WorldWideScience

Sample records for aged 15-59 years

  1. Investigation on Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccine and Influencing Factor in the Population Aged 15-59 Years in Lanzhou City%兰州市15~59岁人群乙型肝炎疫苗接种率及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 牛静萍; 李志强; 王智永

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In order to know the coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine and status about hepatitis B in Lanzhou city. Methods Face to face investigation by questionnaires using stratified sampling randomly. Results 1573 person were investigated. The coverage of hepatitis B vaccine was 31.72%. The whole course coverage was 8.77%.There were statistic significance of the coverage of hepatitis B vaccines between age groups, educational level, urban/rural group and different economy status. The knowledge of Hepatitis B in residents above the age of 15 years was low. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that high education, Knowning Hepatitis B and Hepatitis B vaccine will improve the coverage of HepB. Conclusions The coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine was low in residents above the age of 15 years in lanzhou city. Strengthening comprehensive strategies of Hepatitis B control will help to improve the coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine.%目的 了解兰州市15~59岁人群乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫苗(Hepatitis B Vaccine,HepB)接种现况及相关影响因素.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,选取15~59岁调查对象进行问卷调查.结果 共调查1573人,HepB接种率为31.72%,全程接种率为8.77%.HepB接种率在各年龄组、城乡居住、不同经济水平、不同文化程度及各职业人群中的差异有统计学意义;兰州市15~59岁人群对乙肝相关知识知晓率较低.经多因素Logistic回归分析显示,文化程度高、知道乙肝、认为乙肝会传染、接种HepB能预防乙肝是HepB接种的有利因素.结论 兰州市15~59岁人群的HepB接种率较低,要加强以健康教育为主的综合预防控制措施,提高HepB接种率.

  2. aged over 55 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Knyszyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background . Aging is a physiological process during which a number of adverse and irreversible organ involution changes, leading to a reduction in functional capacity of the body, both in physical and mental terms. The risk of chronic disease and depression increases with age. Objectives . Analysis of body composition and depression in people over 55 years of age with metabolic syndrome. Material and methods . The study group is 157 persons aged 55–69 years (112 women and 45 men. The authors analyzed body composition by electrical bioimpedance analyzer (Jawon IOI 353. In addition to the assessment of depression a questionnaire involving 30-point Geriatric Depression Scale was used. Results . In the study group women scored significantly lower than men on the average values of lean body mass, and an average of 7% higher than the value determining the percentage of body fat. The vast majority (70.7%; n = 111 patients showed no signs of depression. It has been shown that women with major depression had significantly higher mean values of body fat compared to women characterized by the absence or a mild depression. Conclusions . Diagnosis of depression in the elderly may be difficult due to the presence of the “masked depression”. There is a trend indicating the relationship between the prevalence of depressive symptoms and weight and body composition of people over 55 years of age, but in order to verify it the authors need to continue the study on increased number of research groups, perhaps taking into account different environmental factors.

  3. MIDDLE AGE (35 - 65 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Persons of middle age probably represent the bulk of patients who present with dermatological problems. ... ly emerged, particularly for the early detection of skin cancer. Such promotive ... of normal-sized terminal hair follicles on the scalp to small, hypopigmented, miniaturised hair ..... sis in the lungs or elsewhere. The nod-.

  4. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60......-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... website. RESULTS: In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years...

  5. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Personality stability from age 14 to age 77 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2016-12-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants' and others' older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Trichotillomania Below Two Year Of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brar Balwinder Kaur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichotillomania is the compulsive habit that induces an individual to pluck hair repeatedly. Psychotherapy or psychoanalysis offers the best long-term prognosis for trichotillomania. We report two cases of trichotillomania in children less than two years of age because of its rarity.

  8. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    are physiologically plausible and should be investigated in other study settings. Results from paper III showed that total and free IGF-I at both 9 and 36 months were positively related to most measures of anthropometry and body composition at 3 years. We found no clear associations between IGF-I levels and early...... development of obesity. It is possible that IGF-I levels are related to later risk of obesity through increased tempo of weight gain and linear growth leading to early adiposity rebound but this was not visible at 3 years. We had expected that intake of protein and cow’s milk was positively associated...... obesity risk is speculative. A continuation of the SKOT cohort with a follow-up visit when the children have reached 7 - 8 years of age would be highly relevant and enable further elaboration on the findings presented in paper II and III. At this age most children have passed the adiposity rebound...

  9. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    by nutrition this was included in the analyses. Results: In paper I, we showed that a simple model including bioelectrical impedance, height and weight was as good to predict fat-free mass as a more comprehensive model including the sum of subscapularis and triceps skinfolds as well. Prediction error for FFM...... were strongly related to body composition at 3 years. No measures of adiposity (BMI, fat mass, fat mass index and skinfold thickness) were significantly associated to weight gain after 5 months of age. Two interesting effects modifications by full breastfeeding on the effect of birth weight and early...

  10. Liver transplantation before 1 year of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Carlos O.; Koneru, Baburao; Karrer, Frederick; Todo, Satoru; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Gordon, Robert D.; Makowka, Leonard; Marsh, Wallis J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1981, 20 infants younger than 1 year of age received 26 orthotopic liver transplants. Immunosuppression was with cyclosporine and corticosteroids. Thirteen (65%) of the recipients were discharged from the hospital. To date, 12 (60%) of the 20 recipients are surviving, with follow-up of 1 to 56 months (average 14 months). The 5-year actuarial survival is 53.8%. The allograft liver function in the majority of surviving infants is excellent. The predominant causes of mortality were primary nonfunction of the allograft (three patients) and sepsis (three). Major morbidity was caused by hepatic artery thrombosis (five patients), gastrointestinal complications (six), biliary tract complications (five), and bacterial and viral infections (13). Six patients underwent retransplantation; three of these six survived. Results could be improved by prevention of hepatic artery thrombosis, by decreasing the incidence of sepsis, and by procurement of more and better suited pediatric donors. PMID:3550022

  11. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-59 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-04 to 2010-01-13 (NODC Accession 0103915)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103915 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-59 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-04 to...

  12. Correlation of dental age, skeletal age, and chronological age among children aged 9-14 years: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Palanisamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth can be one of the most uncertain variations, but understanding the same is very important for diagnosis and treatment planning. Skeletal age and dental age have been used to determine a child′s developmental age. Several researchers have evaluated the association between dental and skeletal maturity with chronologic age on different population. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether dental age estimation can be replaced for skeletal age estimation in the Dakshina Kannada population. Methods: A total of 104 samples equally distributed among both genders in the age group of 9-14 years were selected. Skeletal age was estimated using hand-wrist radiographs and Fishman′s skeletal maturation index and dental age was measured using Demirjian′s method. Results: Spearman′s rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between the skeletal maturity and dental maturity. The mean ages of male and female samples were determined as 11.89 ± 1.867 years and 12.21 ± 1.473 years, respectively. Chronological age was found to be positively correlated to dental age and skeletal age and found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01. The correlation between dental age and skeletal age was also found to be statistically significant with P < 0.001 and correlation coefficient of 0.683 and 0.704 for males and females. Conclusion: The present study showed a strong relation between the developmental ages in mixed dentition population; hence, dental age can be considered as a replacement in the study population.

  13. [Which sports after 50 years of age?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousteau, J P

    1989-12-30

    Between the ages of 30 and 80, the physiological abilities decrease: muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, etc. The consequences on sports activities are obvious: limitation of the performance per se, quantitatively as well as qualitatively as well as the ability to recover. This is combined with a danger: coronary atherosclerosis responsible for 90 p. cent of the sudden deaths episodes seen in sports, in men over the age of 40/50. Even in France, a country that is not traditionally sports oriented (Pierre de Coubertin and a few occasional champions are really exceptions masking the non-existent sports activities in school)-sports have become a society phenomenon, on a par with the development of leisure, a younger retirement age, increased unemployment and the ageing of the population. Twelve millions of french people hold a sport license and more that twenty millions practice a sport more or less regularly. As epidemiologic studies are in a great majority as well as secondary prevention, it is possible to assert that there is no topic more frequently discussed today than that of physical activities in cardiology consultations. Often, french physicians are not well equipped to answer questions of provide judicious advice: because, very often, these physicians do not practice any sport and/or they are not convinced of the advantages of physical exercise and unfamiliar with the specific restrictions of each sport. In addition, they cannot perform a stress-test in their office--as in this domaine our country is also far behind.

  14. Evaluation of post-mortem estimated dental age versus real age: a retrospective 21-year survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppien, Kirsa; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of methods used for forensic dental age estimation. We analysed all cases over the last 21 years (1984-2004) of unidentified bodies that were examined for identification purposes (including age assessment), and of which secure identification...... was subsequently achieved. In total, the study included 51 cases and 7 different methods had been used for dental age estimation, with the Bang/Ramm and the Gustafson/Johanson methods being the most frequently applied. The age estimates had usually been recorded as 10-year intervals. Factual ages at death were...... the estimated age, and in six cases by more than 6 years. The average difference between factual age at death and estimated age was 4.5 years. The four subadults in the material were all correctly estimated within an age range of +/-3 years. Our study showed that forensic odontological age estimates...

  15. [Acute coronary syndrome in women below 60 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Boer, M.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Women below 60 years of age with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates than similarly aged men, despite the lower prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease. When ACS occurs, gender differences in symptom presentation result in later recognition by

  16. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20-29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications.

  17. Social resources and cognitive ageing across 30 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Background: to examine associations between social resources and cognitive ageing over 30 years. Methods: participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a year of birth sample, completed a standardarised battery of cognitive ability tests every 10 years from age 50 to 80, summarised as general cognitive...... ability. Participants also provided information concerning a range of social resources, including marital status and living arrangements from age 50, and from age 70, details regarding social support, social contact and loneliness. Results: across the follow-up, participants were less likely to be married...... together (and accounting for sex, education and social class), loneliness was associated with lower cognitive ability level and greater cognitive decline, while married individuals experienced less decline. Conclusions: in a relatively large cohort followed for up to 30 years, marital status and loneliness...

  18. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype in Adolescents Aged 15 to 18 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez; Elodia Rivas Alpízar; Teresita Rodríguez Izaguirre; Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of cardiometabolic deterioration, increased type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Objective: to determine the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Area III of Cienfuegos. Method: a case series study was conducted in a universe of 198 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years who attended a consultation created for this study at the Octavio de la Concepción y de la P...

  19. Ten-year survival of cemented total knee replacement in patients aged less than 55 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, A C M; Wood, A M; Arthur, C A; Jenkins, P J; Brenkel, I J; Walmsley, P J

    2012-07-01

    We report the ten-year survival of a cemented total knee replacement (TKR) in patients aged 55 years at the time of surgery, and compare the functional outcome with that of patients aged > 55 years. The data were collected prospectively and analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival statistics, with revision for any reason, or death, as the endpoint. A total of 203 patients aged 55 years were identified. Four had moved out of the area and were excluded, leaving a total of 221 TKRs in 199 patients for analysis (101 men and 98 women, mean age 50.6 years (28 to 55)); 171 patients had osteoarthritis and 28 had inflammatory arthritis. Four patients required revision and four died. The ten-year survival using revision as the endpoint was 98.2% (95% confidence interval 94.6 to 99.4). Based on the Oxford knee scores at five and ten years, the rate of dissatisfaction was 18% and 21%, respectively. This was no worse in the patients aged 55 years than in patients aged > 55 years. These results demonstrate that the cemented PFC Sigma knee has an excellent survival rate in patients aged 55 ten years post-operatively, with clinical outcomes similar to those of an older group. We conclude that TKR should not be withheld from patients on the basis of age.

  20. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  1. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  2. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  3. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  4. Tracking drinking behaviour from age 15-19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    was a random sample of 15-year-olds (baseline 1990, response rate 86%, n= 847) with a first follow-up 4 years later (response rate 85%, n= 729). MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol intake was assessed by experience of drunkenness, quantity and frequency of consumption. Thresholds recommended by the Danish National Board...... of Health were used to discriminate high from low intake. FINDINGS: At 19 years of age at least 80% drank alcohol monthly, and 24% of the men and 11% of the women had an alcohol intake above the recommended national limits, i.e. 21 weekly units of alcohol for men and 14 for women. Consumption of alcoholic...... beverages at age 15 increased the risk of drinking alcohol weekly at the age of 19 [odds ratio (OR)-values from 1.11 to 3.53]. Drunkenness among the 15-year-old boys and the use of spirits of the 15-year-old girls showed the strongest predictive relationship with excessive consumption at age 19 [OR = 2...

  5. Peritoneal dialysis in an ageing population: a 10-year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming increasingly prevalent and there are increasing numbers of older patients with advanced CKD. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a potential treatment. This study aims to compare PD outcomes in age-defined populations in the largest PD centre in the Republic of Ireland over 10 years.

  6. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  7. Prenatal famine exposure and cognition at age 59 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Van Boxtel, Martin; Stein, Areyh; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Van de Bor, Margot; Lumey, Bertie

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Stein, A. D., Blauw, G-J., Van de Bor, M., & Lumey, B. (2011). Prenatal famine exposure and cognition at age 59 years. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, 327-337. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq261

  8. Analysis of insomnia in those over 60 year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Wolińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Insomnia means an absolute lack of sleep; however, in reality, it is a more complex phenomenon. Insomnia is characterized by an insufficient quantity or quality of sleep. For diagnosis of insomnia, it is crucial to find out about the patient’s subjective feelings. Loneliness is a phenomenon that people experience in an individual way – subjectively. The problems with sleep intensify with age, which can consequently cause depression. Depression is conducive to loneliness, both as a temporary feeling as well as a continual feeling of loneliness and exclusion. Objectives. The aim of this research was to the evaluation of frequency of insomnia among individuals over 60 years of age - students of the University of the Third Age in Stargard. Material and methods . The research was conducted among 131 individuals aged 60 years and over, including 72.51% (n = 95 females and 27.48% (n = 36 males. The mean age was 68.12 ± 6.63. The survey was used with elements of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS , Insomnia Severity Index (ISI , Beck Depression Inventory and the author’s proprietary questionnaire with socio-economic data. Results . Insomnia was observed among 27.48% (n = 36 of the respondents surveyed with AIS . More than 25% (n = 33 of respondents scored on the borderline for diagnosis of insomnia. The results obtained by combining the Beck Depression Inventory with Athens Insomnia Scale show a statistically significant relationship between insomnia and depression (p = 0.0001. Conclusions . Insomnia is present in more than a quarter of respondents among persons above 60 years of age, being students of the University of the Third Age in Stargard.

  9. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  10. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  11. Failure of siblings to thrive beyond 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a family in which parents had consanguinity, being children of real sisters. They had given birth to five children. In their family, children remained healthy from birth to pre-school age and then started having symptoms around the age of 5 years and two of them succumbed to this illness. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome Type-1 is a rare sporadic autosomal recessive disease. It is characterized by the existence of two or more endocrinal disorders. Patients may require lifelong hormone replacement therapy for survival.

  12. Maxillofacial intervention in trauma patients aged 60 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashraj K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of trauma victims of age 60 years and older who required maxillofacial intervention. The study analyses the pattern of injuries and the various factors that predict the treatment plan of these patients. A retrospective study was carried out in 1820 trauma patients who reported to the Sri. Ramachandra Dental College and Hospital and required maxillofacial intervention, over a period of 5 years (October 2000 and September 2005. Of the total trauma victims, 185 patients were found to be aged 60 years more. In the majority of the patients, the injury was due to road traffic accidents (79.4%. Males (72.4% sustained more injuries than females (27.6%. Soft tissue injuries were seen in 49.1% of the patients, while 14% had mandibular fractures. People in their early 60s were injured more often than their older counterparts. The findings of this study highlight the present situation with regard to maxillofacial trauma in patients aged 60 years and older and its management in this part of the country.

  13. [Spinal meningioma surgery after 75 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacko, O; Rabarijaona, M; Loiseau, H

    2008-08-01

    Spinal meningioma surgery is usually not difficult and is commonly associated with good outcome. However, advanced age and severe neurological deficit have been considered to be predictors of poor surgical outcome. Therefore, we attempted to assess the surgical outcome of spinal meningiomas in the elderly and to analyze the role of outcome predictors. From 1990 to 2006, 32 patients 76 years or older with spinal meningiomas were operated on in our Neurosurgery Departments. All patients had MRI. Neurological status was assessed using the Solero score. Neurological evaluations were conducted three months and one year after surgery. The mean follow-up was 36 months. A multiple logistic regression was applied to establish the relationship between the risk factors and outcome. The median age was 79.3 years. The mean duration of symptoms until surgery was 12.7 months. One patient was rated Solero grade I, 11 grade II, 17 grade III and three patients were rated grade IV. Radical tumor removal was performed in 30 patients (94%). All meningiomas were benign. There was no recurrence, morbidity was 9%, and 1-year mortality was 0%. One year after surgery, all patients had improved, 56 % had recovered completely. Among 20 patients with severe paraparesis or paraplegia, 30 % had recovered completely. There was no statistical correlation between outcome and various risk factors: age, gender, ASA, tumor size, quality of tumor removal, and location. Only preoperative Solero score and duration of symptoms before surgery were statistically significant. Surgery is the only treatment of symptomatic spinal meningioma. Advanced age did not seem to contraindicate surgery, even in those with severe preoperative neurological deficits, because quality of life can be improved in the vast majority of cases. There was a correlation between duration and severity of deficit and outcome.

  14. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma in women aged below 30 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Shen Keng; Wu Ming; Pan Ling-ya; Huang Hui-fang; Yang Jia-xin; Lang Jing-he

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the manifestation, pathohistologic type, stage of disease, treatment and outcome of epithelial ovarian carcinoma in women under the age of 30 years.Methods: The 21 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma in women aged below 30 years between Jan, 1986 and Mar, 2002 were analyzed retrospectively.Results: The median age at the time of diagnosis was 24 years (range, 16-29 years). All carcinomas occurred after menarche. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (50%), followed by tympanites (25%) and menstrual disorders (19%). The initial diagnosis was usually made by physical examination, ultrasonography and serum CA125. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 17.6 cm. Ten patients had Stage I disease (5 Ia, 5 Ic), five had Stage Ⅲ disease, and the other six were unknown during staging operation. There were nine mucinous tumors, six serous tumors. Most tumors were well-differentiated and classified as Grade1 in 11 cases, Grade2 in 2 cases, Grade3 in 2 cases, unknown in 6 cases. Optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction was achieved in 14 patients in primary treatment and 5 in recurrent treatment. 8 patients were treated with conservative surgery. 18 patients were treated with chemotherapy and 7 patients had experienced six or more than six courses of chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 50 months (range, 2-192 months). There were 6 deaths, 2 alive with tumor, 11 alive without the disease, 2 losing follow-up. The 3-year survival rate was 89%, and 5-year survival rate was 76%.Conclusion: Young patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma appeared to have a less aggressive form of the disease and a more favorable prognosis.

  15. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype in Adolescents Aged 15 to 18 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of cardiometabolic deterioration, increased type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Objective: to determine the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Area III of Cienfuegos. Method: a case series study was conducted in a universe of 198 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years who attended a consultation created for this study at the Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja University Polyclinic in Cienfuegos municipality from March to December 2013. Each patient completed a questionnaire including the following variables: age, sex, personal medical history, family medical history, weight, height, body mass index, presence of acanthosis nigricans, triglycerides and perimeter. Results: frequency of the phenotype was determined in 15.1 % of the participants with a slight predominance of the 18 age group (16.3 % and female sex (8.6 %. Twenty-one point six percent of the adolescents with a family history of obesity and 21.7 % of those with first-degree diabetic relatives presented the phenotype, being hypertriglyceridemia the most significant condition. Conclusions: a relationship between a family history of diabetes mellitus, obesity, body mass index above the 90th percentile value and presence of the phenotype was established.

  16. Physical fitness assessment of women after 60 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prystupa Tetyana.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, progressive aging of society results in the need to address problems and needs of the elderly people. Aim of this study is to evaluate the physical and health conditions among women in the age group over60 years. Material and methods of research: the study was conducted in the focus group of women from University of the Third Age (UTW and ASTW AWF Wroclaw. Average age in the focus group was 62 years. The study was conducted using the Fullerton Functional Fitness Test. As a part of the study, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated by measuring general anthropometric measurements. In addition, the study entailed an interview regarding practiced physical activity among women in the study group. They exercised 1 hour 3 times a week. Test results: The research revealed that women had similar somatic values, such as height and weight. The level of physical fitness in the focus group was in the range of healthy standards. Women from the AWF shown better results in terms of physical fitness in comparison to women from ASTW group, except for the upper body agility. Conclusions: The level of physical fitness for most of the women in both study groups was normal. The only exception was cardio-pulmonary endurance in a group of women from ASTW, where only 25% of participants exceeded the minimum expectation.

  17. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

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    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  18. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R; Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Evans, Alan C; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-10-25

    To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  20. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    preschool to school. METHODS: A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians. Perinatal, sociodemographic and socio-economic data was obtained......BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from...... from Danish national registries. RESULTS: The prevalence of any ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was 5.7% (95%CI: 4.4-7.1). Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) were found in 1.3% (95%CI: 0.8-1.8) and behavioural and hyperkinetic disorders were found in 1.5% (95%CI: 0.9-2.1) and 1.0% (95%CI: 0...

  1. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  2. [Lumbar discal hernia after 65 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunon, J; Duthel, R; Ollier, J; Riffat, G

    1984-01-01

    The authors make a retrospective study of a series of 200 patients who had been surgically treated, within a period of 26 months, for a lumbar discal pathology. Twenty of these (20%) were over 65 years old. A similar study was carried out in a rheumatological unit over a period of three years, and has included 266 patients, 21 of whom (7,8%) were older than 65. The comparison of both these series permits us to make some considerations concerning the frequency of this pathology after the age of 65, its clinical presentation and its treatment, which, as for the younger adult, must be surgical when the correct treatment fails and when a complication appears.

  3. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in adults aged 18 to 59 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musini, Vijaya M; Gueyffier, Francois; Puil, Lorri; Salzwedel, Douglas M; Wright, James M

    2017-08-16

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events including stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and renal failure. The main goal of treatment is to reduce these events. Systematic reviews have shown proven benefit of antihypertensive drug therapy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but most of the evidence is in people 60 years of age and older. We wanted to know what the effects of therapy are in people 18 to 59 years of age. To quantify antihypertensive drug effects on all-cause mortality in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension. To quantify effects on cardiovascular mortality plus morbidity (including cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease mortality plus morbidity), withdrawal due adverse events and estimate magnitude of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering at one year. The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to January 2017: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We contacted authors of relevant papers regarding further published and unpublished work. Randomized trials of at least one year' duration comparing antihypertensive pharmacotherapy with a placebo or no treatment in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension defined as SBP 140 mmHg or greater or DBP 90 mmHg or greater at baseline, or both. The outcomes assessed were all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular (CVS) mortality plus morbidity, withdrawals due to adverse events, and decrease in SBP and DBP. For dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and a fixed-effect model to combine outcomes across trials. For continuous outcomes

  4. Disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use among children aged 1 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michelle L; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L

    2014-02-01

    Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27-6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child's usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children children.

  5. Demirjian's system for estimating dental age among Northwestern Turkish children aged 4-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercalikyalcinkaya, S; Dumlu, A; Bekiroglu, N; Kizilyel, G; Kargul, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of individual tooth formation stages in a group of northwestern Turkish children and to evaluate the suitability of Demirjian's method. dental ages (DAs) were assessed from 1,678 digital panoramic radiographs of healthy children (aged 4-16 years; 743 females and 935 males). Seven mandibular teeth were evaluated according to the Demirjian's eight-grade dental maturity scale by one examiner. Dental age was compared to chronologic age (CA) using a paired t-test. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were assessed with 250 OPGs. The mean difference between DA and CA was statistically significant among genders (p = 0.004), and it was 0.50 +/-1.90 years in girls and 0.77+/-1.86 years in boys. The mean DA was significantly higher (passessment of DA were 0.964 and 0.961, respectively, which is considered "substantial agreement". Results show that the mean DAs of the studied group of Turkish children are significantly higher than the CAs. Overestimation is notable at the beginning of puberty.

  6. Advanced paternal age and mortality of offspring under 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhoj, S. K.; Jespersen, L. N.; Nissen, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Market Research, the Medical Birth Registry and the Registry of Causes of Death was linked using the unique civil registry number. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the risk of under-five mortality. The effect of paternal age was examined using restricted cubic...... attention as it can provide valuable knowledge of the etiology of genetic diseases. Also, the association could become of greater importance in the future if the proportion of fathers aged 40+ years keeps growing. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST (S): None....

  7. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  8. Carotid artery surgery in patients over 70 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Lethoai, H; Benhamou, M; Boespflug, O; Natali, J

    1981-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1979, 934 patients underwent 1,057 operations for extracranial carotid stenosis at this institute, and over a recent 30-month period 463 patients underwent 511 operations of this type. This number is equal to the total of operations performed during the years 1965-1976. The increase in the frequency of carotid artery surgery has been more marked in patients of over 70 years. The percentage of elderly patients has increased from 17.5% to 27% in the recent period. In the latter group of 511 operations, results were good in 93.17% of cases, while there was a mortality rate of 1.95% (1% of which were directly related to the surgery), in 1.95% the neurologic condition deteriorated and in 3.13% there was no change. In the first period the mortality rate for patients over 70 years of age was 7.69%. In the second it was 3.27% (1.63% of which were due to non-neurologic causes), 4.09% deteriorated, in 2.18% there was no change and good results were obtained in 90.46%.

  9. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  10. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  11. Typhoid intestinal perforation under 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Ikefuna, Anthony N

    2008-03-01

    Typhoid intestinal perforation is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. The peculiar features in children 5 years. In the younger children, the predominant presentation was fever, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and in the older children it was fever, abdominal pain and distension. Features of peritonitis were present in only 54.5% aged 1.3 (range 1-3) in the older children (poperative procedure (simple closure and segmental bowel resection) were similar in both groups. Post-operative complications were not significantly different in the two groups and included surgical wound infection, prolonged ileus, pulmonary infection, wound dehiscence, re-perforation, intra-abdominal abscess and incisional hernia. There were nine (40.9%) deaths in the 5s (p<0.05). Typhoid intestinal perforation in children <5 is associated with atypical presentation and high mortality. A high index of suspicion will ensure earlier presentation and might improve outcome.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin.

  13. Patients Aged 80 Years or Older are Encountered More Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The finding from this study revealed that inpatients aged 80 years or older encountered more PIM use than those aged 65-79 years. Anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin are medications that often prescribed to inpatients aged 80 years or older. Doctors should carefully choose drugs for the elderly, especially the elderly aged 80 years or older.

  14. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript “Predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events”, which investigates potential predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016 [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s2. All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  15. Incidence of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration in denmark: year 2000 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger Christine

    2012-01-01

    To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older.......To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older....

  16. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  17. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept.

  18. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  19. Is the relationship between BMI and mortality increasingly U-shaped with advancing age? A 10-year follow-up of persons aged 70-95 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; Jacobsen, Rune; Jeune, Bernard;

    2010-01-01

    populations comprised two surveys: the Longitudinal Study of Aging of Danish Twins (LSADT) and the Danish 1905 Cohort Survey. From 1995 to 1999, 4253 individuals aged 70-95 years from the LSADT were interviewed at home. In 1998, 2,262 individuals aged 92-93 years from the 1905 Cohort were interviewed at home....... The information in both surveys included self-reported weight and height. With virtually no loss to follow-up, survival was assessed through a 10-year follow-up period, during which 4,664 (72%) of the persons died. RESULTS: The association between BMI and mortality is changing with advancing age for people aged...

  20. Facial and oral injuries in Brazilian children aged 5-17 years: 5-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, A L; Melo, T R

    2008-06-01

    This was to assess causes of maxillofacial trauma using a retrospective study in Paraiba, Brazil. Records of 256 patients with maxillofacial injuries aged 5-17 years treated between January 2002 to May 2006 were analyzed according to sex, age, cause of injury, frequency of dentoalveolar trauma, intraoral soft tissue injury, frequency and site of facial fracture. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were used at a significance level of 5%; odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals to 95% were calculated (IC95%). Facial injuries were most frequent in males (78.1%) and in 13-17 year olds (60.9%); they tended to be more frequent during weekends (48%). Commonest causes were falls (37.9%) and traffic accidents (21.1%). Nasal fractures were most common (51.3%), followed by the zygomatic-orbital complex (25.4%); dentoalveolar injuries were present in 25.8% of cases. There was a positive association between facial fracture and dentoalveolar trauma, alveolar and tooth fracture, avulsion and intraoral soft tissue injury. Accidental falls were found to be the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures, affecting males 3 times more than females.

  1. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged 2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.

  2. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  3. The World Assembly on Aging--Three Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusberg, Charlotte

    1985-01-01

    Examines the world response to population aging. Discusses national, regional, and international activities, such as conferences, campaigns to promote an active aging, employment projects, and community alternatives to institutional care. Policy responses are considered, involving employment, income, health, housing, family, consumerism,…

  4. Individual Differences in Phonological Development: Ages One and Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May; Greenlee, Mel

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of individual differences in phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age one and again at age three was studied. The children differed considerably in rate of vocabulary acquisition and relative phonological maturity and also in their general approach to learning. (Author/JDD)

  5. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare;

    2015-01-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronologi......Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled...

  6. 14-year incidence, progression, and visual morbidity of age-related maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesgaard, Helena; Nielsen, Niels V; Vinding, Troels;

    2005-01-01

    To describe the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) lesions and the related visual loss.......To describe the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) lesions and the related visual loss....

  7. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates by county and year, 1999-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains age-adjusted incidence rates for 26 malignancy/age group/gender combinations for the years 1999-2009. These data are stratified by year and...

  8. Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rebecca; Spurling, Geoffrey K P; Eriksson, Lars; Del Mar, Chris B

    2014-10-09

    Bronchiolitis is a serious, potentially life-threatening respiratory illness commonly affecting babies. It is often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Antibiotics are not recommended for bronchiolitis unless there is concern about complications such as secondary bacterial pneumonia or respiratory failure. Nevertheless, they are often used. To evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age compared to placebo or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 6), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialised Register, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1990 to June 2014) and Current Contents (2001 to June 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics to placebo in children under two years diagnosed with bronchiolitis, using clinical criteria (including respiratory distress preceded by coryzal symptoms with or without fever). Primary clinical outcomes included time to resolution of signs or symptoms (pulmonary markers included respiratory distress, wheeze, crepitations, oxygen saturation and fever). Secondary outcomes included hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, readmissions, complications or adverse events and radiological findings. Two review authors independently analysed the search results. We included seven studies with a total of 824 participants. The results of these seven included studies were often heterogeneous, which generally precluded meta-analysis, except for deaths, length of supplemental oxygen use and length of hospital admission.In this update, we included two new studies (281 participants), both comparing azithromycin with placebo. They found no significant difference for length of hospital stay, duration of oxygen requirement and readmission. These results were similar to an older study (52 participants) that demonstrated

  9. Functional Outcomes at AgeYears of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the Longitudina

  10. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  11. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  12. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  13. Voice disorders in children, aged 5 to 7 years

    OpenAIRE

    Polutnik, Tjaša

    2013-01-01

    Dysphonia is a term for every unpleasant change which can be detected via hearing and the voice disorder is most frequently a consequence of recuperation after a respiratory infection and it can also occur due to an incorrect formation of sounds or throat disorders. The purpose of the research is to find out how often dysphonia occurs among children from the age of five to the age of seven and how illnesses or the individual way children talk influence the occurrence of dysphonia. The researc...

  14. Nasometry cooperation in children 4-6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. Cooperation of young children, by nature, differs over ti

  15. Nasometry cooperation in children 4-6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. Cooperation of young children, by nature, differs over

  16. Infertility treatment in women over 40 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, M A

    1997-06-01

    Women experience a sharp decline in fecundity after the age of 40. Most research points to decreasing oocyte competency and ovarian function as the main causes of this downward trend. Aggressive treatment with in vitro fertilization, laboratory techniques that improve the implantation ability of embryos, and ovum donation can help many of these women achieve healthy pregnancies. Such medical advances are accompanied by new ethical challenges.

  17. ANTHROPOMETRICAL STATUS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES AT 12 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Gllareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the current anthropometrical status of the pupils of the age 12, as well as to compare it with the standards of raising in accordance with the WHO standards. In the study were included 62 pupils (42 male and 20 female. The anthropometric tests were done in height, weight, biacromial and elbow breadth, subcutaneous adipose tissue at the : suprailiac skinfold; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold, as well as the abdominal circumference. The results showed that there was a heterogenic distribution of results, especially in the body weight, where the distribution between the minimal and maximal results is 28-70 kg, with the average 43, 14 ± 9, 78 of standard deviation with the male pupils, while with the female pupils was noticed more homogenous group and the standard deviation was significantly lower than with the female pupils in all variables. The findings show that almost in all measured variables female pupils are more developed at this age, especially the body high, body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while as regards the abdominal circumference and body breadth, the male pupils are more developed. Comparison of symbolic sample of this research with the WHO data shows an approximate trend of raising and development of children which were included in this research, and the difference is as follows: Female pupils age 12, body height=151.97 cm

  18. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  19. A comparative analysis of the health status of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica: Are there differences across municipalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Bourne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1990, the number of older men (60+ years in Jamaica has increased to in excess of 100 000, while there are 30 000 men aged 73+ years. This is despite the fact that men have higher mortality and morbidity rates than women and seek medical treatment less frequently than women.There exists, however, a dearth in literature regarding this phenomenon and, therefore, this study has endeavoured to reduce this gap.Objectives: The aims of this study were to, (1 model the health status of men aged 60–72 years in Jamaica, (2 model the health status of men aged 73+ years in Jamaica and (3 examine the disparity in health status of the two groups in order to ascertain the factors that influence the good health status of elderly men.Method: A sample of 1432 men aged 60+ years were extracted from a survey of 25 018 Jamaicans.Secondly, a sub-sample of 633 men aged 73+ years was extracted from the 1432 men aged over 60.The data from which those samples were extracted is called the Jamaica survey of living conditions(JSLC. The JSLC began in 1988 from a model of the World Bank’s Living conditions survey and is a nationally cross-sectional probability sample. The current study used descriptive statistics to provide background information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and logistic regressions were utilised to examine the factors that predict good health of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica.Results: The average age of the sample of men aged 60+ years was 71.14 years (SD = 5.64 yearsand 78.5 years for the sample of men aged 73+ years (SD = 7.97 years. Approximately 63% of men aged 60–72 years indicated that their health was good compared to 53.3% for men aged 73+ years.Rural men recorded the least health status across the age cohorts. With regard to predictors of good health, the same factors were found to determine approximately 27% of the variability in good health. Ownership of health insurance

  20. A comparative analysis of the health status of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica: Are there differences across municipalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Bourne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1990, the number of older men (60+ years in Jamaica has increased to in excess of 100 000, while there are 30 000 men aged 73+ years. This is despite the fact that men have higher mortality and morbidity rates than women and seek medical treatment less frequently than women.There exists, however, a dearth in literature regarding this phenomenon and, therefore, this study has endeavoured to reduce this gap.Objectives: The aims of this study were to, (1 model the health status of men aged 60–72 years in Jamaica, (2 model the health status of men aged 73+ years in Jamaica and (3 examine the disparity in health status of the two groups in order to ascertain the factors that influence the good health status of elderly men.Method: A sample of 1432 men aged 60+ years were extracted from a survey of 25 018 Jamaicans.Secondly, a sub-sample of 633 men aged 73+ years was extracted from the 1432 men aged over 60.The data from which those samples were extracted is called the Jamaica survey of living conditions(JSLC. The JSLC began in 1988 from a model of the World Bank’s Living conditions survey and is a nationally cross-sectional probability sample. The current study used descriptive statistics to provide background information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and logistic regressions were utilised to examine the factors that predict good health of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica.Results: The average age of the sample of men aged 60+ years was 71.14 years (SD = 5.64 yearsand 78.5 years for the sample of men aged 73+ years (SD = 7.97 years. Approximately 63% of men aged 60–72 years indicated that their health was good compared to 53.3% for men aged 73+ years.Rural men recorded the least health status across the age cohorts. With regard to predictors of good health, the same factors were found to determine approximately 27% of the variability in good health. Ownership of health insurance

  1. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  2. Impact of Donor Age on Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Outcome: Evaluation of Donors Aged 17-55 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Friederike; Enders, Philip; Zachewicz, Jonas; Heindl, Ludwig M; Stanzel, Tisha P; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn O

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether the impression held by Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgeons that young donors are less suitable for DMEK is reflected in 1-year postoperative results. Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. Records of 1084 consecutive DMEKs were reviewed and matched with corresponding donor tissue data. Young donors (aged ≤55 years; subgroups: 10-40, 41-55) were compared with old donors (>55 years; subgroups: 56-65, >65). Outcome measures in DMEK recipients included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), central corneal thickness (CCT) at 6 and 12 months, and rebubbling rate. Out of 529 included DMEKs, 94 (17.8%) were performed with young donor lamellae (mean donor age 49.31 ± 6.35 years; range: 17-55 years) and 435 (82.2%) with older donor tissue (mean age 70.68 ± 7.77 years; range: 56-90 years). Postoperative BSCVA, ECD, and CCT results were comparable in both groups at 6 and 12 months without statistically significant differences. Overall rebubbling rate in the young donor group was 42.6% and in the old donors was 53.3% (P = .058). Complication rates also did not differ significantly. Younger donor age seems not to affect the clinical outcome of DMEK surgery negatively within the first postoperative year, suggesting donor corneas with donor age down to 17 years as safe donor tissue for DMEK surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interrupter resistance and wheezing phenotypes at 4 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, JE; Smit, HA; Koopman, LP; Wijga, AH; Kerkhof, M; Corver, K; Vos, APH; Gerritsen, J; Grobbee, DE; Brunekreef, B; Merkus, PJFM; Jongste, JCC

    2004-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish young children with respiratory symptoms who will develop asthma from those with transient symptoms only. Measurement of interrupter resistance may help to identify children at high risk of asthma. The aim of this study is to compare interrupter resistance in 4-year-ol

  4. [Hip resurfacing in patients under 55 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, M.W.J.L.; Veth, R.P.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Hip resurfacing arthroplasty was introduced as an alternative to the conventional total hip arthroplasty which had shown suboptimal results in younger patients. Application of the resurfacing technique in younger patients has increased over the last few years. To date, no randomized controlled trial

  5. The Association of APOE Genotype with Cognitive Function in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

    2011-01-01

    APOE genotype is associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated whether APOE genotype was associated with cognitive function in predominantly middle-aged persons. In a population-based cohort of 4,135 persons aged 35 to 82 years (mean age (SD), 55 (12) years),

  6. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  7. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  8. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  9. Tobacco smoking and its association with illicit drug use among young men aged 15-24 years living in urban slums of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alamgir Kabir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking (TS and illicit drug use (IDU are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15-24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS, which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15-59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05 associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%, and smoked ganja (2.8% and tari (1.6%. In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10 predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables revealed significantly (p<0.001 higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81-15.82 among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001 with increased use of cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC programs.

  10. Estimating stock parameters from trawl cpue-at-age series using year-class curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, A.J.R.; Mesnil, B.; Piet, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A year-class curve is a plot of log cpue (catch per unit effort) over age for a single year class of a species (in contrast to the better known catch curve, fitted to multiple year classes at one time). When linear, the intercept and slope estimate the log cpue at age 0 and the average rate of total

  11. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  12. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  13. Sugar-containing beverage intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Felix, Janine F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-09-17

    Consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) in adults has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Although the effect of SCB on body weight in children is well established, little is known about the cardiometabolic effects in young children. We studied the associations of SCB intake at the age of 1 year with cardiometabolic health at age 6 years. This study was performed among 2,045 Dutch children from a population based prospective birth cohort. SCB intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at the age of 13 months and sex-specific tertiles were created. Children visited the research center at the age of 6 years. We created a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score including: body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Age-and sex-specific standard deviation (SD) scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables of mother and child. In the total population, we observed an association between higher SCB intake at 13 months of age and a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at the age of 6 years (0.13SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.25), highest vs. lowest tertile) After stratification by sex, we found that boys in the highest tertile of SCB intake had a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score (0.18 SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.34)), as compared to boys in the lowest tertile of SCB intake. There was no significant association in girls. We did not find associations of SCB intake with the individual cardiometabolic risk factors in the total population, or in the stratified analyses. Higher SCB intake at 1 year of age was associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at age 6 years in boys, but not in girls. Further research on sex-specific effects of SCBs is needed.

  14. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Children Aged 0-12 Years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Children Aged 0-12 Years in Rural ... in a list of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting school-age ... East Local Government Area, a rural setting in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria.

  15. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kalewad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age are considered high risk for Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. A proper preconception consultation and intensive antenatal care assessment can individualize and potentially reduce the risks for women with advanced maternal age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1929-1935

  16. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  17. Agreement between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity at age 5.5 years in the preterm child. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, V; Quinn, G E; Siatkowski, R M; Baker, J D; Hardy, R J; Reynolds, J D; Trese, M T; Tung, B

    1999-02-01

    To examine the relation between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity and grating acuity at 5.5 years, in preterm children with birth weights less than 1251 g. Subjects were participants in the multicenter study of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity. The Teller acuity card (TAC; Vistech Consultants, Dayton, OH) procedure was used to measure monocular grating acuity in children at ages 1 and 5.5 years. Early-treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) charts were used to measure the childrens' monocular recognition (Snellen) acuity at age 5.5 years. Data are presented for 575 eyes with measurable TAC grating acuity at 1 year and 111 eyes that had no measurable acuity at 1 year. Among eyes with normal acuity at 1 year, 86.8% showed normal Snellen acuity, and 94.3% showed normal grating acuity at 5.5 years. Among eyes that were blind (i.e., had no measurable TAC grating acuity) at 1 year, 96.8% showed no quantifiable Snellen acuity, and 89.2% showed no quantifiable grating acuity at 5.5 years. Only 2.4% of eyes had acuity in the range between normal and blind at 1 year (i.e., measurable grating acuity Snellen and grating acuity at age 5.5 years, and eyes that had no quantifiable acuity at 1 year remained blind at 5.5 years. Relative position of an eye's acuity score within the normal range was not predictive of the relative position of that eye's later acuity score.

  18. Age-related change in sit-to-stand power in Japanese women aged 50 years or older

    OpenAIRE

    Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether the age-related change in power, calculated from the score of a sit-to-stand (STS) test, corresponds to those in knee extension torque and leg lean tissue mass in Japanese women aged 50 years or older. Findings Time for a 10-times-repeated STS test and knee extension torque were determined in 556 Japanese women aged 50 to 94 years. STS power was calculated using an equation reported previously. In addition, leg lean tissue mass was estimated using muscle...

  19. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  20. Infancy predictors of hyperkinetic and pervasive developmental disorders at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    birth to age 10 months. Data on the perinatal period were obtained from Danish National Registers. Mental health outcome at age 5-7 years was investigated in 1,585 children who were assessed by the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and diagnosed according to the ICD-10. RESULTS: Predictors.......20 (95% CI: 1.55-17.47). No significant infancy predictors were found regarding emotional and behavioural disorders at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: Predictors of autism spectrum/pervasive developmental disorders and hyperkinetic disorders at child age 5-7 years were identified between birth and child age...

  1. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  2. Tracking of body mass index from 7 to 69 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Bjerregaard, L G; Gamborg, M;

    2016-01-01

    ; odds ratio (OR)=14.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 12.14-16.19) for men and 10.46 (95% CI: 4.82-22.70) for women. At ages 60-69 years ORs were 5.46 (95% CI: 0.95-31.36) for men and 1.61 (95% CI: 0.83-3.15) for women. Correlations and ORs were stronger at age 13 years than age 7 years as expected...

  3. Age- and sex-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex in European children aged 3-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Cattaneo, Cristina; Obertová, Zuzana; Ratnayake, Melanie; Poppa, Pasquale; Barkus, Arunas; Khalaj-Hedayati, Kerstin; Schroeder, Inge; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial growth changes in young children are not yet completely understood. Up-to-date references for craniofacial measurements are crucial for clinical assessment of orthodontic anomalies, craniofacial abnormalities and subsequent planning of interventions. To provide normal reference data and to identify growth patterns for craniofacial dimensions of European boys and girls aged 3-6 years. Using standard anthropometric methodology, body weight, body height and 23 craniofacial measurements were acquired for a cross-sectional sample of 681 healthy children (362 boys and 319 girls) aged 3-6 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania. Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, percentage annual changes and percentage growth rates were used to analyse the dataset. Between the ages of 3-6 years, craniofacial measurements showed age- and sex-related patterns independent from patterns observed for body weight and body height. Sex-related differences were observed in the majority of craniofacial measurements. In both sexes, face heights and face depths showed the strongest correlation with age. Growth patterns differed by craniofacial measurement and can be summarised into eight distinct age- and sex-related patterns. This study provided reference data and identified sex- and age-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex of young European children, which may be used for detailed assessment of normal growth in paediatrics, maxillofacial reconstructive surgery and possibly for forensic age assessment.

  4. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Qahtani KH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Khalid Hussain AL-Qahtani,1 Mutahir A Tunio,2 Mushabbab Al Asiri,2 Yasser Bayoumi,3 Ali Balbaid,2 Naji J Aljohani,4 Hanadi Fatani5 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, NCI, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Department of Endocrinology and Thyroid Oncology, 5Histopathology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods: Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B, who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results: Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60, and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97. Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%, P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively. Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025; similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003. The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more

  5. Effects of age on genetic influence on bone loss over 17 years in women: the Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hammond, Christopher J; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Timothy D

    2012-10-01

    The rate of bone loss varies across the aging period via multiple complex mechanisms. Therefore, the role of genetic factors on bone loss may also change similarly. In this study, we investigated the effect of age on the genetic component of bone loss in a large twin-based longitudinal study. During 17 years of follow-up in TwinsUK and Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS), 15,491 hip and lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in 7056 twins. Out of these subjects, 2716 female twins aged >35 years with at least two scans separated for >4 years (mean follow-up 9.7 years) were included in this analysis. We used a mixed-effects random-coefficients regression model to predict hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) values for exact ages of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years, with adjustment for baseline age, weight, height, and duration of hormone replacement therapy. We then estimated heritability of the changes in BMD measures between these age ranges. Heritability estimates for cross-sectional hip and spine BMD were high (ranging between 69% and 88%) at different ages. Heritability of change of BMD was lower and more variable, generally ranging from 0% to 40% for hip and 0% to 70% for spine; between age 40 and 45 years genetic factors explained 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-53%) of variance of BMD loss for total hip, 46.4% (95% CI, 32%-58%) for femoral neck, and 69.5% (95% CI, 59%-77%) for lumbar spine. These estimates decreased with increasing age, and there appeared to be no heritability of BMD changes after the age of 65 years. There was some evidence at the spine for shared genetic effects between cross-sectional and longitudinal BMD. Whereas genetic factors appear to have an important role in bone loss in early postmenopausal women, nongenetic mechanisms become more important determinants of bone loss with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Measuring Years of Inactivity, Years in Retirement, Time to Retirement, and Age at Retirement Within the Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKOOG, GARY R.; CIECKA, JAMES E.

    2010-01-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed—all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person’s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38 for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  7. The accuracy of 15 - 25 years age estimation using panoramic radiograph with thevissen method in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, D. S.; Suryonegoro, H.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    Age estimation is important for individual identification. Root development of third molars occurs at age 15-25 years. This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of age estimation using the Thevissen method in Indonesia. The Thevissen method was applied to 100 panoramic radiographs of both male and female subjects. Reliability was tested by the Dahlberg formula and Cohen’s Kappa test, and the significance measurement was tested by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon test. The deviation of estimated age was then calculated. The deviation of age estimation was ±3.050 years and ±2.067 for male and female subjects, respectively. The deviation of age estimation of female subjects was less than male subject. Age estimation with the Thevissen method is preferred for age 15-22 years.

  8. Quality of life one year post myocardial revascularization and aortic valve replacement in patients aged 70 year or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markou, A L; Selten, K; Krabbe, P F; Noyez, L

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at one year post myocardial revascularization (CABG) and post aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients aged 70 years or older. METHODS: Of 102 CABG patients and 69 AVR patients preoperative and

  9. Quality of life one year post myocardial revascularization and aortic valve replacement in patients aged 70 year or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markou, A.L.; Selten, K.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Noyez, L.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at one year post myocardial revascularization (CABG) and post aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients aged 70 years or older. METHODS: Of 102 CABG patients and 69 AVR patients preoperative and

  10. Quality of life one year post myocardial revascularization and aortic valve replacement in patients aged 70 year or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markou, A L; Selten, K; Krabbe, P F; Noyez, L

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at one year post myocardial revascularization (CABG) and post aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients aged 70 years or older. METHODS: Of 102 CABG patients and 69 AVR patients preoperative and follow-u

  11. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  12. Growth Patterns of Large for Gestational Age Children up to Age 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F. A.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Veldman, Karin; Bos, Arend F.; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To determine how growth of large for gestational age (LGA) preterm (PT) children was affected by their PT birth and their LGA status.METHODS:This is a community-based cohort study of 1302 PT and 489 full-term (FT) children, born 2002 and 2003.RESULTS:We found that growth in height, weight,

  13. Age structure of a southern pine stand following 72 years of uneven-aged silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2012-01-01

    Work on uneven-aged silviculture in southern pine stands on the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF) began in the 1930s, when a number of 16.2-ha compartments were placed into a series of demonstration projects and studies (Reynolds 1980). Two of these compartments, the Good and Poor Farm Forestry Forties, have been maintained continuously in this silvicultural regime...

  14. Vital signs: births to teens aged 15-17 years--United States, 1991-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-04-11

    Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight opportunities to increase younger teens exposure to interventions that delay

  15. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyan; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Lin, Senlin; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; You, Xiaofang; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Congdon, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction. The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465) of children with UCVA in the better eye of ≤20/40 wore glasses. Prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 diopters [D] in at least one eye) increased from 1.78% in 3-year-olds to 52.2% in 10-year-olds, while prevalence of hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥+2.0 D) decreased from 17.8% among 3-year-olds to 2.6% by 10 years of age. After adjusting for age, attending elite "high-level" school was statistically associated with greater myopia prevalence. The prevalence of myopia was lower or comparable to that reported in other populations from age 3 to 5 years, but increased dramatically after 6 years, consistent with a strong environmental role of schooling on myopia development.

  16. The relative age effect on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances in Turkish children aged between 8 and 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of relative age on anthropometric properties and motor performance in Turkish children (girls n=423, boys n=601. Anthropometric measurement sites and techniques have been set out by the ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. A group of tests involved in Eurofit Test Battery and other standard tests were used. For each age, the data of those who were born within the first three months and the last three months of the year were compared. The MedCalc Statistics Program was used for the differentiation and variation percentages between two periods were studied (p≤ 0.001, p= 0.05. Consequently effect of relative age was observed on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances of Turkish girls and boys between 8 and 12 years old. Researchers, trainers, families, sports managers and organizers are advised to consider Effect of Relative Age.

  17. Heritability of head size in dutch and Australian twin families at ages 0-50 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, D.J.; Luciano, M.; Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E. van; Wright, M.J.; Hansell, N.K.; Brunner, H.G.; Estourgie-van Burk, G.F.; Geus, E.J. de; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the heritability of head circumference, an approximation of brain size, in twin-sib families of different ages. Data from the youngest participants were collected a few weeks after birth and from the oldest participants around age 50 years. In nearly all age groups the largest part of th

  18. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. U.; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 yea...

  19. AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A 24-YEAR LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas

  20. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  1. Employee Burnout: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Age or Years of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Shapard, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between age or years of experience and employee burnout by performing a meta-analysis on research studies that present findings on relationships between employee burnout and age or years of experience. The problem has practical significance in that the appropriateness of approaches to addressing employee…

  2. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  3. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  4. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  5. Outcome of very preterm small for gestational age infants: the first nine years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J H; den Ouden, A L; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Brand, R

    1998-02-01

    To determine the influence of intrauterine growth retardation of preterm infants on mortality and cognitive development. A nationwide study cohort of very preterm and/or small for gestational age infants (parental questionnaire on school performance at nine years. Cognitive outcome is defined as handicap for mental and speech-language development, and need for special education. 134 small for gestational age infants (< 10th centile) and 410 appropriate for gestational age infants (between 25th and 75th centile) of all infants between 25 and 32 weeks of gestational age were identified; infants with congenital malformations and not of caucasian race were excluded. Neonatal mortality, in-hospital and five years mortality; Cognitive outcome at five years; School performance at nine years. The mortality risk for small for gestational age compared with appropriate for gestational age infants was significantly higher, after adjustment for gestational age, sex, multiple pregnancy and mode of delivery (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.26-5.26). Small for gestational age infants showed more often gross motor and minor neurological dysfunction, but less cerebral palsy than appropriate for gestational age infants. Cognitive outcome at five years in small for gestational age infants was significantly worse than appropriate for gestational age infants stratified for mode of delivery OR 2.44 (95% CI 1.05-5.55). At nine years of age significantly more small for gestational age infants (16.4%) needed special education than appropriate for gestational age infants (11.9%). Intrauterine growth retardation increases the risk of mortality and of cognitive disorders.

  6. Dental age estimation: the role of probability estimates at the 10 year threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Roberts, Graham

    2014-08-01

    The use of probability at the 18 year threshold has simplified the reporting of dental age estimates for emerging adults. The availability of simple to use widely available software has enabled the development of the probability threshold for individual teeth in growing children. Tooth development stage data from a previous study at the 10 year threshold were reused to estimate the probability of developing teeth being above or below the 10 year thresh-hold using the NORMDIST Function in Microsoft Excel. The probabilities within an individual subject are averaged to give a single probability that a subject is above or below 10 years old. To test the validity of this approach dental panoramic radiographs of 50 female and 50 male children within 2 years of the chronological age were assessed with the chronological age masked. Once the whole validation set of 100 radiographs had been assessed the masking was removed and the chronological age and dental age compared. The dental age was compared with chronological age to determine whether the dental age correctly or incorrectly identified a validation subject as above or below the 10 year threshold. The probability estimates correctly identified children as above or below on 94% of occasions. Only 2% of the validation group with a chronological age of less than 10 years were assigned to the over 10 year group. This study indicates the very high accuracy of assignment at the 10 year threshold. Further work at other legally important age thresholds is needed to explore the value of this approach to the technique of age estimation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Preterm small-for-gestational age children: predictive role of gestational age for mental development at the age of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nögel, Stephanie Christine; Deiters, Ludger; Stemmler, Mark; Rascher, Wolfgang; Trollmann, Regina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive development of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm SGA children and preterm AGA children at the age of 2 years. The hypothesis was that SGA children are at an additional risk for deficits in cognitive function. Additionally, the impact of neonatal risk factors and the parents' profession on the early cognitive development was analysed. Cognitive function of 107 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-35 weeks was assessed with the Mental Bayley Scales of Infant Development at the age of 2 years (mean±SEM). The results of SGA (n=38) and AGA (n=69) children were compared as well as neonatal risk factors and parental education. There was a linear regression between the Mental Bayley Scales result and gestational age for preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks. SGA and AGA children did not differ significantly in their cognitive function at the age of 2 years. A strong association was found between the parents' profession and cognitive development. Among the neonatal risk factors, bronchopulmonary dysplasia was a strong predictor of mental development. Cognitive development of two-year-old preterm children with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks was mainly related to their gestational age. Being born preterm and small for gestational age was not additionally associated with cognitive deficits at the age of 2 years. The parents' profession had a significant impact on the cognitive development. The role of the parents' profession on the early development of preterm infants should be elucidated in further studies. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Foetal growth restriction is associated with poor reading and spelling skills at eight years to 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea; Korkalainen, Noora; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Olsén, Päivi; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-08-01

    Foetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with communication problems, which might lead to poor literacy skills. The reading and spelling skills of eight- to 10-year-old FGR children born at 24-40 gestational weeks were compared with those of their gestational age-matched, appropriately grown (AGA) peers. A prospectively collected cohort of 37 FGR and 31 AGA children was recruited prenatally at a Finnish tertiary care centre during 1998-2001. The children's reading and spelling skills were assessed using standardised tests for Finnish-speaking second and third graders. Significantly more children performed below the 10th percentile normal values for reading and spelling skills in the FGR group than in the AGA group. At nine years of age, the FGR children had significantly poorer performance in word reading skills and reading fluency, reading accuracy and reading comprehension than the AGA controls. No between-group differences were detected at eight years of age. FGR is associated with poor performance in reading and spelling skills. A third of the FGR children performed below the 10th percentile normal values at nine years of age. These results indicate a need to continuously evaluate linguistic and literacy skills as FGR children age to ensure optimal support. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  10. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  11. Weight growth of triplet infants from birth to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in weight of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal height, and maternal body mass index were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school where children receive health check-ups. The weight deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 10% and 17% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of weight between the general population and triplets were approximately -4.75 kg for boys and -6.00 kg for girls. Very low birth weight had the strongest contribution to body weight until 8 years of age. After 8 years of age, maternal body mass index was a significant factor affecting the weight of triplets until 12 years of age.

  12. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  13. Lost productive life years caused by chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years, 2010-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert J

    2015-09-21

    To estimate (1) productive life years (PLYs) lost because of chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years from 2010 to 2030, and (2) the impact of this loss on gross domestic product (GDP) over the same period. A microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to project lost PLYs caused by chronic conditions from 2010 to 2030. The base population consisted of respondents aged 45-64 years to the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009. The national impact of lost PLYs was assessed with Treasury's GDP equation. Lost PLYs due to chronic disease at 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030 (ie, whole life years lost because of chronic disease); the national impact of lost PLYs at the same time points (GDP loss caused by PLYs); the effects of population growth, labour force trends and chronic disease trends on lost PLYs and GDP at each time point. Using Health&WealthMOD2030, we estimated a loss of 347,000 PLYs in 2010; this was projected to increase to 459,000 in 2030 (32.28% increase over 20 years). The leading chronic conditions associated with premature exits from the labour force were back problems, arthritis and mental and behavioural problems. The percentage increase in the number of PLYs lost by those aged 45-64 years was greater than that of population growth for this age group (32.28% v 27.80%). The strongest driver of the increase in lost PLYs was population growth (accounting for 89.18% of the increase), followed by chronic condition trends (8.28%). Our study estimates an increase of 112 000 lost PLYs caused by chronic illness in older workers in Australia between 2010 and 2030, with the most rapid growth projected to occur in men aged 55-59 years and in women aged 60-64 years. The national impact of this lost labour force participation on GDP was estimated to be $37.79 billion in 2010, increasing to $63.73 billion in 2030.

  14. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  15. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  16. Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12-19 years : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Post, Wendy; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12-19 years (n=267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 year

  17. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    2011-01-01

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Sel

  18. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  19. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma aged 21-40years versus 41-60years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Nahi, Hareth; Avivi, Irit

    2016-01-01

    We compared the outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) patients aged 21-40 and 41-60years in the novel agent era. This case-control study included 1089 patients between 2000 and 2015. Cases and controls were matched for sex, International Staging System (ISS) stage and institution. There were 173 pati...

  20. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    2011-01-01

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Sel

  1. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. © 2013 ACOTA.

  2. Quality-adjusted life years gained in patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Pedersen, P.U.; Søballe, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    rationale for a discussion within Western European health care systems, we undertook a prospective assessment of the benefit of THR from the patients´ perspective and as measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Aim: To measure the difference in health related quality of life between an intervention......Background: Total hip replacement (THR) is an effective, but also cost-intensive health care procedure for the elderly. Because of demographic changes in Western Europe, THR-associated financial investment for health care has become a question of priorities in society. To provide a quantitative...... treatment and telephone intervention. QALYs were calculated from measures of health-related quality of life using questionnaire SF-36. These scores were transformed to QALYs using a formula based on the method developed by Brazier (Brazier 1998). Results: Both the control and the intervention patients...

  3. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Lewis, Karl D; Arron, Sarah T; Migden, Michael R; Solomon, James A; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-11-15

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age.

  5. Frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age, aged 18 – 45 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ioannidou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis (BV in women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women undertook a microbiological examination of vaginal secretion either in the context of preventive control or because of the appearance of clinical symptoms.Material and method: A microbiological test of vaginal secretion was done in 500 women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women came for examination, either in the context of preventive control or because they had disturbing symptoms in the genital area. The following factors were recorded: age, existence of clinical symptoms such as itching, burning, excessive vaginal secretion, pain, as well as history of vaginitis. During the sample intake, the presence of pathological secretion, rush or pain were recorded. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginitis was based on the Amsel’s criteria.Results: Out of the 500 women of reproductive age, BV was detected to 145 (29% and 33% of them were asymptomatic. 86,2% of the women reported excessive smelly vaginal secretion. Furthermore, 95,8% of women were found with excessive vaginal secretion and last but not least in 73% of women, pain was detected. History of vaginitis was reported by the 83,3% of women with BV.Conclusion: It can be argued that BV was detected in a great number of women of reproductive age. The high percentages of asymptomatic women with BV, as well as the serious complications, and the fact that BV constitutes a predisposition factor for infection with HIV, impose the application of preventive laboratory control in order to avoid bacterial vaginitis.

  6. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  7. Correlates of diarrhoea among children below the age of 5 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To determine the correlates of diarrhoea among children aged below 5 years in north Sudan. Methods: We ... access to potable water, inappropriate breastfeeding practices ..... which impact the level of hygiene, especially in areas.

  8. Social Security Administration - Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year 2011...

  9. Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years, 2012 ... percentage of youth engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes each day? About ...

  10. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  11. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter STD on Facebook Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State Recommend ... active adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for STDs when compared to older adults. Acknowledging ...

  12. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year...

  13. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year 2016...

  14. Higher triglyceride serum level increases atherosclerotic index in subjects 50-70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-04-01

    Higher triglyceride levels increase AI in subjects 50-70 years of age. Subjects with high serum triglyceride level but without symptoms of cardiovascular disease should be examined for the development of coronary artery blockage.

  15. Outcomes of Tetralogy of Fallot repair performed after three years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Veny Kartika Yantie

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion Tetralogy of Fallot repair after 3 years of age appears to not increase ICU LoS or is associated with lower TAPSE, but it is associated with longer QRS duration. [Paediatr Indones. 2016;56:176-83.].

  16. Ankle sprain injuries in soccer players aged 7-15 years during a one-year season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOFOTOLIS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although ankle sprains are common in soccer, the role of various risk factors in soccer players aged 7-15 is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether incidence of ankle sprain injuries, associated time loss of participation, and injury risk factors are associated with chronological age in soccer players aged 7-15 years. A sample of 677 male soccer players was divided in three age groups: between 7 and 9 years (U9, between 9 and 12 years (U12 and between 12 and 15 years (U15. Ankle sprain injury incidence, participation time loss, injury mechanisms, ankle region injured, and other risk factors were recorded in games and practice sessions using questionnaires for one year. During the study 38 ankle injuries were recorded, of which 27 were ankle sprains. These led to 182.7 sessions lost (on average, 6.71 lost sessions per injury. There was an increased risk of ankle injury in U15 group compared with U12 (relative risk = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 5.02 while no injuries for the U9 were observed. Most incidents (66.7% were contact injuries with the highest injury risk displayed by goalkeepers. Injury rate was higher in games than in practice and increased in the second half of the match (p< .05. Multinomial logistic regression showed that history of previous injury was a significant predictor of ankle sprain in the U15 group (relative risk = 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.9. Age is an important factor for soccer training because many clubs use chronological age to separate their young players into teams. This study showed that children less than 9 years showed no injury risk while players older than 12 years showed a higher risk. Injury rate was, however, lower than that reported previously for adult players. Injury prevention strategies may be particularly useful for young adolescent soccer players

  17. Predictors of the willingness and the ability to continue working until the age of 65 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Hengel, K.M.O.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Ybema, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the willingness and ability of older workers to continue working until the age of 65. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 4937 employees aged 45 to 63 years included in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study were studied. Logistic regression analyses

  18. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.33 Prohibited occupations for... of age. The following occupations, which is not an exhaustive list, constitute oppressive child labor...

  19. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses

  20. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  1. Predictors of overweight and obesity among adults aged 50 years and above: Serbian national health survey

    OpenAIRE

    Grujić Vera; Dragnić Nataša; Mijatović-Jovanović Vesna; Ukropina Snežana; Harhaji Sanja; Radić Ivana; Kvrgić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim. Obesity is a complex and multifactorial condition related to morbidity, mortality, poor quality of life and many other problems. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and factors associated with them (demographic, socioeconomic factors and lifestyle) in adults aged 50 years and above in Serbia. Methods. This cross-sectional study, representative for the population in Serbia, was carried out in one-year period, including 6,932 people age...

  2. Modeling variations of marine reservoir ages during the last 45 000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Franke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When dating marine samples with 14C, the reservoir-age effect is usually assumed to be constant, although atmospheric 14C production rate and ocean circulation changes cause temporal and spatial reservoir-age variations. These lead to dating errors, which can limit the interpretation of cause and effect in paleoclimate data. We used a global ocean circulation model forced by transient atmospheric Δ14C variations to calculate reservoir ages for the last 45 000 years for a present day-like and a last glacial maximum-like ocean circulation. A ~30% reduced Atlantic meridonal overturning circulation leads to increased reservoir ages by up to ~500 years in high latitudes. Temporal variations are proportional to the absolute value of the reservoir age; regions with large reservoir age also show large variation. Temporal variations range between ~300 years in parts of the subtropics and ~1000 years in the Southern Ocean. For tropical regions, which are generally assumed to have nearly stable reservoir ages, the model suggests variations of several hundred years.

  3. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  4. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  5. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A; Poterico, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (pPeru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  6. Predicting curriculum and test performance at age 11 years from pupil background, baseline skills and phonological awareness at age 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue; Ferraro, Vittoria

    2007-07-01

    Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive power of such tests is independent of letter-knowledge. We explored the unique predictive validity of phonological awareness and early literacy measures, and other pupil background measures taken at age 5 in the prediction of English, Maths, and Science performance at age 11. Three hundred and eighty-two children from 21 primary schools in one Local Educational Authority were assessed at age 5 and followed to age 11 (Key Stage 2 assessment). Teaching assistants (TAs) administered phonological awareness tasks and early literacy measures. Baseline and Key Stage 2 performance measures were collected by teachers. Phonological awareness was a significant unique predictor of all nine outcome measures after baseline assessment and pupil background measures were first controlled in regression analyses, and continued to be a significant predictor of reading, maths, and science performance, and teacher assessments after early literacy skill and letter-knowledge was controlled. Gender predicted performance in writing, the English test, and English teacher assessment, with girls outperforming boys. Phonological awareness is a unique predictor of general curricular attainment independent of pupil background, early reading ability and letter-knowledge. Practically, screening of phonological awareness and basic reading skills by school staff in year 1 significantly enhances the capacity of schools to predict curricular outcomes in year 6.

  7. Gait patterns in a community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, V J A; van der Geest, J N; Hoogendam, Y Y; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B; Ikram, M A

    2013-04-01

    Poor gait is an important risk factor for falls and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. It is well established that older age is associated with worse gait, but it remains unclear at what age this association is first seen. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on normal walking, but gait also encompasses turning and tandem walking. In a large study of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons we investigated the association of age with gait, focusing on normal walking, turning and tandem walking. In 1500 persons aged 50 years and over, we measured gait using an electronic walkway. Participants performed normal walks, turning and a tandem walk. With principal components analysis of 30 variables we summarized gait into five known gait factors: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace and Base of Support; and uncovered two novel gait factors: Tandem and Turning. The strongest associations with age were found for Variability (difference in Z-score -0.29 per 10 years increase (95% confidence interval: -0.34; -0.24)), Phases (-0.31 per 10 years (-0.36; -0.27)) and Tandem (-0.25 per 10 years (-0.30; -0.20)). Additionally, these factors already showed association with the youngest age groups, from 55 to 60 years of age and older. Our study shows that Variability, Phases and Tandem have the strongest association with age and are the earliest to demonstrate a poorer gait pattern with higher age. Future research should further investigate how these gait factors relate with gait-related diseases in their earliest stages.

  8. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common.

  9. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: a retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-09-14

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1(st) degree and 12% a 2(nd) degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC.

  10. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

  11. Ten Year Follow-Up of Gap Balanced, Rotating Platform Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients Under 60 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H; Barnett, Steven L; Patel, Jay J; Nassif, Nader A; Cummings, Dennis J; Gorab, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    68 patients (91 primary total knee arthroplasties) were evaluated at a mean 10-year, minimum 5 year follow up in patients younger than sixty years of age utilizing the gap balanced, rotating platform design. Follow up assessment included implant survivorship, adverse events, x-rays, Knee Society rating system and clinical evaluation. Three revisions were performed with only one for aseptic loosening at 45 months. Two manipulations were performed in the early postoperative period. Survivorship of the rotating platform, gap balanced knee was 96.7% using surgical revision for any reason and 98.9% using aseptic loosening as endpoints. The rotating platform design using the gap balancing technique in young patients had excellent survivorship at 10-year mean follow up.

  12. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  13. Breast cancer in women under age 40 years: treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jeffery E; Chu, Carrie; McCullough, Meghan; Anderson, Erica; Losken, Albert; Carlson, Grant W

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer in women under 40 years of age is rare, accounting for approximately 5% of cases. The disease tends to be more aggressive in younger women. Younger age has been shown to be an independent predictive of breast reconstruction after total mastectomy. Treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction is examined in relation to patient age. A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients treated by total mastectomy and reconstruction between 2005 and 2009 was performed by querying a prospective database. A total of 671 patients underwent total mastectomy and reconstruction; of them, 106 (16%) aged mastectomy (P mastectomy.

  14. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  15. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students Aged 7-22 Years in Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taha Hussein Musa; WEI Li; LI Xiao Shan; PU Yue Pu; WEI Ping Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity among students aged 7-22 years in Jiangsu, 2010 to 2013. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out as part of students physical fitness and health survey in Jiangsu province. A total of 255,581 subjects (50.03%males and 49.97%females) enrolled in 82 school and 10 universities in Jiangsu. Weights and heights were obtained for each subject and its body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the Chinese Working Group on Obesity in China (CWGO). Results Anthropometric measurement including bodyweight, height, BMI and bust were significantly different between males in urban compared to females living rural areas (P<0.001). The total prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.4%and 5.7%. Males had a significantly higher rate than in female’s student. The prevalence of overweight and obesity by age groups was (14.5%, 10.3%) at age 7-11 years, (11.2%, 6.8%) at age 12-14 years, (11.7%, 3.1%) at age 15-17 years, and (11.4%, 2.3%) at age 18-22 years. By regions; the highest prevalence of overweight obesity reported in Taizhou (10%, 14.2%), Xuzhou (9.4%, 12.5%), and Nanjing (9.2%, 15.6%), respectively.

  16. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  17. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Magnusson, Stig Peter;

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jump...... on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P ......This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps...

  18. Predictive value of developmental testing in the second year for cognitive development at five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Sutcliffe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is mixed evidence about the predictive validity of the Griffiths mental developmental scales. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of developmental assessments of children in their second year using the Griffiths mental development scales for neuro-developmental status at five years using the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, revised (WPPSI-R. In a longitudinal study 253 children were assessed in their second year of life using the Griffiths scales and again at five years using the WPPSI-R. The scores were compared and the predictability of the WPPSI-R outcome on the basis of Griffiths scores was assessed. The WPPSI-R full scale IQ and the performance IQ at age five could be predicted moderately by the Griffiths general quotient (GQ and by the personal/social scale. The Griffiths GQ was not a significant predictor of verbal IQ at age 5. The Griffiths performance scale predicted subsequent WPPSI-R performance IQ, and marginally the Full Scale IQ. For the early identification of children at risk for language delay, the Griffiths scales may not be suitable. However, a shortened form would be useful to predict overall cognitive development from the second year to school entry, focussing on the personal-social and performance scales.

  19. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  20. Surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in women of 80 years of age and older.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, K.J.; Vierhout, M.E.; Milani, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the long-term results of women over 80 years of age following surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. METHODS: We reviewed all records of women of 80 years and older operated for pelvic organ prolapse; all patients alive were contacted

  1. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  2. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  3. Prevalence of rotavirus among children under five years of age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-16

    Aug 16, 2016 ... Diarrheal disease kills 1.8 million children under five years of age yearly.1 It is the ... A prevalence rate of 36.5% reported in a previous study by Wada-Kura15 was ..... Rotavirus diarrhea in Bangladesh children: correlation of ...

  4. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  5. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  6. What is schizophrenia? 25 years of research into schizophrenia - the Age Beginning Course Study

    OpenAIRE

    Häfner,Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We studied a population-based sample of 232 first-onset cases of schizophrenia aged 12 to 59 years at first admission retrospectively back to illness onset and prospectively up to 11.2 years later. We compared them with psychiatrically healthy age- and sex-matched population controls and equally matched first-admission patients diagnosed with major depression. At schizophrenia onset women are several years older than men. The social factors tested did not explain the finding. Women’s higher l...

  7. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Ng

    Full Text Available Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA, a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1 appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2 referred to an old person, and (3 had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  8. Survival and Toxicity in Patients With Disseminated Germ CellCancer Aged 40 Years and Older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Bandak, Mikkel; Thomsen, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    , etoposide and cisplatin (BEP). A control-group of 135 patients aged 18-35 years was randomly selected matched on year of BEP treatment. Cumulated doses of BEP as well as bone marrow toxicity, renal- and lung functions were recorded before, during and after termination of treatment. All patients were...... the two groups were found regarding bone marrow toxicity or mean percentage changes in lung- or renal function. Patients aged ≥40 year had increased cancer specific mortality, HR = 4.8 (P = 0.005). In particular patients with disease progression after first line chemotherapy had increased mortality (P = 0......BACKGROUND: Germ-cell cancer (GCC) patients aged ≥40 years have a two-fold higher GCC-specific mortality. It has been hypothesized that reduced treatment intensity combined with increased treatment related toxicity could be the explanation. The objective was to analyze chemotherapy intensity...

  9. Relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    -displacement plethysmography. Child development was assessed at 2 years of age using Denver developmental screening test. Associations between body composition at birth and development at 2 years of age were tested using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: FFM but not FM at birth was positively associated with higher global...... (FFM) at birth. This study therefore aimed at investigating the relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An Ethiopian birth cohort was followed up at 2 years. Body composition was measured within 48 h of birth using infant air......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Birth weight (BW), independent of socioeconomic status, has been identified as a predictor for childhood cognitive development. However, it is not known whether this relation is related to low BW per se or particularly related to a deficit in fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass...

  10. Infant behaviors are predictive of functional somatic symptoms at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ørnbøl, Eva; Olsen, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate infancy predictors of impairing functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at child ages 5-7 years with a focus on problems with feeding, sleep, and tactile reactivity. STUDY DESIGN: This study is part of a longitudinal birth cohort study, Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC2000. Child...... health, development, and functioning were assessed by community health nurses at 4 home visits from birth to age 10 months. FSS at ages 5-7 years were measured by the Soma Assessment Interview in 1327 children. Sociodemographic data and information on maternal psychiatric illness were obtained from...... of living) predicted impairing FSS at 5-7 years (aOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.3-6.6). Maternal psychiatric illness during the child's first year of living was also associated with later child FSS (aOR = 7.1, 95% CI: 1.8-27.8). CONCLUSION: Regulatory problems may be an early marker of disturbed sensory reactivity...

  11. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial

  12. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15-44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Jonas, Anna; Beukes, Anita; Anderson, Raydel; Rota, Paul A; Bankamp, Bettina; Gary, Howard E; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gerber, Sue; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-01

    Namibia experienced a large measles outbreak starting in 2009, with 38% of reported cases in adults, including women of reproductive age. Population immunity was assessed among pregnant women to determine whether immunization activities were needed in adults to achieve measles elimination in Namibia. A total of 1708 and 2040 specimens sampled from Namibian pregnant women aged 15-44 years who were included in the 2008 and 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey, respectively, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G antibody. The proportion of women seropositive overall and by 5-year age strata was determined, and factors associated with seropositivity were analyzed by logistic regression, including age, facility type, gravidity, HIV status, and urban/rural setting. Seropositivity in 2008 versus 2010 was compared. In both analysis years, measles seropositivity was lower in 15-19-year-olds (77%) and 20-24-year-olds (85-87%) and higher in 25-44-year-olds (90-94%) (2008, pmeasles seropositivity did not differ between 2008 (87%) and 2010 (87%) (p=0.7). HIV status did not affect seropositivity. Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15-19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  15. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  16. An epidemiological survey of cataract among adults aged 50 years and above in rural, Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate prevalence of cataract and status surgery of cataract among adults aged 50 years and above in rural, Shaanxi Province, and to evaluate the rate of blindness caused by cataracts and postoperative effects.METHODS: Cluster sampling was used in randomly selection in Shaanxi Province from Jan. to Dec. in 2011, among the 3494 individuals from Liuba county, Huangling county, Lantian county and Baqiao district, 2124 aged 50 years and above received questionnaire survey and eye examination in the study. WHO diagnostic criteria and cataracts diagnostic criteria were used in the evaluation. RESULTS: Of 1912 participated the eye survey and response rate was 90%, the prevalence of cataracts was 36.66%, and the prevalence of cataracts among adults aged 50 years and above was 15.80%, the prevalence of cataracts among adults aged 70 years and above was 68.71%. The prevalence of age-related cataracts increased obviously with aging(PPCONCLUSION: Cataract blindness is a serious public health problem in rural, Shaanxi Province. Prevention of blindness in Shaanxi Province has made some achievements, and the prevalence of cataract and visual impairment have decreased to some extent. PHACO has been carried out in rural areas, however, the penetration and surgical techniques of PHACO should be further improved.

  17. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. [Establish Assessment Model of 18 Years of Age in Chinese Han Population by Mandibular Third Molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fei; Dai, Xin-hua; Wang, Liang; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Kui; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2016-02-01

    To explore the value of estimating chronologic age based on the grades of mandibular third molar development. To evaluate whether mandibular third molar could be used as an indicator for estimating the age under or over 18 years. The mineralization status of mandibular third molar of 1 845 individuals aged 10 - 30 was graded and marked based on Demirjian's classification of grades reformed by Orhan. Gender difference was examined by t-test. A cubic regression model was established to analyze the correlation between third molar and chronologic age. Each grade of age cumulative distribution diagram and ROC curve was respectively performed to evaluate the relationship between third molar and the age of 18. Using Bayes discriminant analysis, an equation was established for estimating the age of 18. The inner-rater reliability was 0.903. Statistical analysis showed a moderate correlation between age and grade. Significant differences of both genders were found only in grade D and H (P Third molar development shows a high correlation with age, and combined with other indicators, it can be used to estimate the age of 18.

  19. Moderate to severe vasomotor and sexual symptoms remain problematic for women aged 60 to 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartoulla, Pragya; Worsley, Roisin; Bell, Robin J; Davis, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms in older postmenopausal women and, hence, the need for treatment options for women of this age. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 among 2,020 women aged 40 to 65 years and living independently across Australia. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS), as measured by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the current use of prescription therapy for menopausal symptoms. The prevalence of moderate to severe VMS was as follows: 2.8% in premenopausal women, 17.1% in perimenopausal women, 28.5% in postmenopausal women younger than 55 years, 15.1% in postmenopausal women aged 55 to 59 years, and 6.5% in postmenopausal women aged 60 to 65 years. Prescription therapy for menopausal symptoms was used by 135 women: 120 (5.9%) women using hormone therapy and 15 (0.7%) women using nonhormonal medication. The factors positively associated with moderate to severe VMS were smoking (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3; P VMS even in women aged 60 to 65 years. The use of vaginal estrogen and nonhormonal prescription therapy with proven efficacy for treatment of menopausal symptoms is strikingly low, suggesting that menopause remains an undertreated condition.

  20. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and brushed his/her teeth under supervision of one instructor. The grip type during tooth brushing was recorded on a videotape and duration of tooth brushing also was noted. The data were analyzed in relation to the age and gender using the chi-square test. ANOVA was used to find if there is any significant difference between the mean brushing times in the different groups. Results: The results of statistical analysis showed that in all cases P> 0.05 for grip preferences and P < 0.001 between age groups 3-5 years and 9-11 years with respect to the mean brushing time. Conclusion: The required manual dexterity for tooth brushing was present in younger age groups.

  1. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  2. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment aged for 2 years to carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, X. M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) existing in sediment for years, the accumulation of PBDEs in sediment aged for 2 years to fish was investigated. Simulated aquatic system microcosms were conducted with PBDE contaminated sediment aged for 2 years and carps were cultured in the microcosms for 20 days. PBDE concentrations in carp tissues were analyzed to estimate the bioavailability of aged PBDEs in carps. The main spiked PBDE congeners were detected in sediment even though the contaminated sediment was aged for 2 years. Similarly, the five PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 100, 153 and 154) congeners which probably were bioaccumulated by carp were detected in fish tissues, indicating that PBDEs could be bioaccumulated after aging for 2 years. The PBDEs distribution revealed that the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of Cyprinus carpio is in this order of magnitude: gut > liver > gill > fillet. The PBDEs concentrations in fillet were as high as 67.9 ng/g dry wt, in which BDE-47 contributed almost 50% in profile.

  3. Velopharyngeal function from the age of three to eight years in cleft palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L; Paaso, M; Laitinen, J; Ranta, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study changes of velopharyngeal function between the ages of 3 and 8 years. The subjects were 65 (30 girls and 35 boys) Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n = 35) and with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, n = 30) operated primarily at the age of 1.0-2.0 years. Before the age of 8 years, 16 children required velopharyngoplasty (VPP, ad modum Hoenig). The children were followed up for speech at the age of 3, 6 and 8 years. The perceptual speech characteristics nasal air emission, hypernasality, weakness of pressure consonants and compensatory articulations were registered. Indications for a velopharyngeal flap (by VPP) were identified on the basis of perceptual speech characteristics and confirmed by instrumental examinations. The results indicated that the method and timing of primary palatoplasty and sex did not correlate with the quality of velopharyngeal function. It was good both in children treated conservatively or with VPP at the age of 8 years. The children with a flap required speech therapy significantly more often than other children. No child with VPP and only 12% of the children without VPP had simultaneous nasal air emissions and hypernasality. Compensatory articulation was completely eliminated and weakness of pressure consonants was diagnosed only in 1 child without VPP. The CP children required significantly more often a velopharyngeal flap than the UCLP children. In conclusion, the CP and UCLP children develop a similar velopharyngeal function but in a different way.

  4. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  5. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...... to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...

  6. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  7. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... registers from 1997 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for FED diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases and associations with perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1365 children (53% girls) were diagnosed.......19-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: FED in referred children aged 0 to 3 years are associated with perinatal adversities, female gender, maternal smoking in pregnancy, being firstborn, and having immigrant parents. The results suggest complex causal mechanisms of FED and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach...

  8. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurier, D [Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/DRPH/SRBE, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses cedex (France); Hemon, D; Clavel, J [INSERM Unit 754, Villejuif (France)], E-mail: Dominique.laurier@irsn.fr

    2008-09-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants. (note)

  9. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurier, D; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-09-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants.

  10. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  11. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  12. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  13. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  14. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of atrial fibrillation in preterminal inpatients aged 60 years and over

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie-fu; LIU Bing; LIU Dong-ge; LUO Yao; FANG Fang

    2008-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia and a major risk factor for ischaemic stroke. We investigated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and its relation to age, gender and underlying heart disease in patients aged 60 years and over who died during hospitalization.Methods Between 1955 and 2005, 1519 autopsies of in-hospital deaths in Beijing Hospital were performed. Among them, 540 cases met criteria of age ≥60 years and full clinical history including electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, myocardial perfusion images and detailed cardiac pathology records from autopsy.Results Atrial fibrillation occurred in 193 of 540 patients and prevalence increased with age (10.5% in patients younger than 60 years, 39.6% (80-89 years) and 54.8% (≥90 years)) being higher in patients with underlying heart disease than without heart disease (P<0.0001). Coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, cardiac valve dysfunction and chronic renal failure were associated with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P<0.001). CAD with anterior myocardial infarction or left anterior descending artery disease was also associated with an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P <0.05). Following autopsy, clinical misdiagnosis of CAD increased with age and missed clinical diagnosis of CAD decreased with age. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed independent predictors of atrial fibrillation: age (OR=1.335, 95% Cl: 1.114-1.600, P<0.0001), underlying heart disease (OR=2.019, 95% CI: 1.244-3.278, P <0.005), chronic heart failure (OR=1.873, 95% CI: 1.272-2.757, P <0.005), mitral regurgitation (OR=2.163, 95% Cl: 1.093-4.278, P<0.05) and mitral stenosis (OR=33.575, 95% CI: 2.852-395.357, P<0.05). Conclusions A high prevalence of atrial fibrillation was found in Chinese patients

  16. Heart rate responses of male orienteers aged 21-67 years during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, S; George, M; Theakston, S; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R

    2003-03-01

    Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21-35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into three groups: group 1 (international competitive standard, n = 11, age 21-67 years), group 2 (national competitive standard, n = 15, age 24-66 years) and group 3 (club competitive standard, n = 13, age 23-60 years). Each participant had his heart rate monitored during two orienteering races of contrasting technical difficulty. The results were analysed using analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine whether age was related to the observed heart rate responses. The groups did not differ in their peak (175 +/- 12 beats x min(-1), P = 0.643) or mean (159 +/- 13 beats x min(-1), P = 0.171) heart rates during the races. There was a decline of 6 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P = 0.001) for peak heart rate and 5 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P orienteers in group 1 displayed a lower (P orienteers ran at a relative high intensity and the international competitive standard orienteers displayed a less variable heart rate, which may have been related to fewer instances of slowing down to relocate and being able to navigate while running at relatively high speeds.

  17. Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

    2013-11-01

    To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5 mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4 oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ∼2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72 hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value = 0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (∼16 hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ∼70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%.

  18. Length and weight of very low birth weight infants in Germany at 2 years of age: does it matter at what age they start complementary food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, J; Eisemann, N; Ehlers, S; Orlikowsky, T; Kannt, O; Herting, E; Göpel, W

    2015-06-01

    We analysed at what age parents start complementary food in very low birth weight infants, determined risk factors for early introduction of complementary food (post-term age) and analysed whether the age at introduction of complementary food influences height or weight at 2 years of age. Parents of premature infants born in 2009-2011 answered questionnaires regarding introduction of complementary food in the first year of life (N=2262) and were followed up at a post-term age of 2 years (N=981). Length and weight were compared with full-term infants from the KiGGs study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to study predictors for early introduction of complementary food and the influence of age at introduction of complementary food on later height and weight. Average age at introduction of complementary food was 3.5 months post-term age. The lower the gestational age at birth, the earlier (post-term age) vegetables and meat were introduced. Age at introduction of complementary food was influenced by intrauterine growth restriction, gestational age at birth, maternal education and a developmental delay perceived by the parents. Length and weight at a post-term age of 2 years was not negatively influenced by early introduction of complementary food. VLBW infants are introduced to complementary food on average before a post-term age of 4 months. There was no negative effect of early introduction of complementary food on height and weight at 2 years of age.

  19. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single‐Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary A.; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H.; Reitberg, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age‐based doses of 100‐400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz/F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz/F than CLo, an increase in terminal exponential half‐life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation‐related changes in CLo and Vz/F. PMID:26632082

  20. Regional changes in glucose metabolism during brain development from the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, P; Wikler, D; Damhaut, P; Szliwowski, H B; Goldman, S

    1998-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of 42 subjects ages 6 to 38 years were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping to identify age-related changes in regional distribution of glucose metabolism adjusted for global activity. Whereas adults were normal volunteers, children had idiopathic epilepsy. We studied polynomial expansions of age to identify nonlinear effects and found that adjusted glucose metabolism varied very significantly in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex and to a lesser degree in the basal ganglia, the mesencephalon, and the insular, posterior cingulate, frontal, and postcentral cortices. Regression plots slowed that the best fit was not linear: adjusted glucose metabolism increased mainly before the age of 25 years and then remained relatively stable. Effects persisted when anti-epileptic drug intake and sleep during the FDG uptake were considered as confounding covariates. To determine if the metabolic changes observed were not due to the epileptic condition of the children, PET data obtained in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy were compared with those in our group of normal adult subjects, resulting in the absence of mapping in the age-related regions. This study suggests that brain maturation from the age of 6 years gives rise to a relative increase of synaptic activities in the thalamus, possibly as a consequence of improved corticothalamic connections. Increased metabolic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is probably related to these thalamic changes and suggests that the limbic system is involved in the processes of brain maturation.

  1. Age changes in the human frontozygomatic suture from 20 to 95 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokich, V G

    1976-04-01

    The frontozygomatic suture of human cadaver material was examined by a combination of histologic, radiographic, and gross tecniques to determine the aging changes in the suture and the approximate age at which sutural fusion occurs. The sample consisted of sixty-One specimens of human beings ranging in age from 20 to 95 years. Observations were made on specimens at age intervals of 5 years. Since the frontozygomatic suture is bilateral, one suture from each specimens was used for radiographic and gross examination for synostosis, and the opposite side was subjected to histologic analysis. The findings of this study have lead to the following conclusions: 1. The human frontozygomatic suture undergoes synostosis during the eigth decade of life, but does not completely fuse by the age of 95 years. 2. Synostosis is a progressive process which commences as small areas of bony union that occur initially within the internal portion of the suture and then progresses to the orbital perisosteal surface. Bony union is not found at or near the facial periosteal surface. 3. The bony surfaces of the frontozygomatic suture become increasingly irregular with advancing age as a result of the formation of projections or interifitations=

  2. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  3. Neural substrates of the development of cognitive control in children ages 5-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret; Kharitonova, Maria; Martin, Rebecca E; Chatterjee, Aparna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates of conflict detection and resolution in early childhood. In the current study, we investigated age-related change in neural recruitment during a blocked spatial-incompatibility task (Simon task) in children ages 5-10 years using fMRI. Cortical thickness was measured using structural MRI. Across all children, there was greater activation in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortices for incompatible than compatible conditions. In older children, compared with younger children, there was decreased activation and decreased gray matter thickness in the medial PFC. Thickness and activation changes across age were associated within participants, such that thinner cortex was associated with less activation in the rostral ACC. These findings suggest that developmental change in medial PFC activation supports performance on cognitive control tasks in early childhood.

  4. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Rubin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert T Rubin1,2, Richard H Rahe31Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2UCLA Bruin Masters Swim Club, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Portland VA Hospital Community-Based Outpatient Center, Salem, OR, USAAbstract: The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a “user-friendly” aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on “breath control”, and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly

  5. Genetic regulation of growth from birth to 18 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Tynelius, Per

    2008-01-01

    birth to age 18. The data were analyzed by two different multivariate variance component models for twin data using the Mx statistical package. At birth and 1 year of age, a substantial part of the variation in length was because of common environment (50 and 57%, respectively) and the effect of genetic...... started to affect height, but also genetic variation affecting height at previous ages remained. These results suggest that genetic regulation of growth is rather uniform, which is encouraging for further efforts to identify genes affecting growth....

  6. Associations between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms measured at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M D Thompson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. METHODS: Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. RESULTS: Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11 if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen.

  7. Predicting an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in young children are prevalent. Identification of symptoms or other factors that are precursors of asthma exacerbations would be useful for early treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether diary symptoms and beta2-agonist use before an exacerbation...... could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...... an asthma exacerbation was a strong predictor of an exacerbation in children Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  8. Central nervous system medications and falls risk in men aged 60-75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Frost, Morten; Ryg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years.......Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years....

  9. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia. Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud -  National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1. Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age. Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considerin

  10. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  11. Natural history of stuttering to 4 years of age: a prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sheena; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Cini, Eileen; Conway, Laura; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Bavin, Edith L; Prior, Margot; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    To document the natural history of stuttering by age 4 years, including (1) cumulative incidence of onset, (2) 12-month recovery status, (3) predictors of stuttering onset and recovery, and (4) potential comorbidities. The study cohort was a prospective community-ascertained cohort (the Early Language in Victoria Study) from Melbourne, Australia, of 4-year-old children (n = 1619; recruited at age 8 months) and their mothers. Outcome was stuttering onset by age 4 years and recovery within 12 months of onset, defined using concurrent monthly parent and speech pathologist ratings. Potential predictors: child gender, birth weight, birth order, prematurity, and twinning; maternal mental health and education; socioeconomic status; and family history of stuttering. Potential comorbidities: preonset and concurrent temperament, language, nonverbal cognition, and health-related quality of life. By age 4 years, the cumulative incidence of stuttering onset was 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.7% to 12.8%). Higher maternal education (P = .004), male gender (P = .02), and twinning (P = .005) predicted stuttering onset. At outcome, stuttering children had stronger language (mean [SD]: 105.0 [13.0] vs 99.6 [14.6]; mean difference 5.5, 95% CI: 3.1 to 7.8; P stuttering onset is common in preschoolers, adverse affects are not the norm in the first year after onset.

  12. Trends and variability in blood lead concentrations among US adults aged 20-64 years and senior citizens aged ≥65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-07-01

    Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003-2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among adults aged 20-64 years (adults) and seniors aged ≥65 years (seniors). In addition, the contribution of other factors like gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home in explaining variability in BLL was also evaluated by fitting regression models with log10 transformed values of BLL as dependent variables. BLL decreased over 2003-2012 (p seniors were found to have higher BLL than adults. Based on the magnitude of differences between the 5th and 95th percentiles, variability in the levels of blood lead was found to be substantially higher among seniors than among adults. Males had statistically significantly higher adjusted BLL than females (2.32 vs. 1.76 μg/dL for seniors, p seniors, p seniors, p obese had statistically significantly higher BLL than obese individuals (2.11 vs. 1.93 μg/dL for seniors, p seniors; β = 0.034, p = 0.034, p < 0.01 for adults).

  13. Multiple sclerosis starting before the age of 18 years: the Brazilian experience

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    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS starting in childhood and adolescence poses a challenge for diagnosis and management of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the characteristics of early onset MS in Brazilian patients. Methods Retrospective data collection from specialized MS units. Results From 20 MS units in 11 Brazilian states, 117 cases of MS starting before the age of 18 years were collected. These patients had an average of 10 years of disease duration, still typically with low disability and one relapse every 2.5 years. The mean age for disease onset was 13.7 years. Conclusion The present study introduces a large series of Brazilian cases of pediatric MS. Although some patients presented a very severe form of MS, on the whole the group of patients with MS starting in childhood or adolescence presented a relatively mild form of this disease in Brazil.

  14. Burden of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1 to 49 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the burden and causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is sparse in persons agedaged 1 to 49 years. METHODS AND RESULTS......: All deaths in persons aged 1 to 49 years were included in 2007 to 2009. Death certificates were reviewed by 2 physicians. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries were read. Sudden unexpected death cases were identified and autopsy reports were collected....... In the 3-year study period, there were 7849 deaths of which we identified 893 (11%) SCD cases. The annual incidence rate per 100 000 persons increased from 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.7) to 21.7 (95% confidence interval, 20.2-23.4) in persons aged 1 to 35 and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Coronary...

  15. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity.

  16. The cost-effectiveness of a universal influenza vaccination program for adults aged 50-64 years in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newall, Anthony T.; Scuffham, Paul A.; Kelly, Heath; Harsley, Stuart; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2008-01-01

    Currently the Australian government funds universal influenza vaccine for all those aged >= 65 years under the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Annual. vaccination rates in those aged 50-64 years are significantly Lower than vaccination rates in those aged >= 65 years, and currently Less than ha

  17. Infant motor development predicts sports participation at age 14 years: northern Finland birth cohort of 1966.

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    Charlotte L Ridgway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. METHODS: Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.

  18. Stroke Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years in Adults Aged 20-64 Years in 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Moran, Andrew E; Feigin, Valery L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that stroke is increasing as a cause of morbidity and mortality in younger adults, where it carries particular significance for working individuals. Accurate and up-to-date estimates of stroke burden are important for planning stroke prevention and management...... in younger adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate prevalence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and their trends for total, ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in the world for 1990-2013 in adults aged 20-64 years. METHODOLOGY: Stroke prevalence, mortality and DALYs...... were estimated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 methods. All available data on rates of stroke incidence, excess mortality, prevalence and death were collected. Statistical models were used along with country-level covariates to estimate country-specific stroke burden. Stroke...

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students Aged 7-22 Years in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Taha Hussein; Wei, Li; Li, Xiao Shan; Pu, Yue Pu; Wei, Ping Min

    2016-10-01

    To report the prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity among students aged 7-22 years in Jiangsu, 2010 to 2013. This cross-sectional study was carried out as part of students physical fitness and health survey in Jiangsu province. A total of 255,581 subjects (50.03% males and 49.97% females) enrolled in 82 school and 10 universities in Jiangsu. Weights and heights were obtained for each subject and its body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the Chinese Working Group on Obesity in China (CWGO). Anthropometric measurement including bodyweight, height, BMI and bust were significantly different between males in urban compared to females living rural areas (Poverweight and obesity was 12.4% and 5.7%. Males had a significantly higher rate than in female's student. The prevalence of overweight and obesity by age groups was (14.5%, 10.3%) at age 7-11 years, (11.2%, 6.8%) at age 12-14 years, (11.7%, 3.1%) at age 15-17 years, and (11.4%, 2.3%) at age 18-22 years. By regions; the highest prevalence of overweight obesity reported in Taizhou (10%, 14.2%), Xuzhou (9.4%, 12.5%), and Nanjing (9.2%, 15.6%), respectively. The finding declares that overweight and obesity are important health problems among students in Jiangsu Province. Early intervention programme are needed to address this problems. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.

  1. Malnutrition, functional ability and mortality among older people aged ⩾ 60 years: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, M; Forssell, H; Fagerström, C

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 7-year mortality, controlling for functional ability, socio-demographics, lifestyle behavior and diseases, and investigate the interaction between risk of malnutrition and functional ability on the risk of mortality. A longitudinal study on home-living and special-housing residents aged ⩾ 60 years was conducted. Of 2312 randomly invited participants, 1402 responded and 1203 provided information on both nutritional status and functional ability. The risk of malnutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (BMI, MAC and CC) below cut-off in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (decreased food intake, weight loss and eating difficulty). At baseline, 8.6% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and during the 7-year follow-up 34.6% subjects died. The risk of malnutrition was independently associated with 7-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.65). Additional independent predictors were dementia (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.85-4.10), activity of daily living (ADL) dependence (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.62-2.67), heart disease (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.78), diabetes (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.93) and older age (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.10). Moreover, the risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence in combination predicted the poorest survival rate (18.7%, Pmalnutrition significantly increases the risk of mortality in older people. Moreover, risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence together explain a significantly poorer survival rate; however, the importance of this interaction decreased in the multivariable model and risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence independently explained a significant risk of mortality.

  2. Trends in asthma mortality in the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudenz, Gustavo Silveira; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update on trends in asthma mortality in Brazil for two age groups: 0-4 years and 5-34 years. Data on mortality from asthma, as defined in the International Classification of Diseases, were obtained for the 1980-2014 period from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. To analyze time trends in standardized asthma mortality rates, we conducted an ecological time-series study, using regression models for the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups. There was a linear trend toward a decrease in asthma mortality in both age groups, whereas there was a third-order polynomial fit in the general population. Although asthma mortality showed a consistent, linear decrease in individuals ≤ 34 years of age, the rate of decline was greater in the 0- to 4-year age group. The 5- to 34-year group also showed a linear decline in mortality, and the rate of that decline increased after the year 2004, when treatment with inhaled corticosteroids became more widely available. The linear decrease in asthma mortality found in both age groups contrasts with the nonlinear trend observed in the general population of Brazil. The introduction of inhaled corticosteroid use through public policies to control asthma coincided with a significant decrease in asthma mortality rates in both subsets of individuals over 5 years of age. The causes of this decline in asthma-related mortality in younger age groups continue to constitute a matter of debate. Apresentar uma atualização das tendências da mortalidade da asma no Brasil em duas faixas etárias: 0-4 anos e 5-34 anos. Dados relativos ao período de 1980 a 2014 referentes à mortalidade da asma, conforme se definiu na Classificação Internacional de Doenças, foram extraídos Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Departamento de Tecnologia da Informação do Sistema Único de Saúde. Para analisar as tendências temporais das taxas

  3. Breastfeeding protects against current asthma up to 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Karen M; Frampton, Chris M; Wickens, Kristin; Pattemore, Philip K; Ingham, Tristram; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian; Town, G Ian; Epton, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effects of breastfeeding on wheezing and current asthma in children 2 to 6 years of age. Infants (n=1105) were enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in New Zealand. Detailed information about infant feeding was collected using questionnaires administered at birth and at 3, 6, and 15 months. From this, durations of exclusive and any breastfeeding were calculated. Information about wheezing and current asthma was collected at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Logistic regression was used to model associations between breastfeeding and outcomes with and without adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for confounders, each month of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with significant reductions in current asthma from 2 to 6 years (all, Pasthma at 2, 3, and 4 years was also reduced by each month of any breastfeeding (all, Pbreastfeeding for ≥ 3 months reduced current asthma at ages 4, 5, and 6 by 62%, 55%, and 59%, respectively. Breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding, protects against current asthma up to 6 years. Although exclusive breastfeeding reduced risk of current asthma in all children to age 6, the degree of protection beyond 3 years was more pronounced in atopic children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in Child Obesity and Underweight in Spain by Birth Year and Age, 1983 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Sánchez-Cruz, José Juan; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-08-01

    The prevalences of child obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and are a significant public health issue, particularly in terms of long-term cardiovascular risk profiles, which continue into adulthood unless obesity is reversed. Accurately identifying trends and at-risk subgroups is crucial to correctly target public health initiatives. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalences of child obesity and underweight in Spain from 1983 to 2011 taking into consideration both age and birth year. A series of cross-sectional studies representative of the pediatric population in Spain between 1987 and 2011 was used to calculate the prevalence and trends of excess weight and underweight in girls and boys aged 2 to 14 years per survey year and per birth year. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity remained relatively stable. The prevalence of overweight in boys aged 10 to 14 years increased from 13.9% to 22.2%. The prevalence of obesity in girls aged 2 to 5 years decreased from 30% to 19.8%, whereas the prevalence of underweight in this group increased from 13.7% to 22.6%. Child obesity trends in Spain over the last 2 decades appear to be stable with some fluctuations, but the trends differ depending on age and sex, and have stabilized at too high a level. The prevalence of underweight also appears to have increased and should be considered alongside excess weight when designing and implementing child health and weight measures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

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    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  6. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12. The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3, 0.5(0.4-0.8, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, and 0.4 (0.3-0.6 respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7, 2 (1-3, 1 (0.6-2, and 3 (2-4 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.

  7. The Incorporation of the School Age Group of 16-18 Years Old in Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research of this paper focuses on the involvement of the school age group 16-18 years old in sports betting games impacted by beliefs on luck and social groups. For the collection of data literature is utilized, questionnaires are distributed and also focus groups were conducted. The assumptions of the assignment are: a The involvement of school age group 16-18 years in sports betting games are manners learned from their comrades, b The school age group 16-18 years old attribute to fate the participation in sports betting games. Over 64% of responses manifest that they have learned the rules from their companions. The revelations and questionnaire responses argue that over 45% of students in their classes play sports bets, and 34% think that the phenomena of sports betting depends on luck. The major part of this age group do not practice and believe in fortunate rituals or activities. The acquired data reflect that the extent of involvement of this age group is in substantial dimensions. We suggest that the decision-making bodies and service providers should develop strategies in order to reduce the phenomenon.

  8. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  9. [Evaluation of visual-motor integration functions in children between 6-15 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekok Kiliç, Ayda; Elmastas-Dikec, Banu; Can, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-motor integration skills are considered an essential domain of clinical and psycho-educational assessment. The goal of the present investigation is to provide the Turkish norms for the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI-4th) for children and adolescents between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A total of 1887 children from elementary and high schools in the city of Bursa were recruited for this study. From this sample 44 children were re-tested 3-4 weeks following the first administration for test-retest reliability. Findings showed clear developmental trajectories in visual-motor integration skills. Significant performance increments were observed in six month intervals for ages 6 and 7. Starting from age 8, norms were established for each age group separately. Girls and boys performed similarly on the VMI-4. Test- retest correlation was modest but within an acceptable range. The age-based norms established for the VMI-4 in this study can be used to assess children between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a clinical neuropsychological and a psycho-educational assessment. The mean VMI scores presented in this study represent performance of children in middle and middle-upper socio-economic status and may not represent the normal performance range of children from lower SES.

  10. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children.

  11. Probiotic and synbiotic safety in infants under two years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Nieuwboer (M.); H.J.H.M. Claassen (Eric); L. Morelli (Lorenzo); F. Guarner (F.); R.J.M. Brummer

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, we systematically evaluated safety aspects in clinical trials with probiotics and synbiotics in young infants (0-2 years of age). This study is an update of earlier reports and covers the recent literature from 2008-2013. The safety evaluation is performed along the Common

  12. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  13. Holistic Face Processing Is Mature at 4 Years of Age: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heering, Adelaide; Houthuys, Sarah; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that adults integrate features into a representation of the whole face, there is still some disagreement about the onset and developmental course of holistic face processing. We tested adults and children from 4 to 6 years of age with the same paradigm measuring holistic face processing through an adaptation of the…

  14. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  15. Association between urogenital symptoms and depression in community-dwelling women aged 20 to 70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Carl Hulbert; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; de Leeuw, J. Rob J.; Heintz, A. Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the association between urogenital symptoms and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. METHODS A random sample of 3200 community-dwelling women, aged 20 to 70 years, was invited to answer a questionnaire. A total of 2042 questionnaires (63.8%) were returned. Urogenital sympto

  16. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  17. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  18. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  19. Heredity of small hard drusen in twins aged 20-46 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit; Kessel, Line

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and heredity of small hard drusen in 220 healthy twins aged 20-46 years. METHODS: Grayscale digital fundus photography, four-field 50 degrees nonstereoscopic, in red-free illumination was performed in 58 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and 52 pairs of dizygotic...... (DZ) twins as part of a detailed biometric characterization. Small hard drusen (diameters,

  20. Limited validity of parental recall on pregnancy, birth, and early childhood at child age 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Meer, Gea; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective: Evidence on the validity of parental recall of early childhood behavior is lacking. Our aim was to examine the validity of parental recall at child age 10-12 years for maternal lifestyle during pregnancy, the birth characteristics, and early childhood behavior. Study Design and Setting:

  1. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  2. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  3. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  4. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, A.M.; Brooks, J.T.; Adcock, P.M.; Garrett, V.; Eberhard, M.; Rosen, D.H.; Ayisi, J.G.; Ochieng, J.B.; Kumar, L.; Gentsch, J.R.; Nahlen, B.L.; Mintz, E.D.; Slutsker, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool cu

  5. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. Methods: Event history analysis was

  6. Fractures of the acetabulum in patients aged 60 years and older: an epidemiological and radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T A; Patel, R; Bhandari, M; Matta, J M

    2010-02-01

    Using a prospective database of 1309 displaced acetabular fractures gathered between 1980 and 2007, we calculated the annual mean age and annual incidence of elderly patients > 60 years of age presenting with these injuries. We compared the clinical details and patterns of fracture between patients > 60 years of age (study group) with those 60 years of age and the remaining 1074 were fractures increased by 2.4-fold between the first half of the study period and the second half (10% (62) vs 24% (174), p Fractures characterised by displacement of the anterior column were significantly more common in the elderly compared with the younger patients (64% (150) vs 43% (462), respectively, p fractures in the study group included a separate quadrilateral-plate component (50.8% (58)) and roof impaction (40% (46)) in the anterior fractures, and comminution (44% (30)) and marginal impaction (38% (26)) in posterior-wall fractures. The proportion of elderly patients presenting with acetabular fractures increased during the 27-year period. The older patients had a different distribution of fracture pattern than the younger patients, and often had radiological features which have been shown in other studies to be predictive of a poor outcome.

  7. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  8. Health status of children aged under two years cared for in day-care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health status of children aged under two years cared for in day-care centres and the home ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care ... the gradual disintegration of the extended family system, a demand for alternative means ...

  9. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF GYNECOLOGIC MALIGNANCES IN PATIENTS 70 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘凌亚; 黄惠芳; 连丽娟; 吴鸣; 沈铿; 郎景和

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To assess the viability of surgical procedures on gynecologic malignant patients of 70 years age and older. Methods. Between September 1,1983 to June 30, 1999, 57 gynecologic malignant patients aged 70 years and older (mean age 73.5 years) were treated by surgical procedures. A retrospective study was performed. All patients were analyzed for preexisting medical conditions, length of hospital stay, morbidi-ty, and mortality. Results. Thirty-four patients had an extensive surgical procedure, while a local surgical procedure was done in 23 patients. Forty-one patients (71.9%) had one or more preexisting medical illnesses. Minor surgical morbidity occurred in 24 patients (31.6%) and major surgical morbidity occurred in 6 patients (10.5%). There were no differences in the types of surgical procedures, mean hospital stay, preexisting medical illness and postoperative complications between the two groups of patients 70 to 75 year older and over age 75. The major postoperative complications all occurred in the extensive surgical procedure group that were higher as compared with local operation and postoperative mean stay was also significantly length in former group. Conclusions. The extensive surgical procedure can be performed for elderly patients with gynecologic malignances. Careful preoperative evaluation, monitoring, and meticulous postoperative care are vital to the success.

  10. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age: the PIAMA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M. van de; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H.A.; Jongste, J.C. de; Aalberse, R.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. METHODS: Event history analysis was

  11. Effects of pets on asthma development up to 8 years of age : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.; de Jongste, J. C.; Aalberse, R. C.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Postma, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recall bias may provide discrepant relationships of pet exposure with sensitization and asthma development. We studied prospectively effects of pets at home on development of sensitization, asthma and respiratory symptoms from birth up to age 8 years. Methods: Event history analysis was

  12. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between...... boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when...

  13. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  14. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) genotype and cognitive function in persons aged 35 years or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of the Cholestryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene may predict lower risk of cognitive decline. We investigated the association of cognitive function with CETP genotype in a population-based cohort of 4135 persons aged 35-82 years. Cognitive function was measured with the Ruff

  15. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  16. Reference values for serum creatinine in children younger than 1 year of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Boer (Dirk); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); K. Cransberg (Karlien); E.M. Dorresteijn (Eiske)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractReliable reference values of enzymatically assayed serum creatinine categorized in small age intervals are lacking in young children. The aim of this study was to determine reference values for serum creatinine during the first year of life and study the influence of gender, weight and h

  17. Malocclusions in children at 3 and 7 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Lennartsson, Bertil; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bondemark, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the prevalence of malocclusion at ages 3 and 7 years in a sample of children, exploring the hypothesis that prevalence of malocclusion is higher at 3 than at 7 years of age and may be influenced by sucking habits. The study sample comprised 386 children (199 girls and 187 boys), aged 3 years at study start, sourced from three Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Malocclusion was diagnosed by clinical examination, using a specific protocol. Data on allergy, traumatic injuries, sucking habits, and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances were obtained by means of a questionnaire answered by child and parent in conjunction with the initial and final clinical examination. The overall prevalence of malocclusion decreased significantly, from 70 to 58% (P overjet, and Class III malocclusion. Although high rates of spontaneous correction were also noted for deep bite, Class II malocclusion and posterior and anterior crossbites, new cases developed at almost the same rate; thus, the prevalence was unchanged at the end of the observation period. Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the only conditions showing significant associations with sucking habits. The results confirm the hypothesis of higher prevalence of malocclusion at 3 years of age and clearly support the strategy of deferring orthodontic correction of malocclusion until the mixed dentition stage.

  18. Oral health and nutrition for children under five years of age: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral health and nutrition for children under five years of age: A paediatric ... High consumption levels of sugary food and drinks have been implicated as an ... diets that are rich in added sugars (particularly glucose, sucrose and high-fructose ...

  19. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  20. Functioning of 7-Year-Old Children Born at 32 to 35 Weeks' Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (

  1. Cognitive deficits at age 22 years associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    methylmercury exposure was assessed in terms of the mercury concentration in cord blood and maternal hair. Clinical examinations of 847 cohort members at age 22 years were carried out in 2008-2009 using a panel of neuropsychological tests that reflected major functional domains. Subjects with neurological...... and psychiatric diagnoses were excluded from the data analysis, thus leaving 814 subjects. Multiple regression analysis included covariates previously identified for adjustment. Deficits in Boston Naming Test (BNT) and other tests of verbal performance were significantly associated with the cord-blood mercury...... to about 2.2 IQ points at a 10-fold increased prenatal methylmercury exposure. Thus, although the cognitive deficits observed were smaller than at examinations at younger ages, maternal diets with contaminated seafood were associated with adverse effects in this birth cohort at age 22 years. The deficits...

  2. Longitudinal cephalometric changes in incisor position, overjet, and overbite between 10 and 14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ismail; Baydas, Bülent; Bölükbasi, Berrin

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal growth changes in the incisor position, overjet, and overbite between 10 and 14 years of age. Serial cephalometric radiographs of 63 subjects (31 boys and 32 girls) were taken at the ages of 10, 11, 12, and 14. The effects of age and gender on the incisor positions, overjet, and overbite were investigated by means of variance analysis and least square difference (LSD) tests. The results show that the measurements of overbite, upper incisor-NA (mm), lower incisor-NB (mm), upper incisor-NA (angle), and the interincisal angle were affected by age. The results also show that the measurements of overbite, upper incisor-NA (mm), upper incisor-NA (angle) and upper incisor-SN (angle) were affected by gender.

  3. US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study.

  4. Prognostic significance of macrosatellite instability in patients under 50 years of age suffering from colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenjveši Atila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC can arise through two distinct mutational pathways: microsatellite instability or chromosomal instability. High-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI occurs in approximately 15 percent of sporadic cases of CRCs. Many studies have well established that MSI, the hallmark of defective DNA mismatch repair, is associated with prolonged survival of CRC patients compared with tumors that are microsatellite stable. CRCs in patients under 50 years of age are rare and represent about 5% of the total number of tumors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of MSI in CRC patients younger than 50 at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods 31 patients with CRC under 50 years of age were tested for the presence of MSI, and compared with 35 patients aged 50 or more at the time of diagnosis. CRC-specific survival five-year- follow-up period was analyzed in relation to MSI status. Results The frequency of MSI among the young patients was 35.48%, which was significantly higher than the rate of 11.43% noted in older patients with CRCs (p<0.042. This study revealed no difference in survival in patients with CRCs aged less than 50 compared with those over 50 years of age. The five-years survival of young CRCs patients with MSI 81.82%, was better than that of the patients with cancers with microsatellite stability, 60%, but there was no significant difference in statistics. Discussion and conclusion In our study there was no statistically detectable significant difference between tumor microsatellite status and survival in young patients, although we confirmed the previous observations that MSI is associated with better prognosis. We found that the pathological stage of CRC was an independent and powerful predictor of the clinical outcome.

  5. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold in Men Aged 40-65 and Dementia Prevalence 36 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Goldbourt, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The relationship of obesity with risk for dementia is complex and may change with age. To analyze the relationship between measures of obesity at age 40-65 and dementia prevalence in survivors 36 years later. Obesity-related measures of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were assessed in 1963 in n = 9,760 men aged 40-65 participating in the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease study. Cognitive evaluation and assessment of dementia prevalence were performed in n = 1,643 participants of the original cohort who survived until 1999/2000 (age ≥76 years) and had anthropometric measures in 1963. Age-adjusted prevalence of dementia in survivors in 1999/2000 by baseline triceps skinfold quintile was 20.5%, 21.2%, 17.6%, 15.6%, and 14.5%, respectively, from lowest to highest (p = 0.006 in trend test). Using logistic regression, a 6-mm increment of triceps skinfold was associated with an age and BMI-adjusted odds ratio of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94) for dementia prevalence among survivors. Age-adjusted risk for dementia by subscapular skinfold quintile demonstrated 20.5%, 17.1%, 15.7%, 19.4%, and 18.1%, respectively, in groups of subjects by subscapular skinfold quintile from lowest to highest (p = 0.6 in trend test). Lower triceps skinfold at age 40-65, reflecting diminished peripheral fat, was associated with higher dementia prevalence in late life, potentially suggesting a protective role of peripheral fat to brain health.

  6. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function.

  7. Comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in healthy patients over and under 65 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group: median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years). The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but different in age. After careful arthroscopic evaluation of the full-thickness rotator cuff tear, rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy were performed in all patients. Pre- and post-operatively, each patient was evaluated for range of motion, shoulder score (UCLA), and SF-36 self-administered questionnaire. Comparing pre- versus post-operative status at a minimum 24 months follow-up, forward elevation, internal and external rotation, modified UCLA rating system scores, and SF-36 scores improved significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. At the last follow-up, strength improved significantly in both groups, with non-significant intergroup difference. The Popeye sign was detected in 13/28 (46%) of the patients in the over 65 group and in 11/28 (39%) in the under 65 group (χ = 0.29) with non-significant difference between the two groups. In selected active patients older than 65, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair associated with biceps tenotomy (when necessary) can yield clinical and related quality of life outcomes similar to those of patients younger than 65 years.

  8. [Effects of Montessori education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Ling; Yan, Hong; Zuo, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xi-Ping

    2009-12-01

    To compare the effects of Montessori education and traditional education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years. Children aged between 2 to 3 years who were enrolled in a kindergarten in September 2006 were randomly assigned to the Montessori education and the traditional education groups. In addition to receiving the traditional education, the Montessori education group participated in the two-hour Montessori pedagogical activities every day. The intellectual development was evaluated by the Neuropsychological Development Examination Format for Children Aged 0~6 years published by Capital Pediatrics Research Institute at enrollment and one year after the trial. There were no significant differences in the intelligence growth level between the Montessori education and the traditional education groups at enrollment. After one year, the levels of fine movements, adaptation ability, language, and social behavior developments in the Montessori education group were significantly higher than those in the traditional education group (pMontessori education group were also higher than those in the traditional education group (pMontessori education can promote the development of large motor ability, fine movements, language, and social behavior in children.

  9. DEVELOPMENT VARIABILITY OF LONGITUDINAL SPINE FEATURES IN CHILDREN AGING 7-15 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kochan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased body growth is connected with higher sensitivity to environmental influence and may be a cause of instability of body posture. This happens when trunk and lower limbs growth is more intense. Because body posture disorders are most often diagnosed in children and school adolescents, the sample chosen were subjects between 7 and 15 years old. Material and methods. The data was gathered in 2002 in the town of Polkowice. Examination concerned 2706 boys and girls aged 7 to 15 years old. The measurement included basic somatic features and for the body posture photogrammetric method was used. Results. It was indicated that the relative trunk length in both sexes was decreasing in early school period but in the three oldest groups of age there was a significant increase. The height of kyphosis was increasing significantly in both sexes with age. Most intensive growth of this parameter was observed between 12 and 13 years old subjects. In both sexes there could be seen significant increase of kyphosis depth between 12 and 14 years old and also the decrease of lumbar lordosis between 12 and 13 years old subjects. Conclusion. Significant increase of thoracical spine relative height and lumbar lordosis depth in adolescents in both sexes can be one of the causes of weakening spine stability and affect correct body posture development.

  10. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  11. Does baseline innate immunity change with age? A multi-year study in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Anke; Eens, Marcel; Van Dongen, Stefan; Müller, Wendt

    2017-03-16

    Throughout their life animals progressively accumulate mostly detrimental changes in cells, tissues and their functions, causing a decrease in individual performance and ultimately an increased risk of death. The latter may be amplified if it also leads to a deterioration of the immune system which forms the most important protection against the permanent threat of pathogens and infectious diseases. Here, we investigated how four baseline innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin and concentrations of nitric oxide) changed with age in free-living great tits (Parus major). We applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches as birds were sampled for up to three years of their lives. Three out of the four selected innate immune parameters were affected by age. However, the shape of the response curves differed strongly among the innate immune parameters. Natural antibody levels increased during early life until mid-age to decrease thereafter when birds aged. Complement activity was highest in young birds, while levels slightly decreased with increasing age. Haptoglobin levels on the other hand, showed a linear, but highly variable increase with age, while nitric oxide concentrations were unaffected by age. The observed differences among the four studied innate immune traits not only indicate the importance of considering several immune traits at the same time, but also highlight the complexity of innate immunity. Unraveling the functional significance of the observed changes in innate immunity is thus a challenging next step.

  12. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamand, Mette Kehlet; Schroeder, Torben V; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking...... cessation program, on continuous self-reported abstinence rates after six months, on participants over the age of 60 years in a real life setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from the national Danish smoking cessation database. RESULTS: The database registered 7369 participants over...... recommendation for smoking cessation (OR 1.12), being compliant with program (OR 1.35) and being abstinent at end of course (OR 13.3). CONCLUSIONS: Participants over the age of 60 years had significantly higher continuous abstinence rates after six months than the participants less than 60 years. It is never too...

  13. Effect of age on neocortical brain cells in 90+ year old human females--a cell counting study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Jacobsen, Jette Stub; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of people are living past the age of 100 years, but little is known about what differentiates centenarians from the rest of the population. In this study, brains from female subjects in 3 different age groups, 65-75 years (n = 8), 76-85 years (n = 8), and 94-105 years (n = 7)...

  14. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in women aged 20-54 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, J; Rookus, M A; van der Kooy, K; van Leeuwen, F E

    2000-01-19

    Although several studies have suggested that physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, such a decrease has not been found consistently, perhaps because physical activity was assessed in different ways and for restricted periods. Few studies have assessed the risk of breast cancer in relation to lifetime physical activity. We used data from a population-based, case-control study, including 918 case subjects (aged 20-54 years) and 918 age-matched population control subjects, to examine associations between breast cancer risk and physical activity at ages 10-12 years and 13-15 years, lifetime recreational activity, and title of longest held job. Women who were more active than their peers at ages 10-12 years had a lower risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49-0.94). Women who had ever engaged in recreational physical activity had a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with inactive women (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Neither very early recreational activity (before age 20 years) nor recent activity (last 5 years) was associated with a greater reduction in risk than recreational activity in the intermediate period. Furthermore, women who started recreational activities after age 20 years and women who started earlier and continued their activities throughout adult life experienced a similar reduction in risk. Lean women, i.e., women with a body mass index (weight in kg/[height in m](2)) less than 21. 8 kg/m(2), appeared to have a lower risk associated with recreational physical activity than women with a body mass index greater than 24.5 kg/m(2) (OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.40-0.82] and OR = 0. 92 [95% CI = 0.65-1.29], respectively). Our findings support the hypothesis that recreational physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. Physical activity in early or recent life does not appear to be associated with additional beneficial effects.

  16. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate\\'s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children\\'s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent\\'s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor\\/fair health and\\/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  17. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3Mage or older was 95.6%.

  18. Cephalic measures in normal pre-school children 3 to 7-years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Diament

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study designed to determine standards for the Developmental Neurological Examination (DNE several measures of the head were also recorded. The study consisted in the examination of 200 children, half from each sex, 40 from each age group (3 to 7-years of age. These children were selected among 755 normal pre-school-age children, living in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. The criteria for selection were both anamnestic and clinic. The following measures of the head were recorded: cephalic perimeter, biauricular and antero-posterior distances (Diament, 1967. A new cephalic index (nCI was also determined (Diament, 1968. This index is useful in detecting changes in head shape mainly in cases of precocious cranioestenosis (Diament, 1968; Facure, 1972. The statistical analysis consisted in determining means and standard errors for each measure. For the new cephalic index it was shown through the Kruskal-Wallis test that there were no significant difference between age and sex. Therefore we considered all groups together to find out the tolerance region for the new index which turned out to be given by the interval: 0.848-1.002. This result is based in 186 cases since 14 were excluded because of some problems in the recording process. Therefore we expect with a confidence of 95% that the above interval covers 90% of the population, in the 3 to 7 years age-groups independently of sex.

  19. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  20. Characteristics of Atopic Bronchial Asthma in Seniors over 80 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bożek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma in the elderly is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of asthma in seniors. Materials and Methods. The study involved 105 people of at least 80 years of age (mean age of 84.1 ± 3.9 years selected from a group of 1860 individuals. Spirometry, the methacholine test, allergy diagnosis, a measurement of exhaled nitric oxide, and administration of the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ were performed. Results. The average morbidity of asthma in the study population of elderly people (at least 80 years of age was 5.6% (105 people of the confidence interval (95% CI: 5.1–6.0. In the study group, 34% of the elderly asthmatics had uncontrolled asthma, 47% had partly controlled asthma, and only 24% had fully controlled asthma. Allergy to house dust mites was predominant. The average total score on the AQLQ was 4.12 ± 0.72 (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation for the seniors, which was significantly lower than the score for the young. Conclusion. The pathogenesis, natural history, and value of the basic diagnostic methods of asthma in the elderly are similar to those observed in younger age groups.

  1. Estimated incidence of pertussis in people aged <50 years in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chang; Balderston McGuiness, Catherine; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Kainan; Buck, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of pertussis vaccination in the United States (US) in the 1940s has greatly reduced its burden. However, the incidence of pertussis is difficult to quantify, as many cases are not laboratory-confirmed or reported, particularly in adults. This study estimated pertussis incidence in a commercially insured US population aged models; (3) using the fraction of cough illness (ICD-9 033.0, 033.9, 484.3, 786.2, 466.0, 466.1, 487.1) attributed to laboratory-confirmed pertussis, estimated by time series linear regression models. Method 1 gave a projected annual incidence of diagnosed pertussis of 9/100,000, which was highest in those aged <1 year. Method 2 gave an average annual projected incidence of 21/100,000. Method 3 gave an overall regression-estimated weighted annual incidence of pertussis of 649/100,000, approximately 58–93 times higher than method 1 depending on the year. These estimations, which are consistent with considerable underreporting of pertussis in people aged <50 years and provide further evidence that the majority of cases go undetected, especially with increasing age, may aid in the development of public health programs to reduce pertussis burden. PMID:27246119

  2. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  3. ADL abilities and vocational competencies: Blue-collar workers aged 45 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, E

    1995-01-01

    A questionnaire composed of 55 items that addressed activities of daily living (ADL) abilities and 13 basic vocational competencies, such as memory and muscular power, was completed by 48 nondisabled male workers aged ≥45 years. The workers were all engaged in the manufacturing industry. All respondents found the following five tasks easy to do: wring a towel, put arms through sleeves, open and shut a door, turn a tap on and off, and open and shut a sliding door. Among basic vocational competencies, the highest performance, with but a small standard deviation, occurred with the muscular power competency; a low performance with a large standard deviation (P=0.05) occurred with concentration. No age difference was discerned in planning ability, cooperativeness, muscular power, staying power, manual adeptness, and sense of equilibrium, whereas in learning ability, agility, and concentration, people aged ≥65 years showed significantly lower performance (P=0.05). The characteristics of vocational competencies in manufacturing industry workers aged ≥45 years were fond to be linked to ADL abilities, and the effectiveness of the ADL abilities survey, prepared on an experimental basis, was confirmed for the evaluation of vocational competencies.

  4. Kidney development in the first year of life in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotoura, Efthalia; Giapros, Vasilios; Drougia, Aikaterini [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Nikolopoulos, Panayiotis [University Hospital of Ioannina, Radiology Department, Ioannina (Greece); Andronikou, Styliani [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina Medical School, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-10-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have been reported to have a significantly reduced number of nephrons that could be a risk factor for development of hypertension later in life. To evaluate kidney size prospectively in relation to other anthropometric parameters during the first year of life in SGA babies. The babies in the study were 31-36 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and were matched with control preterm infants of similar GA, but appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The SGA infants were further classified as symmetrical and asymmetrical according to the anthropometric parameters. The total number of measurements in symmetrical SGA preterm infants was 324, in asymmetrical SGA preterm infants 295, and in AGA infants 536. In symmetrical SGA preterm infants (31-36 weeks' GA) mean kidney length ({+-} SD) of 56{+-}4 mm was significantly different from the controls (58.9{+-}4.6 mm) up to 6 months' chronological age (P < 0.05). In the asymmetrical SGA preterm infants, mean kidney length (45.3{+-}4.0 mm) was significantly different from the controls (48.2{+-}4.4 mm) up to 40 weeks' corrected age. At 1 year chronological age, all preterm infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA and AGA) had similar mean kidney length (61.6{+-}4.6, 62.8{+-}4.3, and 62.3{+-}4.0 mm, respectively). The ratio of kidney length to crown-to-heel length was similar in all preterm groups. Kidney length in preterm SGA infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical) follows closely the other auxological parameters during the first year of life. (orig.)

  5. Association between umbilical cord glucocorticoids and blood pressure at age 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich-Edwards Janet W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2, which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol to inert forms (cortisone, allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and 'programs' hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Methods Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F and cortisone (E in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11β-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. Results At age 3 years, each unit increase in the F/E ratio was associated with a 1.6 mm Hg increase in systolic BP (95% CI 0.0 to 3.1. The F/E ratio was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or birth weight for gestational age z-score. Conclusion A higher F/E ratio in umbilical venous cord blood, likely reflecting reduced placental 11β-HSD2 activity, was associated with higher systolic blood pressure at age 3 years. Our data suggest that increased fetal exposure to active maternal glucocorticoids may program later systolic blood pressure.

  6. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet: Influence of Age and Years of Professional Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Francisco José; Guillén, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    In spite of the high rate of overuse injuries in ballet dancers, no studies have investigated the prevalence of overuse injuries in professional dancers by providing specific diagnoses and details on the differences in the injuries sustained as a function of age and/or years of professional practice. Overuse injuries are the most prevalent injuries in ballet dancers. Professional ballet dancers suffer different types of injuries depending on their age and years of professional practice. Descriptive epidemiology study. This descriptive epidemiological study was carried out between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, regarding injuries sustained by professional dancers belonging to the major Spanish ballet companies practicing classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish dance. The sample was distributed into 3 different groups according to age and years of professional practice. Data were obtained from the specialized medical care the dancers received from the Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery Service at Fremap in Madrid. The dependent variable was the study of the injury. A total of 486 injuries were identified over the study period, with overuse injuries being the most common etiology (P contemporary ballet (P = .01). Specifically, among other findings, stress fractures of the base of the second metatarsal (P = .03), patellofemoral syndrome, and os trigonum syndrome were more prevalent among junior professionals (P = .04); chondral injury of the knee in senior professionals (P = .04); and cervical disc disease in dancers of intermediate age and level of experience. Overall, overuse injuries were more prevalent in younger professionals, especially in women. This finding was especially true for the more technical ballet disciplines. On the other hand, in the athletic ballet disciplines, overuse lesions occurred mainly in the more senior professionals. This study provides specific clinical diagnoses obtained through physical examination as well as details on

  7. False belief and semantic language development in children aged 2 to 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Eduardo Bermúdez-Jaimes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We intended to explore and characterize the relationships between the development of understanding childhood theories of mind and the semantic development of language. We used three versions of the false belief task,programmed with Flash, and the Early Language Development Battery in order to assess semantic abilities in 116 children aged two to four years. Significant differences among ages were found for task performance, and positive associations between social comprehension and language development were found in two tasks. Results were interpreted through the interaction proposal by Wellman (1994.

  8. Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Anmol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India. Materials and Methods : A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO rules and standards were followed. Result : Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00 with respect to affected teeth.

  9. Results of radiotherapy for oral malignancies in elderly patients more than 80 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Masamune; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Mastumoto, Satoru (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    Between 1976 and 1990, 110 elderly patients with oral malignancies were treated by radiotherapy at the department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. These patients more than 80 years of age were followed for 2 to 16 years. Ninety-seven patients were histologically proved to have squamous cell carcinomas, 3 verrucous carcinomas, 8 carcinomas originating from salivary gland and 2 malignant lymphomas. Eighty-one patients were irradiated curatively and others were palliatively irradiated. In case of curative irradiation group, 35 patients underwent brachytherapy using Au-198 grains mainly, because of its easy applicability under local anesthesia. Au-198 grains were used in 28 cases and in other 7 cases Ra needles and Ir-192 pins were used. More than 2 years local control rate was 41% in all curative treatment group and 51% in brachytherapy group. Five-year crude survival rate was 30% in all curative tratment group and was 40% in brachytherapy group. Sixteen patients survived more than 5 years and these cases had no lymph node and distant metastasis during the courses. In conclusion, our results suggest that oral cancer patients more than 80 years of age should be treated by curative radiotherapy when the performance status is permissible. (author).

  10. Access to oral health services in children under twelve years of age in Peru, 2014

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    Akram Hernández-Vásquez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the patterns of dental health services access in children under twelve years of age in Peru. Data from 25,285 children under 12 years who participated in the Demographic and Family Health Survey of 2014 were reviewed. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed to project the proportions of children with access to dental health services, according to national regions, type of health service and urban or rural place of residence. The results show that of the total sample, 26.7% had access to dental health services in the last six months, 39.6% belonged to the age group 0-4 years, 40.6% lived in the Andean region and 58.3% lived in urban areas. The regions of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Lima and Pasco had the highest percentages of access nationwide. In conclusion, there is low access to dental health services in the population under 12 years of age in Peru. The spatial distribution of access to dental health services allows regions to be identified and grouped according to similar access patterns, in order to better focus public health actions.

  11. Bypass iliac-mesenteric-cava inpatients under two years of age. Case report and literature review

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    Villanueva López Noé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the treatment of portal hypertension in pediatric patients, some type of porto-systemic shunt is indicated, which is an unusual surgical procedure in patients under two years of age, due to the low incidence of this disease at this age and the increase in the number of complications. Objective: We present our experience and results with this procedure in patients under two years of age seen in the Hepatobiliopancreatic general surgery service at Instituto Nacional de PediatríaDiscussion: The causes of portal hypertension in children are varied. Among the extrahepatic causes, the most common is cavernomatous portal degeneration. Children with portal hypertension under two years have severe symptoms such as recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia; others have hypersplenism data. In many cases medical management is useless and a surgical procedure require such as a portosystemic shunt in order to decrease the size of varicose esophageal veins and prevent bleeding that threatens the patient’s life. Conclusion: The iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt in patients under two years is a feasible alternative that improves the clinical status of the patient, reducing the risk of bleeding. However long-term studies are needed to determine the outcome of these patients. Keywords: Iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt, portal hypertension.

  12. Neurological and functional outcomes of subdural hematoma evacuation in patients over 70 years of age

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    Patrick Mulligan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subdural hematoma (SDH is a common disease entity treated by neurosurgical intervention. Although the incidence increases in the elderly population, there is a paucity of studies examining their surgical outcomes. Objectives: To determine the neurological and functional outcomes of patients over 70 years of age undergoing surgical decompression for subdural hematoma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 45 patients above 70 years who underwent craniotomy or burr holes for acute, chronic or mixed subdural hematomas. We analyzed both neurological and functional status before and after surgery. Results: Forty-five patients 70 years of age or older were treated in our department during the study period. There was a significant improvement in the neurological status of patients from admission to follow up as assessed using the Markwalder grading scale (1.98 vs. 1.39; P =0.005, yet no improvement in functional outcome was observed as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score. Forty-one patients were admitted from home, however only 20 patients (44% were discharged home, 16 (36% discharged to nursing home or rehab, 6 (13% to hospice and 3 (7% died in the postoperative period. Neurological function improved in patients who were older, had a worse pre-operative neurological status, were on anticoagulation and had chronic or mixed acute and chronic hematoma. However, no improvement in functional status was observed. Conclusion: Surgical management of SDH in patients over 70 years of age provides significant improvement in neurological status, but does not change functional status.

  13. Risk factors for high blood pressure in low income children aged 3-4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bó

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure among low income children aged 3-4 years. Data were collected during a randomized trial conducted in São Leopoldo, Brazil, with 500 mother-child pairs recruited from the maternity ward of a local hospital. Breastfeeding data were obtained during the children's first year of life. At 3 to 4 years of age, children's anthropometric, dietary, and blood pressure assessments were obtained. Sodium intake was estimated from two multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls. Systolic blood pressure > 90th percentile for age, sex, and height was classified as high systolic blood pressure, according to the population-based percentiles provided by the Task Force on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Blood pressure data were obtained from 331 children at 3 to 4 years. The mean value of systolic blood pressure was 91.31 mmHg (SD = 8.30 mmHg) and 5.2% (n = 17) presented high systolic blood pressure. The results of the multivariable analyses showed that children who consumed more than 1,200 mg of sodium/day and with waist-to-height ratio higher than 0.5 presented, respectively, 3.32 (95%CI 0.98-11.22) and 8.81 (95%CI 2.13-36.31) greater risk of having high systolic blood pressure. Exclusive breastfeeding, child overweight and change in body mass index z score during the first year of life were not associated with the outcome. The results of this study suggest that at preschool age sodium intake and high waist-to-height ratio are risk factors for high systolic blood pressure.

  14. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure at 9 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Seetha; Bann, Carla; Bauer, Charles R.; Lester, Barry; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary; Poole, Ken; LaGasse, Linda; Hammond, Jane; Woldt, Eunice

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation and poor birth outcomes; little is known about the effects on longer-term medical outcomes, such as overweight status and hypertension in childhood. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age among children followed prospectively in a multi-site longitudinal study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on childhood outcome. Design/Methods This analysis includes 880 children (277 cocaine exposed and 603 with no cocaine exposure) with blood pressure, height, and weight measurements at 9 years of age. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age after controlling for demographics, other drug exposure, birth weight, maternal weight, infant postnatal weight gain, and childhood television viewing, exercise and dietary habits at 9 years. Path analyses were used to further explore these relationships. Results At 9 years of age, 15% of the children were pre-hypertensive and 19% were hypertensive; 16% were at risk for overweight status and 21% were overweight. A small percentage of women were exposed to high levels of prenatal cocaine throughout pregnancy. Among children born to these women, a higher body mass index was noted. Path analysis suggested that high cocaine exposure has an indirect effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure that is mediated through its effect on body mass index. Conclusion High levels of in-utero cocaine exposure are a marker for elevated body mass index and blood pressure among children born full term. PMID:20486281

  15. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network. PMID:27812160

  16. Human figure drawing test: validity in assessing intelligence in children aged 3-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plubrukarn, Ratanotai; Theeramanoparp, Somchit

    2003-08-01

    Human-figure-drawing abilities are related with cognitive development in children. As cognitive skills progress, drawing abilities also improve in details and sex differentiation. The Goodenough-Harris (G-H) drawing test was developed to score human figure drawing with separate norms for males and females. To evaluate whether the Goodenough-Harris human drawing test is valid to classify intelligence in children aged 3-10 years. Record files of 528 children aged between 3-10 years who had attended the Child and Adolescent Unit at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (Children's Hospital), Bangkok, Thailand from January 1999 to December 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria included: 1) performing the human figure drawing test and standard intelligence tests on the same day and 2) diagnoses were addressed. The ages of the children ranged from 3 10/12 years to 10 11/12 years with a mean age of 7 9/12 years, 49.5 per cent were males and 50.5 per cent were female. The study group was diagnosed as pervasive development disorder 17 per cent, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 13 per cent, and mental retardation 11.3 per cent. Overall correlation of full scale intellectual quotient (FSIQ) from the standard intelligence test and standard scores on the Goodenough-Harris system was 0.813 (p test in classified correct intellectual level was 60.8 per cent but in children with an intellectual quotient (IQ) less than 70, the correct classification was 69.2 per cent. After stratification by age, it was found that the human figure drawing test had validity in predicting IQ below 70 in 88.7 per cent and 68.8 per cent of children aged 6 years respectively. The human figure drawing test can be used as an additional measure of assessing intelligence in young children but it should not be substituted for standard tests. The test is not complicated, therefore, trained personnel can use it in combination with other screening tests for cognitive

  17. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  18. Walking with a rollator and the level of physical intensity in adults 75 years of age or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, LH; van Heuvelen, MJ; van Keeken, BL; Scherder, EJ; Hollander, A.P

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether walking with a rollator by persons 75 years of age or older is of sufficient intensity to improve aerobic fitness. Design: A cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: University movement laboratory. Participants: Fifteen subjects 75 years of age or older (mean age, 83.7y

  19. Walking with a rollator and the level of physical intensity in adults 75 years of age or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, LH; van Heuvelen, MJ; van Keeken, BL; Scherder, EJ; Hollander, A.P

    Objective: To determine whether walking with a rollator by persons 75 years of age or older is of sufficient intensity to improve aerobic fitness. Design: A cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: University movement laboratory. Participants: Fifteen subjects 75 years of age or older (mean age,

  20. Breastfeeding and asthma outcomes at the age of 6 years: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Dekker, Herman T; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Reiss, Irwin K; de Jongste, Johan C; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with a lower risk of asthma symptoms in early childhood, but its effect at older ages remains unclear. We examined the associations of duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding with asthma outcomes in children aged 6 years, and whether these associations were explained by atopic or infectious mechanisms. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5675 children. Information about breastfeeding was collected by questionnaires. At age 6 years, we measured interrupter resistance (Rint) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Information about wheezing patterns (early (≤3 years only), late (>3 years only), persistent (≤3 and >3 years)), and current asthma at 6 years was derived from repeated questionnaires. Compared to children who were ever breastfed, those who were never breastfed had lower FeNO levels (sympercent (95% CI): -16.0 (-24.5, -7.5)) and increased risks of late and persistent wheezing (OR(95% CI): 1.69 (1.06, 2.69) and 1.44 (1.00, 2.07), respectively). Shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with early wheezing and current asthma (1.40 (1.14, 1.73) and 2.19 (1.29, 3.71), respectively). Less exclusive breastfeeding was associated with early wheezing (1.28 (1.08, 1.53)). Breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness were not associated with FeNO or Rint. The associations were not explained by inhalant allergies, partly by lower respiratory tract infections in early life, and to a lesser extent by lower respiratory tract infections in later life. Breastfeeding patterns may influence wheezing and asthma in childhood, which seems to be partly explained by infectious mechanisms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ageing well: methane oxidation and methane oxidizing bacteria along a chronosequence of 2000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Lüke, Claudia; Cao, Zhihong; Frenzel, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's growing population. While the area planted to wetland rice is expected to increase further, virtually nothing is known about the long-term development of the respective microbial communities, and how these might influence biogeochemistry. Focusing on methane oxidizing bacteria, we studied a chronosequence of paddy fields in China aged 50-2000 years. Potential methanotrophic activity increased substantially with age of soil. Community composition was relatively similar in all fields. However, growth and activity of one particular subgroup of methanotrophs correlated to soil age suggesting an intricate abiotic control on methanotrophs evolving with time. Our results demonstrate that continuous rice agriculture does not only shape the microbial community, but also modifies the micro-environment in a way enabling faster growth and higher activity of selected populations.

  2. Pattern of Behavior Problems amongst the Urban Slum Dwellers Aged 6 to 18 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip S Jogdand

    2013-06-01

    Method and Material: Children in the age group of 6-18 years residing in the urban slum area, their parents interviewed with the help of predesigned, pretested proforma, the proforma was prepared after review of CBCL and ASEBA behavior checklist also consultation with clinical psychologist running own child guidance clinic at Miraj, Dist Sangli. Results: Our study reveals that prevalent behavior problem in children was educational difficulties; male preponderance was observed for educational difficulties antisocial problems and habit problems. Educational difficulties were observed amongst lower age group while antisocial problems were observed amongst higher age groups. Both were statistically significant. Conclusion: In present study the prevalence rate of behavior problem was observed was very high i.e. 49.67%. The educational difficulties and antisocial behavior problem were most commonly observed. It was found that psycho-somatic disorders and different type of eating disorders contributed the least. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 245-248

  3. DETERMINATION OF F-WAVE LATENCY IN INDIVIDUALS AGED 20 YEARS AND OLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Hatamian M. R. Imamhadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of F-wave latency is a simple and valuable method in evaluating proximal part of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study was to determine the mean minimal peroneal F wave (F min in healthy individuals. A total of 282 individuals were studied. The mean age was 45.6 years. The F min (± SD for 564 peroneal nerves was 47.09 ± 4.51 ms. The F min for the age group of 20-45 and height group of 160-180 cm were 47.63 ± 4.50 and 49.77 ± 3.76, respectively. This study demonstrates that the mean F min of our samples was not significantly different from other important similar studies. Age and particularly height had a major role in determination of F min value and these two parameters must be considered in clinical evaluation of patients.

  4. Tympanogram findings in patients with cleft palates aged six months to seven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, A.; Widiarni, D.; Alviandi, W.; Tamin, S.; Mansyur, M.

    2017-08-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital craniofacial deformities. Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a middle ear disease having a prevalence of almost 90% in patients with cleft palates. Tympanometry is a fast, safe, non-invasive, and easy tool for diagnosing middle ear disease qualitatively and quantitatively. Studies have been conducted using tympanometry to detect middle ear conditions in patients with cleft palates, but no research has studied tympanogram findings in patients with cleft palates in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to determine the tympanogram findings in Indonesian children aged six months to seven years with cleft palates. This is a cross-sectional study of 30 patients (17 males and 13 females) with Veau classification of palatal clefts aged six months to seven years (median 26.5 months) who underwent tympanometry examinations using a 226 Hztympanometer. Tympanograms were classified using the Jerger/Liden classification. Examinations of 58 ears found that type B tympanograms occurred most frequently (70.7%). The quantitative values of tympanometry analyzed included SAA (0.1-0.2 cm3), TPP value (-197.2-(-146.8 daPa)), Vec value (0.5-0.6 cm3), and gradient value (0.03-0.07 cm3). Using the Fisher test, a significant relationship was found between age and type of tympanogram (p = 0.0039) with the risk of type B and C tympanograms in infants (6-60 months) as high as 4.8 times that of children without cleft palates. The type B tympanogram was most frequently seen in patients with cleft palates aged six months to seven years old with the quantitative values of tympanometry lower than the normal values. Therefore, there was a significant difference in the type of tympanogram seen with age.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and dose requirements of factor VIII over the age range 3-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Sven; Folkesson, Anna; Jönsson, Siv

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The three aims of this investigation were (1) to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for factor VIII (FVIII) in haemophilia A patients, with estimates of inter-occasion and inter-individual variance, (2) to investigate whether appropriate dosing of FVIII for regular prophylaxis...... can be calculated according to patient characteristics, and (3) to present dosing recommendations for initiating prophylactic treatment. METHODS: A population PK model was developed using data from four PK studies on patients aged 7-74 years. The model was tested on sparse FVIII data from 42...... outpatient visits by haemophilia prophylaxis patients aged 3-66 years. Dose requirements for prophylaxis were calculated both according to the population model and from empirical Bayesian estimates of FVIII PK in the individual patients. RESULTS: The study data were well characterised by a two-compartment PK...

  6. Food shopping habits, physical activity and health-related indicators among adults aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L; Bentley, Georgina; Davis, Mark; Coulson, Jo; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 years living independently. Mean age was 78·1 (sd 5·7) years; 66·7 % were overweight or obese and 4 % were underweight. Most (80·0 %) carried out their own food shopping; 53·3 % shopped at least once weekly. Women were more likely to shop alone (P car at least once weekly at large supermarket chains, with most finding high-quality fruit, vegetables and low-fat products easily accessible. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better self-reported health are important in supporting food shopping and maintaining independence.

  7. STUDY OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN BEHBAHAN CITY, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nikpour

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of the Population of Behbahan city, carried out in years 1990-91, the mean age was approximated up to 15.2 and 17.5 in the villages and the city, respectively. Furthermore, about 27.4% and 27.9% of the corresponding populations were under 5 years of age. The birth rate in the urban and rural areas was about 31.2 and 33.3 per thousand live births. Mortality rate related to the immaturity and low-birth weight were two times more in villages than in the city. There is a meaningful relationship between intent’s body weight and IMR in the villages but both in the city.

  8. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  9. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  10. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  11. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes; Túlio Silva Pereira; Monize Ferreira Figueiredo de Carvalho; Joana Ramos-Jorge; Leandro Silva Marques; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2) was conducted. The case group included all children...

  12. Radiotherapy with or without temozolomide in elderly patients aged ≥ 70 years with glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglanoglu, Ozden; Akyazici, Emine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although the recommended optimal treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, trials in GBM have excluded patients older than 70 years. In this study, we aimed to assess overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors in elderly patients (≥ 70 years) with newly diagnosed GBM treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± concurrent/adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Material and methods Inclusion criteria were patients ≥ 70 years, pre-RT Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 60, and time between diagnosis and start of RT ≤ 2 months. A total of 40 patients aged ≥ 70 years, 12 female and 28 male, treated between January 2004 and December 2012, were evaluated. Median age was 73.5 years (range, 70–83 years). The median RT dose was 60 Gy (range, 30–62 Gy). Twenty-one (52.5%) received concurrent TMZ, and of those 12 (30%) went on to receive adjuvant TMZ. Results The median OS was 7 months (95% CI: 5.45–8.54). One- and two-year OS for the whole cohort was 38% and 16%, respectively. Sex, type of surgery, tumor size, and RT dose did not significantly affect the OS. Presence of concurrent TMZ (p < 0.005) and presence of adjuvant TMZ (p < 0.001) were associated with longer OS in our cohort. Conclusions RT ± TMZ seems to be a well-tolerated treatment in patients ≥ 70 years with GBM. Even though no superiority was found between conventional or hypofractionated RT regimens (p = 0.405), the addition of concurrent and adjuvant TMZ to RT increased the OS in our study. PMID:27647990

  13. Baseline characterization of patients aged 70 years and above with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Nakamuta; Shusuke Morizono; Motoyuki Kohjima; Kazuhiro Kotoh; Munechika Enjoji

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the baseline profiles of patients aged 70 years and above with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: A series of 127 consecutive patients with HCC were enrolled between 2000 and 2004, and none of them had been diagnosed as having HCC previously. Baseline profiles, including parameters of hepatic function such as serum transaminase and prothrombin time [PT (% activity)] were compared between patients aged ≥70 and <70 years.RESULTS: Patients ≥70 years old showed significantly lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.04)and alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.01), and significantly higher PTs (P= 0.04) and platelet counts (P = 0.02).Concomitantly, among ≥70-year-old patients, HCC was more common in non-cirrhotics, whereas among patients <70 years old, HCC was more common in cirrhotics. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number or size of tumors.CONCLUSION: Older HCC patients showed less inflammation and better preservation of hepatic function, indicating that not only cirrhotic patients but also noncirrhotic patients should be considered as a high-risk group among the elderly.

  14. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  15. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Baccaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%, colorectal (12.7% and skin (12.7%. In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89. The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  16. Age-specific radiation dose commitment factors for a one-year chronic intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenes, G.R.; Soldat, J.K.

    1977-11-01

    During the licensing process for nuclear facilities, radiation doses and dose commitments must be calculated for people in the environs of a nuclear facility. These radiation doses are determined by examining characteristics of population groups, pathways to people, and radionuclides found in those pathways. The pertinent characteristics, which are important in the sense of contributing a significant portion of the total dose, must then be analyzed in depth. Dose factors are generally available for adults, see Reference 1 for example, however numerous improvements in data on decay schemes and half-lives have been made in recent years. In addition, it is advisable to define parameters for calculation of the radiation dose for ages other than adults since the population surrounding nuclear facilities will be composed of various age groups. Further, since infants, children, and teens may have higher rates of intake per unit body mass, it is conceivable that the maximally exposed individual may not be an adult. Thus, it was necessary to develop new radiation-dose commitment factors for various age groups. Dose commitment factors presented in this report have been calculated for a 50-year time period for four age groups.

  17. Investigation of physical performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Özşaker

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the physical performance parameters and to determine the profiles of children aged 12-14 years and attending the secondary stage of public schools in Izmir province. The study included a total of 650 voluntary students (323 girls, and 327 boys attending the 6th, 7th and 8th classes. Physical parameters of students were evaluated with tests selected from Fitnessgram, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD and Eurofit Test Battery (Muscle Strength: hand grip strength, standing long jump; Muscle Resistance: pull-up; Flexibility: sit and reach test; Cardiovascular Endurance:1 mile running test (1609 m endurance running; Speed: 30 m sprint.Statistical analysis of data was made by Two-Way Variance Analysis in SPSS 15.0 packet software, and Further Bonferroni analysis was used for age.As a result of the study, performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years were determined to be lower than those reported by similar studies made on the same age group. Among the reasons, there are lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate physical education and sport class and the reflections of education system.

  18. Investigation of physical performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Özşaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the physical performance parameters and to determine the profiles of children aged 12-14 years and attending the secondary stage of public schools in Izmir province. The study included a total of 650 voluntary students (323 girls, and 327 boys attending the 6th, 7th and 8th classes. Physical parameters of students were evaluated with tests selected from Fitnessgram, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD and Eurofit Test Battery (Muscle Strength: hand grip strength, standing long jump; Muscle Resistance: pull-up; Flexibility: sit and reach test; Cardiovascular Endurance:1 mile running test (1609 m endurance running; Speed: 30 m sprint.Statistical analysis of data was made by Two-Way Variance Analysis in SPSS 15.0 packet software, and Further Bonferroni analysis was used for age. As a result of the study, performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years were determined to be lower than those reported by similar studies made on the same age group. Among the reasons, there are lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate physical education and sport class and the reflections of education system.

  19. The relationship of neonatal subclinical electrographic seizures to neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurul, Semra Hiz; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Yis, Uluc; Duman, Nuray; Kumral, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hasan

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of 'only electroencephalographic (EEG)' and 'EEG plus clinical' seizures during neonatal period on neurodevelopment of the infants. The long-term digital-video- EEG tracings of the first 3 days of life of 30 neonates were assessed. The babies were subdivided into three groups: Group 1 had neither EEG nor clinical seizures. Group 2 had EEG seizures but no clinical seizures. Group 3 experienced both EEG and clinical seizures. The groups were compared in regard to psychomotor retardation and epilepsy at corrected age of 1 year. The mean birthweight was 1952.50 +/- 978.74 (685-4103) g. The mean gestational age was 32.53 +/- 4.26 (24-40) weeks. In regard to sex, gestational age and birth weight, there was no significant difference between the three groups. Ten percent of newborns in Group 1 and 53.8% of newborns in Group 3 had psychomotor retardation. No babies in Group 2 experienced psychomotor retardation. The differences between the Groups 1 and 3 and Groups 2 and 3 were found statistically significant. Only one baby in Group 3 had epilepsy. In Groups 1 and 2, no babies had epilepsy. The differences between the groups were not significant. Neonatal seizures, but not silent EEG seizures are in relationship with poor neurodevelopmental outcome evaluated at corrected age of 1 year in newborns.

  20. Maxillofacial injuries in a group of Brazilian subjects under 18 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Scariot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical retrospective analysis of the etiology, incidence and treatment of selected oral and maxillofacial injuries in Brazilian children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted during a 14-year period between 1986 and 2000. All patients were admitted to Hospital XV in the city of Curitiba, State of Paraná. Age, gender, monthly distribution, etiology, soft injuries, associated injuries, site of fractures and methods of treatment were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the total of 350 patients of all ages treated for facial injuries, 29.42% were within the age range of the study (0 to 18 years. Mean age was 10.61. Of the patients, 63.1% were male. The most common cause of injury was accidental falls (37.87%, followed by bicycle and motorcycle accidents (21.36%. Of the 103 patients, 88.34% had single injuries. Mandibular fractures were the most common and the condylar region was particularly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Facial trauma is a relatively common occurrence in children. The study indicates that fractures in children and adolescents differ quite considerably from an adult population.

  1. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  2. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  3. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  4. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent ...

  5. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  6. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  7. Simple D-transposition of great arteries operated at the age of 11 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfalou, Iliyasse; Touati, Zakia; Amri, Rachida; Cherti, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The simple transposition of the great arteries is a lethal congenital heart disease. The life expectancy of unoperated patients is about 9 months. We report the original observation of a girl with unoperated simple transposition of the great arteries, who survived until the age of 11 years. An atrial switch was successfully performed according to the technique of Senning–Mustard. PMID:24174855

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Amália de Moura; Iohanna Maria Guimarães Dias; Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the...

  9. Management of Gynecological Cancer Patients Older than 70 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Chakalova

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The key in choosing the treatment therapy is the localization and the stage of the cancer, whereas patient age and different chronic diseases are relevant to the treatment strategies used. The cases of geriatric gynecological malignancies were treated following the same guidelines used for younger patients. An increase in elderly surgical cancer workload is inevitable in the coming years. The special needs of elderly cancer patients should be taken into consideration prior to treatment planning.

  10. Respiratory Resistance by Impulse Oscillometry in Healthy Iranian Children aged 5-19 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The impulse oscillation system (IOS measures respiratory impedance (Zrs in terms of resistance (Rrs and reactance (Xrs at multiples of 5 Hz. These measurements can be used clinically to help diagnose and monitor respiratory disorders, independent of effort. There is, as yet, no information on reference values for IOS in Iranian adolescents.The predictive equation for resistance and impedance at 5 and 15 and 25 Hz, for the first time, in 509 Iranian adolescent subjects (265 boys (aged 6-19 years and 253 girls (aged 5-19 years were determined. Gender-specific linear prediction equations were developed by multiple regression analysis; with measuring (R5, R15, R25, X5, X15, X 25 as dependent variables regressed against age (A and height (H.For both genders, age and height had negative effects on resistance, while age and height had a positive effect on reactance. The prediction equations for R5 and X5 are as follows:R5: -1.35×10-5 × age×2.823 - 0.001 × height ×1.022 + 0.547 for girlsX5: 1.78×10-7× age ×1.08 + 0.002 height ×4.150 - 0.539, for girls R5: -6.19×10-7× age × 3.820 - 6.78E-005 ×height ×1.651 + 0.691 for boysX5: 6.95×10-23 × age ×16.226 + 0.004height × 0.846- 0.430, for boys, respectively.Our results therefore provide an original frame of reference for R5, R15, R25, X5, X15, X25 in Iranian adolescents population, obtained from a standardized forced oscillation technique.

  11. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  12. Association between poverty and psychiatric disability among Chinese population aged 15-64 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Pang, Lihua; Du, Wei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2012-12-30

    Psychiatric disability is an important public health problem in China, and poverty may be positively correlated with disability. Little study in the existing literatures has explored the contribution of poverty to the psychiatric disability among Chinese population. Using a nationally representative data, this paper aims to investigate the association between poverty and psychiatric disability in Chinese population aged 15-64 years. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 1.8 million people aged 15-64 years. Identification and classification for psychiatric disability was based on consensus manuals. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted proportions, and the adjusted Odd Ratios (OR) were calculated. For people with psychiatric disability aged 15-64 years, more than 4 million were below the poverty level in China. After controlling for other demographic variables, poverty was found to be significantly associated with psychiatric disability (OR=2.25, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.15-2.35). Given China is undergoing rapid social-economic transition and psychiatric diseases become a leading burden to the individuals, community, and health care systems, poverty reduction programs are warranted to prevent psychiatric disability and/or improve the lives for persons with psychiatric disability.

  13. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding and childhood overweight at age 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bider-Canfield, Z; Martinez, M P; Wang, X; Yu, W; Bautista, M P; Brookey, J; Page, K A; Buchanan, T A; Xiang, A H

    2017-04-01

    Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between maternal exposures and childhood overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) at age 2 years. Mothers with pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight were more likely to have EGWG, GDM and less likely to breastfeed ≥6 months. Mothers with GDM had 40-49% lower EGWG rates and similar breastfeeding rates compared with mothers without GDM. Analysis adjusted for exposures and covariates revealed an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with childhood overweight at age 2 years of 2.34 (2.09-2.62), 1.50 (1.34-1.68), 1.23 (1.12-1.35), 0.95 (0.83-1.10) and 0.76 (0.69-0.83) for maternal obesity, overweight, EGWG, GDM and breastfeeding ≥6 months vs. obesity or overweight and EGWG were independently associated with an increased risk, and breastfeeding ≥6 months was associated with a decreased risk of childhood overweight at age 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

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    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  15. Neural Substrates of the Development of Cognitive Control in Children Ages 5–10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret; Kharitonova, Maria; Martin, Rebecca E.; Chatterjee, Aparna; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive conflict detection and resolution develops with age across childhood and likely supports age-related increases in other aspects of cognitive and emotional development. Little is known about the neural correlates of conflict detection and resolution in early childhood. In the current study, we investigated age-related change in neural recruitment during a blocked spatial-incompatibility task (Simon task) in children ages 5–10 years using fMRI. Cortical thickness was measured using structural MRI. Across all children, there was greater activation in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortices for incompatible than compatible conditions. In older children, compared with younger children, there was decreased activation and decreased gray matter thickness in the medial pFC. Thickness and activation changes across age were associated within participants, such that thinner cortex was associated with less activation in the rostral ACC. These findings suggest that developmental change in medial pFC activation supports performance on cognitive control tasks in early childhood. PMID:24650280

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters—Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study

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    Moamena El-Matbouly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92% with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.. TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34% and middle age group (21%. The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%, subarachnoid (25%, subdural (24%, and epidural hemorrhage (18%. The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%. Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population.

  17. Marital history from age 15 to 40 years and subsequent 10-year mortality: a longitudinal study of Danish males born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    a strong protective effect of being married compared with never being married or divorced/widowed at every age. The association increased in strength with increasing age. Number of years divorced was associated with increased mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner at age 34 and 39 years. One or more......BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study are to analyse the association between marital status at age 24, 29, 34, and 39 years and subsequent mortality in a cohort of men born in 1953 (sensitive period); to study the impact of number of years married, number of years divorced/widowed, and number...... of marital break-ups on mortality (cumulative effect), and to examine whether these effects were independent of marital status at age 39 (proximity effect). METHODS: Prospective birth cohort study with follow-up of mortality from 1992 to 2002. Participants were 10891 men born within the metropolitan area...

  18. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19 9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea during the years 1995-2007 as compared with that of their South Korean peers Refugee children of 6 5 years of age were

  19. Oral contraceptives and survival in breast cancer patients aged 20 to 54 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivers, Katrina F; Gammon, Marilie D; Abrahamson, Page E; Lund, Mary Jo; Flagg, Elaine W; Moorman, Patricia G; Kaufman, Jay S; Cai, Jianwen; Porter, Peggy L; Brinton, Louise A; Eley, J William; Coates, Ralph J

    2007-09-01

    Recent oral contraceptive (OC) use is associated with modestly higher breast cancer incidence among younger women, but its impact on survival is unclear. This study examined the relationship between OC use before breast cancer diagnosis and survival. A population-based sample of 1,264 women aged 20 to 54 years with a first primary invasive breast cancer during 1990 to 1992 were followed up for 8 to 10 years. OC and covariate data were obtained by interviews conducted shortly after diagnosis and from medial records. All-cause mortality was ascertained through the National Death Index (n = 292 deaths). Age- and income-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by Cox regression methods. All-cause mortality was not associated with ever use of OCs or duration of use. Compared with nonusers, mortality estimates were elevated among women who were using OCs at diagnosis or stopped use in the previous year (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.95-2.61). The HR for use of high-dose estrogen pills within 5 years before diagnosis was double that of nonusers (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.29-4.41) or, if the most recent pill included the progestin levonorgestrel, compared with nonusers (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.03-3.91). Because subgroup estimates were based on small numbers of OC users, these results should be cautiously interpreted. Overall, most aspects of OC use did not seem to influence survival, although there is limited evidence that OC use just before diagnosis, particularly use of some pill types, may negatively impact survival in breast cancer patients aged 20 to 54 years.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA IN CHILDREN AGED 2 MONTHS TO 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Suppurative Otitis media (ASOM is one of the diseases that causedeath in children below the age of 5 years. The pathogens causing otitis media (OM vary from region to region. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are responsible f or OM. So this study was conducted to know the aerobic bacterial pathogens causing OM and their susceptibility pattern in children below 18 years attending a rural tertiary health care center in north Kerala . MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 75 patients in pediatric age group 2 months to 18 years clinically havingASOM , were included in the study . Ear discharge was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed accordingly. RESULTS : A total of 75 patients aged 2 months to 18 years with discharging ears wer e included in the study. Among them , forty one (54.7% were males and thirty four (45.3% were females. Forty five children were below years. Sixty five (86.6% had unilateral ear discharge. Among the 75 ear swabs cultured , 66 (88% had aerobic bacteria is olated. S.aureus was themost common isolate accounting to 32(47% followed by P.aeruoginosa 19(27.9%. It was observed that most of the Staphylococcus aureusisolates were resistant to p en i cillins and first generation cephalosporins while Pseudomonas aerugi nosa to fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSION : Since there is reduced susceptibility of the pathogens isolated to first and second line antibacterials it is necessary to use these antibacterials judiciously and in the right dosage

  1. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  2. [Child malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Peru: trends and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Manuel; Gutiérrez, César; Cunha, Antonio J; Dávila, Miguel; Alarcón, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Analyze malnutrition and anemia trends in Peruvian children under 5 years of age and their association with determinants in the 2000-2011 period. Nutritional indicators for children under 5 years of age from the 2011 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), and their evolution based on data from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 ENDES, were analyzed. Chronic malnutrition (CM) (height/age ≤ 2 SD), acute malnutrition (AM), (height/weight ≤ 2 SD), and anemia trends were estimated. Associations were found with factors such as sex, age, area of residence (urban or rural), region of residence, mother's education, wealth quintile, availability of public water system, sewer availability, altitude, presence of other children in household, birth order, presence of diarrhea in previous 15 days, and presence of cough in previous 15 days. AM, CM, and anemia in Peruvian children under 5 years of age decreased from 2000-2011. This reduction was not uniform for the three conditions, with decreases of 1.1% to 0.4% recorded for AM, 31.6% to 19.6% for CM, and 50.4% to 30.7% for anemia. Although the factors analyzed were related to the prevalence of these three illnesses, calculation of the adjusted odds ratios showed significant differences for CM (mother's education, Sierra region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, presence of two or more children in household, and being the third or successive child) and anemia (child sex [higher in males], children under 2 years of age, Resto de costa region and Selva region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, availability of public water system, sewer availability, presence of two or more children in household, and presence of diarrhea within 15 days prior to the survey). For AM, differences were observed according to some factors but they were not significant in the adjusted model. In the 2000-2011 period, Peru achieved reduction of its CM, AM, and anemia rates. AM rates decreased to almost one-third, with overall

  3. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  4. Change in HbA1c levels between the age of 8 years and the age of 12 years in Dutch children without diabetes: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Jansen

    Full Text Available HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years.Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires.We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7 mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1 %/yr. Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years.The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time.

  5. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in women under 50 years of age in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina da Silva Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have reported an increase in breast cancer incidence in young women. The current study's objective was to explore breast cancer distribution in women less than 50 years of age in Brazil. A descriptive study on breast cancer incidence (selected cities and mortality (Brazil and selected cities in 2002-2004 was carried out, and the results were compared with those from other countries. The study also analyzed the trend in hospital morbidity and incidence rates for breast cancer. Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul State showed the highest incidence rates (17.9 and 165.5/100,000 in the 15-39 and 40-49-year age strata, respectively. Regarding mortality, Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State showed the highest rate in the 15-39-year group and Porto Alegre in the 40-49-year group (2.8 and 25.5/100,000. Hospital admissions and incidence rates for breast cancer suggest a change in epidemiological distribution. The results reveal an epidemiological pattern of breast cancer in young Brazilian women with regional distribution characteristics.

  6. Temperament of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate- for-Gestational-Age Infants across the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Leslie F.; Coll, Cynthia T. Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Temperament development was studied in 39 full-term small-for-gestational-age infants and 30 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Temperament was measured at 4, 8, and 12 months of age using a behavioral assessment procedure and questionnaire ratings. Findings indicated that restricted fetal growth negatively affects infant…

  7. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  8. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-02-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. This study used data on 4750 mother-offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition.

  9. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  10. Short and long term outcomes of primary angioplasty in patients aged 75 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Işık

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of elderly patients with ST segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effects of primary angioplasty in elderly patients on in-hospital and long term major adverse cardiac events (MACE.Materials and methods: From October 2003 to March 2008, we retrospectively enrolled 220 patients aged 75 years and over with STEMI who underwent primary angioplasty. Patients’ characteristics, in-hospital and long term events were recorded.Results: Male/Female ratio of patients was 129/91 and mean age was 78.7 ± 3.6 (range, 75-97 years, and 58.6% of male. Of these patients 29.2% were diabetics, 69.8% were hypertensive, 34.4% were smoker and 43.5% were anemic at admission. Anterior myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 52.3% of patients. Mean pain-balloon time was 222 ± 116 minutes. Eighty two (38.2% of these 220 patients had three-vessel disease and 12 (5.7% were diagnosed as cardiogenic shock. Procedural success was observed in 79.6% of patients. Heart failure was observed 27.7% in hospital and intra aortic pump was used in 14.5% of patients. There was no significant difference between age groups in long term major cardiac events and in hospital mortality. Diabetes, leukocyte count at admission and in hospital heart failure were independent predictors of short term MACE and low hemoglobin level at admission and peak CKMB levels were independent predictors of long term MACE.Conclusions: Primary angioplasty in patients aged 75 years and over seems to be associated with low procedural complication, high procedural success, improved short and long term survival.

  11. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  12. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

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    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  13. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

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    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  14. Association between depression in carers and malnutrition in children aged 6 months to 5 years

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    Keneilwe Motlhatlhedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Childhood malnutrition is an important risk factor for child mortality and underlies close to 50% of child deaths worldwide. Previous studies have found an association between maternal depression and child malnutrition, but it is not known whether this association exists in Botswana. In addition, previous studies excluded non-maternal primary caregivers (PCGs. It is unclear whether the association between primary caregiver depression and child malnutrition remains when non-maternal PCGs are included.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between PCG depression and malnutrition in children aged between 6 months and 5 years in Mahalapye, Botswana.Setting: The study was conducted in the child welfare clinics of Xhosa and Airstrip clinics, two primary health care facilities in Mahalapye, Botswana.Methods: This was a case control study. Cases were malnourished children aged between 6 months and 5 years, and controls were non-malnourished children matched for age and gender. The outcome of interest was depression in the PCGs of the cases and controls, which was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9, a depression screening tool.Results: From a sample of 171 children, 84 of whom were malnourished, we found that the malnourished children were significantly more likely to have depressed PCGs (odds ratio = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.89, 9.89 than non-malnourished children in the 6-month to 5-year age group; the PCGs of malnourished children also had lower educational status.Conclusion: This study found a significant association between PCG depression and child malnutrition.

  15. Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age

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    Kreidy R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Raghid Kreidy1, Pascale Salameh2, Mirna Waked31Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, 2Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, LebanonAim: Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients.Methods: From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years. The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years.Results: The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001, pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001, treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001, and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084.Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia

  16. Loss of control eating disorder in children age 12 years and younger: proposed research criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Marcus, Marsha D; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2008-08-01

    Binge eating is common in middle childhood (6-12 years) and often presents in concert with disordered eating attitudes, emotional distress, overweight and adiposity. Binge eating is also predictive of excessive weight gain and is associated with energy intake. However, few children meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for binge eating disorder, thereby making treatment recommendations a challenge. We propose criteria for a new diagnosis, Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children age 12 years and younger, for further study. The criteria put forward are a revision of Marcus and Kalarchian's [Marcus, M.D., & Kalarchian, M.A. (2003). Binge eating in children and adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34 Suppl, S47-S57.] provisional binge eating disorder research criteria for children 14 years and younger, and are based upon the evolving literature in children with binge and loss of control eating episodes. A rationale for the new criteria set is provided, and future research directions are proposed.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  18. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS IN MODERN CHILDREN 7-8 YEARS OF AGE

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    Grebneva, N.N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of comparative evaluation of children’s physical development level (7-8 years old over a twelve-year period (1999-2012. The study revealed drastic decrease in the number of children with average (normal level of physical development and its disharmony, which is mainly caused by excessive body weight. Increase in body weight depends on the sex: the indicators among girls are twice as high as same indicators for boys. It is assumed that decrease in physical development level of modern children 7-8 years of age is caused by nutritional inferiority, irrational nutrition and decline in physical activity, particularly due to the start formal schooling.

  19. Social relations as determinants of oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether social relations during a 7-year follow-up influence oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHOD: The present investigation is based on a subsample of 129 dentate community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen...... was measured in terms of coronal caries and root caries. RESULTS: The primary findings of the adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis were that persons who lived alone or who became alone during the 7 years prior to the dental examination had greater odds of having coronal caries (odds ratio (OR): 2.......4, 95% CI: 1.0-5.7) than those who continually lived with others, and that persons who were continuously dissatisfied with the frequency of their social contacts were more likely to have root caries than those who reported a sustained satisfaction with the frequency of their social contacts (OR: 2.9, 95...

  20. Motor and Cognitive Outcomes Through Three Years Of Age In Children Exposed To Prenatal Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Haning, William; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. The impact of prenatal MA exposure on development in childhood is unknown. Objective To examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on motor and cognitive development in children at 1, 2, and 3 years of age. Design/Methods IDEAL enrolled 412 mother-infant pairs at four sites (Tulsa OK, Des Moines IA, Los Angeles CA, and Honolulu HI). MA subjects (n=204) were identified by self-report or GC/MS confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Comparison subjects (n=208) were matched (race, birth weight, maternal education, type of insurance), denied amphetamine use, and had a negative meconium screen. Both groups included prenatal alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, but excluded use of opiates, lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine or cocaine only. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2) were administered to the infants at the 1 and 3 year visits. This analysis includes a subsample (n=350) of the IDEAL study with completed 1 and/or 3 year visits (n= 330 and 281, respectively). At each annual visit we also conducted the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) as a general evaluation of mental and motor development. The BSID-II analysis includes a subsample (n=356) of the IDEAL study with completed 1, 2, and/or 3 year visits (n= 331, 288, and 278 respectively). GLM analysis conducted on the PDMS-2 and BSID-II examined the effects of MA exposure and heavy MA exposure (≥3 days of use/week), with and without covariates. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine the effects of MA exposure on changes in motor and cognitive performance over time. Results Heavy MA exposure was associated with significantly lower grasping scores than some and no use at 1 year (P = 0.018). In longitudinal analysis, lower grasping scores associated with any MA exposure and heavy exposure persisted to 3 years. There were no effects of MA exposure, including

  1. Ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 5-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkova NP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nadezhda P Cvetkova, Kristina Hölldobler, Philipp Prahs, Viola Radeck, Horst Helbig, David Märker Department of Ophthalmology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate an optical coherence tomography (OCT and visual acuity (VA-guided, variable-dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab injection for treating patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD from 2007 to 2012. Design: This was a retrospective clinical study of 5 years follow-up in a tertiary eye center. Patients and methods: In this study, 66 patients with neovascular AMD (mean age of 74 years, SD 8.7 years were included. We investigated the development of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, the number of intravitreal injections, and the central retinal thickness measured with OCT (OCT Spectralis over 5 years of intravitreal treatment. Results: The mean number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 5 years was 8.8. The mean BCVA before therapy was 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR. After 5 years of therapy, the mean BCVA was 0.6 logMAR. In all, 16% of treated patients had stable VA over 5 years and 10% of study eyes approved their VA. The mean OCT-measured central retinal thickness at the beginning of this study was 295 µm; after 5 years of treatment, the mean central retinal thickness was 315 µm. There was an increase in central retinal thickness in 47.5% of examined eyes. Conclusion: Other studies showed VA improvement in OCT-guided variable-dosing regimens. Our study revealed a moderate decrease in VA after a total mean injection number as low as 8.8 injections over 5 years. In OCT, an increase in central retinal thickness over 5 years could be observed. Probably, this is due to deficient treatment when comparing the total injection number to other treatment regimens. Anti-VEGF therapy helps to keep the VA stable for a period of time, but cannot totally stop the progression of

  2. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

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    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  3. Safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than 1 year of age

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    Walia H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hina Walia,1 Dmitry Tumin,1 Sharon Wrona,1 David Martin,1,2 Tarun Bhalla,1,2 Joseph D Tobias,1-3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA Background: The management of acute pain presents unique challenges in the younger pediatric population. Although patient-controlled devices are frequently used in patients ≥6 years of age, alternative modes of analgesic delivery are needed in infants.Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA in neonates less than 1 year of age.Methods: Data from patients <1 year of age receiving NCA as ordered by the Acute Pain Service at our institution were collected over a 5-year period and reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcomes were activation of the institution’s Rapid Response Team (RRT or Code Blue, signifying severe adverse events. Pain score after NCA initiation was a secondary outcome.Results: Among 338 girls and 431 boys, the most common opioid used for NCA was fentanyl, followed by morphine and hydromorphone. There were 39 (5% cases involving RRT or Code Blue activation, of which only one (Code Blue was activated due to a complication of NCA (apnea. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated morphine NCA to be associated with greater odds of RRT activation (OR=3.29, 95% CI=1.35, 8.03, P=0.009 compared to fentanyl NCA. There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores after NCA initiation across NCA agents.Conclusion: NCA is safe in neonates and infants, with comparable efficacy demonstrated for the three agents used. The elevated incidence of RRT activation in patients receiving morphine suggests caution in its use and consideration of alternative agents in this population. Keywords: nurse-controlled analgesia, pain medicine, Rapid Response Team

  4. Sunlight and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomany, Sandra C; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Knudtson, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    To examine the association of sunlight exposure and indicators of sun sensitivity with the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Population-based cohort study. We included persons aged 43 to 86 years at the baseline examination from 1988 to 1990, living in Beaver Dam, Wis, of whom 3684 persons underwent 5-year follow-up and 2764 underwent 10-year follow-up. Data on sun exposure and indicators of sun sensitivity were obtained from a standardized questionnaire administered at baseline and/or follow-up. We determined ARM status by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Incidence and progression of ARM. While controlling for age and sex, we found that participants exposed to the summer sun for more than 5 hours a day during their teens, in their 30s, and at the baseline examination were at a higher risk of developing increased retinal pigment (risk ratio [RR], 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-7.60; P =.02) and early ARM (RR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.02-4.73; P =.04) [corrected] by 10 years than those exposed less than 2 hours per day during the same periods. In participants reporting the highest summer sun exposure levels in their teens and 30s, the use of hats and sunglasses at least half the time during the same periods was associated with a decreased risk of developing soft indistinct drusen (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.90; P =.02) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.91; P =.02). Participants who experienced more than 10 severe sunburns during their youth were more likely than those who experienced 1 or no burn to develop drusen with a 250-microm diameter or larger (RR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.29-4.94 [corrected] P =.01) by the 10-year examination. No relationships were found between UV-B exposure, winter leisure time spent outdoors, skin sun sensitivity, or number of bad sunburns experienced by the time of the baseline examination and the 10-year incidence and

  5. Age- and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

  6. Whole-population vision screening in children aged 4-5 years to detect amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-06-06

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects at least 2% of most populations and can lead to permanently reduced vision if not detected and treated within a specific period in childhood. Whole-population screening of children younger than 5 years is applied in many countries. The substantial diversity in existing programmes reflects their heterogeneous implementation in the absence of the complete evidence base that is now a pre-requisite for instituting screening. The functional importance of amblyopia at an individual level is unclear as data are scarce, but in view of the high prevalence the population-level effect might be notable. Screening of all children aged 4-5 years (eg, at school entry) confers most benefit and addresses inequity in access to timely treatment. Screening at younger ages is associated with increased risk of false-positive results, and at older ages with poor outcomes for children with moderate to severe amblyopia. We suggest that the real-life adverse effects of amblyopia should be characterised and screening and diagnosis should be standardised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

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    Louise Amália de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.

  8. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40–69 year olds in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Emsley, Richard; Norman, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Davis, Adrian; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Lutman, Mark; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. Design The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. The better-ear unaided speech reception threshold was measured adaptively using the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Self-report data on tinnitus, hearing aid use, noise exposure as well as demographic variables were collected. Results Overall, 10.7% of adults (95%CI 10.5–10.9%) had significant hearing impairment. Prevalence of tinnitus was 16.9% (95%CI 16.6–17.1%) and hearing aid use was 2.0% (95%CI 1.9–2.1%). Odds of hearing impairment increased with age, with a history of work- and music-related noise exposure, for lower socioeconomic background and for ethnic minority backgrounds. Males were at no higher risk of hearing impairment than females. Conclusion Around 1 in 10 adults aged 40 to 69 years have substantial hearing impairment. The reasons for excess risk of hearing impairment particularly for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds require identification, as this represents a serious health inequality. The underutilization of hearing aids has altered little since the 1980s, and is a major cause for concern. PMID:24518430

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

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    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  10. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

  11. Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Male Patients Over 60 Years of Age with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Ekrem Kara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine serum androgen levels and the frequency of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in patients over 60 years of age with metabolic syndrome (MS and its correlation with parameters of MS. Material and Method: Men over 60 years of age who were diagnosed with MS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria in the internal medicine outpatient clinics at Cerrahpasa Medical School (n=30 and healthy controls (n=30 were included in the study. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels were analysed. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated. The participants filled up the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Aging Male Symptoms (AMS questionnaire forms themselves without any help of the physician. Results: LOH rates were 30% and 13.3% in the MS group and healthy control group, respectively (p=0.11. Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were significantly lower in the MS group compared to controls (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively. A negative correlation was found between total testosterone and MS components. BDI and AMS questionnaire scores in the two groups were not significantly different.Discussion: Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were lower in the MS group, and inversely proportional to this, insulin resistance and intensity of MS components were increased. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 22-7

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  13. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  14. Evaluating Period of Accelerated Skeletal Maturation in Gujarati Children between Ages 8+ and 14+ Years

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    Amarjit Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the level of skeletal maturation and period of accelerated growth in 70 boys and 70 girls between the ages (8+ and (14+ years using CVMS index. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalogram of 140 individuals were selected, i.e. 70 girls and 70 boys, each of age group from 8+ to 14+ years. It is observed that CVMS index used is highly significant for this purpose. It is observed that this index is highly effective for this purpose. Conclusion: Females′ vertebrae mature earlier than males at each stage. The maturation rate is not constant between the various stages and period of accelerated growth is experienced at different ages and levels in males and females. Need arises to confirm that early maturation in females is not because of their smaller sized vertebra. Further, the time duration recorded between the two subsequent stages is different not because the changes required to be done by nature is different. Longitudinal growth studies of the jaws proper are desired to be conducted for this purpose.

  15. Modifiable Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in the Population Aged 20-49 Years

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    Francisco Carlos Valladares Mas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: evidence provided by the Framingham Heart Study established the critical role of risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. Over half a century later, current detection and control are still inadequate. Objective: to identify modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease in individuals aged 20 to 49 years. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 276 individuals from the doctor’s office No. 1 of the Fabio di Celmo Community Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos. Patients were examined in the clinic visit and/or whole family visit. The studied variables included age, sex, skin color, risk factors (excess weight/obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial factors, which were obtained from the medical interview, physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol and triglycerides and review of individual medical records and family history. Results: risk factors most frequently identified were excess weight/obesity (42.4 %, physical inactivity (34.4 % and smoking (20.3 %. Presence of these risk factors increased with age, showing differences in the distribution by sex and was associated with psychosocial factors. Their coexistence and progress with age was significant. Conclusion: prevalence of modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease in a young population was high, with frequent association, predominating factors related to unhealthy lifestyles.

  16. Executive functions of six-year-old boys with normal birth weight and gestational age.

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    Desiree Yee-Ling Phua

    Full Text Available Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g and gestational age (37-41 weeks within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.

  17. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged lead tests in children aged lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions.

  18. Epidemiology of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 47 to 60 years

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    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disorder having the characteristic features of low bone mass and structural degeneration. There are several factors affecting the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, such as age, age at menarche, duration of menopause, dietary or nutritional intakes, life style and level formal education. In connection with the increasing global prevalence of osteoporotic fractures, the purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and the influencing factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study, involving 203 postmenopausal women aged 47-60 years, was conducted in 4 villages of Mampang Prapatan subdistrict, from February to April 2010. Bone mineral density (BMD of lumbar spine 1-4, femoral neck, and left radius was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX Bravo Nomusa densitometer, GE Medical Systems at Budi Jaya Hospital, Jakarta. The T-score threshold, defined as £ -2.5 was used to identify subjects with osteoporosis The results of the study showed that the highest prevalence of osteopenia of 45.8% was found in the femoral neck, while the highest prevalence of osteoporosis of 30% was found in the distal radius. Age, duration of menopause, and number of pregnancies yielded a significant correlation with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae and the distal radius. Body mass index (BMI was also significantly correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck and distal radius. Effective strategies for the prevention and management of osteopenia and osteoporosis are needed.

  19. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

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    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  20. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

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    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  1. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  2. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

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    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance.

  3. Parameters of effective competition activity and selection of young gymnasts in age 9-10 years

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    Bolyak A.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effective factors of competitive activities and criteria for selection of young gymnasts at the stage of preliminary basic training based on the tests of motor skills and physiological parameters using methods of statistical analysis. Material : results of psychophysical testing, anthropometry, data on the development of motor abilities of young gymnasts of 9-10 years and assessment of their technical training. The study group consisted of 29 young gymnasts aged 9-10 years. All of them had a sports category corresponding their ages. Results: among the sixteen benchmarks psychophysiological data figures stepwise regression equation determined the four most important factors that influence the effectiveness of the competitive activities of the young athletes. The stepwise regression equation allowed lowing the most influential factor affecting the competitive activity among anthropometric and motor performance from twenty- eight to twelve most significant factors. Conclusions: The application of regression analysis and stepwise regression method allowed developing the mathematical models of the efficiency of competitive activities of the gymnasts of 9-10 years that can be used in the practice of selection children for the pre basic training.

  4. Clinicopathological and imaging features of breast cancer in Korean Women under 40 years of age

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    Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Mi Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Eun Kyu; Kang, Eun Young; Park, So Yeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in Korean women under 40 years of age according to molecular subtypes. We included 183 breast cancers in 176 consecutive women under 40 years old who had been diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and November 2014. The patients' clinical and pathologic records were available as electronic medical records. A retrospective review of the pre-operative imaging studies was performed with 177 mammographies, 183 ultrasonographies, and 178 MRIs. Eighty-six percent (158/183) of lesions were symptomatic, with masses (147/183) as the most common presentation. Eighty percent (22/25) of the asymptomatic lesions were diagnosed via screening ultrasonography. The luminal A subtype was the most common (n = 79, 43%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched subtype showed indistinct margins on mammography (p = 0.006), the triple negative subtype depicted a posterior enhancement on ultrasonography (p < 0.001) and rim enhancement on MRI (p < 0.001). Breast cancers in Korean women under 40 years of age are commonly presented with a palpable mass, and luminal A is the most common molecular subtype. In our study, the imaging and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer in younger women were similar to those previously reported for older patients.

  5. Structural and functional reorganization of the corpus callosum between the age of 6 and 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Luders, Eileen; Specht, Karsten; Ofte, Sonja H; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    The establishment of an efficient exchange of information between the cerebral hemispheres is of crucial importance in the developing functionally lateralized brain. The corpus callosum, the major connection between the cerebral hemispheres, grows constantly throughout childhood and adolescence. However, behavioral studies suggest the existence of a critical time period for callosal functional development starting around the age of 6 years. In the present longitudinal study, examining a cohort of 20 children at the age of 6 and 8 years, we assessed the relationship between structural and functional callosal development during this time period. The structural development was quantified by calculating the increase in callosal thickness using a shape-based computational analysis of the mid-sagittal corpus callosum as obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. The functional development was assessed with a speech discrimination task based on the dichotic presentation of consonant-vowel syllables. The statistical analysis revealed that children whose callosal isthmus increased in thickness over the course of 2 years showed a decrease in interhemispheric information transfer. However, children exhibiting a decrease in isthmus thickness revealed an increase in information transfer. These results might indicate a refinement process of the callosal connections to optimize the neuronal communication between the developing cerebral hemispheres.

  6. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years.

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    David E Trilling

    Full Text Available Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data. The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties.

  7. The surface age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, must be less than 10 million years

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    Trilling, David E

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties.

  8. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

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    Debbie J. Pope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.

  9. Psychological Well-being Trajectories of Individuals with Dyslexia Aged 3-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Dyer, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Dyslexia has been associated with a range of psychological well-being issues in childhood. However, it is unclear if these difficulties stem from coping with academic struggles at school, or from other pre-existing diagnoses that sometimes co-occur with dyslexia. Using UK Millennium Cohort Study data (n = 7224) from 2003 to 2011, the present study compared psychological well-being development from ages 3-11 years for children with (1) dyslexia only; (2) special educational needs excluding dyslexia; (3) comorbid dyslexia and other special educational needs; and (4) no special educational needs. Growth curve modelling results controlling for race, gender, age and family income suggested that with the exception of conduct difficulties, psychological well-being issues related to dyslexia do not occur preschool; rather, they commence upon starting school. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A COMPARISON OF AUTOREFRACTOMETER WITH CYCLOPLEGIC RETINOSCOPY IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 15 YEARS

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    Jaishree

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the accuracy of the autorefractometer with traditional retinoscopy as a means of determining the approximate subjective refraction in children after cycloplegia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observation study carried out in 72 eyes of 72 patients aged 3 to 15 years in upgraded department of Ophthalmology, LLRM Medical College, Meerut between April 2013 to June 2013. The negative spherical power of autorefracto meter was higher than retinoscopic group. The positive spherical power was lower in autorefractometer. DISCUSSION: Our observations in this younger age group amply that the inbuilt automatic fogging system of the autorefractometer fails to neutralize adequ ately the patient's accommodative efforts during manifest refraction. CONCLUSION: Manual retinoscopy is still the most accurate technique to estimate refractive status in children.

  11. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  12. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Deepthi Yannam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.

  13. Association of a Modified Frailty Index With Mortality After Femoral Neck Fracture in Patients Aged 60 Years and Older

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patel, Kushal V; Brennan, Kindyle L; Brennan, Michael L; Jupiter, Daniel C; Shar, Adam; Davis, Matthew L

    2014-01-01

    .... Specifically we examined: (1) Is there an association of a modified frailty index with 1- and 2-year mortality rates in patients aged 60 years and older who sustain a low-energy femoral neck fracture? (2...

  14. Thirty years of evolution of oral health behaviors in the working-age Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In an average Polish person aged 35–44, more than 16 teeth have or had been affected by dental caries. Of that number, almost half of the teeth have already been extracted. Oral health behaviours contribute to this civilization disease in 50%. Such poor oral health status limits the ability of the affected people to take many social and professional roles. Objectives: To evaluate current oral health behaviours and their trends among 35–44 year old Polish people during the period of recent 30 years. Material and Methods: The data were obtained from the International Collaborative Studies conducted in 1978 and 1988 at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland, under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO as well as from 3 stages of the study on Nationwide Monitoring of Oral Health Status and Its Conditioning performed in 1998, 2002 and 2010. The researchers evaluated oral health behaviours and oral health condition of 5425 subjects. Results: Despite a noticeable improvement, poor oral health behaviours are observed in 30%–40% of the adults. In the analysed period, the number of people brushing their teeth at least twice a day increased by more than 10% and the number of people using dental floss increased by 38%. Only 60% of the adults visited a dentist at least once a year. Reduced accessibility of state-run, free-of-charge dental care has caused that over 58% of Poles paid for their dental services. Every 3rd person of working age has not visited a dentist for longer than 2.5 half years, primarily due to behavioural and financial reasons. Oral health behaviours of Polish people are among the poorest in Europe. Conclusions: Despite a noticeable improvement of the behaviours, gap between the Poles and citizens of other highly developed countries is around 20 years. A health promotion programme including oral health issues, if implemented in workplaces, might considerably reduce this gap.

  15. Clinical and radiological outcome of the cemented Contemporary acetabular component in patients < 50 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M W J L; Timmer, C; Rijnen, W H C; Gardeniers, J W M; Schreurs, B W

    2013-12-01

    Despite the worldwide usage of the cemented Contemporary acetabular component (Stryker), no published data are available regarding its use in patients aged Contemporary acetabular component with the Exeter cemented stem between January 1999 and January 2006. There were 152 hips in 126 patients, 61 men and 65 women, mean age at surgery 37.6 years (16 to 49 yrs). One patient was lost to follow-up. Mean clinical follow-up of all implants was 7.6 years (0.9 to 12.0). All clinical questionnaire scores, including Harris hip score, Oxford hip score and several visual analogue scales, were found to have improved. The eight year survivorship of all acetabular components for the endpoints revision for any reason or revision for aseptic loosening was 94.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 89.2 to 97.2) and 96.4% (95% CI 91.6 to 98.5), respectively. Radiological follow-up was complete for 146 implants. The eight year survival for the endpoint radiological loosening was 93.1% (95% CI 86.2 to 96.6). Three surviving implants were considered radiologically loose but were asymptomatic. The presence of acetabular osteolysis (n = 17, 11.8%) and radiolucent lines (n = 20, 13.9%) in the 144 surviving cups indicates a need for continued observation in the second decade of follow-up in order to observe their influence on long-term survival. The clinical and radiological data resulting in a ten-year survival rate > 90% in young patients support the use of the Contemporary acetabular component in this specific patient group.

  16. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  17. Differential changes and interactions of autonomic functioning and sleep architecture before and after 50 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, C C H

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesize that the time when age-related changes in autonomic functioning and in sleep structure occur are different and that autonomic functioning modulates sleep architecture differently before and after 50 years of age. Sixty-eight healthy subjects (aged 20 to 79 years old, 49 of them women) were enrolled. Correlation analysis revealed that wake after sleep onset, the absolute and relative value of stage 1 (S1; S1%), and relative value of stage 2 (S2) were positively correlated with age; however, sleep efficiency, stage 3 (S3), S3%, and rapid-eye-movement latency (REML) were negatively correlated with age. Significant degenerations of sleep during normal aging were occurred after 50 years of age; however, significant declines of autonomic activity were showed before 50 years of age. Before 50 years of age, vagal function during sleep was negatively correlated with arousal index; however, after 50 years of age, it was positively correlated with S1 and S1%. In addition, sympathetic activity during wake stage was positively related to S2% only after 50 years of age. Our results imply that the age-related changes in autonomic functioning decline promptly as individuals leave the younger part of their adult life span and that age-related changes in sleep slowly develop as individuals enter the older part of their adult life span. Furthermore, while various aspects of sleep architecture are modulated by both the sympathetic and vagal nervous systems during adult life span, the sleep quality is mainly correlated with the sympathetic division after 50 years of age.

  18. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  19. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills.

  20. Surface electromyographic studies of swallowing in normal children, age 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Segal, Samuel; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2004-01-01

    Surface electromyographic (sEMG) studies were performed on 100 normal children, age 4-12 years, to establish normative database for duration and amplitude of muscle activity during swallowing and continuous drinking. Prospective observational study of healthy volunteers. Parameters evaluated during swallowing include the timing and amplitude (in microV) of activity of m. orbicularis oris, masseter, submental and infrahyoid (laryngeal strap muscles (LSM)) groups covered by platisma. Four tests were examined: voluntary single swallows of saliva ("dry" swallow), voluntary single water swallows as normal, voluntary single swallows of excessive amount of water (up to 15ml), continuous drinking of 50ml of water (duration and number of swallows). Duration of muscle activity during swallowing (mean plus standard deviation (S.D.)) was measured for two age groups: 4-8 and 9-12 years old. The group of 40 adults, age 18-30 years, was taken as a control group. Normative data for duration and amplitude of muscle activity during single swallowing and continuous drinking are established for healthy children. The duration of muscle activity during swallows and drinking in all tests showed decrease with the age, and this tendency is statistically significant (one-dimensional analysis of variance, SPSS, chi(2) criterion, 95% confidence interval). There was no statistically significant difference in amplitude (range) measurements between children and adults (P=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between male and female children duration of muscle activity during single swallowing and continuous drinking in all age groups (P>/=0.05). Surface EMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable noninvasive method for screening evaluation of swallowing with low level of discomfort of the examination. The normative timing of events data can be used for evaluation of complaints and symptoms, as well as for comparison purposes in pre- and postoperative stages and in

  1. Effect of inflammation in the periodontium in early old age on mortality at 21-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Krustrup, Ulla;

    2009-01-01

    To analyze whether inflammatory processes in the periodontium in early old age are related to subsequent mortality during 21 years of follow-up in a nondisabled 70-year-old population.......To analyze whether inflammatory processes in the periodontium in early old age are related to subsequent mortality during 21 years of follow-up in a nondisabled 70-year-old population....

  2. Peroral endoscopic myotomy versus pneumatic dilation for achalasia in patients aged ≥ 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Wang

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Both peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM and pneumatic dilation (PD has proved to be effective for treating achalasia in patients aged ≥ 65 years. However little is known about the comparison between POEM and PD. The aim of the study was to compare the safety and efficacy of POEM and PD for the treatment of achalasia in these patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged 65 years-old or more who received POEM or PD for the treatment of achalasia at our hospital from January 2010 to December 2015, they were divided into the POEM group and the PD group. Demographics and data about safety and efficacy were collected retrospectively and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 31 patients were enrolled, and 21 of them received POEM, while the other 10 received PD. The treatment success (Eckardt score ≤ 3 rate of POEM and PD at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after the treatment were comparable (p > 0.05. Treatment failure was noticed in 3 cases, 1 of them was in the POEM group and the other 2 in the PD group, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that sigmoid-type achalasia was a predictive factor of treatment failure. No severe complications were observed during operation and periodical follow-up. Conclusion: Short-term and intermediate efficacy of POEM and PD for treating achalasia in patients aged ≥ 65 years was comparable. A large scale, randomized study with long-term follow-up is necessary in order to make a definitive conclusion.

  3. Breast cancer features in women under the age of 40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Santiago Girão Eugênio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To describe the clinical features, imaging findings and pathological aspects of breast cancer diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years. Method: A retrospective, descriptive study was performed through analysis of medical records between November 2008 and August 2012. One hundred and twenty (120 patients were included, of whom 112 underwent mammography, 113 underwent ultrasonography, and 105 underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The histopathological data was obtained in most cases from post-surgical analysis, which was available for 113 patients. Results: The mean age at diagnosis of primary breast cancer was 34 years. Only 11 patients (9.0% had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relative. Ninety-two (92 patients sought medical attention after showing breast symptoms, and the presence of a palpable nodule was the main complaint. One hundred and twenty-two (122 primary tumors were diagnosed, of which 112 were invasive (95%. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (73.8%. Luminal B was the predominant molecular subtype (42.6%. Ultrasonography was positive in 94.5% of the cases and the most common finding were nodules (94.8%. At mammography, the malignancy was observed in 92.8% and the presence of suggestive calcifications was the dominant feature. The MRI was positive in 98% of patients, and mass lesions were the most common. Conclusion: Most cases of breast cancer diagnosed in patients under the age of 40 years, in our population, had symptoms at diagnosis and tumor with more aggressive biological behavior. Despite the ultrasound has been the most widely used method, we found improved characterization of breast lesions when also used mammography and MRI.

  4. Moral distress in intensive care unit professionals is associated with profession, age, and years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodek, Peter M; Wong, Hubert; Norena, Monica; Ayas, Najib; Reynolds, Steven C; Keenan, Sean P; Hamric, Ann; Rodney, Patricia; Stewart, Miriam; Alden, Lynn

    2016-02-01

    To determine which demographic characteristics are associated with moral distress in intensive care unit (ICU) professionals. We distributed a self-administered, validated survey to measure moral distress to all clinical personnel in 13 ICUs in British Columbia, Canada. Each respondent to the survey also reported their age, sex, and years of experience in the ICU where they were working. We used multivariate, hierarchical regression to analyze relationships between demographic characteristics and moral distress scores, and to analyze the relationship between moral distress and tendency to leave the workplace. Response rates to the surveys were the following: nurses--428/870 (49%); other health professionals (not nurses or physicians)--211/452 (47%); physicians--30/68 (44%). Nurses and other health professionals had higher moral distress scores than physicians. Highest ranked items associated with moral distress were related to cost constraints and end-of-life controversies. Multivariate analyses showed that age is inversely associated with moral distress, but only in other health professionals (rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: -7.3 [-13.4, -1.2]); years of experience is directly associated with moral distress, but only in nurses (rate ratio (95% confidence interval):10.8 [2.6, 18.9]). The moral distress score is directly related to the tendency to leave the ICU job, in both the past and present, but only for nurses and other non-physician health professionals. Moral distress is higher in ICU nurses and other non-physician professionals than in physicians, is lower with older age for other non-physician professionals but greater with more years of experience in nurses, and is associated with tendency to leave the job. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Global causes of diarrheal disease mortality in children <5 years of age: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio F Lanata

    Full Text Available Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5-13 pathogens, p<0.0001. The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR 110 000-295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000-146 000, calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000-113 000, and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000-76 000 deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world.

  6. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  7. Upper arm circumference measurement for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Rosariah Ayu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a worldwide problem and is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Nutritional status in children has traditionally been determined by body mass index (BMI scores, but with limitations. Upper arm circumference measurement may be a better predictor of energy, protein, and fat storage, as well as a simpler method for screening overweight and obesity in children. Objective To determine the diagnostic value of upper arm circumference compared to BMI for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years. Methods This diagnostic study with a cross-sectional design was performed from September to October 2015 at 16 primary schools in Palembang, Indonesia. We measured the heights, weights, and upper arm circumferences, and calculated BMIs of 2,258 children. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to find an optimal upper arm circumference cut-off point to detect overweight and obesity. Diagnostic value was calculated by using a 2x2 table analysis. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The optimal upper arm circumference cut-off points for detecting overweight in children aged 6-7 years was 185 mm (sensitivity 88.1% and specificity 78.3%, and for obesity was 195 mm (sensitivity 90.15% and specificity 86.65%. Upper arm circumference had a strong correlation with BMI. Conclusion Upper arm circumference measurement is an accurate method fordistinguishing between normoweight, overweight, and obesity in children aged 6-7 years.

  8. More than 20 years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis, and year of birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Biggeri, Annibale; Ledda, Alessia; Mannu, Carla; Merletti, Franco; Songini, Marco; ,

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed Sardinian registry data to assess time trends in incidence rates (IRs) of type 1 diabetes during the period 1989–2009 (2,371 case subjects 0–14 years of age). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effects of sex, age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohorts. IR was 44.8 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 43.1–46.7). The annual increase was 2.12% (1.45–2.80; test for linear trend, P < 0.001). For boys, the increasing trend was evident up to 5 years of age and for girls...

  9. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  10. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Using Grafts From Donors Older Than the Age of 80 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, A V; Alvarez, M J; Méndez, C S M; Villegas, M T; MGraneroa, K; Becerra, A; Dominguez, M; Raya, A M; Exposito, M; Suárez, Y F

    2015-11-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study between 2002 and 2014 to compare liver transplantation outcomes between recipients of grafts from donors older than and younger than the age of 80 years. Numerical variables were compared with the Student t test when their distribution was normal and the Mann-Whitney test when it was not, whereas categorical variables were compared with Pearson chi-squared test or Fisher test, as appropriate; P graft rejection, retransplantation, or survival at 6 months. Although earlier studies considered livers from elderly donors to be suboptimal, our results support the proposition that octogenarian donors can be an excellent source of liver grafts.

  11. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  12. Students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years in six countries knowledge of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the knowledge students (ages 6, 10, and 15 years have of animals from a cross-cultural perspective. Students from six countries (Brazil, England, Finland, Iceland, Portugal, and the United States of America were asked to free-list as many animals as possible and state where they had seen or learned about the animals. The results were analyzed and they indicate that 1 Students are aware of animals. 2 Students are more aware of mammals as examples of animals. 3 There is a globally shared folk biological knowledge of animals. 4 Students learn about animals during sociocultural interactions. The educational implications are discussed.

  13. Two novel equations to estimate kidney function in persons aged 70 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffner, Elke S; Ebert, Natalie; Delanaye, Pierre; Frei, Ulrich; Gaedeke, Jens; Jakob, Olga; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Tölle, Markus; Ziebig, Reinhard; van der Giet, Markus; Martus, Peter

    2012-10-02

    In older adults, current equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not validated and may misclassify elderly persons in terms of their stage of chronic kidney disease. To derive the Berlin Initiative Study (BIS) equation, a novel estimator of GFR in elderly participants. Cross-sectional. Data were split for analysis into 2 sets for equation development and internal validation. Random community-based population of a large insurance company. 610 participants aged 70 years or older (mean age, 78.5 years). Iohexol plasma clearance measurement as gold standard. GFR, measured as the plasma clearance of the endogenous marker iohexol, to compare performance of existing equations of estimated GFR with measured GFR of the gold standard; estimation of measured GFR from standardized creatinine and cystatin C levels, sex, and age in the learning sample; and comparison of the BIS equations (BIS1: creatinine-based; BIS2: creatinine- and cystatin C-based) with other estimating equations and determination of bias, precision, and accuracy in the validation sample. The new BIS2 equation yielded the smallest bias followed by the creatinine-based BIS1 and Cockcroft-Gault equations. All other equations considerably overestimated GFR. The BIS equations confirmed a high prevalence of persons older than 70 years with a GFR less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (BIS1, 50.4%; BIS2, 47.4%; measured GFR, 47.9%). The total misclassification rate for this criterion was smallest for the BIS2 equation (11.6%), followed by the cystatin C equation 2 (15.1%) proposed by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Among the creatinine-based equations, BIS1 had the smallest misclassification rate (17.2%), followed by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (20.4%). There was no validation by an external data set. The BIS2 equation should be used to estimate GFR in persons aged 70 years or older with normal or mild to moderately reduced kidney function. If

  14. Surgical outcomes by age at the time of surgery in the treatment of congenital scoliosis in children under age 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Gune; Suk, Se-Il; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Ha, Kee-Yong; Na, Ki-Ho; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2015-08-01

    There is little information regarding the surgical outcomes with regard to the timing of surgery in children under age 10 years for congenital scoliosis with a long-term follow-up. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes for congenital scoliosis in children 6 years or older but less than 10 years of age. This is a retrospective study. Eighteen congenital scoliosis patients under age 10 years at the time of surgery were treated by posterior hemivertebra resection and bilateral pedicle screw fixation. Outcome measures are radiological outcomes (plain radiographs and computed tomography) and complications. Eighteen congenital scoliosis patients (n=18) under age 10 years at the time of surgery were treated by posterior hemivertebra resection and bilateral pedicle screw fixation. These cases were retrospectively studied and had a minimum of 7-year follow-up. We assigned patients into two groups: Group 1 (n=9) patients who had surgery before 6 years of age and Group 2 (n=9) those who had surgery after 6 years of age. The groups were not found to be statistically different in operative time, blood loss, and follow-up period. In the Group 1, the mean Cobb angle of the main curve was 32.4° before surgery, 6.4° after surgery, and 9.1° at last follow-up. In the Group 2, the mean Cobb angle of the main curve was 36.5° before surgery, 10.4° after surgery, and 14.5° at last follow-up. There was significantly better deformity correction of main curve immediate postoperatively and at last follow-up in Group 1. No significant difference was observed in growth rate of the vertebral body and spinal canal parameters comparing the two groups at the vertebra with or without screws. There was no crankshaft phenomena, no clinical or radiographic features suggestive of spinal stenosis during follow-up, and no major vascular or neurological complications related to the pedicle screws in either group. In congenital scoliosis patients, posterior hemivertebra

  15. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and glucose metabolism in Danish children aged 9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina K; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Rossing, Laura I;

    2014-01-01

    and participants: A total of 771 healthy Danish third grade school children aged 8-10 years in the municipality of Odense were recruited in 1997 through a two-stage cluster sampling from 25 different schools stratified according to location and socioeconomic character; 509 (9.7±0.8 years, 53% girls) had adequate......Context: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated to type 2 diabetes in adults. Objectives: To determine whether concurrent serum PCB concentration was associated with markers of glucose metabolism in healthy children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings......-DDE. Conclusion: A strong inverse association between serum insulin and PCB exposure was found while fasting plasma glucose remained within the expected narrow range. Our findings suggest that PCB may not exert effect through decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, as seen in obese and low fit children...

  17. Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, R; Lawlor, D A; Black, S; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...

  18. Aortic valve reconstruction using autologous pericardium for ages over 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shigeyuki; Kawase, Isamu; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Uchida, Shin; Nozawa, Yukinari; Takatoh, Mikio; Hagiwara, So; Kiyohara, Nagaki

    2014-10-01

    We performed original aortic valve reconstruction using autologous pericardium; the feasibility for elderly patients is reviewed. From April 2007 through September 2011, aortic valve reconstruction was carried out in 86 patients over the age of 80 years. Twenty-seven patients were male and 59 were female. Mean age was 82.9 ± 2.5 years. Seventy-two patients had aortic stenosis and 14 had aortic regurgitation. Mean preoperative surgical annular diameter was 19.5 ± 2.5 mm. There were 80 (90.7%) cases of small aortic annulus. Mean preoperative logistic EuroSCORE was 22.9 ± 15.8. Isolated aortic valve reconstructions were performed in 51 patients. Concomitant procedures included coronary artery bypass grafting in 6, hemiarch aortic replacements in 6, 9 maze procedures, and some combinations. No conversion to valve replacement was required. Mean follow-up was 1243 days. There were 3 hospital deaths due to noncardiac causes. No reoperation was needed. Survival at 56 months was 87.0%. No thromboembolic event occurred. Echocardiography 3.5 years after surgery revealed an average peak pressure gradient of 14.6 ± 3.8 mm Hg. No moderate or severe regurgitation was recorded. Aortic valve reconstruction is feasible for patients older than 80 years, resulting in good hemodynamics and a better quality of life, without anticoagulation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  20. Influencing the parents of children aged 9-13 years: findings from the VERB campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simani M; Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D

    2008-06-01

    The CDC's VERB campaign was designed to increase physical activity among children aged 9-13 years (tweens). As part of the strategy to surround tweens with support to be physically active, VERB developed messages for parents, the secondary target audience, to encourage them to support their tween's physical activity. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether parent awareness of VERB was a significant predictor of seven factors that related to parental attitudes, beliefs, and supportive behaviors for tweens' physical activity using the Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey (YMCLS). Parents (N=1946) of U.S. children aged 9-13 years. Advertising directed at tweens through paid television, radio, print, Internet, and schools was the primary VERB intervention; tween advertising could have been also seen by parents. Messages directed at parents encouraging their support of tweens' physical activity were delivered in English through mainly print and radio. In-language messages for Latino and Asian audiences were delivered through print, radio, television, and at events. Parents' awareness of VERB; parents' attitudes, beliefs, and support for their tweens' physical activities. Awareness increased each year of the campaign; more than 50% of parents were aware of VERB by the third year of the campaign. Parents reported that their main source of awareness was television, the main channel used to reach tweens. Awareness of VERB was predictive of positive attitudes about physical activity for all children, belief in the importance of physical activity for their own child, and the number of days parents were physically active with their child. Parents' awareness of VERB was associated with positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Parents' awareness probably resulted from a combination of messages directed to parents and tweens. To maximize audience reach, social marketers who are developing health messages should consider the potential value of

  1. Total shoulder replacement for osteoarthritis in patients 80 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruria, A M; Sperling, J W; Ankem, H K; Oh, L S; Cofield, R H

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to review the safety and outcome of total shoulder replacements in patients who are > or = 80 years of age. A total of 50 total shoulder replacements in 44 patients at a mean age of 82 years (80 to 89) were studied. Their health and shoulder status, the operation and post-operative course were analysed, including pain, movement, patient satisfaction, medical and surgical complications, radiographs, the need for revision surgery, and implant and patient survival. A total of 27 patients had an ASA classification of III or IV and medical abnormalities were common. Of the 13 shoulders with bony deficiency of the glenoid, nine required grafting. The duration of hospital stay was prolonged and blood transfusions were common. There were no peri-operative deaths. The mean follow-up was for 5.5 years (2 to 12). Pain was significantly reduced (p shoulders had an excellent or satisfactory result. There were medical or surgical complications in 17 cases. Four shoulders developed radiological evidence of loosened glenoid components, and three of these had a poor outcome. Three other shoulders required revision, two for instability. By the time of this review 39 of the patients had died from unrelated causes at a mean of 7.5 years (0.8 to 16.4) after surgery. Total shoulder replacement is a relatively effective treatment in this elderly group of patients. However, there is a requirement for more intense patient care in the peri-operative period, and non-fatal medical or surgical complications are common. Most of these elderly patients will have a comfortable functional shoulder for the rest of their lives.

  2. School screening and point prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 4000 Norwegian children aged 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brox Jens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is discussed. The aim of the present study was to describe the point prevalence of AIS and to evaluate the effectiveness of school screening in 12-year- old children. Methods Community nurses and physical therapists in the Southern Health region of Norway including about 12000 school children aged 12 years were invited to participate. All participating community nurses and physical therapists fulfilled an educational course to improve their knowledge about AIS and learn the screening procedure including the Adam Forward Bending Test and measurement of gibbus using a scoliometer. Results Sub-regions including 4000 school children participated. The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis defined as a positive Adam Forward Bending Test, gibbus > 7° and primary major curve on radiographs > 10°, was 0.55%. Five children (0.13% had a major curve > 20°. Bracing was not indicated in any child; all children were post menarche; four had Risser sign of 4, and one with Risser 1 did not have curve progression > 5° at later follow-up. In one of these 5 children however, the major curve progressed to 45° within 7 months after screening and the girl was operated. Conclusion The point prevalence of AIS in 12- year old children is in agreement or slightly lower than previous studies. The screening model employed demonstrates acceptable sensitivity and specificity and low referral rates. Screening at the age of 12 years only was not effective for detecting patients with indication for brace treatment.

  3. A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on four health variables, handgrip strength, near visual acuity, tooth loss and hearing level, this study examined the different patterns of age-related changes in these variables in Chinese aged from 50 to 74 years, as well as explored the relationship among the variables in a cross-...

  4. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2017-08-01

    To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and 28 children with normal vision (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 4 months); 14 boys) participated in the study. The ManuVis age band for 3-year-old children comprised two one-handed tasks, two two-handed tasks, and a pre-writing task. Children with visual impairment needed more time on all tasks (p visual impairment and normal vision and between half-year age groups. Reference scores are provided for 3-year-old children with visual impairment to identify delayed fine motor development.

  5. Nocturnal Dry Cough in the First 7 Years of Life is Associated With Asthma at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M.; Savenije, Olga E. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and absenc

  6. Nocturnal dry cough in the first 7 years of life is associated with asthma at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M; Savenije, Olga E M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and absenc

  7. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  8. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N;

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  9. Growth references for height, weight and body mass index of twins aged 0-2.5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Gunst, M. de; Vaart, A.D. van; Buuren, S. van; Boomsma, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the size of the growth deficit in Dutch monozygotic and dizygotic twins aged 0-2.5 years as compared to singletons and to construct reference growth charts for twins. Methods: Growth of twins was studied using longitudinal data on over 4000 twins aged 0-2.5 years of the Netherlands

  10. Nocturnal Dry Cough in the First 7 Years of Life is Associated With Asthma at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M.; Savenije, Olga E. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and absenc

  11. Nocturnal dry cough in the first 7 years of life is associated with asthma at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M; Savenije, Olga E M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and absenc

  12. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were asses

  13. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  14. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  15. Nocturnal dry cough in the first 7 years of life is associated with asthma at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M; Savenije, Olga E M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan

    BACKGROUND: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and

  16. Nocturnal dry cough in the first 7 years of life is associated with asthma at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M; Savenije, Olga E M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and

  17. Nocturnal Dry Cough in the First 7 Years of Life is Associated With Asthma at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M.; Savenije, Olga E. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan

    Background: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and

  18. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  19. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  20. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  1. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were

  2. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and

  3. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  4. Regression equations to predict 6-minute walk distance in Chinese adults aged 55–85 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley P.C. Ngai, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD is used as a measure of functional exercise capacity in clinical populations and research. Reference equations to predict 6MWD in different populations have been established, however, available equations for Chinese population are scarce. This study aimed to develop regression equations to predict the 6MWD for a Hong Kong Chinese population. Fifty-three healthy individuals (25 men, 28 women; mean age = 69.3 ± 6.5 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Each participant performed two 6-minute walk tests (6MWTs in accordance with a standard protocol. Heart rate (HR was continuously monitored throughout the 6MWTs and the maximum HR was recorded. Measurements from the 6MWT that resulted in the highest 6MWD were used for regression analysis. The mean 6MWD was 563 ± 62 m and was significantly correlated with age (r = −0.62, height (r = 0.39, and percentage of predicted maximal HR (%predHRmax; r = 0.50. A regression equation derived from the data showed that age, sex, and %predHRmax were independent contributors and together explained 65% of the variance in 6MWD. When HR was excluded, the equation explained 52% of the variance. Application of these equations to a Chinese population living in different parts of China warrants further investigation.

  5. Dynamics of comprehensive physical fitness in artistic gymnasts aged 7-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczyńska Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the somatic development and comprehensive physical fitness of artistic gymnasts aged 7-10 years. Materials and methods: Gymnasts (n = 307, split up into four age groups performed eight Eurofit tests. The results were evaluated in points according to the development standards prepared in scale T for the Polish girls population. Results : The gymnasts obtained the highest growth rate in balance test - FLB (13 points, arm and shoulder muscular endurance test - BAH (7 points and speed of the upper limb movement test - PLT (4 points out of eight physical fitness tests. Conclusions. High and very high level of performance in the six Eurofit tests and increased total number of points in the subsequent age groups of artistic gymnasts proved high effectiveness of training in shaping the key components of a comprehensive physical fitness in artistic gymnastics - balance, strength, endurance, speed and flexibility. Relatively little progress in isometric hand strength (HGR and standing broad jump (SBJ suggests a significant influence of genetic factors on the level of these abilities. The results provide an objective information useful in optimizing control system of training effects in comprehensive physical fitness and optimization of artistic gymnasts training at the comprehensive stage of sports training.

  6. Reference limits and behaviour of serum transferrin receptor in children 6-10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, P; Maconi, M; Morelli, G; Di Palma, A; Rescigno, G; Esposito, C; Avino, D; Talento, B

    2008-08-01

    Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) originates mostly from erythroblasts and lesser from reticulocytes. The usefulness of sTfR has been implicated in several clinical situations, mainly as a marker of accelerated erythropoiesis or iron deficiency. The assessment of sTfR may be useful in the period of rapid growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence. We evaluated sTfR and the other quantitative and qualitative parameters of the erythropoiesis (Hb, MCV, CHr, Ret-He) and of the iron storage (serum ferritin, sTfR/ferritin index) in a total of 916 children aged 6-10 years. Children were divided into three groups: (A) healthy children, (B) with storage iron deficiency (serum ferritin 3.3). We determined reference intervals by sex and by age in healthy children. sTfR showed a slight but statistically significant age related increase but did not show significant sex differences. We compared sTfR and the other parameters investigated in the three groups of children. sTfR is not a decisive parameter that can be utilized alone in discriminating the border-line situations between normal and pathologic ones but can help in completing the panel of tests in iron deficiency and in thalassaemia Beta trait carriers.

  7. Traumatic tooth injuries to primary teeth of children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Aysun; Topaloglu, Bengi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, type of tooth and trauma, from the records of traumatized children (0-3 years) referred to the Ondokuz Mayis University, Dental Faculty, Department of Pedodontics in middle Black Sea region of Turkey. A total of 563 boys and girls participated in the study. Traumatic dental injuries were recorded using the classification of the World Health Organization modified slightly by Andreasen & Andreasen. Traumatic dental injuries were identified in 17.4% of the children. The largest percentage of injuries were in the 13-18 months old children with no significant gender differences (P > 0.05). Periodontal tissue injuries were the most common (84.7%) with no statistical difference between different ages or gender (P > 0.05). The main etiological factor of traumatic dental injury was falls (73.5%) and it was not different between age and gender (P > 0.05). The maxillary central incisors were involved in a higher percentage of traumatic injuries (98%), with no differences between the right and the left sides (P > 0.05). Treatment was sought for 37.4% of children within 1-7 days. It is suggested that parents should be informed about prevention of traumatic injuries and to contact a dentist immediately.

  8. Creation of an Adiposity Index for Children Aged 6–8 Years: The Gateshead Millennium Study

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    Mark S. Pearce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A number of measures of childhood adiposity are in use, but all are relatively imprecise and prone to bias. We constructed an adiposity index (AI using a number of different measures. Methods. Detailed body composition data on 460 of the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at the age of 6–8 years were analysed. The AI was calculated using factor analysis on age plus thirteen measures of adiposity and/or size. Correlations between these variables, the AI, and more traditional measures of adiposity in children were investigated. Results. Based on the factor loading sizes, the first component, taken to be the AI, consisted mainly of measures of fat-mass (the skinfold measurements, fat mass score, and waist circumference. The second comprised variables measuring frame size, while the third consisted mainly of age. The AI had a high correlation with body mass index (BMI (rho = 0.81. Conclusions. While BMI is practical for assessing adiposity in children, the AI combines a wider range of data related to adiposity than BMI alone and appears both valid and valuable as a research tool for studies of childhood adiposity. Further research is necessary to investigate the utility of AI for research in other samples of children and also in adults.

  9. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

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    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  10. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

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    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  11. Sexual risk behaviors and HIV risk among Americans aged 50 years or older: a review

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    Pilowsky DJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is

  12. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT IN SCHOOL CHILDREN AGED 5 TO 12 YEARS OF KANNUR DISTRICT

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    Prasanth Karakkad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity and overweight are increasing in young population due to lifestyle changes and various risk factors. Aims of study are to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children aged 5-12 yrs. of Kannur district, the risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 5-12 yrs. complications associated with obesity. METHODS This is a descriptive/cross-sectional study done for a period of 1 year (June 2007 - June 2008 in government and private schools of Kannur district. Subjects of study were children between age group of 5-12 years attending selected government and private schools. By using appropriate statistical methods, sample size required for estimating a prevalence of obesity was found to be 2400. Cluster sampling technique is used. From a list of all schools, two strata were made as government schools and private schools from which three private schools and two government schools were selected using a simple random method. Absentees and those who have not given parental consent were excluded. Study variables are age, sex, socioeconomic status, birth weight, blood pressure, maternal education, television viewing, monthly income of parents, government/private school and family size. RESULTS Prevalence of obesity in study sample is 3%, overweight 7.25%, normal weight 71.75%, underweight 18%. Girls are more prone than boys to develop persistent obesity during adolescence. X² test for overweight showed the relation of age and gender with overweight is significant (p value 0.001 and 0.041, respectively. X² test for overweight and school showed that the relation between overweight and school is significant. X² test for obesity and birth weight shows that there is positive correlation between obesity and birth weight (p value=0.042. X² test for obesity and television watching shows significant correlation. Similarly, there was no significant correlation between maternal education and overweight in

  13. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

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    Wróblewska I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Wróblewska,1 Piotr Oleśniewicz,2 Donata Kurpas,3 Mariusz Sołtysik,2 Jerzy Błaszczuk41Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, 2Institute of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, 3Department of Family Medicine, 4Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Lower Silesia, PolandIntroduction and objective: The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged ≥65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders.Material and methods: In the research, 217 (100% patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied.Results: The majority of the patients (59.4% were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%. The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive

  14. Vaccination coverage of children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania

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    Yannis Getsios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades a huge progress has taken place in the field of the primary prevention of infections and many new vaccines have been introduced in the compulsory vaccination program. There is evidence, however, that immunization coverage against some infectious diseases is not adequate. Aim: It was to investigate the level of immunization coverage of Greek and Immigrants' children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania regarding vaccines against pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (DTaP, poliomyelitis (IPV and measles–mumps–rubella (MMR. Material and methods: The sample of the study consisted of the pupils of all nursing and elementary schools of the prefecture of Evritania , aged 4-12 years old. Children's personal Health Cards were used to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine doses. X2 was usedfor comparisons. Statistics was processed with SPPS 17.0. Results: The boys of the sample were 469 (51.9% and the girls 434 (48.1%. Full vaccination coverage with DTaP, MMR and IPV was 87.3%, 79.9%, and 97.6% respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between Greek and Immigrants' children. Conclusion: Vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella was inadequate. Immigrants' and Greek children are equally covered. Vaccination coverage with MMR is troublesome.

  15. [Sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of food hypersensitivity in children under 3 years of age].

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    Zur, E; Kaczmarski, M

    2001-09-01

    Dietary elimination is a treatment of first choice in food hypersensitivity. Such therapy is not always enough to stop the disease and introduction of pharmacological treatment is necessary. In prevention and long term treatment antiallergic drugs are recommended. The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of oral sodium cromoglycate in treatment of food hypersensitivity in the youngest children. In our study we examined: the group of 25 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with oral cromolyn sodium during the period 4-20 weeks and 29 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with ketotifen. Symptoms from skin, digestive and respiratory tract, behaviour status were evaluated for drugs efficacy. Cromolyn and ketotifen effected a significant decrease in total symptoms score. The treatment was well tolerated. No serious side effects were noted. The incidents of skin rash, disquiet during the night, diarrhoea and urticaria were only 8 percent. Sodium cromoglycate is safe and effective drug in treatment of food allergy in children; specially in symptoms from gastrointestinal tract and multi-organs allergy.

  16. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

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    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  17. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2013-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  18. Structure and physical technical and tactical training handball players aged 10-11 years

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    Palagin A.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the structural and functional relationships, physical, technical and tactical training handball aged 10-11 years. Material : the study involved 20 handball players aged 10-11 years. Results : isolated and subjected to review 55 correlations between speed, speed-strength, coordination skills and basic technical and tactical methods of the game. Consider the correlation matrix structure level of physical, technical and tactical training to handball pedagogical experiment. Found that 55 of the 15 correlations calculated (27.3% positive and 12 (21.81 % of negative relationships were statistically significant. It is 49.08 % of the linkages (r = 0.54 to 0.85. Correlations allow to evaluate the effectiveness of the training process under the influence of specific funds targeted at individual components of motor abilities and techniques of the game. Conclusions : methodological recommendations, technology and program start-up phase of preparation of young handball players. The program aims at the development of the dual physical and technical and tactical training.

  19. [Factors associated with malnutrition in children aged under five years in Lubumbashi (DRC)].

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    Mukatay, Abdon W M; Kalenga, Prosper M K; Dramaix, Michèle; Hennart, Philippe; Schirvel, Carole; Kabamba, Lydia M; Kabyla, Benjamin I; Donnen, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is a global indicator of children's well-being and, indirectly, of the community's well-being. The first objective of this work is to assess the nutritional status of children under five years-old living in a suburb of the city of Lubumbashi, DR Congo, at the end of the 1998-2003 armed conflict. The second objective aims to identify some predictors of malnutrition. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to the results of a cross-sectional survey of 1963 children from selected households. In addition to the anthropometric variables, living conditions were also used. We observed 33.5% stunted growth and 3.8% emaciation. After logistic regression, a low maternal educational level (less than 7 years), the absence of a drinking water tap available in the house or yard, male gender, and age of children ( > 11 months) were all significantly associated with increased risk of stunted growth. Moreover, decreased appetite, diarrhea and age of children ( < 12 months) were significant predictors of emaciation. Compared to the classification of the World Health Organization, our results indicate that the prevalence of stunting is high and the prevalence of emaciation is low. Interventions against malnutrition should consider the various predictors discussed in this study in order to reduce mortality and morbidity in children and contribute to their well-being.

  20. Follow-up of preterm children: II. Growth and development at four years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, M; Bjerre, I

    1990-11-01

    In a long-term prospective study, 46 unselected infants born before 35 completed weeks of gestation were compared with 26 full-term infants. At four years of age, 44 preterms and 25 full-terms were available to follow-up. The preterms were somewhat shorter in stature and lighter in weight than the full-terms but fell well within the normal range for Swedish children. Head circumference in the preterm group was significantly correlated to neurological development. Psychometric evaluation with Griffiths' mental developmental scale showed the preterms to fall within the normal range, though their performance was inferior to that of the full-terms. The greatest differences between the groups were in scores for the subscales eye and hand coordination, performance, and practical reasoning. There was no correlation within the preterm group between the test results and birthweight, gestational age, prenatal score, perinatal score, or parental social status or education. Language development was delayed among the preterms, more of whom required speech therapy. Visual and hearing disorders were more common among preterms than expected. Although they were all in good health, more preterms than full-terms needed hospital care during the first four years of life.

  1. [Comprehensive geriatric assessment in hospitalized patients aged 80 years and more].

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    Klich-Raczka, Alicja; Dubiel, Marzena; Sulicka, Joanna; Zyczkowska, Jolanta; Pitucha, Melania

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive geriatric assessment during hospitalization, taking into account the specificity of geriatric patients could be used both in acute and long-term care. We analyzed 63 patients aged at least 80 years, born on odd days and hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Kraków. We examined patients using Geriatric Assessment Chart which consisted of Barthel Index (used to determinate motor activity), MMSE, GDS (Geriatric Depression Scale), abbreviated Tinetti Test, Waterlow Index (used to determine the risk of pressure sore development), delirium risk factors scale, and social evaluation. The data were analyzed according to sex, marital status, level of mood, and residence status (free living or institutionalized). The mean age of 47 women and 16 men was 85.0 +/- 4.34 years. Dementia was been found in 60% of examined patients. Depression (usually mild) was encountered in 55.4%. Motor activity was moderately to severely impaired in the entire group, with high level of risk of falls and development of pressure sores. Thirteen per cent of the patients have been admitted with already developed ulcers. The results suggest the need for the comprehensive geriatric assessment both in hospitalized patients and in post-hospital phase of care.

  2. The effects of birthweight and breastfeeding on asthma among children aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Dailey, Amy B; Freeman, Natalie C; Curbow, Barbara A; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2009-11-01

    Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children and has steadily increased in prevalence. The combined effect of birthweight and breastfeeding on childhood asthma remains unclear. In this study, we analysed a nationally representative sample of children aged 1-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Logistic regression was performed to examine the hypothesis whether birthweight and breastfeeding are independently associated with the prevalence of asthma after accounting for the complex sampling design. In addition, we sought to describe the relationship between birthweight and childhood asthma and to assess the potentially combined effect between birthweight and breastfeeding on asthma among children aged 1-5 years after considering the possible effects of social and environmental factors. We found that birthweight (measured continuously) was inversely and linearly associated with the prevalence of childhood asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.80 per 1 kg increase in birthweight, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.98). Using a categorical variable, low birthweight (LBW) was positively associated with childhood asthma (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81-2.68). Furthermore, we detected an interaction between birthweight and breastfeeding on childhood asthma. Breastfeeding had a strong protective effect on asthma among children with high birthweight (OR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43) while it had no significant effect on asthma among children with normal birthweight or LBW. The mechanisms underlying these relationships remain uncertain and warrant further explanation.

  3. A study of pattern and profile of non infectious dermatoses in paediatric age group <12 years.

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    Dr. Jeta Buch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of non infectious dermatoses in children under 12 years of age; the incidence and prevalence of various physiological, genetic, papulosquamous, nutritional, autoimmune and drug induced disorders; the systemic association in various dermatoses and early identification of genetic disorder which will help in estimating the genetic risk and planning of future pregnancies. Present clinical study comprises of 1000 children less than 12 years of age in the department of Dermatology, V.S General Hospital, Ahmedabad. The study was conducted from Oct 2012 to Oct 2014. The time of occurrence, extent of involvement and the anatomical location was recorded. Relevant obstetrical history, history of any illness during pregnancy, history of drug ingestion, sibling history and parental consanguinity was noted and various skin lesions recorded. Observations were tabulated and statistically analysed. Follow up was done every 15 days. The dermatoses were classified as papulosquamous (61.0%, nevi (4.8%, genetic (4.2%, hair (9.6%, autoimmune (5.8%, drug reactions (3.1%, nutritional (2.8%, physiological (11.4%, and others (2.5%.The commonest skin manifestations observed were papulosquamous, genetic and autoimmune disorders. Better parent awareness, proper hygiene, adequate nutrition and early identification of the condition help in preventing many of these disorders.

  4. Cataract surgical coverage rate among adults aged 40 years and older

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    Lusianawaty Tana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is a leading cause of curable blindness. Hence, in its global declaration of ‘Vision 2020 Right to Sight’, the World Health Organization (WHO encouraged its member countries to address the problem of incident cataract. Many factors are related to the cataract surgical coverage rate, such as gender and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine the cataract surgical coverage rate and investigate the determinants factors of cataract surgical coverage rate among adults 40 years old and above with cataract. A cross sectional study was conducted using National Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. Cataract surgery was defined as surgery conducted within the last 12 months before the survey was performed. There were 6939 subjects (3105 male, 3834 female who fulfilled the study criteria. The cataract surgical coverage rate was 19.3%. The cataract surgical coverage rate was lower in subjects with low education, in the group of farmers/fishermen/laborers, in the 40-49 years age group, in rural areas, and in subjects of low socioeconomic status (p0.05. Determinants that were related to cataract surgical coverage rate were age, type of area of residence, socioeconomic status, and region of residence (p<0.001. The implementation of educational programs and reforms to local ophthalmic health services may improve the cataract surgical coverage rate.

  5. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis

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    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5 years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%, no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%. Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients, tomatoes (in 20%, and kiwi (in 17, 5%, apples and spices (in 16%, tangerines and oranges (in 15%, capsicum (in 13%, fishes (in 12%, celery (in 9%, and chocolate (in 7%. Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  6. Melatonin prolonged release: in the treatment of insomnia in patients aged ≥55 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2012-11-01

    Melatonin prolonged release (PR) 2 mg is approved for the treatment of primary insomnia characterized by poor sleep quality in patients aged ≥55 years in the EU and elsewhere. Patients may receive treatment with melatonin PR for up to 13 weeks. Production of endogenous nocturnal melatonin, which helps regulate circadian rhythm, may be decreased in older adults. Administration of melatonin PR 2 mg 1-2 h before bedtime mimics the natural secretion pattern of melatonin, thereby leading to improvements in the circadian regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In older adults, melatonin PR 2 mg had no effect on psychomotor functions, memory recall or driving skills during the night or the next morning relative to placebo, and was associated with significantly less impairment on many of these tasks relative to zolpidem 10 mg alone or in combination with melatonin PR 2 mg. In 3-week and 6-month, randomized, double-blind clinical trials in patients with primary insomnia aged ≥55 years, melatonin PR 2 mg 1-2 h before bedtime was associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in many sleep and daytime parameters, including sleep quality and latency, morning alertness and health-related quality of life. Melatonin PR 2 mg was very well tolerated in clinical trials in older patients, with a tolerability profile that was similar to that of placebo. Short- or longer-term treatment with melatonin PR 2 mg was not associated with dependence, tolerance, rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms.

  7. The role of isotropic diffusion MRI in children under 2 years of age

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    Gelal, F.M.; Grant, P.E.; Fischbein, N.J.; Henry, R.G.; Vigneron, D.B.; Barkovich, A.J. [Dept. of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the contribution of diffusion MR imaging to standard MR imaging in the neuroradiological evaluation of children less than 2 years of age. Echo-planar diffusion MR imaging was added to standard MR exams in 75 consecutive patients under the age of 2 years. Single-shot echo-planar spin-echo T2 weighted images (EPSE-T2) were acquired. Isotropic diffusion-weighted images (DWI), attenuation coefficient maps (ACM), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated offline from images obtained with diffusion gradients (b=1000 s/mm{sup 2}) in three orthogonal directions. Two neuroradiologists determined if EPSE-T2, DWI, or ACM contributed new information to spin-echo proton density (SE PD) and T2 studies. In 15 of 18 abnormalities detected in 8 patients with symptoms less than 1 week in duration, DWI and/or ACM added information to SE PD and T2. Diffusion sequences detected five new lesions, showed six lesions with greater conspicuity, and identified four lesions with different diffusion character. In patients with symptoms of more than 7 days duration, diffusion studies added no information. Isotropic diffusion MR contributed to lesion detection and characterization in infants when symptoms were less than 1 week in duration. Diffusion MR is useful in patients with leukodystrophies, metabolic disorders, and patients with acute ischemic lesions. (orig.)

  8. Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. χ(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account.

  9. Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

    2011-10-26

    In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained.

  10. Familial history of cancer and leukemia in children younger than 2 years of age in Brazil.

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    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Koifman, Sérgio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of a familial history of cancer (FHC) to the development of leukemia in children below 2 years of age. This is a national hospital-based case-control study of children 0-24 months of age recruited from 15 Brazilian hospitals from several regions providing oncological care and local general hospitals. Participants' FHC antecedents were obtained through face-to-face interviews with the mothers of cases and controls using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted (adj.) odds ratios (OR), and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI), of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after adjustment for selected variables. FHC antecedents were obtained from 178 ALL, 51 AML, and 428 controls. FHC in second-degree relatives (grandparents, uncles, cousins) showed an adj. OR=1.66 (95% CI 1.12-2.45) for ALL. Antecedents of two or more relatives with cancer showed a statistically significant two-fold higher risk of either ALL or AML. Paternal, and joint paternal and maternal antecedents of cancer also showed statistically significant higher adj. OR, respectively: 1.80 and 1.89 for ALL, and 2.34 and 3.23 for AML. Hematological malignancies among second-degree relatives showed an adj. OR=3.48 (95% CI 1.72-7.09) for ALL. According to the anatomic site, antecedents of leukemia/lymphoma among case relatives, compared with the control ones, showed an OR=2.98 (95% CI 1.52-5.82) for ALL, whereas stomach cancer antecedents showed an OR=3.55 (95% CI 1.02-12.39) for AML. The observed results support the hypothesis that FHC antecedents are associated with leukemogenesis in children below 2 years of age.

  11. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age

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    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

  12. Clinical manifestations of atopy in children up to two years of age

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    Ilić Nevenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma have had increased prevalence during the past decade and nowadays occur in every third child in developed countries. The aim of the study was to determine frequency and type of atopic diseases at the age of two, as well as the importance the total IgE antibodies concentrations have in diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Methods. The study involved 175 children up to two years of age. Allergy-like symptoms were found after surveying their parents and pediatric medical records. Using the fluorescence immunossay (FIA method, total IgE antibodies concentrations and specific IgE antibodies (Phadiatop infant were determined on an Immunocap 100 Dyagnostic System. Results. One or more allergy-like symptoms accounted for 57.7% of findings in children under the age of two, whilst in 19.4% the existence of IgE-related allergic diseases was found. Atopic diseases usually have clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis (11.4%, IgE-bound wheezing/asthma (10.8% and food allergies (7.4%, and to much lesser extent those of allergic rhinitis (3.4% and urticaria (1.7%. The significantly higher total IgE antibodies concentrations were found in children with allergy-like symptoms (p < 0.0005 (cut-off 15.15 kU/L, sensitivity 76.5% specificity 71.6%. Conclusion. Almost 20% of two-year-old children have any of clinically manifested allergic diseases, with atopic dermatitis and IgE wheeze/asthma being predominant. The higher total IgE antibodies concentration is a good marker for sensitization in children with allergy-like symptoms.

  13. Tobacco use among students aged 13–15 years in Greece: the GYTS project

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    Papastergiou Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in Greece are limited. We examined the prevalence of smoking among middle-school students in Greece using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. Methods The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was implemented in Greece during the academic year 2004 – 2005 by the University of Thessaly and the National School of Public Health. Data were collected using the GYTS self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which was distributed by specifically trained field workers to a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13–15 years (through randomly selected schools and classes, randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sample design. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Results About one third of the students 32.1% (29.4 – 35.0 reported that they had tried tobacco in the past, while 16.2% (14.3 – 18.4 reported being current users of tobacco products. In addition, 1 in 4 of ever smokers reported that they began smoking before the age of 10 years old. Almost 1 in 5 never smokers reported being susceptible to initiate smoking in the next year and about 89.8% (88.3 – 91.1 of the respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes and 94.1% (93.2 – 94.9 in public places. Finally, a strikingly high number of students 95% (89.5 – 97.7 reported that they were able to buy their own cigarettes without restrictions. Conclusion The results of the GYTS show that the prevalence of smoking in middle-school children is alarmingly high in Greece. Smoking among young people constitutes a significant problem that is destined to worsen in the absence of any comprehensive efforts focused on strict anti-smoking legislation, policies and tobacco control interventions targeting children at a young age.

  14. Does a one year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players?

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    Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria

    2017-08-22

    Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.

  15. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

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    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values.

  16. More than 20 years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis, and year of birth.

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    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Biggeri, Annibale; Ledda, Alessia; Mannu, Carla; Merletti, Franco; Songini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed Sardinian registry data to assess time trends in incidence rates (IRs) of type 1 diabetes during the period 1989-2009 (2,371 case subjects 0-14 years of age). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effects of sex, age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohorts. IR was 44.8 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 43.1-46.7). The annual increase was 2.12% (1.45-2.80; test for linear trend, P 1). For boys, the increasing trend was evident up to 5 years of age and for girls up to 8 years of age. Compared with the 1989-1994 birth cohort, the relative risk increased from 0.78 (0.61-1.10) in 1974-1979 to 1.62 (1.18-2.23) in 2004-2009. The increase over period was less striking, with a tendency to regress in more recent years. The best-fitting model for boys included age and a linear time trend, and for girls age and nonlinear effects of calendar period and birth cohort. In conclusion, incidence increased over time, and the increase tended to level off in more recent years by calendar period but not by birth cohort, with some evidence of a stronger increase among girls than boys. Should the increase be attributable to the effects of some perinatal environmental factor, this would mean that such a factor has started affecting females before males.

  17. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

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    Tine Hansen-Turton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6% of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7% of the 628 control children (p = 0.1. Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4 months versus 23.6 (3.1 months (P = 0.6. Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4. The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes.

  18. ADHD symptoms in children aged 5 to 15 years in Zhabei District, Shanghai

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    Wen-Lan Jin

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and its related factors remains unclear in Shanghai.The aim of this study was to investigate the positive rates of ADHD symptoms and the associated factors in a sample of children aged 5 to 15 years in Zhabei District, Shanghai. Methods: The participants were selected by cluster-stratified sampling of the general information and responses gathered from questionnaires on ADHD symptoms. The questionnaires examined summed up to 9,627. The positive rates of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms and the socio-demographic factors were compared. Results: The positive rates of most ADHD symptoms decreased with age. Children between 5 and 7 years and between 7 and 9 years exhibited the highest ADHD positive rates. Boys showed a higher positive rate of ADHD symptoms compared to girls. Children who were local residents showed a higher rate than nonlocal residents and those of other nationalities. This might be related to the integration of immigrants and those belonging to lower socioeconomic classes. The positive rates of ADHD symptoms decreased with the educational level of the parents, while the parents'; level of education was associated with the severity of the ADHD symptoms. Problems of inattention were more common than problems of hyperactivity, as indicated by the positive rates. Conclusions: The improper educational guidance of ineffective parents, as well as simple and crude attitudes to education, may place children in such a conflicting state, gradually creating psychological problems and resulting in a lack of self-confidence and ADHD.

  19. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

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    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceptions of five-year competitive categories: model of how relative age influences competitiveness in masters sport.

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    Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Grove, J Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contrasting perceptions of masters swimmers related to the first and fifth constituent years of a 5-year age category. Swimmers aged between 35 and 93 years (154 male, 184 female) were surveyed at the 2008 FINA World Masters Championships. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of the following five factors considered important for preparation, attendance, and success at masters competitions: awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity. One sample t-tests showed that masters swimmers are conscious of advantages that 5-year age categories afford to relatively-younger cohorts (i.e., those who are in the first year of any age category). They also perceive that, in the first compared to the fifth year of an age category, they have greater physiological capacity, engage in more training, have higher expectations to perform well, and are more motivated (all ps competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Key PointsThere are at least five psycho-social and physical factors (i.e., awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity) that may explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate more in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes.Masters athletes are conscious of the advantage that 5-year age categories afford to relatively younger cohorts of athletes.Differential perceptions associated with the 5-year age categories might compromise masters athletes' continuity of sport competitiveness and underlying training.