was diagnosed at a median age of 7.4 years (range, 5.1-12.3 years). Females represented 23/35 (65.7%) of the patients. Concurrent heart disease included degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD; 13), arrhythmias (11), pulmonary hypertension (7), and other congenital defects (2). Cardiomegaly was documented in the majority of dogs consisting of left ventricular enlargement (91%) and left atrial enlargement (86%). Median vertebral heart size in 24 dogs was 12.9 (range, 10.7-18.2). The PDA shunt direction was left-to-right in 33 and bidirectional in 2 dogs. Closure was performed in 26 dogs, including 4 with pulmonary hypertension. In 10 dogs receiving furosemide pre-operatively for management of heart failure, furosemide was discontinued (8) or the dosage decreased (2) at the time of discharge. Adult dogs can present with a left-to-right shunting PDA that results in cardiomegaly and clinical signs that can improve or resolve with PDA closure. This improvement is also apparent in dogs with PDA complicated by DMVD. Pulmonary hypertension that does not result in complete right-to-left shunting should not be considered a contraindication to closure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Upper School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 9-11 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collection of lesson plans and activities for students aged 9-11 years is based on a science curriculum developed by a group of Caribbean nations. The activities pertain to topics such as place value, prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes, square numbers, factors and multiples, sequences, averages, geometry, symmetry,…

  14. Proteus syndrome in a child aged 14 years and 11 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Elizarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder with problematic genetic identification. It has been hypothesized that it is related to a lethal dominant somatic mutation occurring at a post-zygotic stage of embryonic development. Clinical presentation of the disease has much in common with a  number of hereditary disorders and is frequently associated with malignancies. We present a clinical case of Proteus syndrome in a child aged 14 years and 11 months, in whom late diagnosis and late administration of specific treatment resulted in disease progression with the development of the end stage chronic renal disease. Only correct and early diagnosis allows for timely referral of a  patient to a specialized hospital for adequate care.

  15. Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p < 0.001). Women with enrollment versus newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p < 0.0001). Risks did not increase with age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. © 2014 UICC.

  16. Age- and gender-specific estimates of cumulative CT dose over 5 years using real radiation dose tracking data in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunsol; Goo, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jae-Yeong

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to develop a mechanism to estimate and analyze cumulative radiation risks from multiple CT exams in various clinical scenarios in children. To identify major contributors to high cumulative CT dose estimates using actual dose-length product values collected for 5 years in children. Between August 2006 and July 2011 we reviewed 26,937 CT exams in 13,803 children. Among them, we included 931 children (median age 3.5 years, age range 0 days-15 years; M:F = 533:398) who had 5,339 CT exams. Each child underwent at least three CT scans and had accessible radiation dose reports. Dose-length product values were automatically extracted from DICOM files and we used recently updated conversion factors for age, gender, anatomical region and tube voltage to estimate CT radiation dose. We tracked the calculated CT dose estimates to obtain a 5-year cumulative value for each child. The study population was divided into three groups according to the cumulative CT dose estimates: high, ≥30 mSv; moderate, 10-30 mSv; and low, <10 mSv. We reviewed clinical data and CT protocols to identify major contributors to high and moderate cumulative CT dose estimates. Median cumulative CT dose estimate was 5.4 mSv (range 0.5-71.1 mSv), and median number of CT scans was 4 (range 3-36). High cumulative CT dose estimates were most common in children with malignant tumors (57.9%, 11/19). High frequency of CT scans was attributed to high cumulative CT dose estimates in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (35 in 1 child) and malignant tumors (range 18-49). Moreover, high-dose CT protocols, such as multiphase abdomen CT (median 4.7 mSv) contributed to high cumulative CT dose estimates even in children with a low number of CT scans. Disease group, number of CT scans, and high-dose CT protocols are major contributors to higher cumulative CT dose estimates in children. (orig.)

  17. Early childhood malnutrition predicts depressive symptoms at ages 11-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, J R; Bryce, C P; Waber, D; Hock, R S; Exner, N; Eaglesfield, D; Fitzmaurice, G; Harrison, R

    2010-07-01

    We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Barbadian youth with histories of infantile malnutrition and in a healthy comparison group and the extent to which the effect of malnutrition was mediated/moderated by maternal depression. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a 20-item scale administered to youths (11-17 years of age) who had experienced an episode of protein-energy malnutrition (marasmus or kwashiorkor) during the first year of life and in a comparison group of healthy youths without a history of malnutrition. Their mothers completed the same questionnaire on the same test on three occasions when their children were 5-17 years of age at 2-5-year intervals. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was elevated among previously malnourished youth relative to healthy comparison children (p childhood malnutrition remained and were not discernibly attenuated from an unadjusted analysis. We also found significant independent effects of maternal depressive symptoms on youth depressive symptoms. Early childhood malnutrition contributed independently to depressive symptoms in youths who experienced a significant episode of malnutrition in the first year of life. This relationship was not mediated or moderated by the effects of maternal depression. Whether the later vulnerability to depression is a direct effect of the episode of malnutrition and related conditions early in life or whether it is mediated by the more proximal neurobehavioral effects of the malnutrition remains to be determined.

  18. The Association Between 25-dehydroxy Vitamin D and Lower Respiratory Infection in Children Aged Less than 5 Years in Imam Reza hospital, Bojnurd, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakshour, A.; Zadeh, F. K.; Sheikh, Z.; Kamali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the association between vitamin D deficiency and acute respiratory infection in children below age 5 years. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Reza Hospital in Bojnurd, Iran, in June 2013 and comprised 90 children below 5 years of age suffering from respiratory infections. They was selected on the basis of purposive sampling and were then categorised into two equal groups of 'acute' and 'non-acute' respiratory infection. Data collection was done using a questionnaire and serum level of 25-dehydroxycalcciferol was measured. SPSS 11 was used to analyse and interpret the data. Result: In the group of children with respiratory disorders, 9 (42.9 percent) exhibited vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics such as age, intrauterine age, weight, birth-weight, head circumference, height, gender, living area and respiratory distress (p>0.05 each). Vitamin D deficiency showed no meaningful statistical relation with acute respiratory infections (p>0.05). Conclusion: More studies with higher sample size and are recommended. (author)

  19. Screening for elevated risk of liver disease in preschool children (aged 2–5years being seen for obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Beacher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Elevated alanine aminotransferase can heighten concern for the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Guidelines recommend alanine aminotransferase screening of obese children start at the age of 10 years. We examined alanine aminotransferase values routinely obtained for tertiary obesity care among preschool (2–5years and school-age children. Methods: Medical records of children attending a tertiary obesity clinic and with alanine aminotransferase measured within 6 months of the initial visit were reviewed. Children with known genetic abnormalities were excluded. Children were grouped by age to focus attention on groups not covered by screening guidelines. Associations with elevated alanine aminotransferase (>30 IU/L were examined. Results: A total of 284 records were analyzed (73 preschool, 143 young school-age (6–9 years, 68 older school-age (10–11years. Children were primarily Hispanic and had body mass index ≥ 99th percentile (preschool children 92%, young school-age 73%, older school-age 59%. In all, 26% of preschool children had elevated alanine aminotransferase (young school-age 30%, older school-age 44%. Preschool children with elevated alanine aminotransferase had higher body mass index compared to preschool children with alanine aminotransferase ≤ 30 IU/L (median body mass index 27.8 kg/m2 vs 24.0 kg/m2; Mann–Whitney U test, p = 0.003, but there was no disparity for elevated alanine aminotransferase related to Hispanic ethnicity. For older children, Hispanic ethnicity, not body mass index, predicted elevated alanine aminotransferase. Conclusion: Alanine aminotransferase elevation was common in these preschool children. Screening severely obese children for elevated alanine aminotransferase should begin at the age of 2 years.

  20. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Growth Outcomes in Children under 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enju Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2 Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017. Inclusion selection and data extractions were performed independently and in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Findings were pooled using random effects meta-analysis, with heterogeneity assessed by I2 and τ2 statistic, stratified analyses, and meta-regression, and publication bias by Egger’s and Begg’s tests; (3 Results: Seventy-eight trials with 34,352 unique participants were identified, including 24 during pregnancy and 54 in infancy/childhood. Maternal zinc supplementation did not significantly increase birth weight (weighted mean difference (WMD = 0.08 kg, 95%CI: −0.05, 0.22 or decrease the risk of low birth weight (RR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.52–1.11. Zinc supplementation after birth increased height (WMD = 0.23 cm, 95%CI: 0.09–0.38, weight (WMD = 0.14 kg, 95%CI: 0.07–0.21, and weight-for-age Z-score (WMD = 0.04, 95%CI: 0.001–0.087, but not height-for-age Z-score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: −0.01–0.06 or weight-for-height Z score (WMD = 0.02, 95%CI: −0.03–0.06. Child age at zinc supplementation appeared to modify the effects on height (P-interaction = 0.002 and HAZ (P-interaction = 0.06, with larger effects of supplementation starting at age ≥2 years (WMD for height = 1.37 cm, 95%CI: 0.50–2.25; WMD for HAZ = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.05–0.19. No significant effects of supplementation were found on the risk of stunting, underweight or wasting; (4 Conclusion: Although the possibility of

  1. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  2. White-black and white-Hispanic differences on fluid and crystallized abilities by age across the 11- to 94-year range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; McLean, J E; Kaufman, A S; Kaufman, N L

    1994-12-01

    Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.

  3. Infant behaviors are predictive of functional somatic symptoms at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ørnbøl, Eva; Olsen, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate infancy predictors of impairing functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at child ages 5-7 years with a focus on problems with feeding, sleep, and tactile reactivity. STUDY DESIGN: This study is part of a longitudinal birth cohort study, Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC2000. Child h...

  4. [Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells Cuixart, M; Capdevila Prim, C; Girbau Solà, T; Rodríguez Caba, C

    2006-01-01

    To know the family environment, living habits and social characteristics in 11-13 years-old school children. A descriptive transversal study performed in 65 schools of Barcelona during the second three-month, involving 2354 school children aged 11-13 interviewed by 73 pharmacists. The questionnaire has thirty-nine questions referring to family structure, eating and drinking habits, preferences, life style parameters such as physical activity and television viewing. The survey revealed a family unit of two children and their parents was the most common. Only a 12% of the children surveyed lived with their grandparents. Furthermore, the findings revealed a low family presence during the three main meals on the working days, which increased on weekends, 26% on breakfast, 44% on lunch and 11% on dinner. A 24% had breakfast alone and the 46% ate what they wanted. About the afternoon snack, the 25% alone and the 55% what they wanted. A 60% never or practically never participated in decision making, when buying food. A 70% reported they did other activities while eating. Concretely, a 40, 39 and 59% of the children reported they had breakfast, lunch and dinner while watching television. The consumption frequency of trinkets, soft drinks and television viewing were lower for the children from private compared to public schools. This study show that food choice at shopping was mainly done by the parents, however, children had an important role in making decisions of what food they eat and the activities they do while eating. Therefore, pharmacists could have a potential role to intervene in the nutritional education to parents and children.

  5. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  6. The course of skull deformation from birth to 5 years of age: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Engelbert, Raoul Hh; Pelsma, Maaike; Groenewoud, Hans Mm; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; der Sanden, Maria Wg Nijhuis-van

    2017-01-01

    In a continuation of a prospective longitudinal cohort study in a healthy population on the course of skull shape from birth to 24 months, at 5 years of age, 248 children participated in a follow-up assessment using plagiocephalometry (ODDI-oblique diameter difference index, CPI-cranio proportional index). Data from the original study sampled at birth, 7 weeks, 6, 12, and 24 months were used in two linear mixed models. (1) if deformational plagiocephaly (ODDI skull shape can be predicted at 5 years of age; (2) if positional preference occurs, ODDI is the highest at 7 weeks and decreases to a stable lowest value at 2 and 5 years of age; and (3) regarding brachycephaly, all children showed the highest CPI at 6 months of age with a gradual decrease over time. The course of skull deformation is favourable in most of the children in The Netherlands; at 5 years of age, brachycephaly is within the normal range for all children, whereas the severity of plagiocephaly is within the normal range in 80%, within the mild range in 19%, and within the moderate/severe range in 1%. Medical consumption may be reduced by providing early tailored counselling. What is Known: • Skull deformation prevalence increased after recommendations against Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, little is known about the longitudinal course. • Paediatric physical therapy intervention between 2 and 6 months of age reduces deformational plagiocephaly at 6 and 12 months of age. What is New: • The course of skull deformation is favourable in most of the children in The Netherlands; at 5 years of age, deformational brachycephaly is within the normal range for all children, whereas the severity of deformational plagiocephaly is within the normal range in 80%, within the mild range in 19%, and within the moderate to severe range in only 1%. • Paediatric physical therapy intervention does not influence the long-term outcome; it only influences the earlier decrease of the severity of

  7. Antibody persistence 5 years after vaccination at 2 to 10 years of age with Quadrivalent MenACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine, and responses to a booster vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stan L; Christensen, Shane; Verma, Bikash; Xie, Fang; Keshavan, Pavitra; Dull, Peter M; Smolenov, Igor

    2015-04-27

    In a multi-center extension study, children 2-10 years of age, initially vaccinated with one or two doses (2-5 year-olds) or one dose (6-10 year-olds) of quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM), were assessed five years later for antibody persistence and booster response using serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA). Children 7-10 and 11-15 years of age, who received MenACWY-CRM in the original study, and age-matched vaccine-naïve children, were enrolled in this extension study. After an initial blood draw, children received one dose of MenACWY-CRM as booster or primary dose, with a second blood draw 28 days later. hSBA titers decreased five years after primary vaccination, but were higher than in non-vaccinated controls against serogroups C, W and Y, with substantial proportions having titers ≥8: 7-22% for A, 32-57% for C, 74-83% for W, and 48-54% for Y. Previously-vaccinated children demonstrated booster responses to revaccination against all four serogroups. Responses to primary vaccination in vaccine-naïve controls were lower and similar to primary responses observed in the original study. All vaccinations were generally well tolerated, with no safety concern raised. Approximately half the children vaccinated as 2-10 year-olds maintained protective antibodies against serogroups C, W and Y five years later, but fewer did against serogroup A. Declining titers five years after vaccination and robust booster responses suggest that five years may be an appropriate interval to revaccinate children, subject to epidemiology and delivery considerations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radium retention in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Bruenger, F.W.; Jones, C.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Retention of 226 Ra was substantially lower in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age compared to corresponding values for 1 1/2-year-old young adult beagles. As with young adults, average retention in mature dogs given about 10 μCi/kg exceeded that of mature dogs given 4 μCi/kg or less. Measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratios in bone were similar in mature and young adults. About 66% of the injected radium was excreted by mature dogs during the first 3 weeks, about 2/3 of the total excretion appearing in the feces. Distribution of 226 Ra within the skeleton was similar in mature and young adult beagles

  9. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Siebes, R.C.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Schuengel, C.; Smits, D.W.; Gorter, J.W.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP ( n=108; 72 males; mean age 6. y 3. mo, SD 12. mo;

  10. Evaluation of multiple intelligences in children aged 7 to 11 years through the implementation of an interactive software

    OpenAIRE

    Rebolledo Rodríguez, Rigel A.; Samaniego González, Euclides

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the evaluation project of multiple intelligences in children aged 7 to 11 years through the implementation of an interactive software, developed on Android for tablets, allowing parents, teachers, tutors, psy-chologists or other responsible adult, identifying the different types of intelligences that have children in order to know each other and develop their skills and their future potential. Similarly, research was developed to evaluate the effective-ness of the t...

  11. Academic Performance, Motor Function, and Behavior 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Citrate Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity: An 11-Year Follow-up of the CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Anderson, Peter J; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Doyle, Lex W; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy, and neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and may improve motor function at 5 years. To evaluate whether neonatal caffeine therapy is associated with improved functional outcomes 11 years later. A follow-up study was conducted at 14 academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom from May 7, 2011, to May 27, 2016, of English- or French-speaking children who had been enrolled in the randomized, placebo-controlled Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial between October 11, 1999, and October 22, 2004. A total of 1202 children with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g were eligible for this study; 920 (76.5%) had adequate data for the main outcome. Caffeine citrate or placebo until drug therapy for apnea of prematurity was no longer needed. Functional impairment was a composite of poor academic performance (defined as at least 1 standard score greater than 2 SD below the mean on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4), motor impairment (defined as a percentile rank of ≤5 on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition), and behavior problems (defined as a Total Problem T score ≥2 SD above the mean on the Child Behavior Checklist). Among the 920 children (444 females and 476 males; median age, 11.4 years [interquartile range, 11.1-11.8 years]), the combined rates of functional impairment were not significantly different between the 457 children assigned to receive caffeine compared with the 463 children assigned to receive placebo (145 [31.7%] vs 174 [37.6%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.02; P = .07). With all available data, including those from up to 24 Swedish trial participants, the rates of poor academic performance on 1 or more of 4 subtests (66 of 458 [14.4%] vs 61 of 462 [13.2%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.77-1.61; P = .58) and behavior problems (52 of 476 [10.9%] vs 40 of 481 [8

  12. Neurobehavioral Outcomes 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines M; Doyle, Lex W; Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win; Anderson, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    Caffeine is effective in the treatment of apnea of prematurity. Although caffeine therapy has a benefit on gross motor skills in school-aged children, effects on neurobehavioral outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate effects of neonatal caffeine therapy in very low birth weight (500-1250 g) infants on neurobehavioral outcomes in 11-year-old participants of the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial. Thirteen academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and Sweden participated in this part of the 11-year follow-up of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of general intelligence, attention, executive function, visuomotor integration and perception, and behavior were obtained in up to 870 children. The effects of caffeine therapy were assessed by using regression models. Neurobehavioral outcomes were generally similar for both the caffeine and placebo group. The caffeine group performed better than the placebo group in fine motor coordination (mean difference [MD] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7 to 5.1; P = .01), visuomotor integration (MD = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.0 to 3.7; P prematurity improved visuomotor, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial abilities at age 11 years. General intelligence, attention, and behavior were not adversely affected by caffeine, which highlights the long-term safety of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity in very low birth weight neonates. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Classifying Aging as a Disease in the context of ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eZhavoronkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex continuous multifactorial process leading to loss of function and crystalizing into the many age-related diseases. Here, we explore the arguments for classifying aging as a disease in the context of the upcoming World Health Organization’s 11th International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11, expected to be finalized in 2018. We hypothesize that classifying aging as a disease will result in new approaches and business models for addressing aging as a treatable condition, which will lead to both economic and healthcare benefits for all stakeholders. Classification of aging as a disease may lead to more efficient allocation of resources by enabling funding bodies and other stakeholders to use quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and healthy-years equivalent (HYE as metrics when evaluating both research and clinical programs. We propose forming a Task Force to interface the WHO in order to develop a multidisciplinary framework for classifying aging as a disease.

  14. Radiation therapy for malignant tumors in patients 80 years of age or older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Nozaki, Miwako; Yamakawa, Michitaka

    1992-01-01

    We report here, results of investigation of changes in the condition of elderly patients, 80 years of age or older (EP-80), treated with radiation, and analysis of the results of radiotherapy to assess the value of radiotherapy in treating the elderly. Between 1970 and 1989, 294 EP-80 with various malignant tumors received radiation therapy at the Department of Radiology, Gunma University Hospital. The number of EP-80 treated has increased recently to about thirty per year, and their incidence among newly registered patients has also increased to over 5%. The 5-year cause specific survival rates for male and female were 14% and 32%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the survival rates for male and female (x 2 =11.89, p=0.00056) because of inclusion of a significant proportion of female patients with gynecological malignancies. The 5-year survival rate for patients in the curative radiotherapy group (CRG) was 30%, whereas no patient of the palliative radiotherapy group (PRG) has survived for 5 years (x 2 =90.23, p=0.00000). In the CRG, the survival rate for females was significantly higher than that for males (x 2 =11.48, p=0.00070). Thirty-one patients survived for 5 year. Head and neck cancer and uterine lervix cancer were the most common tumors in 5 year survivors. Age was not a significant prognostic factor in the elderly patients treated with radiation. It is considered that radiation therapy is as valuable in elderly patients as in the younger patient population. (author)

  15. Prevalence of Shigella among diarrheic children under-5 years of age attending at Mekelle health center, north Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Atsebaha Gebrekidan; Teklemariam, Zelalem

    2015-12-15

    Shigellosis is recognized as a major global public health problem especially in developing countries particularly in children under-5 years of age. Therefore; the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shigella among diarrheic children under-5 years of age attending at Mekelle health center, north Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among diarrheic children under-5 years of age from March to May, 2012. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling technique. Shigella was isolated and identified using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 241 study participants were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Shigella in this study was 13.3% (32/241). High prevalence of Shigella (22.6%) was revealed from the age group of 12-23 months. No Shigella was isolated from the age group of 0-5 months. Majority of the isolates of Shigella were from bloody and mucoid diarrhea. There was high prevalence of Shigella infection in this study. Children among the age group of 12-23 months were highly affected. Therefore; responsible bodies should work hard on preventive measures to reduce or eradicate the problem occurred due to shigellosis.

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Amália de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.

  17. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Christiansen

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20-26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS, to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was used to predict children's BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood.

  18. Prospective analysis of factors associated with dental behavior management problems, in children aged 7-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Pai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of child behavior management problems (BMP and to analyze the influence and predictive power of nondental and dental background variables on BMP. Study Design: Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: The study group included 165 children aged 7-11 years who received comprehensive dental treatment, after obtaining written informed consent. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardized questionnaire to obtain background information. Each child′s treatment was carried out and was recorded with a fixed digital video (DV recorder. The treatments were classified into three levels of invasiveness: Noninvasive (NI, moderately invasive (MI, and highly invasive (HI. The entire DV record of each treatment was observed, and child′s dental behavior was rated independently by two precalibrated examiners using modified Venham′s behavior rating scale. Then, the background factors obtained through the questionnaire data were analyzed for its association with child′s dental behavior. Results: Statistical tests used were Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship of multiple variables with dental behavior. Comparison of child′s behavior during different visits was done by Wilcoxan matched pairs test. The prevalence of BMP in children aged 7-11 years in the study sample was 0%, 4.2%, and 15.76% for NI, MI, and HI procedures, respectively. Three variables were significant predictors of behavior; order of birth that is, first born, history of hospitalization, and unpleasant past dental experience (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Direct conditioning pathway is the major factor in determining child′s behavior. Dental experiences, duration of treatment, and complexity of treatment have greater impact on how the child behaves in a dental setup.

  19. Estimated exposures to perfluorinated compounds in infancy predict attenuated vaccine antibody concentrations at age 5-years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) are highly persistent and may cause immunotoxic effects. PFAS-associated attenuated antibody responses to childhood vaccines may be affected by PFAS exposures during infancy, where breastfeeding adds to PFAS exposures. Of 490 members of a Faroese birth...... cohort, 275 and 349 participated in clinical examinations and provided blood samples at ages 18 months and 5 years. PFAS concentrations were measured at birth and at the clinical examinations. Using information on duration of breastfeeding, serum-PFAS concentration profiles during infancy were estimated......, with decreases by up to about 20% for each two-fold higher exposure, while associations for serum concentrations at ages 18 months and 5 years were weaker. Modeling of serum-PFAS concentration showed levels for age 18 months that were similar to those measured. Concentrations estimated for ages 3 and 6 months...

  20. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (2000-2001 and attending school in England in 2006. School performance was measured using the foundation stage profile (FSP), a statutory assessment by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. The FSP comprises 13 assessment scales (scored from 1 to 9). Children who achieve an average of 6 points per scale and at least 6 in certain scales are classified as 'reaching a good level of overall achievement'. Fifty-one per cent of full term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  1. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D; Hemon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants. (note)

  2. Staging of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16 year old Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sapna; Patodia, Akash; Dixit, Uma

    2016-12-01

    The usefulness of the developmental status of the third molar has been studied in assessment of the chronological age of adolescents in whom the development of the other permanent teeth is nearly complete. However, little is known about the timing and pattern of third-molar development in the Indian population. This study aimed to stage the third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16year old Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, the status of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 1139 Indian children aged 5-16 years was evaluated radiographically, using Orhan's modification of Demirjian's method. The frequency of occurrence of the third molars varied from 47% to 70%. Crypt formation, crown completion and root completion occurred as early as 5.4, 8.7 and 15.0 years, respectively. No significant differences based on gender or side were observed in third-molar development (p>0.05). For most stages, maxillary third molars were slightly more advanced than their mandibular counterparts (p>0.05). Considering the high degree of variability observed in third molar genesis and development, the usefulness of this tooth in age determination studies may be very limited in the age group studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in spirometry values between U.S. children 6-11 years and adolescents 12-19 years with current asthma, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Simon, Alan E; Tilert, Timothy; Okelo, Sande; Akinbami, Lara J

    2016-03-01

    National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines recommend that periodic spirometry be performed in youth with asthma. NAEPP uses different spirometry criteria to define uncontrolled asthma for children (6-11 years) and adolescents (12+ years). To describe differences in spirometry between U.S. children and adolescents with current asthma. We examined cross-sectional spirometry data from 453 U.S. youth with current asthma age 6-19 years from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The main outcomes were percentage predicted forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (FEV1%) ≤80 and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ≤0.80. We also examined the prevalence of youth with spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma, using NAEPP age-specific criteria, defined for children aged 6-11 years as FEV1% ≤80 or FEV1/FVC ≤0.80, and for adolescents aged 12-19 years as FEV1% ≤80. Children 6-11 years and adolescents 12-19 years did not differ in prevalence of FEV1% ≤80 (10.1% vs. 9.0%) or FEV1/FVC ≤0.80 (30.6% vs. 29.8%). However, based on the NAEPP age-specific criteria, 33.0% of children 6-11 years and 9.0% of adolescents 12-19 years had spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma (P spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma did differ. The difference appears to stem mainly from the different spirometry criteria for the two age groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  5. Sea level ~400 000 years ago (MIS 11: analogue for present and future sea-level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Bowen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the sea-level today with that of 400 000 years ago (MIS 11, when the Earth's orbital characteristics were similar may provide, under conditions of natural variability, indications of future sea-level during the present interglacial. Then, as now, orbital eccentricity was low and precession dampened. Evidence for MIS 11 sea-level occurs on uplifting coastlines where shorelines with geochronological ages have been preserved. The sea-level term and the uplift term may be separated with an "uplift correction" formula. This discovers the original sea-level at which the now uplifted shoreline was fashioned. Estimates are based on average uplift rates of the "last interglacial" sea-level (MIS 5.5 using a range of estimates for sea-level and age at that time at different locations. These, with varying secular tectonic regimes in different ocean basins, provide a band of estimates for the MIS 11 sea-level. They do not support the hypothesis of an MIS 11 sea-level at ~20 m, and instead show that it was closer to its present level.

  6. Longitudinal trajectories of mental health in Australian children aged 4-5 to 14-15 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Mental health can affect young people's sense of wellbeing and life satisfaction, their ability to participate in employment and education, and their onward opportunities in life. This paper offers a rare opportunity to longitudinally examine mental health in a population-representative study of children aged 4-5 years to 14-15 years. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC, this study examined maternally-reported child mental health over a 10 year period, in order to understand their initial mental health status early in life and its change over time, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Longitudinal models were fitted from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years. Results showed that child sex, maternal mental health, socio-economic status (family income, maternal education, neighbourhood disadvantage, maternal hostility, and child temperament (persistence, sociability, reactivity are all independent contributors to child mental health at age 4. These effects largely persist over time, with the effects of maternal mental health increasing slightly over time. Persistence of these effects suggests the need for early intervention and supports. The independent contribution of these factors to child mental health suggests that multi-faceted approaches to child and maternal mental health are needed.

  7. Cognitive impairment at age 5 years in very preterm infants born following premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Thibault; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Larroque, Béatrice; Galtier, Florence; Marret, Stephane; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Truffert, Patrick; Kuhn, Pierre; Fresson, Jeanne; Thiriez, Gérard; Arnaud, Catherine; Mercier, Gregoire; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Ledesert, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and cognitive impairment in 5-year-old children born very preterm. The Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels Study is a population-based cohort of children followed up from birth to age 5 years recruited in 9 French regions in 1997. We analyzed data from singletons born between 24 and 32 weeks gestation categorized into 4 groups according to etiology of prematurity: infants born after PPROM, after idiopathic preterm labor, in a vascular context (Vasc), and to women with other complications (Other). Cognitive development at age 5 years was assessed using the Mental Processing Composite score of the Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children. Among the 1051 children followed up to age 5 years, the mean Mental Processing Composite score was 93.6 ± 19.7, and 13.3% of the children (140 of 1051) had cognitive impairment. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of cognitive impairment among infants in the PPROM group was not significantly different than that in the idiopathic preterm labor group (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.62-1.92) and the Other group (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.75-2.47), but was lower than that in the Vasc group (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.97). In the PPROM group, the risk of cognitive impairment was greater when the latency period (ie, time from rupture to delivery) was <3 days (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.07-5.02). Preterm infants born after PPROM are not at increased risk for cognitive impairment in childhood, but the time between PPROM and birth may influence that risk. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and body mass index (BMI are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05, 6% (p > 0.05, and 7% (p > 0.05 of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood.

  9. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  10. Classifying aging as a disease in the context of ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Bhullar, Bhupinder

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a complex continuous multifactorial process leading to loss of function and crystalizing into the many age-related diseases. Here, we explore the arguments for classifying aging as a disease in the context of the upcoming World Health Organization's 11th International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), expected to be finalized in 2018. We hypothesize that classifying aging as a disease with a "non-garbage" set of codes will result in new approaches and business models for addressing aging as a treatable condition, which will lead to both economic and healthcare benefits for all stakeholders. Actionable classification of aging as a disease may lead to more efficient allocation of resources by enabling funding bodies and other stakeholders to use quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthy-years equivalent (HYE) as metrics when evaluating both research and clinical programs. We propose forming a Task Force to interface the WHO in order to develop a multidisciplinary framework for classifying aging as a disease with multiple disease codes facilitating for therapeutic interventions and preventative strategies.

  11. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for

  12. Daily physical activity and its relation to aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.

    2006-01-01

    and fitness in children has been published, where fitness has been assessed by direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake and related to daily physical activity intensities by accelerometers. We examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Maximum workload and maximal oxygen uptake...... in vigorous physical activity were calculated. VO2PEAK was correlated with mean accelerometer counts (r=0.23 for boys and r=0.23 for girls, both Pactivity (r=0.32 for boys, r=0.30 for girls, both P...Abstract  A positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness exists in adults. Studies in children have given conflicting results, possibly because of differences in methods used to assess daily physical activity and fitness. No study regarding daily physical activity...

  13. High school Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: 5 to 11-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Helen; Lewis, Sharon; Macciocca, Ivan; Sahhar, Margaret; Petrou, Vicki; Bankier, Agnes; Lieberman, Sari; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    The Melbourne high school Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening program began in 1997. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of this screening program among those who had testing more than 5 years ago, to evaluate the long-term impact of screening. A questionnaire was used for data collection and consisted of validated scales and purposively designed questions. Questionnaires were sent to all carriers and two non-carriers for each carrier who were screened in the program between 1999 and 2005. Twenty-four out of 69 (34.8 %) carriers and 30/138 (21.7 %) non-carriers completed the questionnaire. Most participants (82 %) retained good knowledge of TSD and there was no evidence of a difference in knowledge between carriers and non-carriers. Most participants (83 %) were happy with the timing and setting of screening and thought that education and screening for TSD should be offered during high school. There was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in mean scores for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Decision Regret Scale. This evaluation indicated that 5-11 years post high school screening, those who were screened are supportive of the program and that negative consequences are rare.

  14. Fibroadenoma: Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in females aged 25 years or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwuonwu, O A; Anyanwu, Snc; Chianakwana, G U; Ihekwoaba, E C

    2016-01-01

    Accurate clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in young females is desirable because of the possibility of nonoperative treatment for those desiring it. To determine the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in patients aged ≤ 25 years. A prospective study of all patients with breast disease presenting to the breast clinic was conducted from January 2004 to December 2008. During the study period, 145 patients aged ≤25 years presented with breast lumps. In this group, a clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made in 100 (69.0%), fibrocystic disease in 32 (22.1%), breast cancer in 4 (0.03%) patients, the remaining were benign lesions. Excision biopsy was done for 81 (55.9%) patients. Of these 81 patients, only 62 (76.5%) returned with histology report. The histological diagnosis was fibroadenoma in 45 (72.5%) patients with a mean age of 21.4 years. Their ages range from 18 to 25 years. The histological diagnosis was fibrocystic disease in 9 (14.5%) and malignant phyllodes in 1 (1.6%) patient. The remaining 7 (11.3%) patients had other types of benign lesions. For fibroadenoma, true positive cases were 42, false positive 7 and false negative 3, and true negative 10. Therefore, the sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was 93.3%, while specificity was 58.8%. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in patients aged ≤25 years was good, though specificity is low.

  15. Clinical Features of Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Ambulatory Children Aged 5-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Leigh M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Zhu, Yuwei; Griffin, Marie R; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Szilagyi, Peter G; Staat, Mary A; Payne, Daniel C; Williams, John V

    2018-05-15

    We detected human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in 54 (5%) of 1055 children aged 5 to 13 years with acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified by outpatient and emergency department surveillance between November and May 2003-2009. Its clinical features were similar to those of HMPV-negative ARI, except a diagnosis of pneumonia was more likely (13% vs 4%, respectively; P = .005) and a diagnosis of pharyngitis (7% vs 24%, respectively; P = .005) was less likely in patients with HMPV- positive ARI than those with HMPV-negative ARI.

  16. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  17. Transverse development of the human jaws between the ages of 8.5 and 15.5 years, studied longitudinally with use of implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, E L; Baumrind, S

    1990-06-01

    We report longitudinal data on the transverse widening of the maxilla and mandible from a sample of normal subjects (11 males and 20 females) with metallic implants of the Bjork type. Data were from measurements on lateral and frontal (posterior-anterior) cephalograms generated at annual intervals between the ages of 8.5 and 15.5 years (although data were not available for all subjects at all time points). The maxillary data were, in general, similar to those reported by Bjork and Skieller (1974, 1977) for a smaller sample of slightly younger boys. During the age interval studied, transverse widening was greater in the more posterior part of the palate. [The mean annual rate of change in the posterior-most (zygomatic) region was 0.43 mm, sd = 0.18 mm; p less than 0.001.] Although the rate of palatal widening was not large in absolute terms, widening appeared to continue throughout the age interval under study, and there was no evidence to support the conventionally accepted idea that palatal growth in the transverse dimension tapers off substantially or even ceases during the age interval under observation. Evidence of statistically significant widening of the mandibular arch by means of transverse rotation of the osseous matrix was noted in nine of the 29 subjects for whom three-dimensional mandibular information was available. For these nine subjects, the estimated annual increase in mandibular arch angle ranged from 0.52 degrees to 1.40 degrees. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of mandibular matrix rotation in the transverse direction from a sample of subjects with metallic implants. The finding that spontaneous changes in this dimension are relatively common raises the possibility that classical attitudes concerning the immutability of osseous relationships in the symphyseal region during growth may be inappropriate.

  18. Tracking drinking behaviour from age 15-19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    beverages at age 15 increased the risk of drinking alcohol weekly at the age of 19 [odds ratio (OR)-values from 1.11 to 3.53]. Drunkenness among the 15-year-old boys and the use of spirits of the 15-year-old girls showed the strongest predictive relationship with excessive consumption at age 19 [OR = 2...... phenomenon. It was a behaviour that tracked into young adulthood, leaving the adolescents at increased risk of being long-term, large-scale consumers....

  19. The ORACLE Children Study: educational outcomes at 11years of age following antenatal prescription of erythromycin or co-amoxiclav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Neil; Bower, Hannah; Jones, David; Brocklehurst, Peter; Kenyon, Sara; Pike, Katie; Taylor, David; Salt, Alison

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics used for women in spontaneous preterm labour without overt infection, in contrast to those with preterm rupture of membranes, are associated with altered functional outcomes in their children. From the National Pupil Database, we used Key Stage 2 scores, national test scores in school year 6 at 11years of age, to explore the hypothesis that erythromycin and co-amoxiclav were associated with poorer educational outcomes within the ORACLE Children Study. Anonymised scores for 97% of surviving children born to mothers recruited to ORACLE and resident in England were analysed against treatment group adjusting for key available socio-demographic potential confounders. No association with crude or with adjusted scores for English, mathematics or science was observed by maternal antibiotic group in either women with preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour with intact membranes. While the proportion receiving special educational needs was similar in each group (range 31.6-34.4%), it was higher than the national rate of 19%. Despite evidence that antibiotics are associated with increased functional impairment at 7 years, educational test scores and special needs at 11years of age show no differences between trial groups. ISCRT Number 52995660 (original ORACLE trial number). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  1. Association between depression in carers and malnutrition in children aged 6 months to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlhatlhedi, Keneilwe; Setlhare, Vincent; Ganiyu, Adewale; Firth, Jacqueline

    2017-01-30

     Childhood malnutrition is an important risk factor for child mortality and underlies close to 50% of child deaths worldwide. Previous studies have found an association between maternal depression and child malnutrition, but it is not known whether this association exists in Botswana. In addition, previous studies excluded non-maternal primary caregivers (PCGs). It is unclear whether the association between primary caregiver depression and child malnutrition remains when non-maternal PCGs are included. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between PCG depression and malnutrition in children aged between 6 months and 5 years in Mahalapye, Botswana. The study was conducted in the child welfare clinics of Xhosa and Airstrip clinics, two primary health care facilities in Mahalapye, Botswana. This was a case control study. Cases were malnourished children aged between 6 months and 5 years, and controls were non-malnourished children matched for age and gender. The outcome of interest was depression in the PCGs of the cases and controls, which was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9), a depression screening tool. From a sample of 171 children, 84 of whom were malnourished, we found that the malnourished children were significantly more likely to have depressed PCGs (odds ratio = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.89, 9.89) than non-malnourished children in the 6-month to 5-year age group; the PCGs of malnourished children also had lower educational status. This study found a significant association between PCG depression and child malnutrition.

  2. Plaswekker ook succesvol bij 5-7-jarigen met enuresis nocturna [Alarm treatment also successful in children aged 5 to 7 years with nocturnal enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwet, J.M.L. van; Wiertz, Y.D.B.M.; Bolk-Bennink, L.F.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Hirasing, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine how many bed-wetting children aged 5-7 years unlearn the habit using the alarm treatment. Design. Descriptive. Setting. TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, the Netherlands. Methods. The population consisted of all children aged 5 to 7 with nocturnal enuresis (defined as ≤ 2

  3. Speed-strength abilities and morphological characteristics of basketball players aged 10 and 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Alen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify several morphological characteristics and speed-strength abilities in basketball players aged 10 and 11, and to determine possible differences between them, connected with their age. The research was conducted on a sample of 84 young basketball players aged 10 (N=46 and 11 (N=38. The following motor variables were measured: shoulder explosiveness (throwing the ball from basketball position, leg explosiveness (vertical jump, speed strength of the trunk (sit up exercises in 10 seconds, stamina in speed strength of the trunk (sit up exercises in 30 seconds, the speed of changing the direction of moving (agility T-test, acceleration (running for 5 and 20 meters. The following morphological variables were also measured: body height, body mass, percentage of body fat and percentage of muscle tissue. Eleven-year-olds achieved better results than the ten-year-olds in all categories. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01 between the two groups of subjects were found in body height, percentage of muscle tissue in the body, shoulder explosiveness, as well as in the speed of changing the direction of moving. Differences in body mass and ability for acceleration were found on the level of statistical significance (p<0.05.

  4. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among girls aged 5 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwege, Denis; Alumeti, Desiré; Himpens, Jacques; Cadière, Guy-Bernard

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among young girls. In a retrospective study, data were assessed from girls aged 5 years or younger who were treated for sexual-assault-related injuries at the General Referral Hospital, Panzi, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2004 and 2014. Data were obtained from review of charts, records of the mother's impressions and physical examinations, and photographic evidence. Elective surgery had been reserved for patients experiencing fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Overall, 205 girls aged 5 years or younger presented with rape injuries: 162 (79.1%) had only mucocutaneous lesions, 22 (10.7%) had musculocutaneous lesions, and 21 (10.2%) had musculocutaneous lesions complicated by fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Among the 21 girls who underwent perineal surgery, two with fecal and urinary incontinence and perforation of the peritoneum of Douglas pouch were additionally treated by laparoscopy. Among 16 patients with fecal incontinence, the continence score had improved significantly at 10.4 months after surgery (Prape survivors aged 5 years or younger, a treatment strategy by which surgery is reserved for incontinent patients provided good cosmetic and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was

  7. HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge among adolescents aged 11 years from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C; Araújo, Cora L P; Dumith, Samuel C

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, educational and family variables on HIV/AIDS knowledge among adolescents aged 11 years. 3,949 adolescents born in Pelotas (Brazil). HIV/AIDS knowledge was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire and measured through five questions about HIV transmission: heterosexual intercourse, homosexual intercourse, needle sharing, open-mouth kissing and hugging someone with AIDS. All the analyses were adjusted based on a hierarchical model, using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance. Prevalence of wrong answers to the examined questions were 17.2% for heterosexual transmission, 44.1% for homosexual intercourse, 34.9% for needle sharing, 25.6% for kiss on the mouth and 16.2% for hugging someone with AIDS. In adjusted analysis, lower knowledge levels were more prevalent among boys, adolescents with lower socioeconomic status and with less maternal education level, among those who had not talked about sex with mother and without sexual education lessons at school. Knowledge was not associated with school type (public or private), skin color or talk about sex with father. Providing information to adolescents is essential to improve knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, especially among young males, with lower socioeconomic status and with lower maternal education level. Public policies aimed to reducing HIV infection should consider maternal and school relevance to improve knowledge on adolescents.

  8. Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5 years: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2014-06-01

    Update of the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prevention of dental caries in preschool-aged children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on prevention of dental caries by primary care clinicians in children 5 years and younger, focusing on screening for caries, assessment of risk for future caries, and the effectiveness of various interventions that have possible benefits in preventing caries. This recommendation applies to children age 5 years and younger. The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation starting at age 6 months for children whose water supply is deficient in fluoride. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians apply fluoride varnish to the primary teeth of all infants and children starting at the age of primary tooth eruption. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of routine screening examinations for dental caries performed by primary care clinicians in children from birth to age 5 years. (I Statement). Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Pérez Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predominaron los protozoarios (22,7 %, con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 % y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitological methods (direct and concentrate and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7% with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, parasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7% and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

  10. Shoulder and Elbow Recovery at 2 and 11 Years Following Brachial Plexus Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jung-Pan; Rancy, Schneider K; Lee, Steve K; Feinberg, Joseph H; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-02-01

    To report short-term and long-term outcomes on a single patient cohort observed longitudinally after nerve reconstruction for adult brachial plexus injury. Eleven male patients who underwent plexus reconstruction by the same surgeon at 2 institutions presented for clinical examination 7.5 or more years after surgery (average, 11.4 years; range, 7.5-22 years). Average age at the time of operation was 35 years (range, 17-73 years). Mean delay until surgery was 5 months (range, 2-11 months). Two patients had C5 paralysis, 2 had C5-C6 paralysis, 2 had C5-C7 paralysis, and 5 had complete 5-level injuries. Outcome parameters included active range of motion (ROM) in degrees, a modified British Medical Research Council (mBMRC) scale for muscle strength, and electromyographic motor unit configuration and recruitment pattern. Differences in ROM and mBMRC between 2-year and long-term follow-up were assessed with paired-sample t tests using an alpha value of .05. Average shoulder abduction and mBMRC at final follow-up were both significantly improved compared with the 2-year follow-up results (P motor unit configuration in 10 of 15 muscles and improved recruitment in 3 of 15 muscles compared with 2-year electromyographic results. Patients continued to gain ROM and strength in the shoulder and elbow well after 2 to 3 years after surgery, contrary to previous reports. Although the precise mechanism is unknown, we speculate that a number of factors may be involved, including terminal collateral sprouting, maturation of motor units, improvements in motor unit recruitment, additional muscle fiber hypertrophy, or an as-yet undescribed mechanism. We recommend that patients be encouraged to continue strengthening exercises well after the initial recovery period and that more comparative long-term data be collected to expand on these observations. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of the validity of the Demirjian, Willems, Nolla and Häävikko methods in determination of chronological age of 5-15 year-old Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sapna; Patodia, Akash; Dixit, Uma

    2017-08-01

    Demirjian's method has been the most popular and extensively tested radiographic method of age estimation. More recently, Willems' method has been reported to be a better predictor of age. Nolla's and Häävikko's methods have been used to a lesser extent. Very few studies have compared all four methods in non-Indian and Indian populations. Most Indian research is limited by inadequate sample sizes, age structures and grouping and different approaches to statistical analysis. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the validity of the Demirjian, Willems, Nolla and Häävikko methods in determination of chronological age of 5 to 15 year-old Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, four methods were compared for validity in estimating the age of 1200 Indian children aged 5-15 years. Demirjian's method overestimated age by +0.24 ± 0.80, +0.11 ± 0.81 and +0.19 ± 0.80 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. With Willems' method, overestimations of +0.09 ± 0.80, +0.08 ± 0.80 and +0.09 ± 0.80 years were obtained in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Nolla's method underestimated age by -0.13 ± 0.80, -0.30 ± 0.82 and -0.20 ± 0.81 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Häävikko's method underestimated age by -0.17 ± 0.80, -0.29 ± 0.83 and -0.22 ± 0.82 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between dental and chronological ages with all methods (p age, followed by Demirjian's, Nolla's and Häävikko's methods. All four methods could be applicable for estimating age in the present population, mean prediction errors being lower than 0.30 years (3.6 months). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Bárbara C A; Soares, Michele C C; Santos, Luana C dos; Pereira, Simone C L; Horta, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n=692) that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion), anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age), and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum) were collected. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, piron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, pdeficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r=0.597; pAnemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Plantar Pressures After Nonoperative Treatment for Clubfoot: Intermediate Follow-up at Age 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Kelly A; Erdman, Ashley L; Karol, Lori A

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, a nonoperative approach in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot has been taken in an attempt to reduce the incidence of surgical outcomes. Although both the Ponseti casting (Ponseti) and the French physiotherapy (PT) methods have shown gait and pedobarograph differences at age 2 years, improved gait results have been reported by age 5 years. The purpose of this study was to assess plantar pressures in feet treated with the Ponseti versus the PT methods at this intermediate stage. Clubfoot patients treated nonoperatively (Ponseti or PT) underwent pedobarograph data collection at age 5 years. The foot was subdivided into the medial/lateral hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot regions. Variables included Peak Pressure, Maximum Force, Contact Area%, Contact Time%, Pressure Time Integral, the hindfoot-forefoot angle, and displacement of the center of pressure (COP) line. Twenty controls were used for comparison. Pedobarograph data from 164 patients (238 feet; 122 Ponseti and 116 PT) showed no significant differences between the Ponseti and the PT feet, except the PT feet had a significantly less medial movement of the COP than the Ponseti feet (P=0.0379). Compared with controls, both groups had decreased plantar pressures in the hindfoot and first metatarsal regions, whereas the midfoot and lateral forefoot experienced significant increases compared with controls. This lateralization was also reflected in the hindfoot-forefoot angle and the COP. Feet that remain nonoperative and avoid surgical intervention are considered a good clinical result. However, pedobarograph results indicate mild residual deformity in these feet despite clinically successful outcomes. Level II-therapeutic.

  14. Educational Attainment at Age 10-11 Years Predicts Health Risk Behaviors and Injury Risk During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Joanne C; Hill, Rebecca A; Rahman, Muhammad A; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Healy, Melanie A; Paranjothy, Shantini; Murphy, Simon; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; John, Ann; Lyons, Ronan A; Brophy, Sinead T

    2017-08-01

    To examine the effect of educational attainment in primary school on later adolescent health. Education data attainments at age 7 and 11 were linked with (1) primary and secondary care injury consultation/admissions and (2) the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Cox regression was carried out to examine if attainment in primary school predicts time to injury in adolescence. Pupils that achieve attainment at age 7 but not at age 11 (i.e., declining attainment over time in primary school) are more likely to have an injury during adolescence. These children are also more likely to self-report drinking in adolescence. Interventions aimed at children with declining attainment in primary school could help to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A longitudinal study of grapheme-colour synaesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSimner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a condition characterised by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colours. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro and Foulkes (2009 which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 years and 7/8 years. We identified the child synaesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of nonsynaesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synaesthetic associations (e.g. A = red mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synaesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synaesthetes’ inventories of grapheme-colour associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 year and 7/8 years to examine how synaesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-colour synaesthesia emerges with a protracted lineal trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synaesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synaesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synaesthetes.

  16. Treatment of selective mutism: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerbeck, Beate; Overgaard, Kristin Romvig; Stein, Murray B; Pripp, Are Hugo; Kristensen, Hanne

    2018-01-22

    Selective mutism (SM) has been defined as an anxiety disorder in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the recommended approach for SM, but prospective long-term outcome studies are lacking. Reports from the children themselves, and the use of more global quality of life measures, are also missing in the literature. We have developed a school-based CBT intervention previously found to increase speech in a pilot efficacy study and a randomized controlled treatment study. Continued progress was found in our 1-year follow-up studies, where older age and more severe SM had a significant negative effect upon outcome. In the present study, we provide 5-year outcome data for 30 of these 32 children with SM who completed the same CBT for mean 21 weeks (sd 5, range 8-24) at mean ageyears (10 boys). Mean age at the 5-year follow-up was 11 years (range 8-14). Outcome measures were diagnostic status, the teacher- and parent-rated selective mutism questionnaires, and child rated quality of life and speaking behavior. At the 5-year follow-up, 21 children were in full remission, five were in partial remission and four fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SM. Seven children (23%) fulfilled criteria for social phobia, and separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia and/or enuresis nocturna were found in a total of five children (17%). Older age and severity at baseline and familial SM were significant negative predictors of outcome. Treatment gains were maintained on the teacher- and parent questionnaires. The children rated their overall quality of life as good. Although most of them talked outside of home, 50% still experienced it as somewhat challenging. These results point to the long-term effectiveness of CBT for SM, but also highlight the need to develop more effective interventions for the subset of children with persistent symptoms.Clinical trials registration NCT01002196.

  17. Body size of young Australians aged five to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, N E; Maller, R A; Gilmour, A I

    1986-10-20

    In 1983-1984, 4578 Perth primary and secondary schoolchildren were studied. The selected sample was broadly representative of the ethnic groups that make up the Perth population and of the different social ranks within that population. The age, sex, weight, height, country of birth of the child and the parents, and occupation of the father were recorded for each subject. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) increased with age. Age and sex were the most important determinants of body size. However, children of lower social rank and those with a southern European background were over-represented among the overweight children (greater than the 90th centile for BMI), particularly in adolescence. Children with an Asian background who were 11 years of age and younger were over-represented among the underweight children (less than or equal to the 10th centile for BMI). Results from this study indicate a continuing, though small (1.5 cm to 1.6 cm), secular increase in height over the past 13 to 14 years.

  18. [Analysis on research projects for acupuncture and moxibustion supported by NSFC during the 11th 5-year-plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-Long; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Li, Yu-Qing; Li, Liang; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Chang-En

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the authors introduce the approved and finished research projects for acupuncture and moxibustion therapies supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) during the 11th 5-year-plan. A total of 194 research projects were subsidized by NSFC from 2006 to 2010. These projects include 6 aspects: meridian-collaterals, acupoint theory, acupuncture analgesia, mechanisms underlying improvement of different clinical problems, clinical trials, and moxibustion therapy. The research on acupoints has been becoming a new hotspot in recent years. Majority of the research projects focus on the mechanism of acu-moxibustion underlying improvement of different clinical problems, while fewer projects on clinical trials. During the 11th 5-year-plan, 119 projects were completed; most of them involved meridian-collateral theory, acupoint theory, mechanism of acu-moxibustion underlying improvement of clinical problems and acupuncture manipulations. Following analysis of the finished research projects, we find that 1) many neurobiological methods and techniques are commonly used in the research on meridian-collateral theory; 2) the research on acupoint theory is changing from observing the local morphological structure to identifying characteristics of the regional activated receptors, particularly under the circumstances of visceral pathological conditions and efficacies of acupoints; 3) researches on the underlying mechanism of acu-moxibusiton for improving clinical disorders mainly focused on its cerebral protective effects against cerebral ischemia, in addition, researches about other diseases on clinical conditions have been also carried out, but the related mechanisms are far from understanding; 4) In many research projects, various new methods and techniques, such as fMRI, position emission tomography, genomics, proteomics, molecular biology, nerve stem cell, etc. were widely used; 5) Randomized controlled multi-center clinical trials are

  19. Results of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in elderly patients ≥65 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejad, Hamid Reza; Depreitere, Bart; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Van Calenbergh, Frank; van Loon, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has been accepted as the procedure of choice for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus in children and adults. The role and outcome of this procedure in the elderly has not been evaluated yet. Over an 11-year interval we retrospectively analyzed data of patients, 65+ years of age, who underwent ETV in our center. Success of the procedure was assessed in terms of symptom relief and/or elimination of the need for shunting. Additionally pre- and postoperative ventricular volumes were estimated using Evan's index (Ei) and fronto-occipital horn ratio (FOR). In our analysis we compared the results of the elderly patients with those of the pediatric and adult age groups treated in our center. We obtained data of 16 elderly cases (11 males, 5 females), mean age 72.8 years (66-83 years) out of the 91 patients treated with ETV in total. The success rate was 75% in this age group; mean follow-up 18.4 months (2-55 months). In 10 patients a mass lesion was the underlying cause of hydrocephalus. Mean ventricular size reduction was 18% and 13.5% (Ei and FOR) in the success group vs. 7.6% and 6.2% in the failure group. Three out of four patients who had shunting pre-EVT, became shunt independent post-operatively. The presence of flow void over the stoma was 100% correlated with success. All 7 patients with a primary or metastatic brain tumor were able to receive radiation therapy. Also in elderly, ETV is a safe and efficient procedure, with success rates similar to the younger population. Further research is required to set up a prognostic scoring system for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. METHODS: This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n = 692 that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion, anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age, and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum were collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p < 0.001 and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p < 0.001 among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.597; p < 0.001 and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.770; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  1. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  2. Maternal perception of sickness as a risk factor of stunting in children aged 2-5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Dete Dellu

    2016-11-01

    Maternal perception of sickness was the most dominant risk factor of stunting in children 2-5 years of age. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to address the range of raised issues and so combat stunting in children.

  3. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  4. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E; Si, Damin

    2010-08-17

    Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty four (124) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3), adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5) for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4) for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  5. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiqiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Methods Six hundred and eighty six (686 Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI. Results One hundred and twenty four (124 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3, adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5 for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4 for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Conclusions Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  6. Outcomes of hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older compared with a matched-pair control of patients aged 30 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Linder, Dror; Finley, Zachary; Botser, Itamar B; Chen, Austin; Williamson, Joseph; Gupta, Asheesh

    2015-02-01

    Age has been suggested as a negative prognostic factor for hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics and outcomes after hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older with a matched control group of patients aged 30 years or younger at a minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years. Between September 2008 and March 2010, data were prospectively collected on all patients aged 50 years or older undergoing primary hip arthroscopy. Fifty-two patients met our inclusion and matching criteria, of whom all 52 (100%) were available for follow-up at a minimum of 2 years. This cohort was compared with a matched-pair control group of patients aged 30 years or younger who underwent similar procedures. The mean age of the study group was 54.8 years (range, 50 to 69 years), and that of the control group was 20.3 years (range, 13 to 30 years). The groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio, including 18 male patients (34.6%) and 34 female patients (65.4%) in each group, with a mean follow-up period of 32 months (range, 24 to 54 months). In the younger control group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 62.9 to 84.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 60.5 to 84.2 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.1 to 86.5 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 42.2 to 72.7 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. In the older study group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 61.2 to 82.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 59.9 to 80.4 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.9 to 83 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 41.2 to 64.6 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. All improvements in both groups were statistically significant at the 2-year postoperative follow-up (P arthroscopy should be considered a valid treatment option when treating hip pain in patients aged 50 years or older with a Tönnis arthritic grade of 0 or 1. Older patients

  7. Incidence and characteristics of low-speed vehicle run over events in rural and remote children aged 0-14 years in Queensland: an 11 year (1999-2009) retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bronwyn R; Kimble, Roy M; Watt, Kerrianne; Shields, Linda

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe incidence rates of low-speed vehicle run-over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0-14 years residing in Queensland from 1999 to 2009. A second objective was to describe the associated patterns of injury, with respect to gender, age group, severity, characteristics (host, vehicle and environment), and trends over time in relation to geographical remoteness. Final results are hoped to inform prevention policies. In this statewide, retrospective, population-based study, data were collected on LSVRO events that occurred among children aged 0-14 years in Queensland from 1999 to 2009 from all relevant data sources across the continuum of care, and manually linked to obtain the most comprehensive estimate possible of the magnitude and nature of LSVRO events to date. Crude incidence rates were calculated separately for males and females, for fatal events, non-fatal events (hospital admissions and non-admissions, respectively), and for all LSVRO events, for each area of geographical remoteness (major cities, inner regional, outer regional, remote/very remote). Relative risks and 95% confidence interval were calculated, and trends over time were examined. Data on host, injury and event characteristics were also obtained to investigate whether these characteristics varied between areas of remoteness. Incidence rates were lowest among children (0-14 years) living in major cities (13.8/100 000/annum, with the highest recorded incidence in outer regional areas (incidence rate =42.5/100 000/annum). Incidence rates were higher for children residing outside major cities for both males and females, for every age group, for each of the 11 years of the study, and consequences of LSVRO events were worse. Young children aged 0-4 years were identified as those most at risk for these events, regardless of geographical location. Differences were observed as a function of remoteness category in relation to injury characteristics (eg injury

  8. Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment Among Children Aged 11 to 17 Years in Community Settings of Karachi, Pakistan, Using Belsky Ecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdir, Maryam Pyar Ali; Farooq, Salima; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Parpio, Yasmin; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Razzak, Junaid; Laljee, Anjiya Aslam; Kadir, Muhammad Masood

    2017-08-01

    Child maltreatment is considered as a global social issue and results as combined effect of parental background, socioeconomic environment, family structure, and child characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with child maltreatment among children aged 11 to 17 years in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey of 800 pairs (children ranging from 11 to 17 years old and their parents) was randomly selected from 32 clusters of Karachi, using multistage cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire was adopted from the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (International Child Abuse Screening Tool for Parent [ICAST-P] and for Child [ICAST-C]). Multiple linear regression technique was used to assess the association of factors with child maltreatment score, by using STATA software. Our study found that children who always get bullied and mistreated by their siblings are at increased risk of getting maltreatment by parents (adjusted β: 10.78, 95% CI = [8.5, 13.05]).The mean estimated ICAST-C score increases by 9.86 (95% CI = [6.17, 13.55]) for children with exposure of verbal abuse and quarrel within family members. The mean estimated ICAST-C score increases by 5.09 among male children as compared with female children (95% CI = [3.65, 6.52]). Among children whose family always fight with each other and whose parents have exposure to childhood maltreatment, the mean estimated ICAST-C score increases by 22.25 (95% CI = [16.53, 27.98]). This study reflects the potential factors of child maltreatment in Karachi. Our findings provide evidence to raise awareness about child maltreatment.

  9. Oral hygiene KAP assessment and DMFT scoring among children aged 11-12 years in an urban school of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakani, Farhan; Basaria, Nadia; Katpar, Shahjahan

    2011-04-01

    To assess the oral hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices among school children and evaluate their DMFT (Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth) scores. Cross-sectional study. A private school of Karachi from March to April 2008. Convenient sample comprising 300 students of grade 6 within the age group of 11-12 years was selected. A knowledge, attitude and practices survey questionnaire based on quantitative indicators was filled by the students. Clinical examination was done for DMFT. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 11. Associations were assessed using chi-square test and a p-value of importance of a dentist's role in maintaining their dental health. Only a few students (11.3%) had familiarity with dental floss. A statistically significant association was found between frequency of brushing and children's knowledge of the problems related to irregular tooth brushing (p < 0.001). The attitude of school children towards dental health and dental service utilization is determined by certain social and cultural factors. The mean DMFT of 1.27 showed that there must have been some poor oral practices that are contributing towards a higher mean.

  10. Insulin dependent diabetes in under 5 year olds.

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, I G; Smith, M A; Baum, J D

    1985-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus presenting in children under five years old exhibits several clinical and management features that differ from diabetes presenting in older children. In this review of the current population of the Oxford children's diabetes clinic, children with diabetes diagnosed aged 0- less than 5 years are compared with those diagnosed aged 5- less than 10 years to illustrate these differences. The mean annual age specific incidence of diabetes for children aged 0- les...

  11. Final efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety analyses of a nine-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in women aged 16-26 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huh, Warner K; Joura, Elmar A; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary analyses of a study in young women aged 16-26 years showed efficacy of the nine-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) vaccine against infections and disease related to HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, and non-inferior HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18...... antibody responses when compared with quadrivalent HPV (qHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. We aimed to report efficacy of the 9vHPV vaccine for up to 6 years following first administration and antibody responses over 5 years. METHODS: We undertook this randomised, double-blind, efficacy, immunogenicity......, and safety study of the 9vHPV vaccine study at 105 study sites in 18 countries. Women aged 16-26 years old who were healthy, with no history of abnormal cervical cytology, no previous abnormal cervical biopsy results, and no more than four lifetime sexual partners were randomly assigned (1:1) by central...

  12. 10 CFR 11.5 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 11.5 Section 11.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Provisions § 11.5 Policy. It is the policy of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to carry...

  13. Baseline data from a multicenter, 5-year, prospective cohort study of Japanese age-related macular degeneration: an AMD2000 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Yuzawa, Mitsuko; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Nakanishi, Hideo; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Fukushima, Masanori; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2018-03-01

    To report research participants' baseline characteristics in the AMD2000 study, a prospective, multicenter, 5-year, observational cohort study of Japanese age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The characteristics were determined using multimodal imaging. Patients with AMD were recruited at 18 clinical sites in Japan between April 2006 and March 2009. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (Landolt chart), indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy with a contact lens, optical coherence tomography imaging, fundus photography, and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Four hundred sixty participants (326 men [70.9%]) were included in the study. At enrollment, 131 eyes (28.5%) had hard drusen and 125 eyes (27.2%) had soft drusen in the macular area. A total of 455 eyes (98.9%) were diagnosed as having wet AMD, and 5 eyes (1.1%), as having dry AMD. Of the 455 eyes with wet AMD, 209 eyes (45.4%) had typical AMD, 228 eyes (49.6%) had polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and 18 eyes (3.9%) had retinal angiomatous proliferation. The size of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was significantly smaller with indocyanine green angiography than with fluorescein angiography (P macular edema, older age, scar, extrafoveal macular edema, subfoveal CNV, large branching vascular network, and hard exudates. Japanese patients with AMD are predominantly male, lack drusen, and have a high rate of PCV.

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 Years in the ... 2009 The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to 9% from 1998– ...

  15. Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and child behaviour at 5 to 9years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Bonde, Jens Peter; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    We examined associations between prenatal exposure to perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanic acid (PFDA) - and child behaviour (SDQ-total) and hyperactivity (sub-scale) at 5-9years of age in birth cohorts from Gr...

  16. Pulmonary function after lobectomy in children under ten years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonoyama, Akira; Tanaka, Kazuho; Kagawa, Kiyoshi

    1985-01-01

    Children's ages at the time of the operation ranged from 1 to 4 years in 6 patients and 5 to 10 years in other 6 cases. Their resected lobes were 2 right upper lobes, 1 right middle lobe, 5 right lower lobes, 2 left upper lobes and 2 left lower lobes. At the follow-up period of 4 months to 13 years after surgery, all of the patients were subjectively well with a physical performance equal to those of their peers, and in 11 of them, no apparent residual pulmonary disease was demonstrated. Nine of these 11 patients were over 7 years of age and their course after surgery were more than 6 months. In these nine patients, postoperative forced vital capacity increased over the predicted value calculated from the estimated amount of lung removed. In most of the patients, %VC was about 82% in the upper lobectomized cases and more than 90% in the lower lobectomized patients. Functional residual capacity and total lung capacity generally decreased in proportion to the amount of lung tissue removed. Vital capacity and total lung capacity in the lower lobectomized patients were significantly increased compared with those in the upper lobectomized patients. The ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity decreased in all cases and, conversely, VC/TLC increased over normal value. The ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to vital capacity was over 82%. Flow-volume curve and closing volume were within normal limits in all except 2 cases, in whom the follow-up period was about 6 months after surgery. In the other 2 patients, whose ages were under 7 years. Technetium 99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion scan on the operated side showed values corresponding to the estimated amount of removed lung or values higher than the predicted, and the results of radiospirometry coincided with the results of spirometric respiratory function data. (J.P.N.)

  17. Factors associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 5 years: evidence from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberetsadik, Achamyelesh; Worku, Alemayehu; Berhane, Yemane

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data are not fully exploited to identify locally relevant risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with ARI in children under the age of 5 years in Ethiopia. Further analysis of the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey was carried out involving 11,645 children under the age of 5 years and their mothers. Information relevant to the current study was extracted from the main data set and a working data set was prepared. A complex survey logistic regression analysis was applied. Acute ARI in this study was associated with severe malnutrition. Children who were severely wasted were highly likely to develop ARI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.5). ARI was less likely to occur in children from families with an educated father and professional mother (AOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.6 and AOR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01-0.6, respectively). Malnourished children from a lower socioeconomic category are more likely to suffer from ARI. Targeting disadvantaged children for effective interventions can help reduce the burden of morbidity and death due to ARI.

  18. Prevalence of Anterior Dental Trauma and Its Associated Factors among Preschool Children Aged 3–5 Years in Khartoum City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Gamaleldin Sulieman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic dental injury (TDI is a challenging public health problem. Its incidence and prevalence vary within countries, states, and different social groups. Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary incisors among 3–5-year-old Sudanese preschool children and associated factors such as age, sex, and size of overjet and anterior open bite. Materials and Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 600 preschool children (3–5 years old selected by multistage cluster technique from preschools located in Khartoum city, Sudan. The data regarding age, sex, causes, and treatment of TDI were collected from the mothers through structured interview questionnaire. Children were examined in an upright position, using mouth mirror and torch. A single examiner assessed the type of trauma, the tooth involved, and overbite/overjet. The data were analyzed statistically through descriptive analysis, and the chi-square test was used to compare between different variables with P<0.05. Results. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs was 18.5%. Enamel fractures were the most common type (74.8%, followed by enamel and dentin (11.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly affected teeth, and the home was most common place for TDI. The prevalence rate was 45% in boys and 55% in girls with a statistically significant difference (P=0.02. Conclusions. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to the primary anterior teeth among the Sudanese preschool children was relatively high (18.5%. Factors such as overjet size, overbite size, and lip competency were not significantly correlated with dental trauma among the studied population.

  19. Drawings of very preterm-born children at 5 years of age: a first impression of cognitive and motor development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Sasja; Deković, Maja; Feltzer, Max; de Kleine, Martin; van Baar, Anneloes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in drawing skills between very preterm and term children, and to determine whether very preterm children's cognitive and motor development is reflected in the draw-a-person test (DAP) at age 5. Seventy-two very preterm children (birth weight children at 5 years of age were compared on the DAP. Cognitive and motor skills of the very preterm children had been assessed four times, at 1/2, 1, 2, and 5 years of age. Very preterm children showed a developmental delay in drawing ability. Structural equation modeling revealed a positive relation between both cognitive as well as motor development and the DAP. The DAP could be a crude parameter for evaluating cognitive and motor deficits of very preterm children. A worrisome result should be followed by more standardized tests measuring cognitive and motor skills.

  20. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances M Cronin

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764 rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems, suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%, compared to 1% (0.2-2.3 for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  1. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  2. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate\\'s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children\\'s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent\\'s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor\\/fair health and\\/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  3. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2010. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system in the United States that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD and other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional providers in the community. Multiple data sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most ADDM Network sites also review and abstract records of children receiving special education services in public schools. The second phase involves review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if a comprehensive evaluation of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated prevalence estimates for ASD from the 2010 surveillance year. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASD are described. For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD

  4. Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

    2014-01-01

    As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4 : 1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6 : 1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2 ± 11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state.

  5. Girl-child marriage and its association with morbidity and mortality of children under 5 years of age in a nationally-representative sample of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Krämer, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between child marriage (before age 18 years) and morbidity and mortality of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally-representative cross-sectional observational survey data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007 was limited to children from the past 5 years, reported by ever-married women aged 15-24 years (n = 2630 births of n = 2138 mothers) to identify differences in infectious diseases in past 2 weeks (diarrhea, acute respiratory infection [ARI], ARI with fever), under 5 years of age and infant mortality, and low birth weight by early (marriage. Associations between child marriage and mortality and morbidity of children under 5 years of age were assessed by calculating adjusted OR using logistic regression models after controlling for maternal and child demographics. Majority (74.5%) of births were from mothers aged Marriage before age 18 years increased the likelihood of recent diarrhea among children born to young mothers (adjusted OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.18-2.14). Even though maternal child marriage was associated with infant mortality and mortality of children under 5 years of age in unadjusted models, association was lost in the adjusted models. We did not find a relation between girl-child marriage and low birth weight infants, and ARI. Girl-child marriage increases the likelihood of recent diarrhea among children born to young mothers. Further qualitative and prospective quantitative studies are needed to understand the factors that may drive child morbidity and mortality among those married as children vs adults in Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech Army over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due

  8. Development problems were common five years after positive screening for language disorders and, or, autism at 2.5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Fernell, Elisabeth; Thompson, Lucy; Sandberg, Eva; Kadesjö, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2018-04-10

    This study identified whether children who had screened positive for either developmental language disorder (DLD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the age of 2.5 years had neurodevelopmental assessments five years later. Our study cohort were 288 children born from 1 July 2008 to 20 June 2009 who screened positive for DLD and, or, ASD at 2.5 years. Of these, 237 children were referred to, and assessed, at the Paediatric Speech and Language Pathology clinic (n = 176) or the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic (n = 61) at the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Clinical registers covering all relevant outpatient clinics were reviewed five years later with regard to established diagnoses. When the 237 were followed up five years later, 96 (40%) had established neurodevelopmental disorders or problems, often beyond DLD and ASD. Co-existing problems were common in this cohort and multidisciplinary assessments were indicated. The other 60% did not appear in subsequent clinic records. It is likely that this 40% was a minimum rate and that more children will be referred for developmental problems later. Five years after they had been screened positive for DLD and, or autism at 2.5 years, 40% of our cohort had remaining or other developmental problems. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mary E; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A

    Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers' involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000-2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (pinvolvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes.

  10. Comparison of the Lea Symbols and HOTV charts for preschool vision screening from age 3 to 4.5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the applicability and the development of the normal visual acuity from age 3 to 3.5 years using Lea Symbols and HOTV charts.METHODS: It was a survey research study. Totally, 133 preschoolers(266 eyesbetween 3 to 4.5 years old recruited from two kid-gardens in Guangzhou were tested with both the Lea Symbols chart and the HOTV chart. Outcome measures were monocular logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution(logMARvisual acuity and inter-eye acuity difference in logMAR units for each test. RESULTS: The testability rates of the two charts were high(96.24% vs 92.48%, respectively, but difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The difference between the two kind of monocular vision was not statistically significant(the right eye: t=0.517, P=0.606; the left eye: t=-0.618, P=0.538. There was no significant difference between different eye(Lea Symbols chart: t=0.638, P=0.525; HOTV chart: t=-0.897, P=0.372. The visual acuities of the boys were better than those of the girls, but the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The results which came from visual acuities with the two charts for the corresponding age groups(3-year-old group, 3.5-year-old group, 4-year-old group, 4.5-year-old groupindicated that the visual acuities of the preschoolers were improving with increasing age, but the difference among the visual acuities with the Lea Symbols chart was not statistically significant(the right eye: F=2.662, P=0.052; the left eye: F=1.850, P=0.143. However the difference among the visual acuities with the HOTV chart was statistically significant(the right eye: F=4.518, P=0.005; the left eye: F=3.893, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Both Lea Symbols and HOTV chars are accepted and appropriate for preschool vision screening from 3 to 4.5 years old. The monocular visual acuity of preschoolers from age 3 to 4.5 years could be assessed was similar using the two charts. There is no correlation between visual acuity and different eye

  11. Assessment of gross motor skills and phenotype profile in children 9-11 years of age in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Mario; Viret, Pierre; Bui, Hung Tien; Laverdière, Caroline; Kalinova, Émilia; Comtois, Alain-Steve

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new gross motor skill test battery in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children who have been off therapy for at least 1 year and to assess its discriminatory power (discriminant analysis) from healthy children. Twenty children (10 males and 10 females) 9-11 years of age (median age = 10.6 years) were assessed by the UQAC-UQAM test battery and then compared to recent provincial norms. This pilot study was also an opportunity to validate this test battery as a reliable tool for clinical or research purposes in the area of chronic or disabling diseases in children. Eleven motor skill variables grouped into five factors have been measured (speed, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time). Scores from 10 of the 11 motor skill tests showed significant differences when compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Nearly 50% of patients obtained an average score below the 15th percentile. Furthermore, stepwise discriminant analysis allowed classifying successfully 88.4% of children in the correct group (ALL or Control). The normal development of GMS among children affected by ALL appears to have been compromised. The UQAC-UQAM test battery seems to be sensitive enough to quantify with precision the extent of the motor impairment in these children. The UQAC-UQAM test battery appears to be a useful tool to evaluate the extent to which ALL survivors are affected. Early motor intervention should be considered for those patients even during the treatment periods. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relationships among age, gender, anthropometric characteristics, and dynamic balance in children 5 to 12 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Sarah M; Sweeney, Jane K; Roberts, Pamela L; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    To examine relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics, and dynamic balance. Height, weight, and arm and foot length were measured in 160 children with typical development aged 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Pediatric Reach Test (PRT), and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Moderate to good positive relationships (r = 0.61 and r = 0.56) were found between increasing age and PRT and PBS scores. A fair negative relationship (r = -0.49) was observed between age and TUG test. No significant gender-by-age group difference was observed. Age had the strongest influence on TUG and PBS scores; arm length had the strongest influence on PRT scores. Dynamic balance ability is directly related to chronological age. Age and arm length have the strongest relationships with balance scores. These findings may assist pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance tests according to age rather than specific diagnosis.

  13. Breastfeeding, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Colostrum and Child Intelligence Quotient at Age 5-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; Armand, Martine; Peyre, Hugo; Garcia, Cyrielle; Forhan, Anne; De Agostini, Maria; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in breast milk with children's IQ. In the French Etude des Déterminants pré- et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'Enfant (EDEN) mother-child cohort, colostrum samples were collected at the maternity unit. Colostrum omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were analyzed by gas chromatography. At age 5-6 years, the IQs of 1080 children were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. The relationships of breastfeeding duration and PUFA levels with children's IQs were examined by linear regression. Full scale IQ of ever breastfed children was 4.5 (95% CI: 2.7, 6.2) higher than never breastfed children in the unadjusted model, but this was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (1.3 points higher [-0.4, 3.0]). Any breastfeeding duration was associated with full scale (0.20 [0.00, 0.41] points/month) and verbal (0.31 [0.09, 0.52]) IQ. Colostrum linoleic acid (LA) levels were negatively associated with Verbal IQ (-0.6 [-1.1, 0.0] points per 1% level increase). Children exposed to colostrum high in LA and low in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had lower IQs than those exposed to colostrum high in DHA (3.0 [0.5, 5.5] points) and those exposed to colostrum low in LA and DHA (4.4 [1.6, 7.3] points). Finally, the association between breastfeeding duration and child IQ was stronger when LA levels were high. Duration of breastfeeding and colostrum PUFA levels were associated with children's IQs in the EDEN cohort. These data support breastfeeding and add evidence for the role of early PUFA exposure on childhood cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An 11-Year-Old Child with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Who Presented with Nephrolithiasis

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    Fatih Firinci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease become symptomatic and are diagnosed usually at adulthood. The rate of nephrolithiasis in these patients is 5–10 times the rate in the general population, and both anatomic and metabolic abnormalities play role in the formation of renal stones. However, nephrolithiasis is rare in childhood age group. In this paper, an 11-year-old child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with nephrolithiasis is discussed.

  15. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    -79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations......BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60...

  16. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being among 10-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Paula; Lloyd, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 Kids' Life and Times Survey, involving 3657 children aged 10 or 11 years old in Northern Ireland. The survey indicated high levels of use of Internet applications, including social-networking sites and online games. Using the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument, the data indicate that the use of social-networking sites and…

  17. Waist-height ratio in children of 7 to 11 years with high weight at birth and its relationship with gender, age and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vargas, Nuris; Fernandez-Britto, Jose Emilio; Martinez Perez, Tania Paula; Martinez Garcia, Rolando; Castañeda Garcia, Cecilia Margarita; Garriga Reyes, Mailin; Cabrera Estrada, Claudia; Plana Labrada, Rossana; García Niebla, Rosa María; Blanco Aranguren, Fabiola

    2018-03-26

    Obesity (OB), considered as one of the Non-Transmissible Chronic Diseases, has as its fundamental characteristics that of being prevalent at a global level, increasing in number, affecting developed and developing countries, affecting both genders, and all ages and social groups. To identify if high birth weight is a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity in children 7 to 11 years old, and its relationship to gender, age and diet. A case-control descriptive study was carried out with children born between January 1992 and December 1995, in order to identify early risk factors (atherosclerotic accelerators) such as abdominal obesity in children aged 7 to 11, and who have a history of macrosomia or high birth weight, as well as their relationship with gender, age and diet. It was observed that the waist/height value was normal in 60.8% of the study group and in 64.00% in the control group. The difference between groups, gender, and age was not significant (P=.6859). As regards the diet in the study group (macrosomic), there was no significant association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values, with an χ 2 =0.223 and P=.6373 (not significant). In the control group (with normal weight at birth), it was found that there is a significant statistical association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values. This means that it can be stated, with 95% reliability, that the type of diet is associated with waist/height values. High birth weight is not a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity (increased waist/height index). Gender and age are independent for abdominal obesity (macrosomic and normal weight at birth). The diet in high birth weight children is not related to the index waist-height index, which is not the case in those born with normal weight under the same conditions. The marked increase in abdominal obesity (Waist/height index) in children between 7 and 11 years old in both groups is

  18. Velocidade de ganho de peso nos primeiros anos de vida e excesso de peso entre 5-11 anos de idade, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Weight gain rate in early childhood and overweight in children 5-11 years old in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Maria Alvim de Matos

    2011-04-01

    rate was associated with BMI, and overweight or obesity in the 5-11-year age bracket increased twofold for each unit increase in the weight gain standard deviation between 24 and 60 months of age (RR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.87-2.32. For all early childhood age brackets, there was an association between rapid weight gain and subsequent overweight or obesity.

  19. Epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus among children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Northern Italy

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    Montrasio Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Methods To estimate the proportion of hospital admissions for rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and identify the circulating G and P genotypes among children under five years of age, we conducted a prospective observational study from January to December 2008, recruiting children consecutively admitted to six hospitals in Milan and nearby towns in northern Italy. Typing was done on stool samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results Of the 521 stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis, 34.9% (95%CI, 30.8 to 39.2% were rotavirus-positive. Two thirds (67.6% were under two years of age, and 13.2% were under six months. The predominant G type was G1 (40.7%, followed by G9 (22.5%, G2 (13.2%, G3 (5.5%, G4 (3.8% and G10 (1.6%. Twenty-one (11.7% mixed-G infections were identified: G1+G10 (8.8%; G1+G9 (1.6%; and G2+G10 (1.2%. Only P[8] (67.6% and P[4] (12.6% types were P genotyped. The predominant single G/P combination was G1P[8] (39.7%, followed by G9P[8] (25.3%, G2P[4] (14.3%, and G3P[8] (4.1%. All G-mixed types combined with P[8]. Conclusions These findings show an high prevalence of rotavirus infections among children admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis caused by different rotavirus strains circulating in the area studied.

  20. The benefit of myomectomy in women aged 40 years and above: Experience in an urban teaching hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, Jesse Y; Bako, Babagana; Kadas, Saidu; Usman, Joshua D; Kullima, Abubakar A; Moruppa, Joel Y

    2011-07-01

    Abdominal myomectomy remains the mainstay of surgical management of uterine fibroids in our environment. However, its benefit in women aged 40 years and above remains debatable. An 11-year prospective study was conducted involving 98 women, aged 40 years and above, who had abdominal myomectomy for the treatment of uterine fibroid at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri. They were followed up regularly for 1-6 years to detect conception, resolution of symptoms and obstetrics performance. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. The mean age of the patients was 42.6±2.9 years and 77 (78.6%) of them were nulliparous. Lower abdominal swelling was the commonest clinical presentation and the mean uterine size was 18.6±8.5 weeks. Infertility with uterine fibroids was the indication for myomectomy in majority of the cases [48 (48.9%)], while pregnancy complications accounted for 11.2% (11) of the cases Fertility restoration was 10.4% among the infertile patients. There was complete resolution of symptoms in 35.9% of those who required symptomatic relief, and term pregnancies were recorded in 72.7% of patients with pregnancy complications. Myomectomy is the recommended treatment of uterine fibroids in women aged 40 years and above with infertility and who wish to become pregnant. If there is no need for further fertility preservation, hysterectomy should be offered.

  1. Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (≥ 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mureş, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ≥ 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ≥ 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ≥ 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs.

  2. Oral Health Status Related to Social Behaviors among 6 - 11 Year Old Schoolchildren in Kosovo

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    Lulëjeta Ferizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. Material and methods: A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index, for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits. The analysis included frequencies and means. The differences between means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05. The factors associated with dental caries were tested using the Spearman’s rank. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of schoolchildren aged 6-11 years was 4.36 ± 3.763 and 1.20 ± 1.488, respectively. Sealant placements were found among 90 schoolchildren, amounting to 1.58%. From 8 years of age, 50% of children brush their teeth twice a day. Confectionery consumption among the observed children has increased. Forty percent of them eat sweets at least once a day, and majority of them visit their dentists only when necessary. A significant correlation between consumption of confectionery, oral hygiene, dental visits and the prevalence of caries was confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is a high prevalence of caries among 6-11 year old schoolchildren, thus pointing to a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care as well as utilizing preventive measures and regular dental visits.

  3. Age-related changes in the temporal dynamics of executive control: A study in 5- and 6-year-old children

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    Joanna eLucenet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory (Braver, Gray & Burgess, 2007, this study conducted in 5- and 6-year-olds, tested for a possible shift between two modes of control, proactive vs. reactive, which differ in the way goal information is retrieved and maintained in working memory. To this end, we developed a children-adapted version of the AX-Continuous-Performance Task (AX-CPT. Twenty-nine 5-year-olds and twenty-eight 6-year-olds performed the task in both low and high working-memory load conditions (corresponding respectively to a short and a long cue-probe delay. Analyses suggested that a qualitative change in the mode of control occurs within the 5-year-old group. However, quantitative, more graded changes were also observed both within the 5-year-olds, and between 5 and 6 years of age. These graded changes demonstrated an increasing efficiency in proactive control with age. The increase in working memory load did not impact the type of dynamics of control, but had a detrimental effect on sensitivity to cue information. These findings highlight that the development of the temporal dynamics of control can be characterized by a shift from reactive to proactive control together with a more protracted and gradual improvement in the efficiency of proactive control. Moreover, the question of whether the observed shift in the mode of control is task dependant is debated.

  4. Traumatic dental injuries of permanent incisors in 11- to 13-year-old South African schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2009-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) are common in children. There are few data on prevalence of TDI in South African populations. We assessed the prevalence and causes of TDI to anterior teeth in 11- to 13-year-old South African schoolchildren through a cross-sectional study, using a random cluster sampling method. Oral examinations were performed by calibrated examiners following training for TDI to anterior permanent incisor teeth (eight teeth) using a modified version of Ellis's classification. Of the study population of 2610 children aged 11-13 years old from 26 primary schools, 1665 children participated. The response rate was 64%. More than two-thirds (64.4%) were 12 years old. One hundred and six children had a TDI (6.4%). After adjusting for the effect of age and socio-economic status, boys had an almost 2.5 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.69) times higher probability of having a traumatic dental injury than girls. The highest prevalence was in 12 year olds and in the high socio-economic status group. Most of the children had trauma to one tooth. Enamel fracture was the main type of TDI (69.1%). The majority of the TDIs were untreated (85.4%). Homes and schools were the most common places where TDIs occurred, while only 5.7% occurred on a street, road or pavement. Falls were the main cause of TDIs. Sport was the second most common cause and the third most common cause was collision with objects. The present study indicates that the prevalence of TDIs in schoolchildren is not as high as has been reported in other countries. The prevalence of TDIs in this population was relatively low.

  5. Level of development of the physical components of social activity schoolchildren 10-11 years children summer camp

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    R.Ya. Chovgan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of physical health of schoolchildren. Material : the study involved 146 children aged 10-11 years. Results : the questions of children's health issues such: the state of development of physical qualities, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the ratio of children to their own health, interest in physical education means in terms of the Camp. The characteristic of the state of physical health and adaptive capacity of the organism respondents. Found that 50.7 % of children had low, 42.5% - the average, 6.8% - a high level of physical activity. Daily physical fitness - 11.0 % 2-3 times a week - 26.0 % once a week, 18.5%, and sometimes - 44.5%. The health camp prefer morning gymnastics 89.0 % of students ; hiking 67.1 % physical training on interest - 63.7%. Conclusions : the identified leading and lagging physical qualities in children studied age group. Dominant over the other physical properties were agility and strength of the abdominal muscles. By lagging physical qualities include strength of arm and leg flexibility. A significant amount of children surveyed are not able to fulfill the standards of the State tests of Ukraine for its age-sex groups on a positive assessment.

  6. Cortical 11C-PIB Uptake is Associated with Age, APOE Genotype, and Gender in "Healthy Aging"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheinin, Noora M; Wikman, Kristina; Jula, Antti

    2014-01-01

    with the amyloid tracer 11C-PIB, in 64 cognitively healthy subjects (54-89 years). In addition to PET, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological testing, and APOE genotyping was performed. The results were assessed with a statistical general linear model as well as with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM......). Results: The effects of age (p gender (p = 0.001) on composite cortical 11C-PIB uptake were all significant. The effect of educational level was non-significant (p = 0.37). No significant interactions were found between any of the factors. Cortical 11C....... In this sample of cognitively healthy elderly individuals, men exhibited higher 11C-PIB uptake than women. Possible gender differences in Aβ accumulation have not been addressed in detail in previous studies, and deeper evaluation in the future is warranted....

  7. Biological age as a health index for mortality and major age-related disease incidence in Koreans: National Health Insurance Service – Health screening 11-year follow-up study

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    Kang YG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Gon Kang,1 Eunkyung Suh,2 Jae-woo Lee,3 Dong Wook Kim,4 Kyung Hee Cho,5 Chul-Young Bae1 1Department of R&D, MediAge Research Center, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, CHA University, Chaum, Seoul, Republic of South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of South Korea; 4Department of Policy Research Affairs, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South KoreaPurpose: A comprehensive health index is needed to measure an individual’s overall health and aging status and predict the risk of death and age-related disease incidence, and evaluate the effect of a health management program. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the validity of estimated biological age (BA in relation to all-cause mortality and age-related disease incidence based on National Sample Cohort database.Patients and methods: This study was based on National Sample Cohort database of the National Health Insurance Service – Eligibility database and the National Health Insurance Service – Medical and Health Examination database of the year 2002 through 2013. BA model was developed based on the National Health Insurance Service – National Sample Cohort (NHIS – NSC database and Cox proportional hazard analysis was done for mortality and major age-related disease incidence.Results: For every 1 year increase of the calculated BA and chronological age difference, the hazard ratio for mortality significantly increased by 1.6% (1.5% in men and 2.0% in women and also for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, and cancer incidence by 2.5%, 4.2%, 1.3%, 1.6%, and 0.4%, respectively (p<0.001.Conclusion: Estimated BA by the developed BA model based on NHIS – NSC database is expected to be

  8. Effects of exercise mode on the peak oxygen uptake and blood lactate response in boys aged 11-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise mode (running x cycling on the indexesrelated to aerobic fitness (VO2peak and blood lactate response to exercise in children. Participated of this study 20 active boys apparently healthy (age = 11.48 + 0.41 yr.; body mass = 41.38 + 10.45 kg; stature = 147.45 + 6.56 cm, with sexual maturational level 1 and 2 (pubic hair, which performed two incremental tests, with stages of 3 minutes until voluntary exhaustion, in treadmill (TR and cycle ergometer (CE, to the determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak and lactate threshold (LT. The VO2peak was determined through the higher value obtained at intervals of 15 seconds. The LT was determined as the exercise intensity where the first and sustained increase of blood lactate above rest level occurred. The VO2peak (45.16 + 5.98 x 42.93 + 7.51 ml/kg/min, maximal heart rate (196.5 + 6.98 x 187.3 + 9.27 bpm, VO2 at LL (31.82 + 10.09 x 25.19 + 7.36 ml/kg/min and HR at LL (150.5 + 17.75 x 131.3 + 12.98 bpm were significantly higher in TR than CE, respectively. Thus, similar to adults, boys of 11 to 12 years present higher aerobic indexes (submaximal and maximal in running than cycling, which can haveimportant implications for healthy professionals that utilize exercise for the healthy promotion, rehabilitation and experimental designs. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do modo de exercício (corrida x ciclismo sobre os índices relacionados com a aptidão aeróbia (VO2pico e resposta de lactato ao exercício em crianças. Participaram doestudo 20 meninos, aparentemente saudáveis e ativos (idade = 11,48 + 0,41 anos; massa corporal = 41,38 + 10,45 kg; estatura = 147,45 + 6,56 cm, com níveis de maturação sexual 1 e 2 (pilosidade pubiana, que realizaram dois testes incrementais, com estágios de 3 minutos até a exaustão voluntária, em esteira rolante (ER e bicicleta ergométrica (BE, para a determinação do pico do

  9. Hemodialysis Decreases the Etiologically-Related Early Vascular Aging Observed in End-Stage Renal Disease: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, Daniel; Galli, Cintia; Zócalo, Yanina; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Wray, Sandra; Armentano, Ricardo; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the early vascular aging (EVA) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, attempting to determine a potential association between EVA and the etiology of ESRD, and to investigate the association of hemodialysis and EVA in ESRD patients during a 5-year follow-up period. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was obtained in 151 chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHP) and 283 control subjects, and in 25 CHP, who were followed-up after a 5-year lapse. cfPWV increased in ESRD patients compared to control subjects. The cfPWV-age relationship was found to have a steeper increase in ESRD patients. The highest cfPWV and EVA values were observed in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the EVA in HD patients on a 5-year follow-up. Patients in ESRD showed higher levels of EVA. cfPWV and EVA differed in ESRD patients depending on their renal failure etiology. CHP showed an EVA reduction after a 5-year follow-up period. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Determinants of severe acute malnutrition among children under 5 years of age in Nepal: a community-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravana, Nilesh Kumar; Piryani, Suneel; Chaurasiya, Surendra Prasad; Kawan, Rasmila; Thapa, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Sumina

    2017-08-28

    Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under the age of 5years in low and middle income countries like Nepal. Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are nine times more likely to die than children without malnutrition. The prevalence of SAM has increased in Nepal over the past 15 years; however, the determinants of SAM have not been clearly assessed in the country. To assess the determinants of SAM among children aged 6-59 months in the Bara district of Nepal. A community-based case-control study was conducted in 12 randomly selected Village Development Committees (VDCs) of the Bara district of Nepal. A random sample of 292 children aged 6-59 months (146 as cases and 146 as controls) from 12 VDCs were included in this study. The prevalence of SAM among children under the age of 5years was 4.14%. The following factors were significantly associated with SAM: low socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 17.13, 95% CI 5.85 to 50.13); mother's age at birth 35 years (AOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.30 to 7.94); birth interval children. A multi-sector approach is essential to address SAM. There is a need for further studies not only focusing on SAM but also moderate acute malnutrition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Mortality among residents of shelters, rooming houses, and hotels in Canada: 11 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Stephen W; Wilkins, Russell; Tjepkema, Michael; O'Campo, Patricia J; Dunn, James R

    2009-10-26

    To examine mortality in a representative nationwide sample of homeless and marginally housed people living in shelters, rooming houses, and hotels. Follow-up study. Canada 1991-2001. 15 100 homeless and marginally housed people enumerated in 1991 census. Age specific and age standardised mortality rates, remaining life expectancies at age 25, and probabilities of survival from age 25 to 75. Data were compared with data from the poorest and richest income fifths as well as with data for the entire cohort Of the homeless and marginally housed people, 3280 died. Mortality rates among these people were substantially higher than rates in the poorest income fifth, with the highest rate ratios seen at younger ages. Among those who were homeless or marginally housed, the probability of survival to age 75 was 32% (95% confidence interval 30% to 34%) in men and 60% (56% to 63%) in women. Remaining life expectancy at age 25 was 42 years (42 to 43) and 52 years (50 to 53), respectively. Compared with the entire cohort, mortality rate ratios for men and women, respectively, were 11.5 (8.8 to 15.0) and 9.2 (5.5 to 15.2) for drug related deaths, 6.4 (5.3 to 7.7) and 8.2 (5.0 to 13.4) for alcohol related deaths, 4.8 (3.9 to 5.9) and 3.8 (2.7 to 5.4) for mental disorders, and 2.3 (1.8 to 3.1) and 5.6 (3.2 to 9.6) for suicide. For both sexes, the largest differences in mortality rates were for smoking related diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory diseases. Living in shelters, rooming houses, and hotels is associated with much higher mortality than expected on the basis of low income alone. Reducing the excessively high rates of premature mortality in this population would require interventions to address deaths related to smoking, alcohol, and drugs, and mental disorders and suicide, among other causes.

  12. Late sequelae of a non-optimal neonatal neurological condition in ERPs at the age of 11-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sonneville, L M; Visser, S L; Njiokiktjien, C

    1989-06-01

    In a longitudinal study a selective attention task was administered to 11-13-year-old children. During this task (employing a combined filter and selective-set paradigm), event-related brain potentials were recorded to study timing and morphology of early and late selection processes. Task performance was prospectively and retrospectively related to neurological optimality at birth and to flash-evoked potential correlates that were registered at the age of five. The results provided evidence that even after 13 years neonatal neurological suboptimality was reflected in task performance, both in reaction time and in electrophysiological data. Task load interacted with group classification according to optimality to the disadvantage of suboptimals. This implied that load demands differentiated between groups. The event-related brain potentials revealed the existence of a negative shift associated with memory load (search-related negativity) at Fz and Cz, and a positive deflection at Pz (P3b) associated with target detection. Cortical activity, expressed in terms of these deflections, appeared to be less pronounced for the suboptimal group.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in adults 80 years of age or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, the 80 years‘ population and older is increasing and cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. The aim of the study is to analyze the cardiovascular risk factors in octogenarians. Material and methods: It is a descriptive, observational cross prevalence research, conducted in March 2015 in Lima. A questionnaire on cardiovascular risk factors was used; blood pressure, weight, height and body mass index, in people 80 years of age or older was recorded. Results: Were evaluated 969 subjects, of whom 562 (58% were women and 407 (42% were male; with an average age of 84.2 years; predominant age group of 80-84 years 60.5%. 427 cases were hypertensive (44.1%, and was more common in women (62.2%. 9% of the study population (87 cases were smokers; being more common in men (64% (p = 0.000009. They were recorded at 220 subjects (22.7% with hypercholesterolemia, being more common in women (139 patients: 63.2%, without statistical significance. Diabetes was reported in 11.5% of the studied sample (111 patients, it was the most frequently in women (68.5% (p = 0.018. According to BMI values, 537 subjects (55.4% had a BMI <25, while 33.8% of the population (328 were overweight and 10.7% were enrolled with obesity, more prevalent in women (70, 2% (p = 0.028. In the hypertensive population was 87% in drug treatment, of which 65% were controlled. 26.5% (257 cases of the studied population had two risk factors and 13.1% (127 three or more risk factors. Conclusions: The most frequent factor of cardiovascular risk has been Hypertension, predominantly women. 40% of the evaluated subjects had two or more risk factors. 87% of hypertensive patients received drug treatment and 65% of them were controlled.

  14. Mental health assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children born extremely preterm without severe disabilities at 11 years of age: a Norwegian, national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevang, Silje Katrine Elgen; Hysing, Mari; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    The aims were to investigate mental health problems with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children born extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EP/ELBW) without severe disabilities compared to controls, and to identify peri-, or neonatal factors possibly predicting later mental health problems. A national Norwegian cohort of 11-year-old EP/ELBW children, excluding those with intellectual disabilities, non-ambulatory cerebral palsy, blindness and/or deafness, was assessed. Parents and teachers completed the SDQ. Mean scores and scores ≥90th percentile for the control group, combined (parent and/or teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile), and pervasive ratings (both parent and teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile) were presented. The controls consisted of an unselected population of all 11-year-old children born in 1995 who attended public or private schools in Bergen. Of the eligible children, 216 (64%) EP/ELBW and 1882 (61%) control children participated. The EP/ELBW children had significantly higher scores and/or increased risk of parent, teacher, combined, and pervasive rated hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems (OR 2.1-6.3). Only parents reported the EP/ELBW children to be at an increased risk of conduct problems (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6). Only low maternal education at birth was significantly associated with mental health problems at 11 years of age (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.4). EP/ELBW children without severe disabilities had increased risk of symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems. None of the peri- or neonatal factors were significantly associated with later mental health problems, except for low maternal education.

  15. Effects of the sitting position on the body posture of children aged 11 to 13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drza-Grabiec, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir; Rykała, Justyna; Podgórska, Justyna; Rachwal, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, children spend increasingly more time in a seated position, both at school during class and at home in front of a computer or television. The aim of this study was to compare selected parameters describing body posture and scoliosis among children in sitting and standing positions. It was an observational, cross-sectional study involving 91 primary school children aged 11-13 years. The children's backs were photographed in standing and sitting positions. The values of selected parameters were calculated using photogrammetric examination based on the Moire projection phenomenon. The results show significant statistical differences for the parameters defining the anteroposterior curves of the spine. The sitting position resulted in a decreased angle of inclination of the thoracolumbar spine, reduced depths of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, and pelvic asymmetry. Maintaining a sitting position for a long time results in advanced asymmetries of the trunk and scoliosis, and causes a decrease in lumbar lordosis and kyphosis of a child's entire spine. Therefore, we advocate the introduction of posture education programs for schoolchildren.

  16. The Association Between P3 Amplitude at Age 11 and Criminal Offending at Age 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced P3 amplitude to targets is an information-processing deficit associated with adult antisocial behavior and may reflect dysfunction of the temporal-parietal junction. This study aims to examine whether this deficit precedes criminal offending. From a birth cohort of 1,795 children, 73 individuals who become criminal offenders at age 23 and 123 noncriminal individuals were assessed on P3 amplitude. The two groups did not differ on gender, ethnicity, and social adversity. P3 amplitude was measured over the temporal-parietal junction during a visual continuous performance task at age 11, together with antisocial behavior. Criminal convictions were assessed at age 23. Reduced P3 amplitude at age 11 was associated with increased antisocial behavior at age 11. Criminal offenders showed significantly reduced P3 amplitudes to target stimuli compared to controls. Findings remained significant after controlling for antisocial behavior and hyperactivity at age 11 and alcoholism at age 23. P3 deficits at age 11 are associated with adult crime at age 23, suggesting that reduced P3 may be an early neurobiological marker for cognitive and affective processes subserved by the temporal-parietal junction that place a child at risk for adult crime. PMID:22963083

  17. Patient-reported outcomes 5 years after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Steven C; Venter, Jan A; Teenan, David; Hannan, Stephen J; Hettinger, Keith A; Pelouskova, Martina; Schallhorn, Julie M

    2016-06-01

    To assess vision-related, quality-of-life outcomes 5 years after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and determine factors predictive of patient satisfaction. Optical Express, Glasgow, Scotland. Retrospective case series. Data from patients who had attended a clinical examination 5 years after LASIK were analyzed. All treatments were performed using the Visx Star S4 IR excimer laser. Patient-reported satisfaction, the effect of eyesight on various activities, visual phenomena, and ocular discomfort were evaluated 5 years postoperatively. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine factors affecting patient satisfaction. The study comprised 2530 patients (4937 eyes) who had LASIK. The mean age at the time of surgery was 42.4 years ± 12.5 (SD), and the preoperative manifest spherical equivalent ranged from -11.0 diopters (D) to +4.88 D. Five years postoperatively, 79.3% of eyes were within ±0.50 D of emmetropia and 77.7% of eyes achieved monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and 90.6% of eyes achieved binocular UDVA of 20/20 or better. Of the patients, 91.0% said they were satisfied with their vision and 94.9% did not wear distance correction. Less than 2.0% of patients noticed visual phenomena, even with spectacle correction. Major predictors of patient satisfaction 5 years postoperatively were postoperative binocular UDVA (37.6% variance explained by regression model), visual phenomena (relative contribution of 15.0%), preoperative and postoperative sphere and their interactions (11.6%), and eyesight-related difficulties with various activities such as night driving, outdoor activities, and reading (10.2%). Patient-reported quality-of-life and satisfaction rates remained high 5 years after LASIK. Uncorrected vision was the strongest predictor of satisfaction. Dr. S.C. Schallhorn is a consultant to Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Zeiss Meditec AG, and Autofocus Inc. and a global medical director for Optical Express. No other

  18. Review and comparison of content growth in word definition of Persian speaking children with 4.5 to 7.5 years of age

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    Maryam Malekian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Word definition is one of the complicated language skills that require education and linguistic awareness. In this study , comparison was made in word definition ability of children between ages of 4.5 to 7.5 years.Methods: This study was cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical in nature . Participants included 107 girls and boys who where in age group 1 (54-65 months, age group 2 (66-77 months, and age group 3 (78-90 months. They were selected by multistage sampling method and recruited from nurseries and primary schools in 1, 7, and 17 municipal districts of Tehran . Word definition task was performed on each subject. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. Kruskal- Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical methods were used for analysis.Results: Mean score of the content in word definition was significantly increased by age (p=0.001. In the second and third age groups there was no significant difference in the content of word definition. The most response that used in all ages was the functional response. With increasing age, error rate (p=0.002 and identical (p=0.003 responses significantly decreased; however, percentage use of combination II (p<0.001 responses significantly increased.Conclusion: By increasing age, quality of definitions in terms of content is improved and definitions change from functional and concrete responses to c ombination II definitions.

  19. Active play and screen time in US children aged 4 to 11 years in relation to sociodemographic and weight status characteristics: a nationally representative cross-sectional analysis

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    Must Aviva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of childhood obesity underscores the importance of monitoring population trends in children's activity and screen time, and describing associations with child age, gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Our objective was to estimate the proportion of young children in the US who have low levels of active play or high levels of screen time, or who have both these behaviors, and to describe associations with age, gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Methods We analyzed data collected during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2001–2004, a US nationally representative cross-sectional study. We studied 2964 children aged 4.00 to 11.99 years. Our main outcomes were reported weekly times that the child played or exercised hard enough to sweat or breathe hard (active play, daily hours the child watched television/videos, used computers, or played computer games (screen time, and the combination of low active play and high screen time. Low active play was defined as active play 6 times or less per week. High screen time was defined as more than 2 hours per day. We accounted for the complex survey design in analyses and report proportions and 95% confidence intervals. We used Wald Chi-square to test for differences between proportions. To identify factors associated with low active play and high screen time, we used multivariate logistic regression. Results Of US children aged 4 to 11 years, 37.3% (95% confidence interval, 34.1% to 40.4% had low levels of active play, 65.0% (95% CI, 61.4% to 68.5% had high screen time, and 26.3% (95% CI, 23.8% to 28.9% had both these behaviors. Characteristics associated with a higher probability of simultaneously having low active play and high screen time were older age, female gender, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, and having a BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile of the CDC growth reference. Conclusion Many young children in the US are reported to

  20. Multiple prescriptions of antibiotics for children aged 0 to 5 years in relation to type of antibiotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Nana; Olesen, Charlotte; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    1999-01-01

    The risk of receiving more than one prescription within an antibiotic course was examined for all children aged 0 to 5 years in a Danish county during 1997. We identified 29,307 prescriptions of systemic antibiotics for 16,245 children in a prescription database. Ten per cent of the prescriptions...

  1. Longitudinal changes in resting-state fMRI from age 5 to age 6years covary with language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique to study the whole-brain neural connectivity that underlies cognitive systems. The present study aimed to define the changes in neural connectivity in their relation to language development. Longitudinal resting-state functional data were acquired from a cohort of preschool children at age 5 and one year later, and changes in functional connectivity were correlated with language performance in sentence comprehension. For this, degree centrality, a voxel-based network measure, was used to assess age-related differences in connectivity at the whole-brain level. Increases in connectivity with age were found selectively in a cluster within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). In order to further specify the connection changes, a secondary seed-based functional connectivity analysis on this very cluster was performed. The correlations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and language performance revealed developmental effects with age and, importantly, also dependent on the advancement in sentence comprehension ability over time. In children with greater advancement in language abilities, the behavioral improvement was positively correlated with RSFC increase between left posterior STG/STS and other regions of the language network, i.e., left and right inferior frontal cortex. The age-related changes observed in this study provide evidence for alterations in the language network as language develops and demonstrates the viability of this approach for the investigation of normal and aberrant language development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Infective endocarditis in children: A 5 year experience from Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran

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    Alireza Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that there are no regional published data regarding the epidemiologic findings of infective endocarditis (IE in children, in this study we reviewed the epidemiologic and clinical features and treatment and outcome of children diagnosed with IE at Al-Zahra hospital over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of patients (<18 years old admitted from March 2006 to March 2011 in Al-Zahra Hospital (Pediatrics Infectious or Cardiology Departments reviewed. The medical files reviewed regarding demographic, clinical, diagnostic (laboratory, microbiological and echocardiographic details and treatment and outcome details. Obtained data were recorded in a questionnaire. The diagnosis of IE was determined based on Duke criteria. Results: In this study, 17 patients fulfill the Duke criteria for definite or the possible IE. The most common causes of IE was non-cyanotic heart disease (ventricular septal defect and AS; 64.8%. From cyanotic hearth disease,   Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF was the most frequent causes (11.8%. In this study, 41% of patients with IE aged < 2 years and 70% aged < 6 years. In this study, 76.5% of patients had a history of congenital heart disease or cardiac surgery. Blood cultures were positive in 10 patients (58.8%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (23.5% and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7% were the most common organisms that cause IE. Conclusion: It seems that in order to provide a regional comprehensive guideline for appropriate management and prevention of IE related complications further advanced studies with larger sample size and evaluation is recommended.

  3. Evaluation of some physical fitness characteristics in 11-13 years old

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    Ileana Monica Popovici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies indicate that a physical fitness characteristic is an important marker for healthy body and healthy mind. The major purpose of this study is to explore the levels of physical fitness of the students between 11 and 13 years of age. The participants of this study are 251 volunteer students including 95 boys and 156 girls between the ages 11 and 13 who participated at physical education lessons two times a week. The students were assessed for six anthropometric characteristics and five physical tests. Mean, standard deviation, and multiple comparisons were used for statistical analyses to find out differences between sexes with ANOVA, and Bonferoni Tests for differences between ages. Anthropometric measurements were reported as body mass index, height, weight, arm span, waist and hip and physical fitness traits such as agility, balance and strength. The findings suggest some differences between female and male students and between ages; male participants obtained higher results as means compared to female participants. Keywords: anthropometrics, agility, balances, strength, students

  4. LEAPing on with language: An on-line language programme to support classroom teachers and parents of primary school children (aged 5-11 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare Allen, M; Kendrick, Andrew; Archbold, Sue; Harrigan, Suzanne

    2014-05-01

    The Leaping on with Language programme provides a combination of strategies and activities to accelerate children's spoken language use from simple sentences to complex language. Using a conversational philosophy it expands the building blocks of language (vocabulary, grammar, speech), whilst emphasising the importance of developing independent social communication and acknowledging a child's developing self esteem and self identity between the ages of 4-11. Three pilot projects evaluated the programme with a total of 51 delegates. The outcomes were hugely positive. Changes in behaviour were reported from the 3rd pilot 1 month later. Comments regarding the length of training, practical strategies and more film clips were implemented. Leaping on with language is now a free to access resource available on line.

  5. Development and Validation of the Persian Version of the Acceptable Noise Level (ANL Test in Normal Children Aged 5-8 Years

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    Abdollah Moossavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of the present study was to develop and validate the Persian version of the Acceptable Noise Level (ANL test in normal, Persianspeaking children aged 5-8 years. Methods: This tool-making and non-experimental research was conducted in two stages. In the first stage the proper story was selected and recorded after evaluation of its content validity. In the second stage this test material was administered to a total 181 normal children (97 girls and 84 boys randomly chosen from the population of preschool and primary school children of Tehran (District 5, aged 5-8 years in four age groups to evaluate the reliability of test in order to develop the Persian version of the ANL test and assess its changes during the growth. Lawshe’s method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used to assess the content validity and reliability of the test, respectively. Mann– Whitney U test was used to examine gender differences, and Kruskal-Wallis test was to examine age differences. Results: Test-retest correlation of 0.74 indicated acceptable reliability of the test. Significant differences were found between most of different age groups for the ANL mean scores (P0.05. Conclusion: The study results indicated good validity and reliability of the Persian version of the ANL test in children. Therefore this test can be useful in designing classrooms suitable for 5-8 year-old children of both genders.

  6. Poverty and behavior problems trajectories from 1.5 to 8 years of age: Is the gap widening between poor and non-poor children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Julia Rachel S E; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Michel, Gregory; Salla, Julie; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-08-01

    Poverty has been associated with high levels of behavior problems across childhood, yet patterns of associations over time remain understudied. This study aims: (a) to examine whether poverty predicts changes in behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age; (b) to estimate potential selection bias for the observed associations. We used the 1998-2006 waves of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 2120). Main outcomes were maternal ratings of hyperactivity, opposition and physical aggression from 1.5 to 8 years of age. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the longitudinal association between poverty and behavior problems. Models were re-estimated adjusting for wave nonresponse and using multiple imputation to account for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. Poverty predicted hyperactivity and opposition in a time dependent manner. Hyperactivity [Bpoverty*age = 0.052; CI 95 % (0.002; 0.101)] and opposition [Bpoverty*age = 0.049; CI 95 % (0.018; 0.079)] increased at a faster rate up to age 5 years, and then decreased at a slower rate for poor than non-poor children. Physical aggression decreased at a steady rate over time for all children [Bpoverty*age = -0.030; p = 0.064). Estimates remained similar when accounting for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. The difference between poor and non-poor children was stable over time for physical aggression, but increased with age for hyperactivity and opposition. Attrition among poor children did not compromise the validity of results.

  7. Seroprevalence of IgG Antibodies against Mumps in Bulgarian Children under 18 Years of Age

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    Milena Karcheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IgG antibodies against mumps in a representative stratified sample of children under 18 years of age in Pleven district, Bulgaria. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, sero-epidemiologic survey of 132 children aged under 18 years was conducted in Pleven district. They were distributed into two age groups: from 0 to 11 years old (n=80 and from 12 to 18 years old (n=52. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA was performed for indirect evidence of specific IgG antibodies in the serum. Results: The results showed that 41% of the investigated children were negative in terms of mumps IgG antibodies, 11% had borderline values and the remaining, approximately 48%, were positive. In the group of children aged 0 to 11 years who had received one dose of the mumps vaccine, 50% were negative for mumps IgG antibodies. In the second group of children aged 12 to 18 years who had received two vaccine doses, the percentage of participants negative for mumps IgG antibodies decreased significantly. Conclusion: Our observations emphasise the need to conduct expanded sero-epidemiological investigations of the populations most affected by mumps and to immunise susceptible individuals.

  8. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

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    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  9. Evaluation of Some Physical Fitness Characteristics in 11-13 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Ileana Monica; Popescu, Lucian; Radu, Liliana-Elisabeta

    2017-01-01

    Many studies indicate that a physical fitness characteristic is an important marker for healthy body and healthy mind. The major purpose of this study is to explore the levels of physical fitness of the students between 11 and 13 years of age. The participants of this study are 251 volunteer students including 95 boys and 156 girls between the…

  10. The relationship between body mass index and gross motor development in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervik, Deborah; Martin, Kathy; Rundquist, Peter; Cleland, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between obesity and gross motor development in children who are developing typically and determine whether body mass index (BMI) predicts difficulty in gross motor skills. BMIs were calculated and gross motor skills examined in 50 children who were healthy aged 3 to 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Pearson chi-square statistic and stepwise linear hierarchical regression were used for analysis. A total of 24% of the children were overweight/obese, whereas 76% were found not to be overweight/obese. Fifty-eight percent of the overweight/obese group scored below average on the PDMS-2 compared to 15% of the nonoverweight group. Association between BMI and gross motor quotients was identified with significance of less than 0.002. Regression results were nonsignificant with all 50 subjects, yet showed significance (P = 0.018) when an outlier was excluded. Children aged 3 to 5 years with high BMIs may have difficulty with their gross motor skills. Further research is needed.

  11. Thyroid carcinoma: A follow-up study of 11 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzl, F.; Siebers, G.; Neumann, C.; Ritzl, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    During a follow-up of 11 years of thyroid carcinoma 136 patients were repeatedly examined. 43% papillary, 43% follicular, 11% anaplastic and 2% medullary carcinomas was found. The incidence of these types of carcinoma differed considerably; the frequency peak of papillary carcinomas was reached in 45-year-old humans, that of the follicular carcinomas in people aged 60, that of the anaplastic carcinomas in 70-year-old humans. 84% of the patients was female. Classification in pTNM-system: 8% in pT1, 27% in pT2, 12% in pT3 and 49% in pT4. Local and distant metastases were found at a low rate equally in pT1, pT2 and pT3; 26% of patients in pT4 had local metastases and 18% had distant ones in addition. There were 6 patients with metastases of a differentiated adenocarcinoma accumulating no 131-iodine and with no thyroglobulin in serum. 29% of patients had after thyroidectomy an unilateral paresis of the nervus recurrens and 4% a bilateral one. 26% of patients had a permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy. (orig.)

  12. Thyroid carcinoma: A follow-up study of 11 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzl, F.; Siebers, G.; Neumann, C.; Ritzl, E.K.

    1987-09-01

    During a follow-up of 11 years of thyroid carcinoma 136 patients were repeatedly examined. 43% papillary, 43% follicular, 11% anaplastic and 2% medullary carcinomas was found. The incidence of these types of carcinoma differed considerably; the frequency peak of papillary carcinomas was reached in 45-year-old humans, that of the follicular carcinomas in people aged 60, that of the anaplastic carcinomas in 70-year-old humans. 84% of the patients was female. Classification in pTNM-system: 8% in pT1, 27% in pT2, 12% in pT3 and 49% in pT4. Local and distant metastases were found at a low rate equally in pT1, pT2 and pT3; 26% of patients in pT4 had local metastases and 18% had distant ones in addition. There were 6 patients with metastases of a differentiated adenocarcinoma accumulating no 131-iodine and with no thyroglobulin in serum. 29% of patients had after thyroidectomy an unilateral paresis of the nervus recurrens and 4% a bilateral one. 26% of patients had a permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy.

  13. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation. PMID:27453625

  14. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2010/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Chui, A W M; Tay, M S M

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending for financial years 1989/90 to 2010/11, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider, and function.Total expenditure on health (TEH) was HK$93 433 million in financial year 2010/11, which represents an increase of HK$5364 million or 6.1% over the preceding year. As a result of a gradual recovery from the financial tsunami in 2008, gross domestic product (GDP) grew faster relative to TEH leading to a drop in TEH as a percentage of GDP from 5.2% in 2009/10 to 5.1% in 2010/11.During the period 1989/90 to 2010/11, TEH per capita (at constant 2011 prices)grew at an average annual rate of 4.8%, which was faster than the average annual growth rate of per capita GDP by 1.8 percentage points.Compared to 2009/10, in 2010/11 public and private expenditure on health increased by 3.7% and 8.5% and reached HK$45 491 million and HK$47 943 million, respectively. Consequently, the public share of TEH dropped slightly from 49.8% to 48.7% over the year. Regarding private spending, the most important source was out-of-pocket payments by households (35.0% of TEH),followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.4%), and private insurance (7.2%). It is worth noting that private insurance will likely overtake employer benefits as the second largest private payer if the insurance market continues to expand at the current rate.Of the HK$93 433 million TEH in 2010/11, HK$88 987 million (95.2%) was current expenditure and HK$4446 million (4.8%) was for capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Analysed by health care function, services for curative care accounted for the largest share of TEH (65.8%), which was made up of ambulatory services (34.0%), in-patient curative care (27.0%), day patient hospital services (4.2%), and home care (0.5%). Notwithstanding its small share,the total spending for day patient hospital services shows an increasing trend over the period 1989

  15. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  16. Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-09-05

    One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia. Studies show that screening rates among children vary by race/ethnicity and family income. Data based on parent reports from 2009-2010 indicated identical screening rates among black non-Hispanic children and white non-Hispanic children (80.7%); however, Hispanic children were less likely than non-Hispanic children to report vision screening (69.8%). Children whose families earned 200% or more above the federal poverty level were more likely to report vision screening than families with lower incomes. To update the 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for amblyopia and its risk factors in children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy of vision screening tests and the benefits and harms of vision screening and treatment. Surgical interventions were considered to be out of scope for this review. Treatment of amblyopia is associated with moderate improvements in visual acuity in children aged 3 to 5 years, which are likely to result in permanent improvements in vision throughout life. The USPSTF concluded that the benefits are moderate because untreated amblyopia results in permanent, uncorrectable vision loss, and the benefits of screening and treatment potentially can be experienced over a child's lifetime. The USPSTF found adequate evidence to bound the potential harms of treatment (ie, higher false-positive rates in low-prevalence populations) as small. Therefore, the USPSTF concluded with moderate certainty that the overall net benefit is moderate for

  17. A prospective observational cohort study to assess the incidence of acute otitis media among children 0-5 years of age in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Cunha, Clóvis Arns da; Cunha, Rejane B; Arguello, D Fermin; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Sanchez, Nervo; Barria, Eduardo Ortega

    To estimate acute otitis media incidence among young children and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers in a southern Brazilian city. Prospective cohort study including children 0-5 years of age registered at a private pediatric practice. Acute otitis media episodes diagnosed by a pediatrician and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. During September 2008-March 2010, of 1,136 children enrolled in the study, 1074 (95%) were followed: 55.0% were ≤2 years of age, 52.3% males, 94.7% white, and 69.2% had previously received pneumococcal vaccine in private clinics. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 95.7 (95% confidence interval: 77.2-117.4) overall, 105.5 (95% confidence interval: 78.3-139.0) in children ≤2 years of age and 63.6 (95% confidence interval: 43.2-90.3) in children 3-5 years of age. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 86.3 (95% confidence interval: 65.5-111.5) and 117.1 (95% confidence interval: 80.1-165.3) among vaccinated and unvaccinated children, respectively. Nearly 68.9% of parents reported worsening of their overall quality of life. Acute otitis media incidence among unvaccinated children in our study may be useful as baseline data to assess impact of pneumococcal vaccine introduction in the Brazilian National Immunization Program in April 2010. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. 11 CFR 110.18 - Voting age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting age population. 110.18 Section 110.18 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND... population of the United States, of each State, and of each Congressional district. The term voting age...

  19. Radiotherapy for patients with malignant diseases aged 85 years or older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hirofumi; Mizumoto, Masashi; Zenda, Sadamoto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and problems of radiotherapy for patients aged 85 or older. Forty-five patients were assessed (oldest old group): They were 85 years of age or older and had received radiotherapy between September 2002 and September 2005. Sixty-nine patients, 75 years of age at the start of radiotherapy, were also assessed (old group). In the oldest old group, there were 21 men and 24 women, and median age was 87 years (range; 85-99). The sites of disease were: 10 in head and neck, 5 in lung, 5 in malignant lymphoma, 4 in skin, 4 in esophagus, 2 in breast, 2 in uterine cervix, 2 in rectum, 2 in soft tissue, 2 in metastatic bone tumor, 7 in others. The treatment was deemed curative in 49%, palliative in 40%, and others in 11%. Treatment fields were limited due to performance status (PS) or age in 13 patients. The rate of treatment completion was 91% (41/45). Eleven of 26 inpatients were admitted because of difficulty in hospital visit. Seventeen of 19 outpatients needed familial escort. Of patients completed radiotherapy, 47% of the patients achieved complete response (CR), 37% achieved partial response (PR), and 16% achieved no change (NC) in the group of curative radiotherapy, and 88% of the patients achieved effective response, and only 2 cases resulted in ineffective response in the group of palliative radiotherapy. While only one patient received grade 3 dermatitis and mucositis, other patients received grade 2 and below adverse events. Three patients resulted in deterioration of PS, and 2 patients deteriorated dementia. Although higher rates in female patients, worse PS, and limitation of treatment field were seen in the oldest old group, there were no significant difference in terms of the rate of treatment completion, effectiveness, and adverse events between the two groups. Our study showed radiotherapy is effective and well tolerated in patients aged 85 or older. Considering the oldest old requiring radiotherapy

  20. Association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children aged 11 or 12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Li, Xiao Qiang; Olsen, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    was 11.7 [0.4] years; 633 [47.8%] were boys and 690 [52.2%] were girls). The mean (SD) RNFL thickness was 104 (9.6) μm. In 227 children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy, the peripapillary RNFL was 5.7 μm (95% CI, 4.3-7.1 μm; P mothers had not smoked after...

  1. 29 CFR 570.11 - Continued acceptability of certificates of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continued acceptability of certificates of age. 570.11 Section 570.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age § 570.11...

  2. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Kemper, Han C G; Amusa, Lateef O; Motshwane, Marcus

    2013-08-02

    Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18 years. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls) who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. A significant (p advertising tobacco products among the Ellisras rural boys (17% boys and 12.8% for girls, p advertisements of tobacco products on the TV screens, videos or movies. Exposure to tobacco products advertisements was high among Ellisras rural children. Though tobacco products legislation exists in South Africa, efforts should be taken by the health professionals to emphasize the danger of using tobacco products even among the illiterate. Teachers and parents should refrain from advertising tobacco products at schools and at homes.

  3. Radiologically isolated syndrome: 5-year risk for an initial clinical event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin T Okuda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the 5-year risk and to identify risk factors for the development of a seminal acute or progressive clinical event in a multi-national cohort of asymptomatic subjects meeting 2009 RIS Criteria. METHODS: Retrospectively identified RIS subjects from 22 databases within 5 countries were evaluated. Time to the first clinical event related to demyelination (acute or 12-month progression of neurological deficits was compared across different groups by univariate and multivariate analyses utilizing a Cox regression model. RESULTS: Data were available in 451 RIS subjects (F: 354 (78.5%. The mean age at from the time of the first brain MRI revealing anomalies suggestive of MS was 37.2 years (y (median: 37.1 y, range: 11-74 y with mean clinical follow-up time of 4.4 y (median: 2.8 y, range: 0.01-21.1 y. Clinical events were identified in 34% (standard error=3% of individuals within a 5-year period from the first brain MRI study. Of those who developed symptoms, 9.6% fulfilled criteria for primary progressive MS. In the multivariate model, age [hazard ratio (HR: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99; p=0.03], sex (male [HR: 1.93 (1.24-2.99; p=0.004], and lesions within the cervical or thoracic spinal cord [HR: 3.08 (2.06-4.62; p=<0.001] were identified as significant predictors for the development of a first clinical event. INTERPRETATION: These data provide supportive evidence that a meaningful number of RIS subjects evolve to a first clinical symptom. An age <37 y, male sex, and spinal cord involvement appear to be the most important independent predictors of symptom onset.

  4. Is the relationship between BMI and mortality increasingly U-shaped with advancing age? A 10-year follow-up of persons aged 70-95 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; Jacobsen, Rune; Jeune, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the call for papers (Alley DE, Ferrucci L, Barbagallo M, Studenski SA, Harris TB. A research agenda: the changing relationship between body weight and health in aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(11):1257-1259.), it is assumed that the association between body mass index...... (BMI [kilogram per square meter]) and mortality becomes increasingly U-shaped with advancing age. The aim of this study is to examine the association between BMI and mortality and to test whether the association is changing with advancing age for persons aged 70-95 years in Denmark. METHODS: The study...

  5. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcomes of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew; Tran, Haily; Roberts, Mary; Clarke, Nadeene; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Vidmar, Suzanna; Wilson, John; Robertson, Colin F

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, The Melbourne Asthma Study was established to describe the spectrum and natural history of childhood asthma. To describe the clinical and lung function outcome of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years. Subjects were invited to complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire, skin prick testing, and measurement of lung function from the age of 7 years to the age of 50 years at 7-year intervals. Of 458 survivors (from the original 484 subjects at recruitment), 346 subjects (76%) participated, of whom, 197 completed lung function measurement. Asthma remission at the age of 50 years was 64% in those with wheezy bronchitis, 47% for those with persistent asthma, and 15% for those with severe asthma in childhood. Multivariable analysis identified severe asthma in childhood (odds ratio [OR] 11.9 [95% CI, 3.4-41.8]), female sex (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]), and childhood hay fever (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.0-4.0]) as risk factors for "current asthma" at age 50 years. There was no evidence of a difference in the rate of decline in FEV1 (mL/y, 95% CI) between the severe asthma group (15 mL/y [95% CI, 9-22 mL/y]) and all the other recruitment groups: control (16 mL/y [95% CI, 12-20 mL/y]), mild wheezy bronchitis (14 mL/y [95% CI, 8-19 mL/y]), wheezy bronchitis (16 mL/y [95% CI, 11-20 mL/y]), and persistent asthma (19 mL/y [95% CI, 13-24 mL/y]). The clinical and lung function outcome in adult life is strongly determined by asthma severity in childhood. The reduced lung function seen in adults is established in childhood and does not appear to decline more rapidly in adult years despite continuing symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Development of Rhythm at the Age of 6-11 Years: Non-Pitch Rhythmic Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Pirkko

    2006-01-01

    In the statistical and transcriptional analyses reported in this exploratory study, original rhythms of 6-11-year-old children (N=36) were examined. The hypotheses were based on a new model of musical development, and tested empirically using non-pitch rhythmic improvisation in a MIDI-environment. Several representational types were found in…

  8. Yogurt consumption in infancy is inversely associated with atopic dermatitis and food sensitization at 5 years of age: A hospital-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Tetsuo; Futamura, Masaki; Yang, Limin; Narita, Masami; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that habitual yogurt consumption is associated with favorable outcomes for health issues in children. However, the effects of yogurt consumption on allergic diseases and sensitization in children remain poorly understood. This prospective birth cohort study aimed to investigate for associations between habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and development of allergic diseases/sensitization at 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the Tokyo Children's Health, Illness and Development (T-CHILD) study. A total of 1550 children were born to the recruited women. Consumption of yogurt by children during infancy was determined by using questionnaires completed at 12 months of age. Outcome data for children were collected from the questionnaires and medical check-ups completed at 5 years of age. Possible associations between habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and allergic diseases/sensitization were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. We analyzed the data for 1166 children whose parents responded at 5 years of age. Habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and atopic dermatitis at 5 years of age were significantly associated (UKWP criteria: aOR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97; P=0.03). Children with habitual yogurt consumption in infancy were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens (aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93; P=0.03), but no associations were seen in regard to any other allergens. Our study demonstrated that habitual consumption of yogurt in infancy has the potential to prevent development of atopic dermatitis and food sensitization, but not other allergic diseases, at 5 years of age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  10. An Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Accidents Among under 5 Years of Age Referred to Emergency Hospital Units in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Accidents and injuries are the leading causes of avoidable illness and death in most of the countries in the world. For health policymakers, it is essential to have knowledge about the occurrence of accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of accidents in children under 5 years of age referring to emergency departments in Hamadan province. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study that all under 5 years of age patients referred to hospitals in Hamadan province were enrolled in the study during 2009 to 2014. Data were extracted from injury register software and by using descriptive and analytic statistics, data were analyzed with STATA software version 12 at the level of error less        than 5%. Results: A total of 7409 under 5 years of age patients were registered during this period. 70.4% were male and 38.97% of them were under 1 year old. Home accidents included 45.07% of the accidents. Car accidents (27.89%, hit (22.16% and fall (16.79% were the most occurred accidents in both sexes. Conclusion: Due to the high incidence of accidents at home and roads, necessary precautions should be taken in this regard

  11. Child labor and severe functioning difficulties and disability in Mexican children and adolescents 5-17 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremis Villalobos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the characteristics of Mexican children and adolescents 5-17 years with severe functioning difficulties and disability and explore their participation in child labor. Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used logistic regression to explore the association between this condition and child labor. Results. While 11.2% of Mexicans 5-17 years-old has severe functioning difficulties or disability, 13.4% work. The functioning difficulty and disability domains with the highest prevalence are experiencing anxiety (5.4% and depression (1.5% daily. Children and adolescents with severe functioning difficulties and disability are 70% more likely to do child labor [OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.2,2.4]. Educational lag doubles the likelihood of doing child labor [OR=2.2, 95%CI:1.5,3.3]. Conclusions. Guaranteeing educational opportunities and respect for the rights of children with severe functioning difficulties and disability is essential to achieve development of their full potential.

  12. Effect of Mo concentration and aging time on the magnetic and mechanical hardness of Fe-xMo-5Ni-0.05C alloys (x = 5, 8, 11 and 15 wt. (%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Lopes Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the microestructure during thermal aging treatment at 610 ºC in Fe-xMo-5Ni-0.05C alloys were studied for different aging times with different Mo concentrations. The heat treatment at 610 ºC induces carbide precipitation into the metallic matrix near Fe2Mo phase. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed a more intense precipitation of α-FeMo, Fe3Mo, R(Fe63Mo37 phases and MoC, Fe2MoC carbides for the alloys containing 15 and 11% Mo, respectively. This work shows that hardness and coercive force changes are function of the molybdenum content and aging time variation. Vickers hardness and coercive force both increase with the increase of molybdenum content and reach maximum values at 4 and 1h of aging, respectively.

  13. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder in an 11-Year Old South American Boy: Medical and Cultural Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Schermbrucker, Jonah; Kimber, Melissa; Johnson, Natasha; Kearney, Sarah; Couturier, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is new in the DSM-5, replacing the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood. ARFID has no age criterion, and therefore addresses eating disturbances across the lifespan. This report illustrates the case of an 11-year-old boy of Colombian ancestry with ARFID and explores the role of culture in the diagnosis of ARFID. To date, literature describing this disorder is limited. ARFID is often seen in the child and adoles...

  14. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  15. Risk factors for mortality before age 18 years in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColley, Susanna A; Schechter, Michael S; Morgan, Wayne J; Pasta, David J; Craib, Marcia L; Konstan, Michael W

    2017-07-01

    Understanding early-life risk factors for childhood death in cystic fibrosis (CF) is important for clinical care, including the identification of effective interventions. Data from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) collected 1994-2005 were linked with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) demographic and mortality data from 2013. Inclusion criteria were ≥1 visit annually at age 3-5 years and ≥1 FEV 1 measurement at age 6-8 years. Demographic data, nutritional parameters, pulmonary signs and symptoms, microbiology, and FEV 1 were evaluated as risk factors for death before age 18 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the simultaneous effects of risk factors associated with death before age 18 years. Among 5365 patients enrolled in ESCF who met inclusion criteria, 3880 (72%) were linked to the CFFPR. Among these, 191 (5.7%) died before age 18 years; median age at death was 13.4 ± 3.1 years. Multivariable regression showed clubbing, crackles, female sex, unknown CFTR genotype, minority race or ethnicity, Medicaid insurance (a proxy of low socioeconomic status), Pseudomonas aeruginosa on 2 or more cultures, and weight-for-age <50th percentile were significant risk factors for death regardless of inclusion of FEV 1 at age 6-8 years in the model. We identified multiple risk factors for childhood death of patients with CF, all of which remained important after incorporating FEV 1 at age 6-8 years. Among the factors identified were the presence of clubbing or crackles at age 3-5 years, signs which are not routinely collected in registries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with body mass index in children aged 9-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with body mass index (BMI in children aged 9-11 years. Methods: The study is part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE. Body composition was determined using the bipolar bioimpedance technique. The mean BMI value was categorized as recommended by the World Health Organization. For seven consecutive days, participants used an accelerometer to objectively monitor sedentary behavior (SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Individual factors (anthropometric and behavioral, family aspects, and family and school environment were provided by participants and parents and were analyzed by multilevel linear regression adjusted for gender, ethnicity, school, number of siblings, and total annual family income. Results: The mean BMI was 20.1 kg/m2, and 51.8% of the children were overweight/obese (50.3% boys, 53.4% girls, p = 0.014. Considering all participants, the associated factors of BMI were body fat percentage (BF%, β = 0.0216, p < 0.001 and screen time (ST, β = 0.0050, p = 0.006. In boys, the associated factors were BF% (β = 0.0209, p < 0.001, ST (β = 0.006, p = 0.036, and healthy eating policies or practices (β = 0.0276, p = 0.025. In girls, only BF% was associated (β = 0.0221, p < 0.001 with BMI. Conclusions: High prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in children from São Caetano do Sul. Different associated factors were identified between the genders, with only BF% being common in both genders.

  17. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Bolann, Bjørn J.; Ndugwa, Christopher M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementatio...

  18. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, K.D.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Amusa, L.O.; Motshwane, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18

  19. 45 CFR 5b.11 - Exempt systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempt systems. 5b.11 Section 5b.11 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.11 Exempt systems. (a) General policy. The Act permits certain types of specific systems of records to be exempt from...

  20. Managing the screen-viewing behaviours of children aged 5-6 years: a qualitative analysis of parental strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M J; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J L; Sebire, S J

    2016-03-01

    The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5-6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5-6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive content analysis. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in the greater Bristol area (UK). 53 parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents reported that for many children, screen viewing was a highly desirable behaviour that was difficult to manage, and that parents used the provision of screen viewing as a tool for reward and/or punishment. Parents managed screen viewing by setting limits in relation to daily events such as meals, before and after school, and bedtime. Screen-viewing rules were often altered depending on parental preferences and tasks. Inconsistent messaging within and between parents represented a source of conflict at times. Potential strategies to facilitate reducing screen viewing were identified, including setting screen-viewing limits in relation to specific events, collaborative rule setting, monitoring that involves mothers, fathers and the child, developing a family-specific set of alternative activities to screen viewing and developing a child's ability to self-monitor their own screen viewing. Managing screen viewing is a challenge for many parents and can often cause tension in the home. The data presented in this paper provide key suggestions of new approaches that could be incorporated into behaviour change programmes to reduce child screen viewing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  2. LAPAROSCOPIC PANCREATIC RESECTION. FROM ENUCLEATION TO PANCREATODUODENECTOMY. 11-YEAR EXPERIENCE

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    Marcel Autran Cesar MACHADO

    Full Text Available Context Our experience with laparoscopic pancreatic resection began in 2001. During initial experience, laparoscopy was reserved for selected cases. With increasing experience more complex laparoscopic procedures such as central pancreatectomy and pancreatoduodenectomies were performed. Objectives The aim of this paper is to review our personal experience with laparoscopic pancreatic resection over 11-year period. Methods All patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatic resection from 2001 through 2012 were reviewed. Preoperative data included age, gender, and indication for surgery. Intraoperative variables included operative time, bleeding, blood transfusion. Diagnosis, tumor size, margin status were determined from final pathology reports. Results Since 2001, 96 patients underwent laparoscopic pancreatectomy. Median age was 55 years old. 60 patients were female and 36 male. Of these, 88 (91.6% were performed totally laparoscopic; 4 (4.2% needed hand-assistance, 1 robotic assistance. Three patients were converted. Four patients needed blood transfusion. Operative time varied according type of operation. Mortality was nil but morbidity was high, mainly due to pancreatic fistula (28.1%. Sixty-one patients underwent distal pancreatectomy, 18 underwent pancreatic enucleation, 7 pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomies, 5 uncinate process resection, 3 central and 2 total pancreatectomies. Conclusions Laparoscopic resection of the pancreas is a reality. Pancreas sparing techniques, such as enucleation, resection of uncinate process and central pancreatectomy, should be used to avoid exocrine and/or endocrine insufficiency that could be detrimental to the patient's quality of life. Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy is a safe operation but should be performed in specialized centers by highly skilled laparoscopic surgeons.

  3. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

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    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  4. Depression subtypes and 5-year risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease in patients aged 70 years.

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    Vilalta-Franch, Joan; López-Pousa, Secundino; Llinàs-Reglà, Jordi; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Merino-Aguado, Javier; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate several subtypes of depressive disorders as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) specifically. This is a population-based cohort study using a sample of 451 non-demented older people. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were calculated to determine the association of depression with dementia or AD development after 5 years. Baseline evaluation included the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination (CAMDEX). Depressive disorders (major episode [MD] and minor depressive disorders [MDDIS]) were assessed following DSM-IV criteria and further classified according to the age at onset (early versus late onset). In turn, all late-onset depressions were grouped as with or without depression-executive dysfunction syndrome (DEDS). Dementia (and dementia subtypes) diagnoses were made using the CAMDEX. When the patients were deceased, the Retrospective Collateral Dementia Interview was used. Late-onset depressions (both MD and MDDIS) were associated with increased dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.635; 95% CI = 1.153-6.023; and HR = 2.517; 95% CI = 1.200-5.280, respectively), and AD (HR = 6.262; 95% CI = 2.017-19.446; and HR = 4.208; 95% CI = 1.828-9.685, respectively) after adjustment by age, gender, marital status, education, cognitive impairment, executive function and stroke history. A second model revealed that only late-onset depressions with DEDS increased the risk for both dementia (late-onset MD with DEDS: HR = 6.262; 95% CI = 2.017-19.446; late-onset MDDIS with DEDS: HR = 4.208; 95% CI = 1.828-9.685) and AD (late-onset MD with DEDS: HR = 7.807; 95% CI = 1.567-38.894; late-onset MDDIS with DEDS: HR = 6.099; 95% CI = 2.123-17.524). Late-onset depressive episodes with DEDS are risk factors for dementia and AD development, regardless of the severity of the depression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Currently Use E-Cigarettes,† by Sex and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey,§ 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    In 2016, 3.8% of men and 2.6% of women aged ≥18 years currently used e-cigarettes. Among men, current e-cigarette use decreased with advancing age, from 7.1% among men aged 18-24 years to 4.8% among men aged 25-49 years, 2.6% among men 50-64 years, and 1.1% among men aged ≥65 years. Among women, current e-cigarette use increased between ages 18-24 years (2.3%) and 25-49 years (3.3%) and decreased between ages 50-64 years (3.0%) and ≥65 years (0.9%). A greater percentage of men aged 18-24 years and 25-49 years currently used e-cigarettes compared with women in the same age groups.

  6. PACER Performance of Children Aged 11-14 With Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Timothy; Butterfield, Stephen A; Mason, Craig A; Tu, Shihfen; Lehnhard, Robert A; Nightingale, Christopher J

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the performance on the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER) test in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) over the course of a school year, and also to investigate the possible influence of age, sex, school sport participation, and body mass index on results. Utilizing a repeated measures design, 892 middle school children aged 11-14 years (mean = 12.25, SD = 0.94) including 55 children with ADHD participated. While controlling for age, sex, sports participation, and body mass index, children were tested on the PACER 3 times during the school year. Procedures specified in the FITNESSGRAM test manual were explicitly followed. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to analyze the data. Children with ADHD performed 8.6 fewer laps at intercept (baseline), than did healthy children without ADHD (t 878  = -6.20, P < .001). However, no significant differences emerged for time (slope). In addition, no significant interactions were found for ADHD with age, sex, sports participation, or body mass index. A diagnosis of ADHD, independent of selected predictor variables, explained lower PACER performance.

  7. Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) associated with GJB2 single mutation IVS1+1G>A in the Yakut population isolate in Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, Nikolay A; Teryutin, Fedor M; Pshennikova, Vera G; Solovyev, Aisen V; Klarov, Leonid A; Solovyeva, Natalya A; Kozhevnikov, Andrei A; Vasilyeva, Lena M; Fedotova, Elvira E; Pak, Maria V; Lekhanova, Sargylana N; Zakharova, Elena V; Savvinova, Kyunney E; Gotovtsev, Nyurgun N; Rafailo, Adyum M; Luginov, Nikolay V; Alexeev, Anatoliy N; Posukh, Olga L; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Fedorova, Sardana A

    2014-01-01

    Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) is one of the frequent sensory disorders registered in 50% of individuals over 80 years. ARHI is a multifactorial disorder due to environmental and poor-known genetic components. In this study, we present the data on age-related hearing impairment of 48 heterozygous carriers of mutation IVS1+1G>A (GJB2 gene) and 97 subjects with GJB2 genotype wt/wt in the Republic of Sakha/Yakutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia). This subarctic territory was found as the region with the most extensive accumulation of mutation IVS1+1G>A in the world as a result of founder effect in the unique Yakut population isolate. The GJB2 gene resequencing and detailed audiological analysis in the frequency range 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 kHz were performed in all examined subjects that allowed to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations between the presence of single mutation IVS1+1G>A and hearing of subjects from examined groups. We revealed the linear correlation between increase of average hearing thresholds at speech frequencies (PTA0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0 kHz) and age of individuals with GJB2 genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (rs = 0.499, p = 0.006860 for males and rs = 0.427, p = 0.000277 for females). Moreover, the average hearing thresholds on high frequency (8.0 kHz) in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (both sexes) were significantly worse than in individuals with genotype wt/wt (pA/wt was estimated to be ∼40 years (rs = 0.504, p = 0.003). These findings demonstrate that the single IVS1+1G>A mutation (GJB2) is associated with age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) of the IVS1+1G>A carriers in the Yakuts.

  8. Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI associated with GJB2 single mutation IVS1+1G>A in the Yakut population isolate in Eastern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A Barashkov

    Full Text Available Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI is one of the frequent sensory disorders registered in 50% of individuals over 80 years. ARHI is a multifactorial disorder due to environmental and poor-known genetic components. In this study, we present the data on age-related hearing impairment of 48 heterozygous carriers of mutation IVS1+1G>A (GJB2 gene and 97 subjects with GJB2 genotype wt/wt in the Republic of Sakha/Yakutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia. This subarctic territory was found as the region with the most extensive accumulation of mutation IVS1+1G>A in the world as a result of founder effect in the unique Yakut population isolate. The GJB2 gene resequencing and detailed audiological analysis in the frequency range 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 kHz were performed in all examined subjects that allowed to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations between the presence of single mutation IVS1+1G>A and hearing of subjects from examined groups. We revealed the linear correlation between increase of average hearing thresholds at speech frequencies (PTA0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0 kHz and age of individuals with GJB2 genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (rs = 0.499, p = 0.006860 for males and rs = 0.427, p = 0.000277 for females. Moreover, the average hearing thresholds on high frequency (8.0 kHz in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (both sexes were significantly worse than in individuals with genotype wt/wt (pA/wt was estimated to be ∼40 years (rs = 0.504, p = 0.003. These findings demonstrate that the single IVS1+1G>A mutation (GJB2 is associated with age-related hearing impairment (ARHI of the IVS1+1G>A carriers in the Yakuts.

  9. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth study: outcomes in children at 5 years of age (MACS-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Murphy, Kellie E; Willan, Andrew R; Matthews, Stephen G; Ohlsson, Arne; Saigal, Saroj; Armson, B Anthony; Kelly, Edmond N; Delisle, Marie-France; Gafni, Amiram; Lee, Shoo K; Sananes, Renee; Rovet, Joanne; Guselle, Patricia; Amankwah, Kofi; Saleem, Mariam; Sanchez, Johanna

    2013-12-01

    A single course of antenatal corticosteroid therapy is recommended for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age. However, 50% of women remain pregnant 7 to 14 days later, leading to the question of whether additional courses should be given to women remaining at risk for preterm birth. The Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study (MACS) was an international randomized clinical trial that compared multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids with a single course in women at risk of preterm birth. To determine the effects of single vs multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy on death or neurodevelopmental disability (neuromotor, neurosensory, or neurocognitive/neurobehavioral function) at 5 years of age in children whose mothers participated in MACS. Our secondary aims were to determine the effect on height, weight, head circumference, blood pressure, intelligence, and specific cognitive (visual, spatial, and language) skills. Cohort follow-up study of children seen between June 2006 and May 2012 at 55 centers. In total, 1724 women (2141 children) were eligible for the study, of whom 1728 children (80.7% of the 2141 eligible children) participated and 1719 children contributed to the primary outcome. Single and multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy. The primary outcome was death or survival with a neurodevelopmental disability in 1 of the following domains: neuromotor (nonambulatory cerebral palsy), neurosensory (blindness, deafness, or need for visual/hearing aids), or neurocognitive/neurobehavioral function (abnormal attention, memory, or behavior). There was no significant difference between the groups in the risk of death or neurodevelopmental disability: 217 of 871 children (24.9%) in the multiple-courses group vs 210 of 848 children (24.8%) in the single-course group (odds ratio, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.81 to 1.29]; P = .84). Multiple courses, compared with a single

  10. [Trend of mortality of congenital malformation in children aged <5 years in Beijing, 2006-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, D Y; Zhang, W X; Li, Y C; Wang, J

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To investigate the change in mortality of congenital malformation in children aged malformation in children aged malformation in the children s decreased from 1.909‰ in 2006 to 0.703‰ in 2015, the decrease rate was 63.17 % . The decrease rate was highest in neonates (71.50 % ) ( χ (2)=57.993, P 0.05), the mortality rates of congenital malformation in the children showed a downward trend in outer suburban area and suburban area ( χ (2) =40.637 and 50.646, P malformation decreased from 32.97 % in 2006 to 23.24 % in 2015, which mainly occurred in infancy and neonatal period ( χ (2)=9.395 and 4.354, P malformations and digestive tract abnormality didn' t decreased significantly ( P >0.05). In the leading causes of deaths from congenital malformation, the mortality of congenital heart disease, neural tube defects and digestive tract atresia decreased obviously ( χ (2)=70.868, 18.431 and 9.225, P 0.05). There was an obvious area specific difference between the deaths of congenital heart disease and the deaths of neural tube defects, the mortality was higher in outer suburbs than in suburban and urban area ( χ (2)=45.783 and 6.649, P malformation in Beijing has declined year by year, it is still the main cause of deaths in children under 5 years old, and the prevention and control of related diseases should be strengthened.

  11. Growth and development of children aged 1-5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeharsae, Rohani; Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-04-04

    A low-intensity armed conflict has been occurring for nearly a decade in southernmost region of Thailand. However, its impact on child health has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of delayed child growth and development in the affected areas and to determine the association between the violence and health among children aged 1-5years. A total of 498 children aged 1-5years were recruited. Intensity of conflict for each sub-district was calculated as the 6-year average number of incidents per 100,000 population per year and classified into quartiles. Growth indices were weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height, while development was measured by the Denver Development Screening Test II (Thai version). Food insecurity, child-rearing practice, health service accessibility, household sanitation, and depression among the caregivers were assessed using screening scales and questionnaires. Contextual information such as average income and numbers of violent events in each sub-district was obtained from external sources. Growth retardation was highly prevalent in the area as reported by rates of underweight, stunting, and wasting at 19.3%, 27.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of developmental delay was also substantially high (37.1%). Multi-level analysis found no evidence of association between insurgency and health outcomes. However, children in areas with higher intensity of violence had a lower risk of delay in personal-social development (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 - 0.9; p-value = 0.05). Unlike war refugees and internally-displaced persons in camp-like settings, the relationship between level of armed conflict and growth and developmental delay among children aged 1-5years could not be demonstrated in the community setting of this study where food supply had been minimally perturbed.

  12. Distribution of blood pressure & correlates of hypertension in school children aged 5-14 years from North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Prasanta Kr; Devi, Utpala; Biswas, Dipankar; Kalita, Hem Ch; Sharma, Meenakshi; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) in the young predicts serious cardiovascular events in the adults. High prevalence of adult hypertension reported from Assam, North East (NE) India may be linked with elevated blood pressure in the childhood. The present study was an attempt to describe the distribution of BP and correlates of hypertension in children aged 5-14 yr. A total of 10,003 school children from 99 schools of Dibrugarh district, Assam, NE India, were surveyed by stratified random cluster method. Blood pressure, demographic and anthropometric information were recorded. Blood pressure was categorized in to normal, prehypertension, stage I and stage II hypertension. Girls had significantly higher (104.2 ± 12.0 vs. 103.2 ± 11.6 mm Hg, p0 <0.001) mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) than boys. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) revealed significant correlation with age, height, weight and BMI in overall and in gender specific analysis. Hypertension was found in 7.6 per cent school children (Boys: 7.3%, Girls: 7.8%). In multivariable analysis older age (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 2.82-3.91), children from tea garden community (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.08-1.55) and other community (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.18-1.73) and overweight (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) were independently associated with hypertension. Mean blood pressure in the young school children of 5-14 yr was high. A programme comprising screening, early detection and health promotion through school health programmes may help prevent future complications of hypertension.

  13. Mothers literacy status and its association with feeding practices and PEM among 1-5 year aged children in southern part of India, Mysore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of PEM in children aged 1 to 5 years and to study the association of mothers educational status with feeding practices and nutritional status of children aged 1 to 5 years. Methods: A cross sectional study of 600 children of 1-5 year age group in urban slums of Mysore city was carried out with cluster random sampling method. The data was collected by using a predesigned and pretested proforma. Assessment of the nutritional status was done by clinical examination and anthropometry. WHO child growth standards, 2006 reference data were used to classify malnutrition. Results: Among 600 children examined, 285 (47.5% were males and 315 (52.5% were females. Exclusive breast feeding was given in 295 (49.2% of children. Pre lacteal feeds and top milk feeds were given in 123 (20.5% and 108 (18% of children respectively. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 31.3%, 42.2% and 14.2% respectively. About 12.8% of mothers were illiterate and this was significantly associated with feeding practices and nutritional status of children. Conclusions: Mothers literacy status plays important role in feeding practices of their children which inturn is an important factor in determining the nutritional status of child

  14. Age-related decrease of 11C-N-methylspiperone in vivo binding to human striatum detected by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyo, Masaomi; Yamasaki, Toshiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    The effect of aging on 11 C-N-methylspiperone binding to living human striatum was demonstrated using positron emission tomography. The ll normal volunteers (22 to 72 years old) participated in this study. The uptake of 11 C-N-methylspiperone in the brain following intravenous injection was highest in the striatum in individual subject. And the uptake in the striatum only gradually increased until the end of the study. The uptake of 11 C-N-methylspiperone in cerebellum peaked within 10 minutes following injection and then rapidly dropped. The association rate constant 'k 3 ' was calculated from the slope of the radioactivity-ratio of striatum to cerebellum versus the equivalent time. The equivalent time was calculated from the radioactivity of cerebellum as an input function. The exponential decrease of the k 3 value with aging was observed. The k 3 value of the youngest subject (22 years old, male) was 0.035/min, while that of the oldest one (72 years old, male) was found to be 0.020/min. These data suggested that the dopaminergic activity through D2 dopamine receptors reduces with aging in human striatum. (author)

  15. Dental anxiety among children of age between 5 to 10 years visiting a teaching dental hospital Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, G.H.; Malik, F.S.; Attaullah, M.; Bashir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The assessment of dental anxiety among children will aid in dealing with management issues related to dental treatment. There is no study available from Pakistan on dental anxiety in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety in children attending a teaching dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 252 children aged between 5-10 years attending a dental clinic in a dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Dental anxiety was assessed by using the Faces Version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale. This scale uses faces as pictograms to indicate the levels of dental anxiety making it easier for children to answer the questionnaire. Results: A total of 252 children were observed for assessment of dental anxiety having mean age of 7.88±1.55 years with 123 (48.8 percentage) males and 129 (51.2 percentage) females. Out of these children 150 (59.5 percentage) had previously visited a dentist and 102 (40.5 percentage) had no experience with a dentist before; 38 percentage (95/252) of children had moderate and severe dental anxiety. Dental anxiety decreased significantly with age (p=0.0003). The difference in anxiety levels was not statistically significant between males and females and in different socio-economic status. Conclusion: This study has highlighted dental anxiety as a potential public health concern regarding children in Pakistan. Assessment of dental anxiety is a useful way to identify anxious dental patients. (author)

  16. Obesity and asthma in 11-12 year old New Zealand children in 1989 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickens, K; Barry, D; Friezema, A; Rhodius, R; Bone, N; Purdie, G; Crane, J

    Background: There has been a concurrent increase in the prevalence of obesity and asthma in recent years in New Zealand and other countries. Methods: Two cross sectional surveys performed in 1989 and 2000 were used to test this association in children of mean age 11.7 years. Body mass index (BMI)

  17. Prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and children's intelligence at 5 years of age in a prospective cohort study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan Claire; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Butscher, Maria; Camann, David; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Li, Zhigang; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica

    2010-09-01

    In this prospective cohort study of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we evaluated the role of prenatal exposure to urban air pollutants in the pathogenesis of neurobehavioral disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and child intelligence at 5 years of age, controlling for potential confounders suspected to play a role in neurodevelopment. A cohort of pregnant, healthy, nonsmoking women was enrolled in Krakow, Poland, between 2001 and 2006. During pregnancy, participants were invited to complete a questionnaire and undergo 48-hr personal air monitoring to estimate their babies' exposure, and to provide a blood sample and/or a cord blood sample at the time of delivery. Two hundred fourteen children were followed through 5 years of age, when their nonverbal reasoning ability was assessed using the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM). We found that higher (above the median of 17.96 ng/m3) prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs (range, 1.8-272.2 ng/m3) was associated with decreased RCPM scores at 5 years of age, after adjusting for potential confounding variables (n = 214). Further adjusting for maternal intelligence, lead, or dietary PAHs did not alter this association. The reduction in RCPM score associated with high airborne PAH exposure corresponded to an estimated average decrease of 3.8 IQ points. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs adversely affects children's cognitive development by 5 years of age, with potential implications for school performance. They are consistent with a recent finding in a parallel cohort in New York City.

  18. Neonatal Caffeine Treatment and Respiratory Function at 11 Years in Children under 1,251 g at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lex W; Ranganathan, Sarath; Cheong, Jeanie L Y

    2017-11-15

    Caffeine in the newborn period shortens the duration of assisted ventilation and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but its effects on respiratory function in later childhood are unknown. To determine if children born with birth weight less than 1,251 g who were treated with neonatal caffeine had improved respiratory function at 11 years of age compared with children treated with placebo. Children enrolled in the CAP (Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity) randomized controlled trial and assessed at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne at 11 years of age had expiratory flow rates measured according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society. Values were converted to z-scores predicted for age, height, ethnicity, and sex. Parents completed questionnaires related to their child's respiratory health. A total of 142 children had expiratory flows measured. Expiratory flows were better in the caffeine group, by approximately 0.5 SD for most variables (e.g., FEV 1 ; mean z-score, -1.00 vs. -1.53; mean difference, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.94; P = 0.008). Fewer children in the caffeine group had values for FVC below the fifth centile (11% vs. 28%; odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.77; P = 0.012). When adjusted for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the difference in flow rates between groups diminished. Caffeine treatment in the newborn period improves expiratory flow rates in midchildhood, which seems to be achieved by improving respiratory health in the newborn period. Follow-up lung function testing in adulthood is vital for these individuals. Future placebo-controlled randomized trials of neonatal caffeine are unlikely. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00182312).

  19. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and problem behavior in 5-year-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostenbroek, Maurits H W; Kersten, Remco H J; Tros, Benjamin; Kunst, Anton E; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. At a median gestational age of 12.9 (interquartile range: 11.9-14.1) weeks, maternal blood was sampled for assessment of free T4 and TSH. Overall problem behavior, hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, emotional problems, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior were measured at age 5-6 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was filled out by both parents and teachers. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia behavior. Our results partially confirm previous observations, showing that early disruptions in the maternal thyroid hormone supply may be associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring. Our study adds that there is no evidence for an effect on other types of problem behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Yemen: Role of adequate childcare provided by adults under conditions of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobaihi, Saber; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between the adequacy of childcare provided by adult caretakers and childhood undernutrition in rural Yemen, independent of household wealth and food consumption. Methods: We analyzed data of 3,549 children under the age of 5 years living in rural areas of Yemen based on the 2013 Yemen Baseline Survey of Mother and Child Health. Nutritional status was evaluated by the presence of underweight, stunting, and wasting according to the World Health Organization child growth standards. The impact of childcare including leaving children alone, putting older children into labor force, and the use of antenatal care while pregnant on child undernutrition was assessed and adjusted for food consumption by children, household composition, demographic and educational background of caretakers, and household wealth. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 46.2%, 62.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Not leaving children alone, keeping children out of the labor force, and use of antenatal care were associated with a lower risk of underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, P = 0.016; OR = 0.84, P = 0.036; and OR = 0.85, P = 0.042) and stunting (OR = 0.80, P = 0.004; OR = 0.82, P = 0.024; and OR = 0.78, P = 0.003). After further adjustment for food consumption, the associations between adequate childcare indicators and lower odds of stunting remained significant (OR = 0.73, P = 0.025; OR = 0.72, P = 0.046; and OR = 0.76, P = 0.038). Conclusions: A marked prevalence of stunting among rural children in Yemen was observed. Adequate childcare by adult caretakers in families is associated with a lower incidence of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age. Promoting adequate childcare by adult household members is a feasible option for reducing undernutrition among children in rural Yemen.

  1. HPV vaccination initiation after the routine-recommended ages of 11–12 in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Beachler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 2006, routine HPV vaccination has been recommended for females aged 11–12 in the US. However not much is known about the extent of and factors associated with HPV vaccination after the ages of 11–12. Methods: Provider-verified data on 8710 females aged 13–17 were analyzed from the 2013 NIS-Teen survey. 2013 Data was utilized since it was the first year one can fully evaluate the age at vaccination through age 17 for females who could receive the HPV vaccine at age 11. Results: Among HPV vaccinated females who were 17 in 2013, 47% (95% CI=43–50% received their first dose after age 12, and 24% (95% CI=21–26% received their first dose after age 14. The HPV vaccine was more likely to be initiated later than the meningococcal and Tdap vaccines (p<0.05, and later HPV vaccine initiation was more common among those having a more highly educated mother and those not receiving a check-up/well visit between the ages of 11 and 12 in adjusted analyses (p-values<0.05. Females initiating the HPV vaccine late were more likely to not receive three doses (RR=1.90, 95% CI=1.76–2.04. Conclusions: HPV vaccination is commonly initiated after the age of 12 in the US, which could limit the vaccine׳s population-level effectiveness. Keywords: HPV vaccines, Late initiation, Vaccination, NIS-Teen

  2. Out-of-home placement to age 18 years in children exposed to a postpartum mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigod, Simone N; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Ranning, Anne

    2018-01-01

    comprising 1 868 467 births (1982-2012) were used to determine how the timing of maternal illness onset influences out-of-home placement risk up to age 18 years among children exposed to a maternal mental disorder. RESULTS: Compared to children unexposed to maternal mental illness, risk was higher......OBJECTIVES: Little is known about risk of custody loss or out-of-home placement among children whose mothers experience postpartum mental disorders, and whether this risk differs from that of children whose mothers had earlier onset of their mental disorder. METHODS: National Danish registers.......49/1000 person-years; 3.93, 3.50-4.41). Risk was even higher for children exposed to a maternal mental disorder when illness onset was more than 1-year predelivery (9.11/1000 person-years; 5.48, 5.32-5.66). CONCLUSION: Risk of out-home placement in children exposed to mothers with a new-onset postpartum mental...

  3. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  4. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20–29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:25954770

  5. Association of diabetes in pregnancy with child weight at birth, age 12 months and 5 years--a population-based electronic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Morgan

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years.A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status.We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6.The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.

  6. Obesity and asthma in 11-12 year old New Zealand children in 1989 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickens, K.; Barry, D.; Friezema, A.; Rhodius, R.; Bone, N.; Purdie, G.; Crane, J.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a concurrent increase in the prevalence of obesity and asthma in recent years in New Zealand and other countries. Two cross sectional surveys performed in 1989 and 2000 were used to test this association in children of mean age 11.7 years. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as

  7. Fever Management in Parents who Have Children Aged 0-5 Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reshadat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fever is very common in children and is usually due to self-limiting viral infections. Management of fever is based on culture, community and religion of people all over the world. Parental concerns arise in part because of the belief that fever is a disease rather than a symptom or sign of illness. Misconceptions about childhood fevers heighten parents' concerns leading to inappropriate use of antipyretic drugs or overdosing may cause drug toxicity and frequent use of health care services. This study aimed to identify parental views of fever management in their children aged 0-5 yr.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 350 parents with children less than 5 years referred to various units of clinics covered by community oriented center of Kermanshah, completed the research questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined and the data was analyzed by SPSS Software.Results: Findings showed that the first medical care was sponging (53.1%. Sponging with saltwater was common (47.7% and Over - the - counter medications were (30%. Acetaminophen was the first drug in 90% of the cases. However, many parents express high levels of anxiety so that they seek for self-medication with antibiotic 34% of the cases. Our study showed that correlation between over concern about fever management and parents who had a positive past medical history in their children with P=0.02, parents education (P=0.018 and in employed mothers (P=0.005 was statistically significant.Conclusion: Considerable efforts will be required to educate parents about fever and its management.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:28-33

  8. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be treated...

  9. 5 CFR 1206.11 - Meeting place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting place. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES OPEN MEETINGS Conduct of Meetings § 1206.11 Meeting place. The Board will hold open meetings in meeting rooms designated in the...

  10. Oral health status and change in handgrip strength over a 5-year period in 80-year-old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Piia; Rantanen, Taina; Keskinen, Marja; Meurman, Jukka H

    2004-09-01

    The number of remaining teeth may indicate the extent of life-long exposure to inflammation, a known risk factor for muscle loss and consequent disability. The aim was to study dental health status as a risk factor for muscle strength loss in very old people. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study over a 5-year follow-up. Research laboratory. One hundred and ninety-three 80-year-old people participated in the baseline examinations. Five years later, 79 survivors were retested. Number of remaining teeth, presence of periodontitis and handgrip strength. At baseline, grip strength of men correlated positively with number of teeth but not with the presence of periodontitis. In women, the cross-sectional associations were not statistically significant. In the prospective analyses, the presence of periodontitis at baseline showed a clear association with a steeper decline in handgrip over the 5-year follow-up in both sexes. The values adjusted for gender, height, weight, number of chronic conditions and physical activity were -28.3% (SE 5.7) among those with periodontitis vs. -11.9% (SE 3.1, p = 0.015) among those with healthy gingiva. No association between the number of teeth at baseline and change in grip strength over 5 years was observed. The presence of oral inflammation may lead to loss in muscle strength increasing the risk of disability. Therefore, good dental care throughout the life span may decrease risk of disability in old age.

  11. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Walking Corsi Test (WalCT): a normative study of topographical working memory in a sample of 4- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L; Palermo, L; Leonzi, M; Risetti, M; Zompanti, L; D'Amico, S; Guariglia, C

    2014-01-01

    We report normative data on topographical working memory collected through the Walking Corsi Test (WalCT; Piccardi et al., 2008 ) for developing a standard administration procedure to be used in clinical and educational practice. A total of 268 typically developing Italian children aged 4-11 years performed both WalCT and Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CBT; Corsi, 1972 ) a well-known visuo-spatial memory test. WalCT has already been validated in adults, demonstrating sensitivity in detecting topographical memory deficits even in individuals who have no other memory impairments. Our results showed that age, but not sex, affected performances. Both girls and boys had a larger span on the CBT than the WalCT. The youngest group did not differ in performing WalCT and CBT, but from 5.6 years of age children performed better on CBT than WalCT, suggesting that memory in reaching space develops before topographical memory. Only after 5 years of age do children learn to process specifically topographical stimuli, suggesting that this happens when their environmental knowledge becomes operational and they increase environmental independence. We also discuss the importance to introduce WalCT in the clinical assessment.

  13. Knowledge assessment of sports-related concussion among parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years enrolled in recreational tackle football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannings, Carol; Kalynych, Colleen; Joseph, Madeline Matar; Smotherman, Carmen; Kraemer, Dale F

    2014-09-01

    Sports-related concussion among professional, collegiate, and, more recently, high school athletes has received much attention from the media and medical community. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of research regarding parental knowledge of sports-related concussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental knowledge of concussion in young children who participated in recreational tackle football. Parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years attending recreational tackle football games were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports Quiz. The parents were asked about their level of agreement regarding statements that represent definition, symptoms, and treatment of concussion. A total of 310 of 369 parents (84% response rate) voluntarily completed the questionnaire, with 94% believing that their child had never had a concussion. However, only 13% (n = 41) could correctly identify all seven statements. Most did not identify that a concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury and can be achieved from something other than a direct blow to the head. Race, sex, and zip code had no significant association with correctly answering statements. Education (r = 0.24, p child played (r = 0.11, p = 0.049) had a small association. Fifty-three percent and 58% of the parents reported that someone had discussed the definition and the symptoms of concussion with them, respectively, with only about half reporting that information came from their health care provider. No parent was able to classify all symptoms listed as correctly related or not related to concussion. However, identification of correct concussion statements correlated with identification of correct symptoms (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). While most parents of young athletes demonstrated some knowledge regarding concussion, important misconceptions remain regarding the definition, symptoms, and treatment of

  14. Prevalence of smoking and BMI differences between smokers and non-smokers among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandycz, Artur; Jankowiak, Łukasz; Jerzak, Izabela

    2018-05-01

    Objectives : The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of smoking among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, and also to determine the relationship between this addiction and the Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods : Basic anthropometric measurements were performed, and information concerning cigarette smoking and basic SES was gathered using the questionnaire method. Results : More than 5% of boys admit to smoking at the age of 10-11 years, and as many as 22% 18-year-olds admit to doing so. With regard to girls, the situation is slightly better because it is only among 14-year-olds that the percentage of smokers exceeds 5%. Smoking may affect average BMIs. Smoking had a negative impact on the magnitude of physical development indices among children between 8 and 12 years old. Conclusions : The percentage of smokers increases with age. Boys smoke more often than girls. Tobacco smoking in middle childhood (8-12 years) is associated with lower BMIs.

  15. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  16. Understanding choice of milk and bread for breakfast among Swedish children aged 11-15 years: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C; Jonsson, I; Conner, M

    2000-02-01

    The present study examined the influences of attitudes, social norms, perceived control and underlying beliefs on 11 to 15-year-olds' breakfast choices of milk with different fat content and high-fibre bread. All pupils in the 5th, 7th and 9th grades in Mölndal community (N=1730), Sweden, were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two weeks later, they were asked to fill in a 7-day record of food consumed for breakfast. Consumption of milk and high-fibre bread was predicted from intentions, and for milk also by perceived behavioural control. Intentions were influenced by attitudes, perceptions of significant others' preferences, and perceived control. In addition, perception of the parents' consumption (descriptive norm) of the specific food played an important role. Attitudes, norms and perceived control predicted intentions to a similar extent in each age group. Attitudes to the consumption of milk and high fibre bread were influenced by beliefs about their sensory and health aspects. Females and the oldest children had greater knowledge about the healthier alternatives and the oldest children had a tendency to choose healthier options. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Human respiratory syncytial virus: prevalence, viral co-infections and risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age at a general hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabego, Landry; Balol'Ebwami, Serge; Kasengi, Joe Bwija; Miyanga, Serge; Bahati, Yvette Lufungulo; Kambale, Richard; de Beer, Corena

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under the age of 5years at the Provincial General Hospital of Bukavu (PGHB), and to analyse factors associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). A total of 146 children under 5years visiting the PGHB for ARI between August and December 2016 were recruited, and socio-demographic information, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. The samples were analysed by a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction targeting 15 different viruses. Of 146 samples collected, 84 (57.5 %) displayed a positive result of at least one of the 15 viruses. The overall prevalence of HRSV was 21.2 %. HRSV A (30, 20.5 %) was the virus the most detected, followed by HRV (24, 16.4 %), PIV3 (20, 16.6) and ADV (7, 4.79 %). The other viruses were detected in three or fewer cases. There were only 11 (7.5 %) cases of co-infection. HRSV infection, malnutrition, younger age, rural settings, low income and mother illiteracy were associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as LRTI in bivariate analyses but, after adjusting for the confounding factors, only HRSV infection and younger age were independently associated with LRTI. The prevalence of HRSV is high among children visiting the PGHB for ARI. HRSV infection and lower age are independently associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as LRTI.

  18. Respiratory disorders and the prevalence of sleep bruxism among schoolchildren aged 8 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Clarissa Lopes; Souza, Débora Souto; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ramos-Jorge, Joana

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between respiratory disorders and sleep bruxism, with an evaluation of demographic/socioeconomic factors and childhood stress as confounding variables. A cross-sectional study was performed in the city of Diamantina, Brazil, with 448 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 8 to 11 years. The schoolchildren underwent an oral examination for the evaluation of bruxism. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire for the assessment of sleep bruxism; socioeconomic-demographic factors; and respiratory disorders, such as rhinitis, sinusitis, and bronchitis. The schoolchildren filled out the Children's Stress Scale. Poisson regression models were constructed separately for each respiratory disorder to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sleep bruxism was more prevalent among children with rhinitis (PR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.08-1.93; p = 0.012) and sinusitis (PR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.06-2.36; p = 0.023). No significant association was found between sleep bruxism and bronchitis. A greater frequency of sleep bruxism was found among children whose mothers had a higher level of schooling and those who reported stress in the resistance/exhaustion phase. Rhinitis and sinusitis were associated with sleep bruxism. Moreover, sleep bruxism was more prevalent among children whose mothers had a higher level of schooling and those with higher degrees of stress.

  19. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  20. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Assess Diet in Children Aged 4-5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vioque, Jesus; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Granado, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the most efficient and cost-effective method to investigate the relationship between usual diet and disease in epidemiologic studies. Although FFQs have been validated in many adult populations worldwide, the number of valid FFQ in preschool children is very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ designed for children aged 4 to 5 years. In this study, we have included 169 children aged 4-5 years from the INMA project in Valencia, a population-based prospective cohort study of mothers and children in Spain. The 105-items FFQ was administered twice to the parents or care-givers of children over a 9-month period. Reproducibility was explored by comparing intake of nutrients by the FFQs, while validity was examined by comparing the nutrient values from the FFQs with the average nutrient values of three 24 hour dietary recall (24hDR) taken in the period, and also, with the concentration in blood specimens for several vitamins (carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and α-tocopherol). Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated correlation coefficients were calculated and we also evaluated misclassification by quintile distribution. All correlation coefficients for reproducibility for nutrients and major food groups were statistically significant; the average correlation coefficients for daily intake were 0.43 for food groups and 0.41 for nutrients. The average correlation coefficients for validity for daily intakes against 24hDR was r = 0.30, and the average for de-attenuated correlation coefficients was r = 0.44. When evaluating validity against the blood concentration of vitamins, statistically significant correlations were observed for vitamin C (0.35), lycopene (0.31), β-Cryptoxantin (0.40), and vitamin E (0.29); the average of correlation coefficients was r = 0.21. Despite some low to moderate correlations for reproducibility and validity

  1. Making rainfall features fun: scientific activities for teaching children aged 5-12 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Muller, Catherine L.; le Gueut, Marie-Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Research projects now rely on an array of different channels to increase impact, including high-level scientific output, tools, and equipment, but also communication, outreach, and educational activities. This paper focuses on education for children aged 5-12 years and presents activities that aim to help them (and their teachers) grasp some of the complex underlying issues in environmental science. More generally, it helps children to become familiarized with science and scientists, with the aim to enhance scientific culture and promote careers in this field. The activities developed are focused on rainfall: (a) designing and using a disdrometer to observe the variety of drop sizes; (b) careful recording of successive dry and rainy days and reproducing patterns using a simple model based on fractal random multiplicative cascades; and (c) collaboratively writing a children's book about rainfall. These activities are discussed in the context of current state-of-the-art pedagogical practices and goals set by project funders, especially in a European Union framework.

  2. A near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old:new designs and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Qing Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To introduce a new near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications.METHODS:The new near-vision chart which combined the Bailey-Lovie layout with a newly devised set of symmetry symbols was designed based on Weber-Fechner law. It consists of 15 rows of symmetry symbols, corresponding to a visual acuity range from 1.3 to 0.1 logMAR. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols:circle, square, triangle,and cross, which matched the preschool children''s cognitive level. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 15 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and two smaller groups of optotypes ranging from 0.7 to -0.1 logMAR were included for repetitive testing. A near visual acuity was recorded in logMAR or decimal, and the testing distance was 25 cm.RESULTS:This new near-vision chart with pediatric acuity test optotypes which consists of 4 different symbols (triangle, square, cross, and circle met the national and international eye chart design guidelines. When performing the near visual acuity assessment in preschoolers (3-5 years old. It overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ''E'' or Landolt ''C'', which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. Near vision may be recorded in different notations:decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new near-vision chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the Chinese national standard logarithmic near-vision chart (r=0.932, P<0.01, but also indicated good test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1 logMAR units of the initial test score and a high response rate

  3. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment.

  4. Age at the time of sulfonylurea initiation influences treatment outcomes in KCNJ11-related neonatal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Brian W; Carmody, David; Tadie, Elizabeth C; Pastore, Ashley N; Dickens, Jazzmyne T; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Naylor, Rochelle N; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with heterozygous activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene encoding a subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can usually be treated with oral sulfonylurea (SU) pills in lieu of insulin injections. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that younger age at the time of initiation of SU therapy is correlated with lower required doses of SU therapy, shorter transition time and decreased likelihood of requiring additional diabetes medications. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data on 58 individuals with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations identified through the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry ( http://monogenicdiabetes.uchicago.edu/registry ). We assessed the influence of age at initiation of SU therapy on treatment outcomes. HbA1c fell from an average of 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) before transition to 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) after SU therapy (p < 0.001). Age of initiation of SU correlated with the dose (mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of SU required at follow-up (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Similar associations were observed across mutation subtypes. Ten participants required additional glucose-lowering medications and all had initiated SU at age 13 years or older. No serious adverse events were reported. Earlier age at initiation of SU treatment is associated with improved response to SU therapy. Declining sensitivity to SU may be due to loss of beta cell mass over time in those treated with insulin. Our data support the need for early genetic diagnosis and appropriate personalised treatment in all cases of neonatal diabetes.

  5. Intraindividual variability in reaction time predicts cognitive outcomes 5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A M; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael A

    2010-11-01

    Building on results suggesting that intraindividual variability in reaction time (inconsistency) is highly sensitive to even subtle changes in cognitive ability, this study addressed the capacity of inconsistency to predict change in cognitive status (i.e., cognitive impairment, no dementia [CIND] classification) and attrition 5 years later. Two hundred twelve community-dwelling older adults, initially aged 64-92 years, remained in the study after 5 years. Inconsistency was calculated from baseline reaction time performance. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of their fluctuations in CIND classification over time. Logistic and Cox regressions were used. Baseline inconsistency significantly distinguished among those who remained or transitioned into CIND over the 5 years and those who were consistently intact (e.g., stable intact vs. stable CIND, Wald (1) = 7.91, p < .01, Exp(β) = 1.49). Average level of inconsistency over time was also predictive of study attrition, for example, Wald (1) = 11.31, p < .01, Exp(β) = 1.24. For both outcomes, greater inconsistency was associated with a greater likelihood of being in a maladaptive group 5 years later. Variability based on moderately cognitively challenging tasks appeared to be particularly sensitive to longitudinal changes in cognitive ability. Mean rate of responding was a comparable predictor of change in most instances, but individuals were at greater relative risk of being in a maladaptive outcome group if they were more inconsistent rather than if they were slower in responding. Implications for the potential utility of intraindividual variability in reaction time as an early marker of cognitive decline are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Costs of hospitalization with respiratory syncytial virus illness among children aged <5 years and the financial impact on households in Bangladesh, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P; Alamgir, Nadia Ishrat; Homaira, Nusrat; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Gurley, Emily S; Abedin, Jaynal; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Alamgir, Asm; Rahman, Mahmudur; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute respiratory illness in young children and results in significant economic burden. There is no vaccine to prevent RSV illness but a number of vaccines are in development. We conducted this study to estimate the costs of severe RSV illness requiring hospitalization among children 50% families borrowed money to meet treatment cost. We estimated that the median direct cost of RSV-associated hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh was US$ 10 million (IQR: US$ 7-16 million), the median indirect cost was US$ 3.0 million (IQR: 2-5 million) in 2010. RSV-associated hospitalization among children aged <5 years represents a substantial economic burden in Bangladesh. Affected families frequently incurred considerable out of pocket and indirect costs for treatment that resulted in financial hardship.

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech army over a 11-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfrová Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR and to emphasize the markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. Methods. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Results. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2. Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p < 0.001 was observed. All monitored anthropometric parameters in female professional soldiers were within normal limits. During the monitored period the proportion of overweight men gradually increased from 52% to 57.1% (p < 0.001. There were no

  8. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m 2 ) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ 2 tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all

  9. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satgé, Daniel; Sauleau, Eric-André; Jacot, William; Raffi, Fernand; Azéma, Bernard; Bouyat, Jean-Claude; El Hage Assaf, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR = 11.53, p = 0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR = 12.00, p = 0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR = 3.19, p = 0.010). Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women

  10. A 10-year review of cannabis exposure in children under 3-years of age: do we need a more global approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Isabelle; Le Breton, Mathilde; Bréhin, Camille; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Pediatricians working in an emergency environment are confronted with children admitted to emergency departments for intoxication on a daily basis. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of children admitted to a pediatric emergency department due to unintentional cannabis exposure over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Twenty-nine children under the age of 3 were admitted with a positive cannabis urine test. Eighty-seven percent of intoxications occurred at the family home. Resin was the main form of ingested cannabis (69%). The mean age was 16.5 ± 5.2 months, and mean weight was 11.1 ± 2.1 Kg. Sixty percent of admissions occurred between 2012 and 2014. More severe presentations, based on Poisoning Severity Score, occurred over the past 2 years. Four children experienced seizures before admission. Ten children (34%) had a decreased level of consciousness (GCS cannabis consumption. This study supports the impression that accidental child poisonings with cannabis have been more serious than previously thought for 2 years. This observation may be explained by (1) the increased THC concentration in cannabis and (2) the widespread use in young adults, even after they become parents. Introducing an addiction team inside the PED could help to improve the care links with these parents. What is Known: • Cases of unintentional cannabis intoxication in children have been increasing for many years due to an increase of potency. What is New: • We highlight an increase in more severe presentations in children under the age of 3 occurring over the past 2 years, which will indicate the importance of assessing cannabis abuse in parents by a specialized addiction team.

  11. Poor nutrition at age 3 and schizotypal personality at age 23: the mediating role of age 11 cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Peter H; Raine, Adrian

    2012-08-01

    Poor prenatal nutrition has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Netherlands and China, and it has been suggested that perinatal and postnatal nutritional factors lead to the development of schizophrenia and the exhibition of schizotypal traits later in life. There appears to be no prior research on the existence of possible factors that may mediate the relationship between malnutrition and schizophrenia spectrum disorders or whether this association is a direct one. The authors tested the hypothesis that low IQ mediates the relationship between early childhood malnutrition and adult schizotypal personality. Participants were drawn from a birth cohort of 1,795 boys and girls who were followed prospectively. Objective indicators of malnutrition (anemia and stunting) were assessed at age 3. Verbal and performance intelligence were assessed at age 11, and schizotypal personality was assessed at age 23. Both stunting and anemia at age 3 were associated with low IQ at age 11. Low performance IQ at age 11 was associated with increased interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypal personality at age 23. Poor performance IQ was found to mediate the relationship between poor nutrition at age 3 and interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypy at age 23. Findings in female participants were replicated in male participants. Given that poor nutrition is an alterable risk factor, these findings suggest that nutritional enhancements may improve brain functioning and possibly reduce some features of schizotypal personality disorder.

  12. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years of age of a national cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who were born in 1996-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Kaija; Ritari, Niina; Tommiska, Viena; Salokorpi, Teija; Lehtonen, Liisa; Tammela, Outi; Pääkkönen, Leena; Olsen, Päivi; Korkman, Marit; Fellman, Vineta

    2005-12-01

    Increasing survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight infants raises a concern regarding the risks of adverse long-term outcome such as cognitive dysfunction. Few studies have reported long-term follow-up of representative regional cohorts. The objective of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome of a prospectively followed national ELBW infant cohort. Of all live-born ELBW infants (n = 351) who were delivered in the 2-year period 1996-1997 in Finland, 206 (59%) survived until the age of 5 years. Of these, 103 were born at infants who were born at memory values of NEPSY assessment were significantly poorer compared with normal population means. Four percent needed a hearing aid, and 30% had ophthalmic findings. Of 21 children who had been treated with laser/cryo for retinopathy of prematurity, 17 (81%) had abnormal ophthalmic findings. Of the whole cohort, 41 (20%) exhibited major disabilities, 38 (19%) exhibited minor disabilities, and 124 (61%) showed development with no functional abnormalities but subtle departures from the norm. Only 53 (26%) of the total ELBW infant cohort were classified to have normal outcome excluding any abnormal ophthalmic, auditory, neurologic, or developmental findings. Being small for gestational age at birth was associated with suboptimal growth at least until age 5. Only one fourth of the ELBW infants were classified as normally developed at age 5. The high rate of cognitive dysfunction suggests an increased risk for learning difficulties that needs to be evaluated at a later age. Extended follow-up should be the rule in outcome studies of ELBW infant cohorts to elucidate the impact of immaturity on school achievement and social behavior later in life.

  13. Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and sex steroid hormones in 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-year-old children: A pilot study of the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Sie, Lillian; Su, Pen-Hua; Chuang, Chia-Jui; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Sun, Chien-Wen; Huang, Li-Hua; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Julie Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-11-01

    Phthalate diesters are commonly used and have been well established as environmental endocrine disruptors. However, few studies have examined their effects on sex steroid hormones in children. We followed children over time to examine the association between pre- and post-natal phthalate exposure and sex steroid hormone levels at 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We recruited 430 pregnant women from central Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 and assessed their children at birth, 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We studies children with at least one measurement for both phthalate and hormone levels during each any of the follow-up time point (n = 193). Estradiol, free testosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were measured from venous blood. Three monoesters of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-methyl phthalate were measured in maternal urine collected during the 3rd trimester and child urine collected at each follow-up point. The sum of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (∑MEHP) was calculated by summing the concentrations of the three DEHP monoesters. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis with repeated measures was used to estimate associations between phthalate metabolites and hormone levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, maternal ∑MEHP level was associated with decreased levels of progesterone in girls (β = -0.309 p = 0.001). The child ∑MEHP concentration was associated with decreased levels of progesterone for girls (β = -0.194, p = 0.003) and with decreased levels of free testosterone for boys (β = -0.124, p = 0.004). Early-life DEHP exposure may alter sex steroid hormones of children over time, which may pose potential reproductive health risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Age 5 cognitive development in England

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kirstine; Jones, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Children’s development in the early years has been shown to be related to their success in later life in a range of areas including education, employment and crime. Determining why some children do better than others in the early years is a key issue for policy and is crucial in attempts to reduce inequalities. This research examines differences in early child development by examining the factors associated with the cognitive ability of children up to age 5 using cognitive assessments adminis...

  15. Period of sunspot numbers is 11. 02653720 years (11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norita, S [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-09-01

    In the statistical analysis of time series there have been applied usually the stationary stochastic process or the Markov stochastic process and recently there are applied remarkably an autoregressive process, a stochastic difference equation, an autoregressive-moving average process, a moving average process, the Whittaker periodogram, the correlogram, Schuster periodogram, chi-squared periodogram, level crossings, harmonic process, difference method, spectral density and first order vector equation, but in special case it is desirable to apply the nonstationary stocastic process. In this paper we introduce a stationarity into the autoregressive process and then it is the first purpose to compute precisely the period of sunspot numbers. The result up to the eighth places at the decimal point was obtained that its period is 11.02653720 years, that is, 11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds. This is considered to be more relevant than numerical values by which Schuster (1906) and Yule (1927) had calculated the respective 11.125 years and 10.60 years in the past. We revised the theoretical expression in the thesis of Anderson, Shaman, Lindgren, Brillinger, Newbold, Parzen, Kingman, Van Ness and Kenneth, etc. and executed the numerical analysis of period of sunspot numbers investigated now.

  16. Period of sunspot numbers is 11.02653720 years (11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norita, Sadataka

    1976-01-01

    In the statistical analysis of time series there have been applied usually the stationary stochastic process or the Markov stochastic process and recently there are applied remarkably an autoregressive process, a stochastic difference equation, an autoregressive-moving average process, a moving average process, the Whittaker periodogram, the correlogram, Schuster periodogram, chi-squared periodogram, level crossings, harmonic process, difference method, spectral density and first order vector equation, but in special case it is desirable to apply the nonstationary stocastic process. In this paper we introduce an stationarity into the autoregressive process and then it is the first purpose to compute precisely period of sunspot numbers. The result up to the eighth places at the decimal point was obtained that its period is 11.02653720 years, that is, 11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds. This is considered to be more relevant than numerical values by which Schuster (1906) and Yule (1927) had calculated the respective 11.125 years and 10.60 years in the past. We revised the theoretical expression in the thesis of Anderson, Shaman, Lindgren, Brillinger, Newbold, Parzen, Kingman, Van Ness and Kenneth, etc. and executed the numerical analysis of period of sunspot numbers investigated now. (auth.)

  17. [Evaluation of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age: concordance between anthropometric indices in the indigenous population of Chiapas (Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Díaz López, Héctor; García-Parra, Esmeralda; Flores-Guillén, Elena; García-Miranda, Rosario; Solís-Hernández, Roberto

    2017-07-28

    Nutritional status is determined through various methods, including anthropometry. In children under 5 years of age indeces as weight/age (w/a), height/age (h/a), weight/height (w/h) and body mass index (BMI) are used. The purpose of this article is to analyze and compare the ability of different anthropometric indeces to identify children from marginalized communities in Chiapas (Mexico) with nutritional problems. To analyze the correlation among the different anthropometric indeces to determine the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in poor rural areas with a background of short stature. Cross-sectional study in 1,160 children under 5 years of age in 13 high poverty communities in three regions of Chiapas. The variables studied were age, sex, weight and height. Nutritional status was determined through the indeces w/a, h/a, w/h and BMI. Field staff in charge of taking measurements of weight and height were trained and standardized. Kappa coefficients for agreement between the indeces were calculated. No correlation between BMI and w/a and h/a was found. The prevalence of malnutrition according to h/a was 64.8%. Only high concordance (0.726) between BMI and w/h was found. BMI showed a low prevalence of malnutrition and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity rates. For a reliable and accurate diagnosis in individuals with a background of chronic malnutrition, it is recommended to use the four indeces together. Doing so it will reduce the risk of underestimating or overestimating nutritional status and will focus actions toward addressing and improving the health and nutrition of children living under extreme poverty conditions.

  18. The role of maternal education in the 15-year trajectory of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Tanvir; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Williams, Gail M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (U5s) is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Improved maternal education can contribute effectively to reduce child malnutrition. We examined the long-term impact of maternal education on the risk of malnutrition in U5s and quantified the level of education required for the mothers to reduce the risk. We used pooled data from five nationwide demographic and health surveys conducted in 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving 28 941 U5s. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the association between maternal education (no education, primary, secondary or more) and malnutrition in children, measured by stunting, underweight and wasting controlling for survey time, maternal age, maternal body mass index, maternal working status, parity, paternal education and wealth quintile. An overall improvement in maternal educational attainment was observed between 1996 and 2011. The prevalence of malnutrition although decreasing was consistently high among children of mothers with lower education compared with those of mothers with higher education. In adjusted models incorporating time effects, children of mothers with secondary or higher education were at lower risk of childhood stunting [risk ratio (RR): 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.89], underweight (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.88) and wasting (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.91) compared with children of mothers with no education. We demonstrated the importance of promoting women's education at least up to the secondary level as a means to tackle malnutrition in Bangladesh. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, J.S.; Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O.; Vik, T.; Brubakk, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  20. Baroreflex Sensitivity in Relation to Clinical Characteristics in Subject Aged 40 to 80 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Latif, Tabassam

    2014-01-01

    women) with a mean age of 59 ± 11 years (range 41-79 years) were included. Baroreceptor activity was quantified through the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) and as a spontaneous function. BRS was tested against age, gender, smoking status, body size and predicted risk of coronary heart disease based...... breathing and VM. We could not demonstrate any correlation between BRS, smoking status, and body size when adjusting for age and gender, whereas spontaneous BRS was reduced with increasing Framingham risk score. Principal component analysis revealed three component explaining 69% of the total variance...

  1. A new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old:development and its clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Qing Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To introduce a new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications.METHODS:The new visual acuity chart and notations were designed based on Weber-Fechner law. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols:circle, square, triangle,and cross. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 14 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and the testing distance was 3m. Visual acuity score could be recorded as logMAR notation or decimal notation. Age-stratified diagnostic criteria for amblyopia established by consensus statement on diagnosis of amblyopia (2011 among members of the Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology Group, Ophthalmology Society, Chinese Medical Association (SPOGOSCMA were illustrated in the new visual acuity chart.RESULTS: When assessing visual acuity in children aged 3-5 years old, this new visual acuity chart that consists of four symmetrical shapes (triangle, square, cross, and circle overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ‘E’ or Landolt ‘C’, which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. The visual acuity score may be recorded in different notations:decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new eye chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the international standard logarithmic visual acuity chart (r=0.932, P<0.01, but also indicated a high test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1logMAR units of the initial test score.CONCLUSION: The results of this study support the validity and reliability of distance visual acuity measurements using the new eye chart in

  2. De novo status epilepticus is associated with adverse outcome: An 11-year retrospective study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Hoi Ki Kate; Hui, Kwok Fai; Fong, Wing Chi; Ip, Chun Tak; Lui, Hiu Tung Colin

    2016-08-01

    To identify predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients presenting to the intensive care units with status epilepticus (SE), in particular for patients presenting with de novo status epileptics. A retrospective review was performed on patients admitted to the intensive care units with status epilepticus in two hospitals in Hong Kong over an 11-year period from 2003 to 2013. A total of 87 SE cases were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 49.3 years (SD 14.9 years). Eighteen subjects (20.7%) had breakthrough seizure, which was the most common etiology for the status epilepticus episodes. Seventy-eight subjects (89.7%) had convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and 9 subjects (10.3%) had non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) on presentation. The 30-day mortality rate of all subjects was 18.4%. Non-convulsive status epilepticus was more common in patients with de novo status epilepticus when compared to those with existing history of epilepsy (15.5% Vs. 0%, p=0.03). Patients with de novo status epilepticus were older (52 Vs 43, p=0.009). De novo status epilepticus was associated with longer status duration (median 2.5 days, IQR 5 days), longer ICU stay (median 7.5 days, IQR 9 days) and poorer outcome (OR 4.15, 95% CI 1.53-11.2). For patients presenting to intensive care units with status epilepticus, those with de novo status epileptics were older and were more likely to develop non-convulsive status epilepticus. De novo status epilepticus was associated with poorer outcome. Continuous EEG monitoring would help identifying NCSE and potentially help improving clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population. A 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, B; Sigström, R; Waern, M; Ostling, S; Gustafson, D; Skoog, I

    2010-07-01

    To examine the prognosis and incidence of social fears and phobia in an elderly population sample followed for 5 years. A general population sample (N = 612) of non-demented men (baseline age 70) and women (baseline age 70 and 78-86) was investigated in 2000-2001 and in 2005-2006 with semi-structured psychiatric examinations including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Social phobia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Among nine individuals with DSM-IV social phobia in 2000, 5 (55.6%) had no social fears in 2005, and 1 (11.1%) still met the criteria for DSM-IV social phobia. Among individuals without DSM-IV social phobia in 2000 (N = 603), 12 (2.0%) had DSM-IV social phobia in 2005. These findings challenge the notion that social phobia is a chronic disorder with rare occurrence in old age.

  4. Skeletal retention of 239Pu and 226Ra in beagles injected at ages ranging from 2 days to 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Jee, W.S.S.; Smith, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The age at exposure significantly affects the retention and distribution of 226 Ra and 239 Pu, both of which deposit in the skeleton, although in different patterns. Beagles aged 2 days (neonates), 90 days (juveniles), 18 months (young adults) or 5 years (old), received a single injection of one of these nuclides at a dosage level at which no significant acute effects have been observed. Nuclide concentrations in plasma and the skeleton were determined and retention equations were calculated. Initial deposition and retention of the two nuclides were age-dependent, but differences between the growing and young adult beagles were much greater than between the young adult and old beagles

  5. Experiences of 23 patients ≥ 90 years of age treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshikazu; Shikama, Naoto; Ohata, Takeo; Okazaki, Youichi; Kiyono, Kunihiro; Sone, Shusuke

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To present 23 patients ≥ 90 years old treated with radiotherapy, and to retrospectively evaluate the results of radiotherapy and tolerance in these patients. Methods and Materials: The clinical records of 27 patients over 90 years of age who were treated with radiotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Shinshu University Hospital, and eight affiliated general hospitals from 1990 until 1995 were reviewed. The strategy of radiotherapy was individually planned depending on the stage of the disease and performance status (PS) of the patient; however, it was not modified, based solely on chronologic age. The overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring criteria of acute and late reactions of radiation therapy were used. Results: This group of patients accounted for 0.37% of all patients treated with radiotherapy in these hospitals. Of these, 23 patients in whom cancer was pathologically confirmed and whose follow-up data were available for retrospective analysis were included in the final evaluation of data. The age of the 23 patients ranged from 90 to 96 years (median 93). Tumor was untreated and in the early stage in five patients, locoregionally advanced in 13, recurrent in four, and systemic in one. Definitive radiation therapy was administered in 12 patients (13 sites), preoperative intent in one, and palliative intent in 10. The period of observation ranged from 2.5 to 6 years (median 18 months). Seven patients were alive for 15-67 months. Fourteen patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility associated with active cancer, and two because of senility without evidence of cancer. The overall and relapse-free survival rates were 65% and 30% at 1 year and 30% and 21% at 2 years, respectively. Definitive radiation therapy was completed in 13 of 13 patients (100%), and local control was attained in 9 of 13 patients at 6 months (62%). Palliative

  6. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Anna; Hausner, Helene; Reinbach, Helene C; Bredie, Wender L P; Wendin, Karin

    2012-01-01

    A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8-11 year-old Danish (n=134) and Swedish (n=109) children. A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance.

  7. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  8. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyan; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Lin, Senlin; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; You, Xiaofang; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Congdon, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction. The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465) of children with UCVA in the better eye of ≤20/40 wore glasses. Prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 diopters [D] in at least one eye) increased from 1.78% in 3-year-olds to 52.2% in 10-year-olds, while prevalence of hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥+2.0 D) decreased from 17.8% among 3-year-olds to 2.6% by 10 years of age. After adjusting for age, attending elite "high-level" school was statistically associated with greater myopia prevalence. The prevalence of myopia was lower or comparable to that reported in other populations from age 3 to 5 years, but increased dramatically after 6 years, consistent with a strong environmental role of schooling on myopia development.

  9. Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6-7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Stig; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Grønfeldt, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6-7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables. Methods: VO2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from.......5 (6.0) v 44.8 (5.6) ml/kg/min (+8%); pgirls. The difference in VO2MAX between boys and girls decreased to +2% when expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM). Absolute VO2MAX was related to LBM, body mass, and stature (all pBoys were more physically active than girls (mean counts...... +9.4%, pboys and girls with the same VO2MAX were compared, boys were more active. The difference in physical activity between the sexes was higher when sustained activity of higher intensity was compared. Conclusions: VO2MAX is higher in boys than girls (+11%), even when...

  10. Breast cancer features in women under the age of 40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Santiago Girão Eugênio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To describe the clinical features, imaging findings and pathological aspects of breast cancer diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years. Method: A retrospective, descriptive study was performed through analysis of medical records between November 2008 and August 2012. One hundred and twenty (120 patients were included, of whom 112 underwent mammography, 113 underwent ultrasonography, and 105 underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The histopathological data was obtained in most cases from post-surgical analysis, which was available for 113 patients. Results: The mean age at diagnosis of primary breast cancer was 34 years. Only 11 patients (9.0% had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relative. Ninety-two (92 patients sought medical attention after showing breast symptoms, and the presence of a palpable nodule was the main complaint. One hundred and twenty-two (122 primary tumors were diagnosed, of which 112 were invasive (95%. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (73.8%. Luminal B was the predominant molecular subtype (42.6%. Ultrasonography was positive in 94.5% of the cases and the most common finding were nodules (94.8%. At mammography, the malignancy was observed in 92.8% and the presence of suggestive calcifications was the dominant feature. The MRI was positive in 98% of patients, and mass lesions were the most common. Conclusion: Most cases of breast cancer diagnosed in patients under the age of 40 years, in our population, had symptoms at diagnosis and tumor with more aggressive biological behavior. Despite the ultrasound has been the most widely used method, we found improved characterization of breast lesions when also used mammography and MRI.

  11. Gamma knife thalamotomy for Parkinson's tremor: A 5-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duma, Christopher M.; Jacques, Deane B.; Kopyov, Oleg V.; Mark, Rufus J.; Copcutt, Brian G.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Elderly, high-risk surgical patients, may be unfit for radiofrequency thalamotomy for Parkinson's tremor. We have performed gamma knife radiosurgery in this select patient population, in lieu of open surgery, in an attempt at amelioration of disabling tremor. Materials and Methods: Radiosurgical nucleus ventralis intermedalis thalamotomy using gamma unit technique was performed on 38 patients (median age, 72 years; range: 50-88 years) over a period of 5 years. A median dose of 155 Gy (range: 110-160 Gy) was delivered using a single 4-mm collimator to 40 nuclei (2 patients underwent bilateral thalamotomy) using only anatomical atlas landmarks. The number of males and females were evenly divided, and their ages ranged from 50 to 88 years (median: 72 years). Two-thirds of the patients underwent left thalamotomy for right-sided trmor. Patients were followed-up for a median of 14 months (range: 6 to 43 months). Independent neurological evaluation of tremor as well as subjective patient evaluation were based on a 4-tiered scale: no improvement, mild improvement (0-33% effect), good improvement (33-66% effect), and excellent improvement (66-100%). Results: Eight thalamotomies (20%) failed, four (10%) gave mild improvement, and 28 (70%) gave good to excellent improvement of tremor (median time of onset of improvement was 3 months; range: 1-11 months). In 12 patients (32%) the tremor was eliminated completely. Concordance between independent neurologist evaluation and that of the patient was significant (p<0.001). Two patients in the failure group had an initial transient improvement. Two patients who underwent unilateral thalamotomy had bilateral improvement of their tremor. A permanent 5-6 mm lesion was seen on all follow-up MRIs and there were no radiological complications. A worsening of hand strength was seen in only patient. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of gamma unit radiosurgical thalamotomy is on par with that of radiofrequency thalamotomy, and in a

  12. Modic changes of the cervical spine in patients with whiplash injury: a prospective 11-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Morio; Ichihara, Daisuke; Okada, Eijiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Momoshima, Suketaka; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Takahata, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    There are few studies on Modic changes of the cervical spine in patients suffering from whiplash. This study compared Modic changes seen in whiplash patients 10 years after the injury with those observed in asymptomatic volunteers. This is a follow-up study of 133 patients who suffered whiplash injuries in 1994-1996 and underwent MRI with a superconductive imager (63 men, 70 women, mean age 49.6±15.3 years, mean follow-up 11.4 years). In addition, 223 healthy volunteers who underwent MRI during the same period were included as controls (123 men, 100 women, mean age 50.5±15.0 years, mean follow-up 11.6 years). All participants underwent follow-up MRI. We examined all participants for Modic changes, and investigated relationships between Modic changes and clinical symptoms or potentially related factors. Modic changes were observed in 4 patients (3%) and at 7 intervertebral levels in the initial study, and in 17 patients (12.8%) and at 30 intervertebral levels at the follow-up. Modic Type 2 changes were the most prevalent in the whiplash patients in both the initial and follow-up studies. There was no significant difference in the percentage of whiplash patients versus control subjects with positive Modic changes, either at the initial study or at follow-up. Modic changes were not related to clinical symptoms present at follow-up, but were associated with preexisting disc degeneration. There was no association between Modic changes and the details of the car accident that caused the injury. While Modic changes became more common in whiplash patients in the 10-year period after the accident, they occurred with a similar frequency in control subjects. We did not find any association between Modic changes and the nature of the car accident in which the whiplash occurred. Modic changes found in whiplash patients may be a result of the physiological ageing process rather than pathological findings relating to the whiplash injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  14. Analysis of Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing Results among 511-Year-Old Male and Female Children Playing Sports in Recreational Leagues in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Liller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 511, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.

  15. Measles in vaccinated children 1.5 to 3 years of age in rural community of district peshawar, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Ullah, O.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    In many developing countries measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite of vaccination thousands of children have been infected by measles virus during last couple of years in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the measles vaccination coverage rate and frequency of measles among vaccinated children of age 1.5-3 years in rural community of district Peshawar. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 children aged 1.5-3 year of rural community of Peshawar. After taking informed consent from parents/guardians a predesigned questionnaire was filled. Evidence of vaccination and measles history was taken by vaccination card, doctor prescription and parent/guardian recall. Data was gathered and analysed by using SPSS-16. Results: Of the 385 children, 361 (93.7%) were vaccinated against measles at 9 month. It was found that 27 (7.48%) vaccinated children had measles history of which 23 (6.74%) were infected after 9 month vaccination. One hundred and ninety-two (49.8%) children were vaccinated both at 9 and 15 months, and 14 (7.29%) dual vaccinated children had a measles history, 9 among them (4.68%) were infected after taking both measles doses. Conclusion: The occurrence of measles among vaccinated children and low coverage rate of second dose of measles vaccine raises many questions about vaccination program and its efficacy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of other predisposing factors like vaccine quality, manufacturer, supply, cold chain, handling, nutritional status of children and technical approach, on measles vaccine efficacy. (author)

  16. Effect of breastfeeding on common pediatric infections: a 5-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Cüneyt; Yavuz, Erdinç

    2018-04-01

    The studies conducted revealed that breastfeeding duration has a reducing effect on common infectious diseases in the children during breastfeeding period. The aim of the present study was to address the association between breastfeeding duration and common infectious diseases in the children until 5 years of age to show long-term protective effects of the breast milk. The study included 411 infants who were born in Rize (Turkey) between January 2011 and December 2011. The present prospective-cohort study lasted for 5 years and 11 interviews were conducted with each mother of the infants during this period. The infants were divided into two groups as those who were breastfed more and less than 12 months and the association between breastfeeding and infections such as acute otitis media, acute gastroenteritis, acute respiratory tract infections and acute urinary system infections was investigated. Of 270 infants 193 (71.5%) were breastfed longer than 12 months and 77 (28.5%) were breastfed less than 12 months. Infants in the first group had less acute otitis media and acute gastroenteritis (n= 77, 28.52%) when compared with the infants breastfed less than 12 months during 5-year period (p <0.05). The present study detected that breastfeeding duration longer than 12 months significantly reduces the common childhood infections such as otitis media and gastroenteritis during the first 5 years of life. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  17. Impact of functional determinants on 5.5-year mortality in Amazon riparian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago C. Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To ascertain whether modifiable physical performance–based measurements predicted 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort in the Amazon rainforest region. Methods A longitudinal study evaluating the impact of functional determinants on 5.5-year mortality in a riparian elderly cohort from Maués City in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, was performed. The study was a follow-up of a previous observational investigation that evaluated various fitness tests in 630 Amazonian riparian elderly (291 males and 339 females aged 72.3 ± 8.0 (60–99 years old. The cohort was selected for its adverse environmental conditions, which increased the risk of falls yet required maintenance of good physical condition for carrying out relatively rigorous daily activities, and restricted access to specialized health services. Official death records were obtained from the Maués Municipal Health Department. Results A total of 80 study participants (12.7% died over the 5.5-year study period. Kaplan-Meier regression analysis showed significant association between Timed Up and Go (TUG test scores ≥ 14 seconds and mortality risk, independent of sex, age, and other health variables. Conclusions The study results suggest that the TUG test can be used as an indicator for initiating therapeutic and preventive actions, including conducting exercises or physical activities adapted to the health and functional conditions of the elderly, by identifying elderly people with a higher relative risk of mortality.

  18. Association of 10-year C-reactive protein trajectories with markers of healthy aging: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Batty, G David; Steptoe, Andrew; Cadar, Dorina; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Kivimäki, Mika; Zaninotto, Paola

    2018-02-15

    Elevated systematic inflammation is a hallmark of aging, but the association of long-term inflammation trajectories with subsequent aging phenotypes has been little examined. We assessed inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) repeatedly over time and examined whether long-term changes predicted aging outcomes. A total of 2,437 men and women aged 47-87 years at baseline (1998-2001) who were participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing had CRP measured on two or three occasions between 1998 and 2009. Inflammation trajectories were computed using latent-class growth mixture modelling and were related to aging outcomes measured in 2012/2013: physical functioning, cardiometabolic, respiratory, mental health, and a composite "healthy aging" outcome. Four CRP trajectories were identified: 'stable-low' (71% of the sample) with baseline mean 1.33mg/L remaining <3mg/L; 'medium-to-high' (14%) with baseline 2.7mg/L rising to 5.3mg/L; 'high-to-medium' (10%) with baseline 6.6mg/L decreasing to 2.4mg/L; 'stable-high' (5%) with levels from 5.7 to 7.5mg/L. Relative to the stable-low trajectory, individuals in the medium-to-high had a higher risk of limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL, Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence Interval: 2.09; 1.51,2.88), instrumental ADL (1.62; 1.15,2.30), impaired balance (1.59; 1.20,2.11) and walking speed (1.61; 1.15,2.24), arthritis (1.55; 1.16,2.06), hypertension (1.57; 1.21,2.04), obesity (1.95; 1.36,2.80), poor respiratory function (1.84; 1.36,2.50), and depression (1.55; 1.13,2.12). A lower odds of healthy aging was observed in people in the medium-to-high (0.57; 0.40,0.79) and stable-high (0.50; 0.27,0.91) trajectories. Older people who displayed an elevation in CRP levels over a decade experienced an increased risk of adverse aging outcomes.

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of Glaucoma in Citizens of Qatar Aged 40 Years or Older: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansouri, Fatma A.; Kanaan, Aida; Gamra, Hamad; Khandekar, Rajiv; Hashim, Shakeel P.; Al Qahtani, Omar; Ahmed, Mohd. Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among subjects 40 years of age and older in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This community-based survey was held in 2009 at 49 randomly selected clusters. Demographic details and history of glaucoma was collected by the nurses. Ophthalmologists evaluated the optic disc and retina using a digital camera housed in a mobile van. Visual field was tested with an automated perimeter, the intraocular pressure with an applanation tonometer and the angle of the anterior chamber by gonioscopy. A panel of glaucoma experts diagnosed subjects with glaucoma. Results: This survey enrolled 3,149 (97.3%) participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged 40 years and older was 1.73% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.69-1.77). Accordingly, 5,641 individuals in this age group in Qatar would have glaucoma. Chronological age of 60 years and older (Odds ratio [OR] 11.1) and the presence of myopia (OR 1.78) were predictors of glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in 44 (65.7%) individuals with glaucoma. In nine (13.4%) and 15 (20.9%) subjects, angle closure glaucoma and other (post-traumatic, pseudoexfoliation) glaucoma were present. Bilateral blindness (vision glaucoma, respectively. Glaucoma was treated in 36 (54%) subjects. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma among citizens of Qatar aged 40 years and older was 1.71%. Glaucoma was associated with the age of 60 years and older and the presence of myopia. PMID:21731325

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for child mental disorders in a population-based cohort of HIV-exposed and unexposed African children aged 7-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Pearson, Rebecca M; Bland, Ruth M

    2018-04-21

    Despite being home to a large population of vulnerable children there is a dearth of population-based evidence on childhood mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Parent and child mental health are rarely measured concurrently, despite potential for confounding with other risk factors, including parental HIV. Using the parent-report Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) we assessed children's mental health in a population-based cohort of 1536 HIV-negative children (31% HIV-exposed, 18% HIV-affected, 51% HIV-unexposed) aged 7-11 years. CBCL was scored using CBCL Rating-to-Score software. A binary indicator was determined using the clinical threshold ≥ 65. We modelled mental disorders using logistic regression, including covariates associated with the mother, child, household, and parenting. Structural equation modelling techniques also derived continuous latent variables representing the underlying mental health and parent-relationship constructs. Prevalence of conduct disorders (11.8%) was high, regardless of HIV exposure, while HIV-affected children had increased odds of affective disorders. Maternal depression increased odds of externalising disorders; maternal anxiety was associated with affective and anxiety disorders. Mother-child relationship dysfunction increased odds of all disorders, including: affective [aOR = 5.1 (2.6-9.9)]; oppositional [aOR = 7.9 (4.0-15.5)]; conduct [aOR = 4.3 (2.6-7.2)] disorders. Food insecurity and male gender increased odds of somatic disorders; breastfeeding halved odds of conduct disorders. In the latent model, associations were substantially stronger for the mother-child relationship and externalising disorders (Oppositional 0.464 p Conduct 0.474 p = Conduct disorders were high for all children regardless of HIV exposure. The mother-child relationship was strongly related to all child disorders, suggesting potential for concurrent interventions targeting child behaviours and the parent-child or mother

  1. Prenatal stress and balance of the child's cardiac autonomic nervous system at age 5-6 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. METHODS: Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12-20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5-6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. RESULTS: 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17. Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07. CONCLUSION: Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years.

  2. Prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6-12 years old school age children from rural community of Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Tesfahun Yonas; Bala, Elazar Tadesse; Tadesse, Minyahil; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-05-24

    Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select participants from households in eight Villages in the study area. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. EPI info version 3.5.4 was used for data entry, whereas Anthroplus software and SPSS version 20.0 were used for computation of height for age Z-scores and statistical analyses respectively. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with stunting in the study sample, using 95% confidence limits (statistical significance set at p < 0.050). Prevalence of stunting was 57%, about, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was - 1.1 (±1.2). About 7 (1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Age (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), big family size (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.2-9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting. This study exposed high rate of stunting among school age children. Stunting remains a noticeable attribute of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.

  3. Factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years

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    Hercílio Paulino ANDRÉ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 357 children aged 4-7 years who had been followed-up up for during their first six months of life by the Breastfeeding Support Program. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, feeding practices, nutritional status (height-for-age and body mass index-for-age, and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors independently associated with iron nutritional status (hemoglobin and ferritin, considering α=0.05 as the significance level. Results The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was (34 9.52% and (11 11.00%, respectively. The factors independently associated with anemia were younger child age, low maternal education, low height-for-age Z-scores, and children of single and separated mothers or widows. Iron deficiency was associated with child younger age and consumption of chocolates and chocolate flavored milk. Conclusion The results obtained allow us to conclude that anemia among children 4-7 years of age is a public health problem in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Therefore, there is a need for intervention measures targeting children in this age group. These measures can be implemented through food and nutritional education by encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods.

  4. HLA-haplotypes, anti- beta-cell antibodies: their role in prognostication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (results of 11-year observation

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    Elena Vital'evna Titovich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 depends in the first place on the presence of predetermining HLA DR haplotypes, DQ genes, and specific autoantibodies.Aim. Prospective observation of DM1 risk groups (healthy sibs of DM patients for the elucidation of the role of genetic and autoimmune abnormalities in thedevelopment of DM1. Materials and methods. Predetermining and protective haplotypes (HLA-DRBI, DQ genes in combination with immunological markers (autoantibodiesto cytoplasmic structures of betbeta-cells (ICA, anti-insulin autoantibodies (IAA, anti-glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies (GAD were studied in healthysibs of mean age 11.9?5.8 years selected from 143 discordant families of patients with DM1. In addition, a random sample of 599 DM1 patients (mean age7.5?6.2 years was enrolled for molecular genetic studies (HLA-DRBI-DG genes. The control group comprised 200 subjects. Results. DQAI*0501-DQB1+0201 (DQ2 and DQAI*0301-DQBI*0302 (DG8 haplotype heterozygosity creating the highest risk of DM1, the healthy sibswere divided into 3 risk groups. The high risk group 1 (DQ2/DQ8 included 23 (13.5% subjects, moderate risk group 2 (DQ2/X, DQ8/X 85 (59.7%, andlow risk group 3 (X/X; X - any haplotype besides DQ2, DQ8 63 (36.8%. The frequency of autoantibodies (AB of 2 or 3 species in group 1 was higher thanin groups 2 and 3 (26.1, 14.1, 11.1% respectively, p>0.05; 8.7, 2.4, 0%, p

  5. Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ≥70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; Pexercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ≤4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; Pexercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Risk factors associated with deforming oral habits in children aged 5 to 11: a case-control study

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    Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. Objectives To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development. Methods A case-control study of children presenting with deforming oral habits in the municipality of Manzanillo in Granma province was conducted between January and August 2013. 540 children aged 5 to 11 were included of which 180 had deforming oral habits and were asked to fill out a survey to identify specific type of habits leading to malocclusion. The case group was composed of children with deforming habits, and the remaining 360 children without poor oral habits were the control group. Each case was randomly matched to two control cases. The children’s mothers were also surveyed to gather supplemental information. Results Children with deforming oral habits were mostly female. At age 10, onychophagia was the predominant oral deforming habit. Risk factors detected for these habits were sociobiological maternal and child variables such as low and high birth weight, maternal breastfeeding inexperience, and discord in the family. Conclusions The study identified likely risk factors associated with deforming oral habits. These are discord in the family, birth weight, and lack of breastfeeding experience.

  7. Photo-induced effects of the virgin Ge{sub 24.9}Sb{sub 11.6}S{sub 63.5} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, P., E-mail: petr.knotek@upce.cz [University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Tichy, L. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovskeho sq. 2, 162 06 Prague (Czech Republic); Kutalek, P. [University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., and University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-02

    Amorphous Ge{sub 24.9}Sb{sub 11.6}S{sub 63.5} film was prepared through thermal evaporation. A blue shift of the optical band gap by approximately 100 meV was observed as a result of self-bleaching process of protected film aged for two years. The magnitude of the light induced blue shift of the optical band of the virgin film is primarily dependent on the light penetration depth and on the light intensity. The kinetics of photo-bleaching follows the stretch exponential function with a formal rate of bleaching depending on the light intensity while the saturated state is independent from the light intensity. The far infrared spectra indicate that ageing, illumination by over-band gap-photons and annealing of the virgin film are mainly accompanied by the film network ordering. Illumination by UV light photons led to a blue shift accompanied by the significant oxidation as evidenced by the results of the far infrared spectra and the energy dispersive analysis. - Highlights: • “Giant” photo-induced effects in virgin Ge{sub 24.9}Sb{sub 11.6}S{sub 63.5} film • The role of the film thickness, the wavelengths and intensity of excitation photons • The changes of the photo-sensitivity due to the self-ageing process • The high-intensity illumination (> 10 W/cm{sup 2}) led to the different processes.

  8. Assessment of Body Mass Index (BMI in 6-11 Years Old Primary School Children in Tabriz City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Farrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been increasingly growing in many societies. The present study aimed to determine body mass index (BMI in primary school boys and girls in Tabriz city. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 857 primary school students of Tabriz city in 2012-2013. First, BMI of each person was calculated, and according to the NCHS standard curves, the values below the 5th percentile were considered as malnutrition and underweight, between the 85th-95th percentiles as overweight, and equal to or above the 95th percentile as obesity. Data were analyzed by one-sample t-test and t-test. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05. Results: According to the BMI data, the frequency of underweight, overweight, and obesity in the male students, were 20.9, 5.5, and 3.1%, and in female students were 18.8, 9.7, 0.9%, and in the total number of students were 20.1, 7.4, and 2.1%, respectively. Compared to the 50th percentile, the mean BMI in male students in the age group of 9 years was higher (p<0.01 and in the age group of 6 years was lower (p<0.05. This comparison in the female students indicated higher mean BMI in the age groups of 7, 9, 10, and 11 years compared to the 50th percentile (p<0.05. The frequency of overweight among female students (9.7% was higher than male students (5.5%. However, the frequency of obesity in the male students was approximately 3.5 times higher than female students (p<0.05. Conclusion: Given the existence of both malnutrition states of underweight and obesity in the students and also the significant effect of childhood body weight on chronic disorders in adulthood, proper nutrition planning is necessary at the school level.

  9. Infliximab therapy in pediatric patients 7 years of age and younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Grossman, Andrew B; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert N; Mamula, Petar

    2014-12-01

    Infliximab (IFX) is efficacious for induction and maintenance of remission in pediatric patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It has, however, not been studied in patients 7 years old and younger. Our aim was to characterize efficacy and safety of IFX therapy in this cohort. This was a retrospective study of patients with IBD ages 7 years and younger, treated with IFX between 1999 and 2011. Medical records were reviewed for age of diagnosis, disease phenotype, therapy, surgery, IFX infusion dates, dose, and intervals. Outcome measures included physician global assessment, corticosteroid requirement, and adverse events. Thirty-three children (ages 2.4-7 years) were included. Twenty patients had Crohn disease, 4 had ulcerative colitis, and 9 had indeterminate colitis. Maintenance of IFX therapy at 1, 2, and 3 years was 36%, 18%, and 12%, respectively. Patients of age 5 years and younger had the lowest rates of maintenance of therapy at 25% at year 1, and 10% at years 2 and 3 combined. Nine percent of all of the patients demonstrated response measured by the physician global assessment and were steroid free at 1 year. There were 8 infusion reactions. There were no malignancies, serious infections, or deaths. IFX demonstrated a modest response rate and a low steroid-sparing effect in patients with IBD 7 years old and younger. Although this is a limited study, there appears to be a trend for decreased sustained efficacy with IFX in this age group, particularly in children 5 years old and younger, when compared with the previously published literature in older children.

  10. Latent profiles of early developmental vulnerabilities in a New South Wales child population at age 5years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa J; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Laurens, Kristin R; Dean, Kimberlie; Kariuki, Maina; Harris, Felicity; O'Reilly, Nicole; Chilvers, Marilyn; Brinkman, Sally A; Carr, Vaughan J

    2018-06-01

    Detecting the early emergence of childhood risk for adult mental disorders may lead to interventions for reducing subsequent burden of these disorders. We set out to determine classes of children who may be at risk for later mental disorder on the basis of early patterns of development in a population cohort, and associated exposures gleaned from linked administrative records obtained within the New South Wales Child Development Study. Intergenerational records from government departments of health, education, justice and child protection were linked with the Australian Early Development Census for a state population cohort of 67,353 children approximately 5years of age. We used binary data from 16 subdomains of the Australian Early Development Census to determine classes of children with shared patterns of Australian Early Development Census-defined vulnerability using latent class analysis. Covariates, which included demographic features (sex, socioeconomic status) and exposure to child maltreatment, parental mental illness, parental criminal offending and perinatal adversities (i.e. birth complications, smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight), were examined hierarchically within latent class analysis models. Four classes were identified, reflecting putative risk states for mental disorders: (1) disrespectful and aggressive/hyperactive behaviour, labelled 'misconduct risk' ( N = 4368; 6.5%); (2) 'pervasive risk' ( N = 2668; 4.0%); (3) 'mild generalised risk' ( N = 7822; 11.6%); and (4) 'no risk' ( N = 52,495; 77.9%). The odds of membership in putative risk groups (relative to the no risk group) were greater among children from backgrounds of child maltreatment, parental history of mental illness, parental history of criminal offending, socioeconomic disadvantage and perinatal adversities, with distinguishable patterns of association for some covariates. Patterns of early childhood developmental vulnerabilities may provide useful indicators

  11. Effect of a Binocular iPad Game vs Part-time Patching in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years With Amblyopia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan M; Manh, Vivian M; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Beck, Roy W; Birch, Eileen E; Kraker, Raymond T; Crouch, Eric R; Erzurum, S Ayse; Khuddus, Nausheen; Summers, Allison I; Wallace, David K

    2016-12-01

    A binocular approach to treating anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia has recently been advocated. Initial studies have yielded promising results, suggesting that a larger randomized clinical trial is warranted. To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. A multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted in community and institutional practices from September 16, 2014, to August 28, 2015. Participants included 385 children aged 5 years to younger than 13 years with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/200, mean 20/63) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were randomly assigned to either 16 weeks of a binocular iPad game prescribed for 1 hour a day (190 participants; binocular group) or patching of the fellow eye prescribed for 2 hours a day (195 participants; patching group). Study follow-up visits were scheduled at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. A modified intent-to-treat analysis was performed on participants who completed the 16-week trial. Binocular iPad game or patching of the fellow eye. Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 16 weeks. Of the 385 participants, 187 were female (48.6%); mean (SD) age was 8.5 (1.9) years. At 16 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA improved 1.05 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 0.85-1.24 lines) in the binocular group and 1.35 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 1.17-1.54 lines) in the patching group, with an adjusted treatment group difference of 0.31 lines favoring patching (upper limit of the 1-sided 95% CI, 0.53 lines). This upper limit exceeded the prespecified noninferiority limit of 0.5 lines. Only 39 of the 176 participants (22.2%) randomized to the binocular game and with log file data available performed more than 75% of the prescribed treatment (median, 46%; interquartile range, 20%-72%). In younger participants (aged 5 to effects (including diplopia) were uncommon and of similar frequency between groups. In children aged 5 to younger

  12. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Neuropsychological Performance of the Child at 5 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan; Vestergaard, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Follow-up study. A cohort of 1153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured in stored biobank sera from early pregnancy. Child neuropsychological test results (Wechsler Intelligence Scale/Test of Everyday Attention), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery), and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function/Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L vs 0.1 to 2.49 mIU/L, -8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to -2.4]; fT4 function was also associated with adverse motor function and teacher-reported problems of executive function and behavior, and these associations were dominated by exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia. Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was important, whereas for motor function and executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia was predominant. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  13. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  14. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5; AAC-11; FIF) is upregulated in human carcinomas in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, Lenka; Chlebová, K.; Hýžďalová, Martina; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Jíra, M.; Kysela, P.; Kozubík, Alois; Kala, Z.; Krejčí, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 913-916 ISSN 1792-1074 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1526; GA ČR(CZ) GD303/09/H048; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1730 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : apoptosis inhibitor 5 * apoptosis * human carcinoma Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.237, year: 2012

  15. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  16. Association between the prevalence of depression and age in a large representative German sample of people aged 53 to 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Lechner, Sabine; Niehoff, Doro; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Stegmaier, Christa; Raum, Elke

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between the prevalence of clinically significant depression and age in a large representative sample of elderly German people. In the second follow-up (2005-2007) of the ESTHER cohort study, the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) as well as a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were administered to a representative sample of 8270 people of ages 53 to 80 years. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was estimated using a GDS cut-off score of 5/6. Prevalence rates were estimated for the different age categories. Association between depression and age was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, co-morbid medical disorders, education, marital status, physical activity, smoking, self-perceived cognitive impairment, and anti-depressive medication. Of the participants, 7878 (95.3%) completed more than twelve GDS items and were included in the study. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was 16.0% (95%CI = [15.2; 16.6]). The function of depression prevalence dependent on age group showed a U-shaped pattern (53-59: 21.0%, CI = [18.9; 23.3]; 60-64: 17.7%, CI = [15.7; 19.7]; 65-69: 12.6%, CI = [11.2; 14.0]; 70-74: 14.4%, CI = [12.6; 16.0]; 75-80: 17.1%, CI = [14.9; 19.4]). Adjusted odds ratios showed that the chances of being depressive decrease with the age category but remain relatively stable for people aged 65 and over. The prevalence of depression in the elderly seems to be associated with the age category. Adjusted odds ratios showed that people aged 60 and older had lower chances of being depressive than people aged 53 to 59 years. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV; types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine on infection and disease due to oncogenic nonvaccine HPV types in generally HPV-naive women aged 16-26 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Darron R; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine reduces the risk of HPV-6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Here, its impact on CIN1-3/AIS associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types was evaluated. METHODS: We enrolled 17......,622 women aged 16-26 years. All underwent cervicovaginal sampling and Pap testing at regular intervals for up to 4 years. HPV genotyping was performed for biopsy samples, and histological diagnoses were determined by a pathology panel. Analyses were conducted among subjects who were negative for 14 HPV...... types on day 1. Prespecified analyses included infection of 6 months' duration and CIN1-3/AIS due to the 2 and 5 most common HPV types in cervical cancer after HPV types 16 and 18, as well as all tested nonvaccine types. RESULTS: Vaccination reduced the incidence of HPV-31/45 infection by 40.3% (95...

  18. Five-year follow-up of {sup 11}C-PIB uptake in Alzheimer's disease and MCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemppainen, N.M.; Scheinin, N.M.; Koivunen, J.; Johansson, J.; Toivonen, J.T.; Naagren, K.; Rokka, J.; Rinne, J.O. [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Karrasch, M. [Abo Akademi University, Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, R. [Tampere University and Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) over a long-term follow-up. Six AD patients, ten MCI patients and eight healthy subjects underwent a [{sup 11}C]PIB PET scan at baseline and at 2 and 5 years. The clinical status of the MCI patients was evaluated every 6 months. The MCI group showed a significant increase in [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake over time (p < 0.001), with a similar increase from baseline to 2 years (4.7 % per year) and from 2 to 5 years (5.0 % per year). Eight MCI patients (80 %) converted to AD, and two of these patients showed a normal [{sup 11}C]PIB scan at baseline but increased uptake later. There was an increase in [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake with time in the AD group (p = 0.02), but this did not significantly differ from the change in the control group. Our results revealed a significant increase in amyloid load even at the time of AD diagnosis in some of the MCI patients who converted. A positive [{sup 11}C]PIB scan at baseline in MCI patients strongly predicted future conversion to AD but a negative PIB scan in MCI patients did not exclude future conversion. The results suggest that there is wide individual variation in the brain amyloid load in MCI, and in the course of amyloid accumulation in relation to the clinical diagnosis of AD. (orig.)

  19. BMI-for-age in South Asian children of 0-20 years in the Netherlands: secular changes and misclassification by WHO growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, J A; Dekker, M; Middelkoop, B J C

    2018-03-01

    South Asians are prone to cardiometabolic disease at lower BMI levels than most other ethnic groups, starting in childhood. The magnitude of BMI misclassifications is unknown. To compare the BMI distribution of contemporary South Asian 0-20 year olds in the Netherlands with: (1) The South Asian norm reference (secular trends); and (2) The WHO child growth standard and reference. The BMI-for-age distribution of 6677 routine measurements of 3322 South Asian children, aged 0-20 years, was described with the LMS method and BMI z-scores. The BMI distribution in South Asian 0-4 year olds was almost similar to the norm reference (mean BMI z-score = 0.11, skewness = 0.31, SD = 1.0), whereas in 5-19 year olds the distribution had shifted upwards (mean = 0.53) and widened (skewness = -0.12, SD = 1.08). Overweight (incl. obesity) and obesity peaked at 8-10 years, at 45-48% and 35-37%, respectively. Relative to the WHO references, the BMI distribution was left-shifted at ages 0-4 years (mean BMI z-score = -0.46, skewness = 0.23, SD = 0.98) and widened at ages 5-20 years (mean = 0.05; skewness = -0.02, SD = 1.40). At most ages, thinness rates were significantly higher and obesity rates lower than based on South Asian norms. A secular change of BMI-for-age in South Asian children mostly affected children >4 years. WHO references likely under-estimate overweight and obesity rates in South Asian children.

  20. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  1. Missed Immunization Opportunities Among Children Under 5 Years Of Age Dwelling In Karachi City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Asif; Sayed, Sayeeda Amber; Hussaini, Syed Abdullah; Azam, Kiran; Qamar, Mehak

    2017-01-01

    Immunization is the safest and effective measure for preventing and eradicating various communicable diseases. A glaring immunization gap exists between developing and industrialized countries towards immunization, because the developing countries including Pakistan are still striving to provide basic immunization to their children. The purpose of this study was to access the prevalence and factors of missing immunization among under 5-year children of Karachi.. A cross sectional study was conducted from June 2015 to October 2015 among different outpatient clinics of Karachi. Parents who had child less than 5 year of age were approached by non-probability purposive sampling. Data was analysed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences. There were around 59.09% (n=156) and 64.43% (n=165) parents who have correctly responded regarding the number of essential immunization visit during the first and second year of their child life respectively. About 28.12% (n=108) parents responded that they do not know about the name and number of missed doses of vaccines. 31.78% (n=122) parents responded that their children have missed either one or more than one doses of routine immunization vaccines. Of which 34.42% (n=42) children have missed more than one vaccine. Lack of knowledge regarding immunization schedule 28.68% (n=34), concern about vaccine side effects 21.31%, (n=26), child sickness 17.21% (n=21), and lack of trust about government 10.65%, (n=13) were the major barriers identified by parents for missed immunization opportunities. Parents have inadequate knowledge regarding routine immunization visits, immunization schedule and vaccine doses. The practices of parents for routine childhood immunization are also poor. Parents refuse to immunize their child because of lack of immunization visit knowledge and also because of their doubts regarding vaccine potency and side effects. A proper system of immunization promotion, advocacy and reminder systems with proper

  2. 29 CFR 5.11 - Disputes concerning payment of wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disputes concerning payment of wages. 5.11 Section 5.11... Provisions and Procedures § 5.11 Disputes concerning payment of wages. (a) This section sets forth the procedure for resolution of disputes of fact or law concerning payment of prevailing wage rates, overtime...

  3. Temperament and body weight from ages 4 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A

    2017-07-01

    In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.

  4. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences.

  5. Construction of training proсess of tennis players aged 5-6 years, taking into account the specifics of the development and control of their coordination skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kozak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Presented results of the research to determine the features of the construction of the training process for young tennis players aged 5-6 years, in particular the specific application of pedagogical testing to test the level of development of their coordination skills. Material: The survey was attended by 30 experts. Results: Established that bigger part of coaches build the training process at the initial stage of preparation on the basis of the game approach and apply a program of the International Tennis Federation "Play and stay". About two-thirds of the coaches do not carry out a selection of tennis players aged 5-6 or make it only in individual cases. To assess the level of development of motor abilities are equally important coaches define pedagogical supervision and pedagogical testing. A significant proportion of respondents (43% previously had experience in assessing motor abilities of tennis players 5-6 years by mean of pedagogical tests. Conclusions: Overwhelming majority of coaches support the idea of having to modify the tests in accordance with the age characterristics of tennis players aged 5-6 years and expediency of complex assessment of the level of development of their coordination skills.

  6. To which extent social withdrawal at the age of 1 year is associated with IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Doukhan, Sarah; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Peyre, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims to determine to which extent social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with the child's IQ at the end of the preschool period. Children (N = 1045) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for social withdrawal behaviours at 1 year by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives also examined infants' language and motor development at 1 year. At the age 5-6 years, IQ scores were based on the WPPSI-III. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between IQ and ADBB, adjusted for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and for language and motor skills scores at 1 year. After adjusting for environmental factors, children with social withdrawal at 1 years (ADBB ≥5; N = 195) had significantly lower IQ scores at 5-6 years (-2.81 IQ points; p value 0.007) compared to children without social withdrawal (ADBB social withdrawal and IQ at 5-6 years was found. Being socially withdrawn at 1 year is associated with lower IQ scores at 5-6 years. The potential influence of these developmental aspects on each other (withdrawal behaviour and language/motor skills) may occur early in development. Our results improve our understanding of the outcomes of early social withdrawal behaviour and call for early detection of delay in acquisition of language/motor skills among socially withdrawn young children.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Health correlates of overweight and obesity in adults aged 50 years and over: results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Obesity and health in Europeans aged > or = 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2008-05-03

    To examine the association between overweight/obesity and several self-reported chronic diseases, symptoms and disability measures. Data from eleven European countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe were used. 18,584 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50 years and over with BMI > or = 18.5 (kg/m2) were included. BMI was categorized into normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) and obesity (BMI > or = 30). Dependent variables were 13 diagnosed chronic conditions, 11 health complaints, subjective health and physical disability measures. For both genders, multiple logistic regressions were performed adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and behaviour risks. The odds ratios for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, arthritis, joint pain and swollen legs were significantly increased for overweight and obese adults. Compared to normal-weight individuals, the odds ratio (OR) for reporting > or = 2 chronic diseases was 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.9) for obese men and 2.7 (95% CI 2.2-3.1) for obese women. Overweight and obese women were more likely to report health symptoms. Obesity in men (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6), and overweight (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6) and obesity (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.5) in women, were associated with poorer subjective health (i.e. a decreased risk of reporting excellent, very good or good subjective health). Disability outcomes were those showing the greatest differences in strength of association across BMI categories, and between genders. For example, the OR for any difficulty in walking 100 metres was non-significant at 0.8 for overweight men, at 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) for obese men, at 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8) for overweight women, and at 3.5 (95% CI 2.6-4.7) for obese women. These results highlight the impact of increased BMI on morbidity and disability. Healthcare stakeholders of the participating countries should be aware of the substantial burden that obesity places on the general health

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Louise Amália de; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-06-14

    to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados à ansiedade pré-operatória em crianças que aguardam cirurgia ambulatorial. análise transversal de dados da linha de base de um estudo de coorte prospectiva que investiga os preditores de dor pós-operatória em crianças de 5 a 12 anos, submetidas à herniorrafia inguinal e umbilical. Foram selecionadas 210 crianças, entrevistadas na sala de espera de um hospital geral. Avaliou-se a ansiedade por meio da Escala de Ansiedade Pré-operatória de Yale Modificada (EAPY-m). Variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas foram analisadas, como exposição e ansiedade (soma dos escores da EAPY-m>30) como desfecho. A regressão logística foi utilizada para identificar fatores associados à ansiedade pr

  10. Frequent binge drinking five to six years after exposure to 9/11: Findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alice E.; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Methods Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003–2004) and Wave 2 (2006–2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0–1), medium (2–3), high (4–5) and very high (6+). Results Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. PMID:24831753

  11. Polyclinic of Oncology and Palliative Care Las Piedras Hospital: 5-year experience (1999-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, R.; Silvera, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the clinical characteristics, treatments and instituted care profile of patients seen at the Polyclinic of Oncology and Care Las Piedras Hospital Palliative since its inception in 1999 to date. Patients and Methods: All patients (. Ptes) were included in that assisted Polyclinic for the period 09/01/99 to 08/31/04. The characteristics were analyzed clinical population (gender, age, type of tumor), the different treatments (ttos.) instituted (chemotherapy (CT), hormone therapy (HT), interferon (IFN) radiotherapy (RT), exclusive control and palliative care (PC) in the latter used as an indicator of morphine use and care indicators (number consultations per year, average patients per visit, etc.). Results: In the whole period were assisted 231 patients (116 men and 115 women) consultations in 1403 for a total of 148 days of consultations with a average of 9.5 consultations per day of consultation. Each patient consulted on average between 4 and 6 times per year. The median age of the population was 64 years (range 5-94 years). 47% of total ptes. (n = 109) was in the range of 61 to 80 years of age at diagnosis. Types tumors were found more often breast (18%), lung (16%), digestive (18% and within these colo-rectal and stomach 38% 28% were the most Frequently) and genitourinary (11%: 38% prostate, kidney, 31%). Regarding treatments of all cancer patients, where each patient during evolution may have received more than one type of treatment, 33% received QT / HT / IFN, 10% RT, 20% exclusive control and 49% CP, of which 71% received morphine. Conclusions: The clinical characteristics and care profile of the population studied correspond to the country. Half of the patients arrive assisted receiving palliative care with good percentage (71%) of administration morphine

  12. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  13. Relationships between Static and Dynamic Balance and Anticipation Time, Reaction Time in School Children at the Age of 10-12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Sinan; Erkut, Oya; Akkoç, Orkun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between anticipation time, reaction time and balance characteristics in school children at the age of 10-12 years. 11 males and 12 females, 23 students in total, studying at Istanbul Sancaktepe Ibn-i Sina Elementary School, whose average age was 11.06 years, average height was 142.78 cm and…

  14. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-01-01

    boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished...... difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents—especially in children aged 5–9 years...

  15. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  16. [Morbidity and associated factors in climacteric women: a population based study in women with 11 or more years of formal education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Valadares, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Costa-Paiva, Lucia; Morais, Sirlei Siani; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate factors associated with morbidities among Brazilian women aged 40-65 years and with 11 or more years of schooling. A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted, using an anonymous self-report questionnaire completed by 377 women. Were evaluated, with this instrument, some morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, insomnia and depression) and sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and reproductive factors. The association between morbidities and independent variables was evaluated by the χ² test. Multiple logistic regression analysis with stepwise selection criteria was used to select the major factors associated with morbid conditions. In the multiple regression analysis, insomnia was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=2.3) and nervousness (OR=5.1). Depression was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=3.7) and bad/poor leisure (OR=2.8). Hypertension was associated with obesity (OR=3.1) and being in postmenopausal (OR=2.6). Diabetes was associated with age above 50 years (OR=3.9) and obesity (OR=12.5). The prevalence of morbidities was high and a worse self-perception of health and obesity were the main factors associated with morbidity.

  17. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Aborigo, Raymond A; Oduro, Abraham R; Asoala, Victor; Awine, Timothy; Amenga-Etego, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0-59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI), or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44), 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90), and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87) increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0-5). Similarly, children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97), 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83), and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59) times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0-5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73) compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27). A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91), while a unit change in the women's attitude towards sex index was associated with 14

  18. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson A. Amugsi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. Objectives: To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Design: Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0–59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI, or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results: Children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44, 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90, and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87 increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0–5. Similarly, children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97, 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83, and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59 times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0–5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73 compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27. A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91, while a unit

  19. Dance training intensity at 11–14 years is associated with femoral torsion in classical ballet dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D; Aronsen, P; Løken, J H; Berg, I M; Skotheim, R; Hopper, D; Clarke, A; Briffa, N K

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine in a cross sectional study the influence of femoral torsion (FT) and passive hip external rotation (PER) on turnout (TO). Starting age, years of classical ballet training, and current and past dance training intensity were assessed to determine their influence on FT, PER, and TO in pre‐professional female dancers. Methods Sixty four dancers (mean (SD) age 18.16 (1.80) years) were recruited from four different dance training programmes. They completed a dance history questionnaire. FT was measured using a clinical method. PER was measured with the subjects prone, and TO was measured with the subjects standing. Results Mean TO was 136°, mean unilateral PER was 49.4°, and mean FT was 18.4°. A positive correlation was observed between PER combined (PERC) and TO (r  =  0.443, pballet training and FTC, PERC, or TO. Dancers who trained for six hours a week or more during the 11–14 year age range had less FT than those who trained less (mean difference 6°, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 10.3). Students currently training for longer had higher levels of TO (p<0.001) but comparable PERC and FTC. Conclusion FT is significantly associated with PERC. Dancers who trained for six hours a week or more at 11–14 years of age had significantly less FT. FTC had a significant influence on PERC, but no influence on the execution of TO. PMID:16556782

  20. Low fundamental movement skill proficiency is associated with high BMI and body fatness in girls but not boys aged 6-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Bryant, Elizabeth; Stodden, David

    2017-11-01

    This study examined differences in children's body mass index (BMI) and body fatness (BF%) as a function of gender and fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency. Following ethics approval and parental consent, 248, 6-11 year-old children (112 boys, 136 girls) underwent assessment of 7 FMS: sprint run, side gallop, hop, kick, catch, throw and vertical jump. FMS tertiles ("high", "medium" or "low" FMS) were created based on the summed components of the FMS. Skinfold measures were used to calculate BF%. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using pedometry and maturation predicted using anthropometry. Data were analysed using a 2 (Gender) × 3 (FMS tertile) ways analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age, maturation and PA. Age (P = .001) and maturation (P = .006) were associated with BMI. Girls classified as high FMS proficiency had significantly lower BMI compared to girls with low and medium FMS proficiency. Age (P = .0001) and maturation (P = .007) were associated with BF%. BF% was also higher for girls with low FMS compared to those with medium and high FMS. BF% and BMI were not different across FMS tertile in boys. Such findings suggest focusing on FMS may be especially important for healthy weight, particularly in girls.

  1. Bullying and associated factors in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years Bullying e fatores associados em adolescentes com idade entre 11 e 15 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Azevedo da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bullying among adolescents has become the subject of extensive research due to its negative effects on attitude and behavior. However, Brazilian literature on the topic is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To assess bullying and associated factors among adolescents in a population-based sample in southern Brazil. METHOD: Population-based, cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 11 to 15 years living in the municipality of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: A total of 1,145 adolescents were included. Bullying behaviors and attitudes were found to be associated with the following factors: intentionally skipping classes, failing at school, using alcohol, smoking cigarettes, using illegal drugs, having engaged in sexual intercourse, carrying a weapon, being involved in an accident/being run over by any vehicle, and being involved in fights with physical aggression. CONCLUSION: Bullying is associated with several behaviors that pose risk to the adolescents' physical and psychological health.INTRODUÇÃO: O bullying entre adolescentes tem sido objeto de várias pesquisas devido aos prejuízos comportamentais que acarreta. Contudo, a literatura brasileira sobre o tema é escassa. OBJETIVO: Avaliar comportamentos de bullying e fatores associados em uma amostra de base populacional de adolescentes vivendo no sul do Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Um total de 1.145 adolescentes foram selecionados. Os comportamentos e atitudes de bullying mostraram-se associados aos seguintes fatores: faltar aula intencionalmente, reprovar algum ano na escola, usar álcool, cigarro e/ou drogas ilícitas, ter tido relações sexuais, portar arma, sofrer algum acidente ou atropelamento e brigar e/ou agredir alguém. CONCLUSÃO: O bullying esteve associado com vários comportamentos considerados de risco para a saúde física e

  2. Prediction of allergy from family history and cord blood IgE levels. A follow-up at the age of 5 years. Cord blood IgE. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Halken, S; Høst, A

    1993-01-01

    was not influenced by cord blood IgE levels or atopic predisposition. Cord blood IgE levels had a low sensitivity as a predictor of atopic disease. A statistically significant correlation between serum levels of IgE at birth and at 5 years was however found (p ... with elevated cord blood IgE levels developed allergic disease before 5 years of age (p 63 kU/l (geometric mean + 1 SD) at the age of 5 years can be regarded as being an elevated level. A cord...... blood IgE level > or = 0.3 kU/l in combination with atopic predisposition was predictive of allergic disease, especially allergic bronchial asthma. With regard to allergic disease, the positive predictive value was 26%, the sensitivity 33% and the rate ratio for development of allergic disease 4...

  3. Investigation of the 5q33.3 longevity locus and age-related phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Marianne; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardi......A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation...... and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown. We investigated the association between the longevity......-associated variant rs2149954 on chromosome 5q33.3 and age-related phenotypes in two cohorts of 1,588 and 1,271 long-lived individuals (mean ages 93.1 and 95.9 years, respectively) as well as in 700 middle-aged and 677 elderly individuals (mean ages 52.5 and 78.7 years). Altogether, nominally significant associations...

  4. Maternal pain influences her evaluation of recurrent pain in 6- to 11-year-old healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    2016-01-01

    -based survey in Danish public schools. The participants were 131 healthy children aged 6-11 years and their mothers. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of recurrent pain reported by the mother and child, agreements between their reports and any associations between the child's pain, socio...

  5. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  6. (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as new permanent magnet materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kuno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated (Sm,Zr(Fe,Co11.0-11.5Ti1.0-0.5 compounds as permanent magnet materials. Good magnetic properties were observed in (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 powder containing a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase, including saturation polarization (Js of 1.63 T, an anisotropic field (Ha of 5.90 MA/m at room temperature, and a Curie temperature (Tc of about 880 K. Notably, Js and Ha remained above 1.5 T and 3.70 MA/m, respectively, even at 473 K. The high-temperature magnetic properties of (Sm0.8Zr0.2(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5 were superior to those of Nd2Fe14B.

  7. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children agedyear old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children agedyear old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children agedyear old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  8. Risk of Recurrence or Contralateral Breast Cancer More than 5 Years After Diagnosis of Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sheridan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott; Chia, Stephen; Kennecke, Hagen; Ellard, Susan; Lohrisch, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Three large studies have shown a survival benefit from 10 years of adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT). We evaluated the risk of an event 5 years after the initial breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and identified the prognostic factors to assist clinicians considering extended AHT. Patients newly referred to the BC Cancer Agency with stage I to III estrogen receptor-positive BC diagnosed from 1989 to 2004 who had undergone AHT were identified by the BC Cancer Agency's Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit. Cases with recurrence, death, or contralateral BC occurring within the first 5 years were excluded. The 10-year event-free survival (EFS) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. This provided estimates of recurrence risk after the fifth year following the diagnosis. The histopathologic and age variables were examined for prognostic value by univariate analysis. Within our cohort, 6615 women were postmenopausal and 1886 were premenopausal at the BC diagnosis. The median follow-up period was 11 years. The 10-year EFS for women aged cancer (any grade) and for stage II (node-negative and node-positive), grade I cancer. Our data have identified BCs associated with a very low recurrence risk 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, providing women with such cancers confidence about a decision to discontinue AHT after 5 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 'FIFA 11 for Health' for Europe. II:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Fuller, Colin W; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2016-01-01

    carried out 2 weekly 45 min ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ sessions focusing on health issues, football skills and 3v3 games. CG continued regular school PE activities. Measurements of body composition, blood pressure at rest, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children’s test (YYIR1C), balance, jump and sprint......Objectives To evaluate whether a modified ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ programme for non-communicable diseases had effects on body composition, blood pressure and physical fitness of Danish schoolchildren aged 10–12 years. Design A cluster-randomised controlled study with 7 intervention and 2 control...... schools. Participants 546 Danish 5th grade municipal schoolchildren allocated to an intervention group (IG; n=402: 11.1±0.4 (±SD) years, 150.1±7.0 cm, 41.3±8.4 kg) and a control group (CG; n=144: 11.0±0.5 years, 151.2±7.8 cm, 41.3±9.0 kg). Intervention As part of the physical education (PE) curriculum, IG...

  10. Assess the physical activity of pupils aged 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to assess physical activity among pupils in primary schools in Novi Sad, aged 11 years. The sample consisted of 185 participants (90 boys and 95 girls. Data were collected through a questionnaire, and modified Beacke Q questionnaire was used. Physical activity related to school - physical education, sports and leisure were assessed. Frequencies were calculated for all data, and significance of differences in inclusion and type of physical activity of pupils by sex was determined by Chi-square test. In all three dimensions of physical activity, the significant differences between boys and girls (p ≤ 0.05 were established. Boys have a higher level of physical activity compared to girls. Regular attendance of physical education is high, but the class intensity is low, while girls exercise with yet lower intensity compared to the boys. Boys are more active in sports and the most common sports for them are: football and basketball, while for girls those are volleyball and tennis. Pupils involved in sports generally carry out their activities more than 4 hours per week and 9 months per year. Most of their leisure time pupils spend with computers and TV, boys spend more time in sports, while girls spend more time walking.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening: results of a 5-year program in asymptomatic subjects at increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, A; Matarese, V; Rubini, M; Simoni, M; Caravelli, G C; Stockbrugger, R; Cifalà, V; Boccia, S; Feo, C; Simone, L; Trevisani, L; Liboni, A; Gullini, S

    2007-01-01

    The province of Ferrara has one of the highest incidences of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Italy. In January 2000, we set up a colonoscopy screening program focussing on first-degree relatives of CRC patients. We now report the results 5 years after the beginning of the project. SCREENEES AND METHODS: In October 1999, we started a campaign stressing the usefulness of colonoscopy for the first-degree relatives of CRC patients. Subjects included in the screening program were aged between 45 and 75 years with at least one first-degree relative affected by CRC. They were invited to an interview where a physician suggested colonoscopy as a screening option. In 5 years, 776 subjects were interviewed and 733 (94.4%) agreed to an endoscopic examination (M/F:375/401; mean age 55 years): 562 colonoscopies were performed. Adenomas and cancers were found in 122 (21.7%) and 12 (2.1%) subjects, respectively. Histological examination in 181 persons with lesions (32.8%) showed (most serious lesion quoted) 47 hyperplastic polyps (26% of all lesions), 2 serrated adenomas (1.1%), 68 tubular adenomas (48%), 24 tubulovillous adenomas (13.3%), 9 adenomas with high grade dysplasia (5%) and 12 adenocarcinomas (6.6%). The majority of the cancers were at an early stage (8 Dukes A and 3 Dukes B). Sedation was used in only 42 colonoscopies (7.5%). A colonoscopy-based screening in this selected high-risk population is feasible. Even without sedation subjects readily agreed to the endoscopic procedure. We identified a significant number of advanced neoplasms and cancers at an early stage suggesting that this could be a useful tool in early identification of CRC.

  12. Chilean complementary feeding program reduces anemia and improves iron status in children aged 11 to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Tito; Rodríguez, Lorena; Hertrampf, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, primarily affecting infants, young children, and women of childbearing age. To evaluate the impact of the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP) on anemia and iron status in Chilean children aged 11 to 18 months. Two studies were performed. The first study was performed at one public outpatient health center in Santiago, using data collected in 1999 (n = 128) and 2000 (n = 125), before and after the national introduction of iron-fortified milk. Subsequently, a study of a representative sample (n = 320) from the two most populated areas of the country was performed in 2009. One year after fortification, the prevalence of anemia was 9%; significantly lower (p < .001) than the 27% prevalence observed 1 year before. Ten years after fortification, 14% of children were anemic and 77% of children with anemia (12% of all children) suffered from iron-deficiency anemia. In 2009, 11% of children consuming iron-fortified milk delivered by the NCFP (73%) were anemic, significantly lower (p = .028) than the 21% prevalence of anemia observed in children without consumption. Consumption of iron-fortified milk was positively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.28, p = .022) and was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.96). In Chile, the NCFP has had an impact on the reduction of anemia and improved the iron status of children aged 11 to 18 months. Increasing the consumption of this iron-fortified milk could enhance the impact of the NCFP.

  13. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhiwei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency in children is widespread. But the vitamin D status of Chinese children is seldom investigated. The objective of the present study was to survey the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in more than 6,000 children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou (latitude: 30°N, the capital of Zhejiang Province, southeast China. Methods The children aged 1 month to 16 years who came to the child health care department of our hospital, the children's hospital affiliated to Zhejiang university school of medicine, for health examination were taken blood for 25(OH D measurement. Serum 25(OH D levels were determined by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and categorized as Results A total of 6,008 children aged 1 month to 16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the subjects were divided into subgroups according to their age: 0-1y, 2-5y, 6-11y and 12-16y representing infancy, preschool, school age and adolescence stages respectively. The highest mean level of serum 25(OHD was found in the 0-1y stage (99 nmol/L and the lowest one was found in 12-16y stage (52 nmol/L. Accordingly, the prevalence of serum 25(OHD levels of Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among children in Hangzhou Zhejiang province is high, especially among children aged 6-16 years. We suggest that the recommendation for vitamin D supplementation in Chinese children should be extended to adolescence.

  14. Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old girl with fatal clinical outcome. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sidra; Ud Din, Nasir; Kayani, Naila

    2016-01-27

    Phyllodes tumors are rare biphasic tumors occur predominantly in middle aged women. Malignant phyllodes tumor in children is very rare. To report a case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a pre-menarchal girl. H&E slides of the case were reviewed and follow up was obtained. The patient was 11-year-old girl who noticed a lump in her right breast 1 year back which grew rapidly in size. Wide local excision of the mass was done and histopathology revealed a malignant phyllodes tumor. Patient underwent mastectomy one month later due to recurrence. Two years later, she presented with dyspnea and chest pain. CT showed lung metastasis. The patient died of disease 1 year later due to widespread metastasis in liver and bone. We report a case of malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old girl, which behaved aggressively and patient died of disease due to widespread metastases 3 years after diagnosis.

  15. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  16. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal; O'Neill, Siobhan B.; O'Donovan, Joanne P.; McWilliams, Sebastian; Murphy, Kevin P.; Maher, Michael M.; Desmond, Alan N.; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M.

    2014-01-01

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs. We investigated the utilisation of AIS (site, modality, diagnostic yield/significance) at a tertiary FGID clinic over an 11-year period. Of 1,621 patients, 507 (31 %; 67.5 % women, mean age 43.9 ± 17.37 years) referred from primary care had 997 AIS (1.7 per patient): ultrasonography (US) 36.1 %, fluoroscopy (FLS) 28.8 %, computed tomography (CT) 19.6 %, plain radiography (PR) 13.5 %, nuclear medicine (NM) 1 %. Of the 997 AIS, 55.6 % (554/997) were normal. Of the AIS with positive findings, 9.9 % (62/625) were deemed 'probably significant' and 14.7 % (92/625) 'significant'. Of the CT and FLS studies, 12.3 % and 13.6 %, respectively, yielded 'significant' abnormalities compared to 2.2 % of the US studies and 2.1 % of the PR studies. CT identified five of seven neoplasms, associated with male sex, increasing age and symptom onset after age 50 years. This study confirmed low use of AIS in tertiary FGID clinics and a high proportion of normal studies. Barium swallow/meal and CT