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Sample records for age-dependent protein carbonylation

  1. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Muscle Type-Dependent and Age-Dependent Protein Carbonylation in Rat Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Juan; Xie, Hongwei; Meany, Danni L.; Thompson, LaDora V.; Arriaga, Edgar A.; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbonylation is a highly prevalent protein modification in skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly contributing to its functional decline with age. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified mitochondrial proteins susceptible to carbonylation in a muscle type (slow- vs fast-twitch)-dependent and age-dependent manner from Fischer 344 rat skeletal muscle. Fast-twitch muscle contained twice as many carbonylated mitochondrial proteins than did slow-twitch muscle, with 22 proteins showing signif...

  2. Validation of protein carbonyl measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustyniak, Edyta; Adam, Aisha; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Willetts, Rachel; Korkmaz, Ayhan; Atalay, Mustafa; Weber, Daniela; Grune, Tilman; Borsa, Claudia; Gradinaru, Daniela; Chand Bollineni, Ravi; Fedorova, Maria; Griffiths, Helen R

    Protein carbonyls are widely analysed as a measure of protein oxidation. Several different methods exist for their determination. A previous study had described orders of magnitude variance that existed when protein carbonyls were analysed in a single laboratory by ELISA using different commercial...... protein carbonyl analysis across Europe. ELISA and Western blotting techniques detected an increase in protein carbonyl formation between 0 and 5min of UV irradiation irrespective of method used. After irradiation for 15min, less oxidation was detected by half of the laboratories than after 5min...

  3. Acrolein induces selective protein carbonylation in synaptosomes

    OpenAIRE

    C.F. Mello; R. Sultana; Piroddi, M.; J. Cai; PIERCE, W. M; Klein, J.B.; D. A. Butterfield

    2007-01-01

    Acrolein, the most reactive of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is endogenously produced by lipid peroxidation, and has been found increased in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Although it is known that acrolein increases total protein carbonylation and impairs the function of selected proteins, no study has addressed which proteins are selectively carbonylated by this aldehyde. In this study we investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of acrolein (0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5...

  4. Pattern of occurrence and occupancy of carbonylation sites in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are targets for modification by reactive oxygen species, and carbonylation is an important irreversible modification that increases during oxidative stress. While information on protein carbonylation is accumulating, its pattern is not yet understood. We have made a meta-analysis of the...... available literature data (456 carbonylation sites on 208 proteins) to appreciate the nature of carbonylation sites in proteins. Of the carbonylated (Arg, Lys, Pro, and Thr – RKPT) amino acids, Lys is the most abundant, whereas Pro is the most susceptible and Thr is the least susceptible. The incidence of...

  5. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  6. Tissue- and age-dependent expression of the bovine DEFB103 gene and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabzadeh-Ardakani, Ali; Solie, Jay; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Schmutz, Sheila M; Griebel, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Beta-defensin 103 (DEFB103) shares little homology with 8 other members of the bovine beta-defensin family and in other species DEFB103 protein has diverse functions, including antimicrobial activity, a chemoattractant for dendritic cells, enhancing epithelial wound repair and regulating hair colour. Expression of the bovine DEFB103 gene was surveyed in 27 tissues and transcript was most abundant in tissues with stratified squamous epithelium. Oral cavity epithelial tissues and nictitating membrane consistently expressed high levels of DEFB103 gene transcript. An age-dependent decrease (P internal organs such as lung, intestine and kidney. Affinity-purified rabbit antisera to bovine DEFB103 was used to identify cells expressing DEFB103 protein within tissues with stratified squamous epitheliums. DEFB103 protein was most abundant in basal epithelial cells and was present in these cells prior to birth. Beta-defensins have been identified as regulators of dendritic cell (DC) chemokine responses and we observed a close association between DCs and epithelial cells expressing DEFB103 in both the fetus and newborn calf. In conclusion, bovine DEFB103 gene expression is most abundant in stratified squamous epithelium with DEFB103 protein localised to basal epithelial cells. These observations are consistent with proposed roles for DEFB103 in DC recruitment and repair of stratified squamous epithelium. PMID:26299200

  7. Role of Carbonyl Modifications on Aging-Associated Protein Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, Maya; Urbanska, Aleksandra M.; Zolla, Valerio; Clement, Cristina C.; Huang, Liling; Morozova, Kateryna; Follo, Carlo; Goldberg, Michael; Roda, Barbara; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common biological phenomenon, observed in different physiological and pathological conditions. Decreased protein solubility and a tendency to aggregate is also observed during physiological aging but the causes are currently unknown. Herein we performed a biophysical separation of aging-related high molecular weight aggregates, isolated from the bone marrow and splenic cells of aging mice and followed by biochemical and mass spectrometric analysis. The analysis indicated that compared to younger mice an increase in protein post-translational carbonylation was observed. The causative role of these modifications in inducing protein misfolding and aggregation was determined by inducing carbonyl stress in young mice, which recapitulated the increased protein aggregation observed in old mice. Altogether our analysis indicates that oxidative stress-related post-translational modifications accumulate in the aging proteome and are responsible for increased protein aggregation and altered cell proteostasis.

  8. [Carbonyl stress and oxidatively modified proteins in chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargnoux, A-S; Morena, M; Badiou, S; Dupuy, A-M; Canaud, B; Cristol, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly observed in chronic renal failure patients resulting from an unbalance between overproduction of reactive oxygen species and impairement of defense mechanisms. Proteins appear as potential targets of uremia-induced oxidative stress and may undergo qualitative modifications. Proteins could be directly modified by reactive oxygen species which leads to amino acid oxydation and cross-linking. Proteins could be indirectly modified by reactive carbonyl compounds produced by glycoxidation and lipo-peroxidation. The resulting post-traductional modifications are known as carbonyl stress. In addition, thiols could be oxidized or could react with homocystein leading to homocysteinylation. Finally, tyrosin could be oxidized by myeloperoxidase leading to advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP). Oxidatively modified proteins are increased in chronic renal failure patients and may contribute to exacerbate the oxidative stress/inflammation syndrome. They have been involved in long term complications of uremia such as amyloidosis and accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:19297289

  9. Protein carbonylation and metal-catalyzed protein oxidation in a cellular perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rao, R S P

    2011-01-01

    be relevant in physiological processes, irreversible oxidative modifications are known to contribute to cellular damage and disease. The most well-studied irreversible protein oxidation is carbonylation. In this work we first examine how protein carbonylation occurs via metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO...

  10. Traditional reactive carbonyl scavengers do not prevent the carbonylation of brain proteins induced by acute glutathione depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, J; Bizzozero, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive carbonyl species (RCS)-trapping agents on the formation of protein carbonyls during depletion of brain glutathione (GSH). To this end, rat brain slices were incubated with the GSH-depletor diethyl maleate in the absence or presence of chemically different RCS scavengers (hydralazine, methoxylamine, aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, carnosine, taurine and z-histidine hydrazide). Despite their strong reactivity towards the most common RCS, none of the ...

  11. Protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and neuronal cell death in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anushka

    Many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Yet, the mechanism by which oxidative stress leads to tissue damage in these disorders is unclear. Recent work from our laboratory has revealed that protein carbonylation, a major oxidative modification caused by severe and/or chronic oxidative stress conditions, is elevated in MS and EAE. Furthermore, protein carbonylation has been shown to alter protein structure leading to misfolding/aggregation. These findings prompted me to hypothesize that carbonylated proteins, formed as a consequence of oxidative stress and/or decreased proteasomal activity, promote protein aggregation to mediate neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in EAE. To test this novel hypothesis, I first characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [Chapter 2]. The results show that carbonylated proteins accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. I discovered not only that there is a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation and apoptosis but also that carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are also present during the course of EAE, which seems to be due to reduced autophagy. In chapter 3, I show that when gluthathione levels are reduced to those in EAE spinal cord, both neuron-like PC12 (nPC12) cells and primary neuronal cultures accumulate carbonylated proteins and undergo cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis). Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies also revealed a temporal

  12. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic detection of protein carbonyls derivatized with biotin-hydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinzi; Luo, Xiaoting; Jing, Siqun; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Protein carbonyls are protein oxidation products that are often used to measure the magnitude of protein oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen or reactive nitrogen species. Protein carbonyls have been found to be elevated during aging and in age-related diseases such as stroke, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present article, we provide detailed protocols for detection of mitochondrial protein carbonyls labeled with biotin-hydrazide followed by 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF)/SDS-PAGE and Western blotting probed with horse-radish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. The presented procedures can also be modified for detection of carbonylation of non-mitochondrial proteins. PMID:26590475

  13. Traditional reactive carbonyl scavengers do not prevent the carbonylation of brain proteins induced by acute glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Bizzozero, O A

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive carbonyl species (RCS)-trapping agents on the formation of protein carbonyls during depletion of brain glutathione (GSH). To this end, rat brain slices were incubated with the GSH-depletor diethyl maleate in the absence or presence of chemically different RCS scavengers (hydralazine, methoxylamine, aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, carnosine, taurine and z-histidine hydrazide). Despite their strong reactivity towards the most common RCS, none of the scavengers tested, with the exception of hydralazine, prevented protein carbonylation. These findings suggest that the majority of protein-associated carbonyl groups in this oxidative stress paradigm do not derive from stable lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). This conclusion was confirmed by the observation that the amount of MDA-, acrolein- and 4-HNE-protein adducts does not increase upon GSH depletion. Additional studies revealed that the efficacy of hydralazine at preventing carbonylation was due to its ability to reduce oxidative stress, most likely by inhibiting mitochondrial production of superoxide and/or by scavenging lipid free radicals. PMID:20001647

  14. Age-dependent changes in extracellular proteins, aminopeptidase and proteinase activities in Frankia isolate BR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; Benoist, P; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1991-12-01

    To investigate protein secretion by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia isolate BR, we designed a rapid DEAE adsorption, salt elution and Biogel P6DG desalination method to concentrate protein from the growth medium. Secreted proteins reached a maximum concentration (5.6 gm l-1) in the medium at growth arrest. Analysis by SDS-PAGE detected up to 63 extracellular polypeptides when Frankia cells were grown under stirred conditions in BAP medium supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and MES buffer and 65 proteins in stirred BAP media alone. The pattern of extracellular polypeptides changed during growth. Several extracellular proteolytic activities were detected and compared with intracellular ones. The substrate specificity of the extracellular and intracellular aminopeptidase activities were the same. Also, the electrophoretic migration patterns of secreted and intracellular aminopeptidases could not be distinguished. Secretion of the proline-specific aminopeptidase FAP proteinase (PF) were secreted: 10 had the same electrophoretic mobility as their intracellular counterparts after SDS-gelatine-PAGE while five (PF - 39.5, PF - 38.5, PF - 36.5, PF - 25.5 and PF - 20.5 kDa) had a different electrophoretic mobility and, therefore, appeared to be exclusively extracellular. At least seven extracellular proteinases appeared to increase coordinately in activity shortly before growth arrest. PMID:15101385

  15. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Ablation Enhances Age-Dependent Weight Gain in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Payne, H. Ross; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although studies performed in vitro and with transfected cells in culture suggest a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in regulating fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition, the physiological significance of this possibility is not completely clear. To begin to address this question, the effect of L-FABP gene ablation on phenotype of standard rodent chow-fed male mice was examined with increasing age up to 18 mo. While young (2-3 mo) L-FABP null mice displayed no visually obvi...

  16. Analysis of dynamic protein carbonylation in rice embryo during germination through AP-SWATH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; He, Dongli; Yu, Jianlan; Li, Ming; Damaris, Rebecca Njeri; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Sun Tae; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-03-01

    Seed germination is an important aspect of the plant life cycle, during which, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate. The accumulation of ROS results in an increase in protein oxidation of which carbonylation is the most canonical one. However, there is insufficient information concerning protein oxidation, especially carbonylation and its contribution to seed germination. In this study, biotin hydrazide labeled chromatography combined with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH) method was used to analyze the dynamic pattern of protein carbonylation in rice embryos during germination. A total of 1872 unique proteins were quantified, among which 288 carbonylated peptides corresponding to 144 proteins were determined based on the filtering through mass shifts of modified amino acids. In addition, 66 carbonylated proteins were further analyzed based on their carbonylation intensity in four stages of germination. These identified carbonylated proteins were mainly involved in maintaining the levels of ROS, abscisic acid and seed reserves. Remarkably, a peroxiredoxin was found with 23 unique carbonylated peptides, and the expression of which was consistent with its increased activity. This study describes the dynamic pattern of carbonylated proteins during seed germination, and may help to further understand the biochemical mechanisms on this process. PMID:26801057

  17. Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rachel C; Buonora, John E; Jacobowitz, David M; Mueller, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional

  18. Behaviour of protein carbonyl groups in juvenile myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Gregorio; Canino, Baldassare; Incalcaterra, Egle; Ferrera, Eleonora; Montana, Maria; Lo Presti, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is accompanied by oxidative stress, and protein oxidation is among the consequences of oxidative stress. We examined the plasma concentration of protein carbonyl groups (PC), a marker of protein oxidation, in a group of young subjects with AMI (45 men and 5 women; mean age 40.4 ± 4.8 yrs). We found a significant increase of PC (p < 0.001) in comparison with normal controls. No difference was observed between patients with AMI characterized by elevated ST segment and those without elevation of ST segment. There was no correlation between the ejection fraction and PC in the whole group nor in the subgroups of STEMI and non-STEMI patients. Subdividing the whole group of AMI patients according to the number of risk factors and the number of stenosed coronary vessels, the difference in PC level was not statistically significant among the subgroups. This study showed an increased protein oxidation in young subjects with recent AMI. Further investigation is needed to ascertain whether this can be a target of therapeutic intervention. PMID:22504219

  19. AminoxyTMT: A novel multi-functional reagent for characterization of protein carbonylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiuni-Zadeh, Somaieh; Rogers, John C; Snovida, Sergei I; Bomgarden, Ryan D; Griffin, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a common oxidative stress (OS)-driven post-translational modification (PTM). Proteome-wide carbonylation events can best be characterized using a combination of analytical approaches. Immunoblotting of carbonylated proteins provides data on the extent of modifications within complex samples, as well as a broad comparison of carbonylation profiles between different biological states (e.g., disease versus control), while mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis provides information on proteins susceptible to carbonylation, as well as the potential for quantitative characterization of specific sites of amino acid modification. Here, we present a novel use for aminoxyTMT, a derivative of the Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) isobaric labeling reagent, which utilizes an aminooxy functional group for covalent labeling of reactive carbonyls in proteins. When coupled with anti-TMT antibody, we demonstrate the use of aminoxyTMT for immunoblot profiling of protein carbonylation in complex mixtures, as well as enrichment of modified peptides from these mixtures. Proof-of-principle experiments also show the amenability of aminoxyTMT-labeled carbonylated peptides enriched from complex mixtures to identification using tandem MS (MS/MS) and database searching, as well as quantitative analysis using TMT-based reporter ion intensity measurements. PMID:27071607

  20. Fluorescence labeling of carbonylated lipids and proteins in cells using coumarin-hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venukumar Vemula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbonylation is a generic term which refers to reactive carbonyl groups present in biomolecules due to oxidative reactions induced by reactive oxygen species. Carbonylated proteins, lipids and nucleic acids have been intensively studied and often associated with onset or progression of oxidative stress related disorders. In order to reveal underlying carbonylation pathways and biological relevance, it is crucial to study their intracellular formation and spatial distribution. Carbonylated species are usually identified and quantified in cell lysates and body fluids after derivatization using specific chemical probes. However, spatial cellular and tissue distribution have been less often investigated. Here, we report coumarin-hydrazide, a fluorescent chemical probe for time- and cost-efficient labeling of cellular carbonyls followed by fluorescence microscopy to evaluate their intracellular formation both in time and space. The specificity of coumarin-hydrazide was confirmed in time- and dose-dependent experiments using human primary fibroblasts stressed with paraquat and compared with conventional DNPH-based immunocytochemistry. Both techniques stained carbonylated species accumulated in cytoplasm with strong perinuclear clustering. Using a complimentary array of analytical methods specificity of coumarin-hydrazide probe towards both protein- and lipid-bound carbonyls has been shown. Additionally, co-distribution of carbonylated species and oxidized phospholipids was demonstrated.

  1. Proteomic analysis of age dependent nitration of rat cardiac proteins by solution isoelectric focusing coupled to nano-HPLC tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Jung; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Schöneich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Protein nitration occurs as a result of oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Therefore, protein nitration serves as a hallmark for protein oxidation in vivo. We have previously reported on age dependent protein nitration in cardiac tissue of Fisher 344 BN-F1 rats analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; however, only one specific nitration site was identified (Kanski et al., 2005a). In the present report, we used solution phase isoelec...

  2. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J.; Grune, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the...... different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in...... spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples....

  3. Protein carbonylation and aggregation precede neuronal apoptosis induced by partial glutathione depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzheng Zheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While the build-up of oxidized proteins within cells is believed to be toxic, there is currently no evidence linking protein carbonylation and cell death. In the present study, we show that incubation of nPC12 (neuron-like PC12 cells with 50 μM DEM (diethyl maleate leads to a partial and transient depletion of glutathione (GSH. Concomitant with GSH disappearance there is increased accumulation of PCOs (protein carbonyls and cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis. Immunocytochemical studies also revealed a temporal/spatial relationship between carbonylation and cellular apoptosis. In addition, the extent of all three, PCO accumulation, protein aggregation and cell death, augments if oxidized proteins are not removed by proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the carbonyl scavengers hydralazine, histidine hydrazide and methoxylamine at preventing cell death identifies PCOs as the toxic species. Experiments using well-characterized apoptosis inhibitors place protein carbonylation downstream of the mitochondrial transition pore opening and upstream of caspase activation. While the study focused mostly on nPC12 cells, experiments in primary neuronal cultures yielded the same results. The findings are also not restricted to DEM-induced cell death, since a similar relationship between carbonylation and apoptosis was found in staurosporine- and buthionine sulfoximine-treated nPC12 cells. In sum, the above results show for the first time a causal relationship between carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis of neurons undergoing oxidative damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to place direct (oxidative protein carbonylation within the apoptotic pathway.

  4. Proteomic analysis and protein carbonylation profile in trained and untrained rat muscle

    OpenAIRE

    F.Magherini; P.M. Abruzzo; Puglia, M.; Bini, L.; T. Gamberi; Esposito, F; A. Veicsteinas; Marini, M.; Fiorillo, C; Gulisano, M; Modesti, A

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physical exercise, reactive oxygen species and skeletal muscle modification is important in order to better identify the benefits or the damages that appropriate or inappropriate exercise can induce. Unbalanced ROS levels can lead to oxidation of cellular macromolecules and a major class of protein oxidative modification is carbonylation. The aim of this investigation was to study muscle protein expression and carbonylation patterns in tra...

  5. Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins in F344 rat hippocampus after 1-bromopropane exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and humans. Previous proteomic analysis of rat hippocampus implicated alteration of protein expression in oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. To understand this role at the protein level, we exposed male F344 rats to 1-BP at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 week or 4 weeks by inhalation and quantitated changes in hippocampal protein carbonyl using a protein carbonyl assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, and matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). Hippocampal reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl were significantly increased, demonstrating 1-BP-associated induction of oxidative stress and protein damage. MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS identified 10 individual proteins with increased carbonyl modification (p < 0.05; fold-change ≥ 1.5). The identified proteins were involved in diverse biological processes including glycolysis, ATP production, tyrosine catabolism, GTP binding, guanine degradation, and neuronal metabolism of dopamine. Hippocampal triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity was significantly reduced and negatively correlated with TPI carbonylation (p < 0.001; r = 0.83). Advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels were significantly elevated both in the hippocampus and plasma, and hippocampal AGEs correlated negatively with TPI activity (p < 0.001; r = 0.71). In conclusion, 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus seems to involve oxidative damage of cellular proteins, decreased TPI activity, and elevated AGEs. -- Highlights: ► 1-BP increases hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampal and plasma protein carbonyls. ► 1-BP increases TPI carbonylation and decreases TPI activity in the hippocampus. ► 1-BP increases hippocampal and plasma AGE levels.

  6. Increased carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis in the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora I. Perrone‑Bizzozero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work from our laboratory implicated protein carbonylation in the pathophysiology of both MS (multiple sclerosis and its animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed that the accumulation of protein carbonyls, triggered by glutathione deficiency or proteasome inhibition, leads to protein aggregation and neuronal cell death. These findings prompted us to investigate whether their association can be also established in vivo. In the present study, we characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of MOG (myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35–55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. The results show that protein carbonyls accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. We also show a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation (but not oxidative stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells than in live cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are present during the course of EAE. The LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II/LC3-I ratio is significantly reduced in both acute and chronic EAE indicating reduced autophagy and explaining why aggresomes accumulate in this disorder. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest a link between protein oxidation and neuronal/glial cell death in vivo, and also demonstrate impaired proteostasis in this widely used murine model of MS.

  7. Resistance to age-dependent thymic atrophy in long-lived mice that are deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Abbe N.; Joshua J Michel; Bale, Laurie K.; Lemster, Bonnie H.; Borghesi, Lisa; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is a metalloproteinase that controls the tissue availability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Homozygous deletion of PAPPA in mice leads to lifespan extension. Since immune function is an important determinant of individual fitness, we examined the natural immune ecology of PAPPA−/− mice and their wild-type littermates reared under specific pathogen-free condition with aging. Whereas wild-type mice exhibit classic age-dependent thymic atrophy,...

  8. Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins in the kidney of trichloroethene-exposed MRL+/+ mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiuzhen; WANG, GANGDUO; English, Robert D.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE), a common environmental and occupational pollutant, is associated with multi-organ toxicity. Kidney is one of major target organs affected as a result of TCE exposure. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to TCE causes increased protein oxidation (protein carbonylation) in the kidneys of autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice, and suggested a potential role of protein oxidation in TCE-mediated nephrotoxicity. To assess the impact of chronic TCE exposure on protein oxidat...

  9. Oxi-DIGE: A novel proteomic approach for detecting and quantifying carbonylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraibar, Martin; Ladouce, Romain; Friguet, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    Proteins are involved in key cellular functions and our health and wellness depends on their quality. Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins is a hallmark of deleterious processes such increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, ageing and age-related diseases. Thus, quantifying and identifying oxidized proteins is a biomarker of choice for monitoring biological ageing and/or the efficiency of anti-oxidant, ant-inflammatory and anti-ageing therapies. However, the absence of reliable tools for analyses has inhibited its establishment as the gold standard for measuring the efficacy of anti-ageing and age related diseases interventions. Herein, we present a novel proteomics technology, named Oxi-DIGE?, which provides a significant improvement in terms of specificity, reproducibility and statistical support for proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins. In Oxi-DIGE, protein carbonyls are labelled with fluorescent hydrazide probes that bind specifically to carbonyl groups in proteins. Experimental groups (e.g. control and experimental samples) are labelled with different flurophore-binded hydrazides that fluoresce light at different wavelengths, producing different colour fluorescence. Thus samples from different experimental groups are co-resolved on a single 2D gel. Increased accuracy is provided due to: (i) reduced false positives by using an exogenous synthetic fluorescent tag; (ii) multiplexing, that is the possibility to run multiple samples on the same gel, (iii) the use of an internal standard on each gel which eliminates inter-gel variations and provides an increased statistical confidence. In addition, the resolution of the carbonyl groups is improved, forming distinct spots that can be identified by mass spectrometry. ?Patent Application (M. Baraibar, R. Ladouce., B. Friguet, A method for detecting and/or quantifying carbonylated proteins (WO/2012/175519) filed by UPMC and referring to the technology described in this abstract. PMID:26461312

  10. Doxorubicin-induced carbonylation and degradation of cardiac myosin binding protein C promote cardiotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Baikuntha; Jeong, Jinsook; Rao, V. Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most successful anticancer agents. However, 10–30% of all treated patients experience a dose-limiting cardiac adverse event. Oxidative stress is partly responsible for the cardiotoxicity because the heart does not possess required antioxidant mechanisms. Protein oxidation by carbonylation is irreversible and marks proteins for loss of function and degradation. Using proteomics and MS, we identified and investigated cardiac myosin binding protein (MyBPC) as being sele...

  11. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of key cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to cellular injury and death. Protein oxidation including protein carbonylation was demonstrated to modify enzyme activity and DNA binding of transcription factors, while also rendering proteins more prone to proteolytic degradation. Given the relevance of protein oxidation in the pathophysiology of many chronic conditions and their comorbidities, the current review focuses on the analysis of different studies in which the biological and clinical significance of the modifications induced by reactive carbonyls on proteins have been explored so far in skeletal muscles of patients and animal models of chronic conditions such as COPD, disuse muscle atrophy, cancer cachexia, sepsis, and physiological aging. Future research will elucidate the specific impact and sites of reactive carbonyls on muscle protein content and function in human conditions.

  12. Analysis of protein carbonylation-pitfalls and promise in commonly used methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, K; Nedić, O;

    2014-01-01

    that research scientists are becoming more eager to be able to measure accurately the level of oxidized protein in biological materials, and to determine the precise site of the oxidative attack on the protein, in order to get insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of diseases....... Several methods for measuring protein carbonylation have been implemented in different laboratories around the world. However, to date no methods prevail as the most accurate, reliable, and robust. The present paper aims at giving an overview of the common methods used to determine protein carbonylation...... in biological material as well as to highlight the limitations and the potential. The ultimate goal is to give quick tips for a rapid decision making when a method has to be selected and taking into consideration the advantage and drawback of the methods....

  13. Analysis of protein carbonylation - pitfalls and promise in commonly used methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Wojdyla, K.; Nedic, O.;

    2014-01-01

    that research scientists are becoming more eager to be able to measure accurately the level of oxidized protein in biological materials, and to determine the precise site of the oxidative attack on the protein, in order to get insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of diseases....... Several methods for measuring protein carbonylation have been implemented in different laboratories around the world. However, to date no methods prevail as the most accurate, reliable, and robust. The present paper aims at giving an overview of the common methods used to determine protein carbonylation...... in biological material as well as to highlight the limitations and the potential. The ultimate goal is to give quick tips for a rapid decision making when a method has to be selected and taking into consideration the advantage and drawback of the methods....

  14. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN CARBONYL LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS AND EVALUATION TOGETHER WITH OTHER PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    YALCIN, Serap

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the impact of oxidative stress, of which chronic alcohol consumption is an important indicator, on proteins and lipids. In this study, in order to evaluate oxidative damage, blood samples of 40 alcoholic patients, lying in the psychiatry clinic of Ankara University with the diagnosis of alcoholism, and 20 healthy people have been worked with spectrophotometric method. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation product, and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels observed as statisticall...

  15. Identification, quantification, and functional aspects of skeletal muscle protein-carbonylation in vivo during acute oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Maria; Kuleva, Nadezhda; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) play important roles in cellular signaling but can also modify and often functionally inactivate other biomolecules. Thus, cells have developed effective enzymatic and nonenzymatic strategies to scavenge ROS. However, under oxidative stress, ROS production is able to overwhelm the scavenging systems, increasing the levels of functionally impaired proteins. A major class of irreversible oxidative modifications is carbonylation, which refers to reactive carbonyl-groups. In this investigation, we have studied the production and clearance rates for skeletal muscle proteins in a rat model of acute oxidative stress over a time period of 24 h using a gel-based proteomics approach. Optimized ELISA and Western blots with 10-fold improved sensitivities showed that the carbonylation level was stable at 4 nmol per mg protein 3 h following ROS induction. The carbonylation level then increased 3-fold over 6 h and then remained stable. In total, the oxidative stress changed the steady state levels of 20 proteins and resulted in the carbonylation of 38 skeletal muscle proteins. Carbonylation of these proteins followed diverse kinetics with some proteins being highly carbonylated very quickly, whereas others peaked in the 9 h sample or continued to increase up to 24 h after oxidative stress was induced. PMID:20377239

  16. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation. PMID:26471654

  17. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Female Mice Exhibit Increased Age-Dependent Obesity123

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Previous work done in our laboratory suggested a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in obesity that develops in aging female L-FABP gene-ablated (−/−) mice. To examine this possibility in more detail, cohorts of wild-type (+/+) and L-FABP (−/−) female mice were fed a standard low-fat nonpurified rodent diet for up to 18 mo. Various obesity-related parameters were examined including body weight and fat and lean tissue mass. Obesity in (−/−) mice was associated with increased ex...

  18. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding protein (G/sub i/) and two additional pertussis toxin substrates associated with muscarinic receptors in rat heart myocytes: characterization and age dependency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupling of muscarinic receptors with G-proteins was investigated in cultured myocytes prepared from the hearts of newborn rats. The coupling was investigated in both young (5 days after plating) and aged (14 days after plating) cultures, in view of the completely different effects of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] on muscarinic agonist binding to homogenates from young vs aged cultures. Pretreatment of cultures from both ages by Bordetella pertussis toxin (IAP) was found to eliminate any Gpp(NH)p effect on carbamylcholine binding. IAP by itself induced a rightward shift in the carbamylcholine competition curve in homogenates from aged cultures, but no such effect was observed in homogenates from young cultures. IAP-catalyzed [32P]ADP-ribosylation of membrane preparations from young and aged cultures revealed major differences between them. Young cultures exhibited a major IAP substrate at 40 kDa, which was also recognized by anti-α/sub i/ antibodies, and two novel IAP substrates at 28 and 42 kDa, which were weakly ADP-ribosylated by the toxin and were not recognized with either anti-α/sub i/ or anti-α0 antibodies. In aged cultures, only the 40-kDa band (ribosylated to a lower degree) was detected. The parallel age-dependent changes in the three IAP substrates (28, 40, and 42 kDa) and in the interactions of the G-protein(s) with the muscarinic receptors strongly suggest close association between the two phenomena. All of these age-dependent changes in the G-protein related parameters were prevented by phosphatidylcholine-liposome treatment of the aged cultures. The role of the membrane lipid composition in these phenomena is discussed

  19. Increased nitration and carbonylation of proteins in MRL +/+ mice exposed to trichloroethene: Potential role of protein oxidation in autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are implicated as mediators of autoimmune diseases (ADs), little is known about contribution of protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) in the pathogenesis of such diseases. The focus of this study was, therefore, to establish a link between protein oxidation and induction and/or exacerbation of autoimmunity. To achieve this, female MRL +/+ mice were treated with trichloroethene (TCE), an environmental contaminant known to induce autoimmune response, for 6 or 12 weeks (10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day). TCE treatment resulted in significantly increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT) and induction of iNOS in the serum at both 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, but the response was greater at 12 weeks. Likewise, TCE treatment led to greater NT formation, and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in the livers and kidneys. Moreover, TCE treatment also caused significant increases (∼3 fold) in serum protein carbonyls (a marker of protein oxidation) at both 6 and 12 weeks. Significantly increased protein carbonyls were also observed in the livers and kidneys (2.1 and 1.3 fold, respectively) at 6 weeks, and to a greater extent at 12 weeks (3.5 and 2.1 fold, respectively) following TCE treatment. The increases in TCE-induced protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) were associated with significant increases in Th1 specific cytokine (IL-2, IFN-γ) release into splenocyte cultures. These results suggest an association between protein oxidation and induction/exacerbation of autoimmune response. The results present a potential mechanism by which oxidatively modified proteins could contribute to TCE-induced autoimmune response and necessitates further investigations for clearly establishing the role of protein oxidation in the pathogenesis of ADs.

  20. Inactivation of cellular enzymes by carbonyls and protein-bound glycation/glycoxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Philip E; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    glycolaldehyde and hydroxyacetone. Incubation of these enzymes with proteins that had been preglycated with methylglyoxal, but not glucose, also resulted in significant time- and concentration-dependent inhibition with both isolated enzymes and cell lysates. This inhibition was not metal ion, oxygen, superoxide...... detection of cross-linked materials on protein gels. Though direct comparison of the extent of inhibition induced by free versus protein-bound carbonyls was not possible, the significantly higher concentrations of the latter materials over the former in diabetic plasma and cells lead us to suggest that...

  1. Protein conjugated with aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation as an independent parameter of the carbonyl stress in the kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Navarro Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the well-defined and characterized protein modifications usually produced by oxidation is carbonylation, an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of proteins. However, carbonyl groups can be introduced into proteins by non-oxidative mechanisms. Reactive carbonyl compounds have been observed to have increased in patients with renal failure. In the present work we have described a procedure designed as aldehyde capture to calculate the protein carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation. Methods Acrolein-albumin adduct was prepared as standard at alkaline pH. Rat liver microsomal membranes and serum samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy were subjected to the aldehyde capture procedure and aldol-protein formation. Before alkalinization and incubation, samples were precipitated and redisolved in 6M guanidine. The absorbances of the samples were read with a spectrophotometer at 266 nm against a blank of guanidine. Results Evidence showed abundance of unsaturated aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes and in the serum of diabetic patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Carbonyl protein and aldol-proteins resulted higher in the diabetic nephropathy patients (p Conclusion The aldehyde-protein adduct represents a non oxidative component of carbonyl stress, independent of the direct amino acid oxidation and could constitute a practical and novelty strategy to measure the carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation and particularly in diabetic nephropathy patients. In addition, we are in a position to propose an alternative explanation of why alkalinization of urine attenuates rhabdomyolysis-induced renal dysfunction.

  2. Engineered Trx2p industrial yeast strain protects glycolysis and fermentation proteins from oxidative carbonylation during biomass propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Pastor Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the yeast biomass production process, protein carbonylation has severe adverse effects since it diminishes biomass yield and profitability of industrial production plants. However, this significant detriment of yeast performance can be alleviated by increasing thioredoxins levels. Thioredoxins are important antioxidant defenses implicated in many functions in cells, and their primordial functions include scavenging of reactive oxygen species that produce dramatic and irreversible alterations such as protein carbonylation. Results In this work we have found several proteins specifically protected by yeast Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2p. Bidimensional electrophoresis and carbonylated protein identification from TRX-deficient and TRX-overexpressing cells revealed that glycolysis and fermentation-related proteins are specific targets of Trx2p protection. Indeed, the TRX2 overexpressing strain presented increased activity of the central carbon metabolism enzymes. Interestingly, Trx2p specifically preserved alcohol dehydrogenase I (Adh1p from carbonylation, decreased oligomer aggregates and increased its enzymatic activity. Conclusions The identified proteins suggest that the fermentative capacity detriment observed under industrial conditions in T73 wine commercial strain results from the oxidative carbonylation of specific glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Indeed, increased thioredoxin levels enhance the performance of key fermentation enzymes such as Adh1p, which consequently increases fermentative capacity.

  3. Protein hydroperoxides and carbonyl groups generated by porphyrin-induced photo-oxidation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photo-oxidation of bovine serum albumin results in oxidation at specific sites to produce protein radical species: at the Cys-34 residue (to give a thiyl radical) and at one or both tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) to give tertiary carbon-centered radicals and cause...... disruption of the indole ring system. This study shows that these photo-oxidation processes also consume oxygen and give rise to hydrogen peroxide, protein hydroperoxides, and carbonyl functions. The yield of hydrogen peroxide, protein hydroperoxides, and carbonyl functions is shown to be dependent on...

  4. Histone retention, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa: Possible role in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Gayatri; Swain, Nirlipta; Goswami, Chandan; Kar, Sujata; Samanta, Luna

    2016-06-01

    Contribution from a defective paternal genome has been attributed to be an important cause for spontaneous recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Increased oxidative stress results in decreased detoxification and is a cause for damage to chromatin, proteins, and membrane lipids. The present study aimed to explore if there is a significant relationship between retained histones due to defective packaging of DNA in spermatozoa and oxidative stress. RPL patients (n=16) with a history of ≥2 embryo losses before the 20th week of gestation and no female factor abnormality, and fertile healthy volunteers (n=20) as controls were included in the study. A significant difference in the levels of protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation together with an increased retention of histones in the experimental groups was noticed. Histone carrying sites for oxidative modification such as arginine and lysine might be responsible for disturbing the paternal epigenomic control during early stages of embryonic differentiation leading to abortion. PMID:26980262

  5. The serum protein carbonyl content level in relation to exercise stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiporn Mekrungruangwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein carbonyl (P is oxidatively-modified protein with diagnostic potential for acute myocardial infarction. However, many findings indicated the elevation of serum PC content level related to exercise, which could cause false positive results and limiting the specificity for acute coronary syndrome diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the level of serum protein carbonyl content in healthy volunteers subjected to exercise stress test (EST. Materials and Methods: Serum from healthy volunteers was collected 5-10 min before performing EST and 1 hour after the EST was achieved. The serum was collected, and the serum PC content level was determined by spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Results: The serum PC content level after exercise stress test was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.373 ± 0.05 nM/mg vs. 0.275 ± 0.02 nM/mg, P < 0.0001. The results demonstrated that in both male and female, serum PC content level after EST was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.29 ± 0.03 nM/mg vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in male, 0.27 ± 0.02 nM/mg vs. 0.38 ± 0.06 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in female, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that exercise stress test could result in non-specificity and false positive increasing in serum PC content level in healthy subjects, which may cause misinterpretation when using PC as cardiac marker, especially in patients, who underwent exercise stress test or patients who performing heavy physical activities.

  6. Proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins in rat liver: discovering possible mechanisms for tetracycline-induced steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhenglu; Yan, Siyu; Hu, Hui; Duan, Zhigui; Yin, Lanxuan; Liao, Shenke; Sun, Yubai; Yin, Dazhong; Li, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate biochemical mechanisms for the tetracycline-induced steatosis in rats, targeted proteins of oxidative modification were profiled. The results showed that tetracycline induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and cell viability decline in HepG2 cells only under the circumstances of palmitic acid overload. Tetracycline administration in rats led to significant decrement in blood lipids, while resulted in more than four times increment in intrahepatic triacylglycerol and typical microvesicular steatosis in the livers. The triacylglycerol levels were positively correlated with oxidative stress. Proteomic profiles of carbonylated proteins revealed 26 targeted proteins susceptible to oxidative modification and most of them located in mitochondria. Among them, the long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was one of the key enzymes regulating fatty acid β-oxidation. Oxidative modification of the enzyme in the tetracycline group depressed its enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the increased influx of lipid into the livers is the first hit of tetracycline-induced microvesicular steatosis. Oxidative stress is an essential part of the second hit, which may arise from the lipid overload and attack a series of functional proteins, aggravating the development of steatosis. The 26 targeted proteins revealed here provide a potential direct link between oxidative stress and tetracycline-induced steatosis. PMID:25332112

  7. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ZAHARIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations were carried out using venous blood. Statistical data analyses were performed using Statistica software. The comparisons between groups (study and controls were performed by applying parametric and non-parametric tests according with the type of distribution. Results: Statistically significant correlations were found between the value of protein carbonyls (PC and the weight of premature newborns in the case group (p < 0.05, as well as between the PC value and the presence of respiratory distress due to surfactant deficiency in the study group. The average PC value in the study group was higher in the third day as compared with the first day. The PC value was significantly higher in the control group as compared with study group. Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that the respiratory distress in the premature newborn and oxygen therapy stimulate the peroxidation of proteins.

  8. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Serum Amyloid A and Protein Carbonyl Group Levels in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Hami; Abolfathi, Ali Akbar; Badalzadeh, Reza; Majidinia, Maryam; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Asadi, Maryam; Yousefi, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serum amyloid-A (SAA) and protein carbonyl group are rigorously related with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) as a sensitive marker of an acute inflammatory state and as an important index of oxidative stress, respectively. Moreover, diet is one of the main factors that can modify cardiovascular risks. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on SAA and protein carbonyl group levels in patients with CVDs. Methods: Twenty-one patients (21 male; mean age 52±9 years old) with CVDs (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial diseases) were participated in this study. Biochemical parameters were measured in patients 2 days before and 2 days after Ramadan fasting. SAA levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Cayman’s protein carbonyl colorimetric assay was provided for measuring protein carbonyl groups. Results: According to the findings of the study, post-Ramadan levels of inflammatory biomarker, SAA was decreased significantly in patients with CVDs in comparison with the baseline before-fasting values (16.84±8.20 vs. 24.40±6.72 μg/ml, P = 0.021). In addition, Ramadan fasting significantly reduced the levels of protein carbonyl group in patients as compared with those of baseline values (33.08±15.31 vs. 43.65±16.88 nmol/ml, P = 0.039). Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has impressive effects on modulating CVDs by decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress markers. However, to get a clear conclusion with more results, further investigation is warranted. PMID:26191392

  9. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Serum Amyloid A and Protein Carbonyl Group Levels in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi Hami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum amyloid-A (SAA and protein carbonyl group are rigorously related with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs as a sensitive marker of an acute inflammatory state and as an important index of oxidative stress, respectively. Moreover, diet is one of the main factors that canmodify cardiovascular risks. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Ramadanfasting on SAA and protein carbonyl group levels in patients with CVDs.Methods: Twenty-one patients (21 male; mean age 52±9 years old with CVDs (coronaryartery disease, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial diseases were participated in this study.Biochemical parameters were measured in patients 2 days before and 2 days after Ramadanfasting. SAA levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Cayman’sprotein carbonyl colorimetric assay was provided for measuring protein carbonyl groups.Results: According to the findings of the study, post-Ramadan levels of inflammatory biomarker,SAA was decreased significantly in patients with CVDs in comparison with the baseline beforefastingvalues (16.84±8.20 vs. 24.40±6.72 μg/ml, P = 0.021. In addition, Ramadan fastingsignificantly reduced the levels of protein carbonyl group in patients as compared with those ofbaseline values (33.08±15.31 vs. 43.65±16.88 nmol/ml, P = 0.039.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has impressive effects on modulating CVDs by decreasinginflammation and oxidative stress markers. However, to get a clear conclusion with more results,further investigation is warranted.

  10. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep, Avani R.; M V Ramchandraprasad; Pavan Bajaj; Rao, Nishanth S.; Esha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC) is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects and to find an association, if any. Material...

  11. Backbone dynamics of a model membrane protein: assignment of the carbonyl carbon 13C NMR resonances in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major coat protein of the filamentous bacteriophage M13 is a 50-residue amphiphilic polypeptide which is inserted, as an integral membrane-spanning protein, in the inner membrane of the Escherichia coli host during infection. 13C was incorporated biosynthetically into a total of 23 of the peptide carbonyls using labeled amino acids (alanine, glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, and proline). The structure and dynamics of carbonyl-labeled M13 coat protein were monitored by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Assignment of many resonances was achieved by using protease digestion, pH titration, or labeling of the peptide bond with both 13C and 15N. The carbonyl region of the natural-abundance 13C NMR spectrum of M13 coat protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution shows approximately eight backbone carbonyl resonances with line widths much narrower than the rest. Three of these more mobile residues correspond to assigned peaks (glycine-3, lysine-48, and alanine-49) in the individual amino acid spectra, and another almost certainly arises from glutamic acid-2. A ninth residue, alanine-1, also gives rise to a very narrow carbonyl resonance if the pH is well above or below the pK/sub a/ of the terminal amino group. These data suggest that only about four residues at either end of the protein experience large-amplitude spatial fluctuations; the rest of the molecule is essentially rigid on the time scale of the overall rotational tumbling of the protein-detergent complex. The relative exposure of different regions of detergent-bound protein was monitored by limited digestion with proteinase K. Comparable spectra and digestion patterns were obtained when the protein was solubilized in sodium deoxycholate, suggesting that the coat protein binds both amphiphiles in a similar fashion

  12. Redox Proteomic Profiling of Specifically Carbonylated Proteins in the Serum of Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Shen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a key event in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To investigate the role of oxidative stress in AD and to search for potential biomarkers in peripheral blood, serums were collected in this study from the 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old triple transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD mice and the age- and sex-matched non-transgenic (non-Tg littermates. The serum oxidized proteins were quantified by slot-blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to investigate the total levels of serum protein carbonyl groups. Western blotting, in conjunction with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-Oxyblot, was employed to identify and quantify the specifically-carbonylated proteins in the serum of 3×Tg-AD mice. The results showed that the levels of serum protein carbonyls were increased in the three month old 3×Tg-AD mice compared with the non-Tg control mice, whereas no significant differences were observed in the six and 12 months old AD mice, suggesting that oxidative stress is an early event in AD progression. With the application of 2D-Oxyblot analysis, (immunoglobin Ig gamma-2B chain C region (IGH-3, Ig lambda-2 chain C region (IGLC2, Ig kappa chain C region (IGKC, and Ig kappa chain V-V region HP R16.7 were identified as significantly oxidized proteins compared with the control. Among them IGH-3 and IGKC were validated via immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Identification of oxidized proteins in the serums of 3×Tg-AD mice can not only reveal potential roles of those proteins in the pathogenesis of AD but also provide potential biomarkers of AD at the early stage.

  13. Fish Proteins as Targets of Ferrous-Catalyzed Oxidation: Identification of Protein Carbonyls by Fluorescent Labeling on Two-Dimensional Gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2011-01-01

    proteins in sarcoplasmic and myofibril fractions to in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation and to point out protein candidates that might play a major role in the deterioration of fish quality. Extracted control proteins and proteins subjected to free radicals generated by Fe(II)/ascorbate mixture were labeled...... metal-catalyzed oxidation, indicating that post-translational modifications may change the resistance of proteins to oxidative damage. The Fe(II)/ascorbate treatment significantly increased carbonylation of important structural proteins in fish muscle, mainly actin and myosin, and degradation products...

  14. Protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet determine lipid metabolism and response to high-fat feeding in rat progeny in an age-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Gawecki, Jan; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Tubacka, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diet during gestation can exert a long-term effect on the progeny’s health by programming their developmental scheme and metabolism. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of maternal diet on lipid metabolism in 10- and 16-week-old rats. Pregnant dams were fed one of four diets: a normal protein and normal folic acid diet (NP-NF), a protein-restricted and normal folic acid diet (PR-NF), a protein-restricted and folic-acid-supplemented diet (PR-FS), or a normal protein and ...

  15. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-μs timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R2, dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect μs-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) Cα-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly 13C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the Cα magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the Cα region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by Cα-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [13C,15N, 2H] (2H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly 15N/selectively-13C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly 13C/15N/2H labeled sample was well suited to measure 15N and 1H R2 dispersion as well as 13C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit β-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei

  16. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-{mu}s timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishima, Rieko [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Structural Biology Unit (United States); Baber, James; Louis, John M.; Torchia, Dennis A. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Structural Biology Unit (United States)

    2004-06-15

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R{sub 2}, dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect {mu}s-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) C{sub {alpha}}-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly {sup 13}C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the C{sub {alpha}} magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the C{sub {alpha}} region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by C{sub {alpha}}-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N, {sup 2}H] ({sup 2}H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly {sup 15}N/selectively-{sup 13}C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N/{sup 2}H labeled sample was well suited to measure {sup 15}N and {sup 1}H R{sub 2} dispersion as well as {sup 13}C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit {beta}-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei.

  17. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-micros timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishima, Rieko; Baber, James; Louis, John M; Torchia, Dennis A

    2004-06-01

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R(2), dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect micros-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) C(alpha)-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly (13)C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the C(alpha) magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the C(alpha) region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by C(alpha)-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [(13)C,(15)N, (2)H] ((2)H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly (15)N/selectively-(13)C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly (13)C/(15)N/(2)H labeled sample was well suited to measure (15)N and (1)H R(2) dispersion as well as (13)C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit beta-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei. PMID:15014232

  18. Age-Dependent Increase of Brain Copper Levels and Expressions of Copper Regulatory Proteins in the Subventricular Zone and Choroid Plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherleen eFu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our recent data suggest a high accumulation of Cu in the subventricular zone (SVZ along the wall of brain ventricles. Anatomically, SVZ is in direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is secreted by a neighboring tissue choroid plexus. Changes in Cu regulatory gene expressions in the SVZ and choroid plexus as the function of aging may determine Cu levels in the CSF and SVZ. This study was designed to investigate associations between age, Cu levels, and Cu regulatory genes in SVZ and plexus. The SVZ and choroid plexus were dissected from brains of 3-week, 10-week or 9-month old male rats. Analyses by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the SVZ of adult and old animals contained the highest Cu level compared with other tested brain regions. Significant positive correlations between age and Cu levels in SVZ and plexus were observed; the SVZ Cu level of old animals was 7.5- and 5.8-fold higher than those of young and adult rats (p<0.01, respectively. Quantitation by qPCR of the transcriptional expressions of Cu regulatory proteins showed that the SVZ expressed the highest level of Cu storage protein MTs, while the choroid plexus expressed the high level of Cu transporter protein Ctr1. Noticeably, Cu levels in the SVZ were positively associated with type B slow proliferating cell marker Gfap (p<0.05, but inversely associated with type A proliferating neuroblast marker Dcx (p<0.05 and type C transit amplifying progenitor marker Nestin (p<0.01. Dmt1 had significant positive correlations with age and Cu levels in the plexus (p<0.01. These findings suggest that Cu levels in all tested brain regions are increased as the function of age. The SVZ shows a different expression pattern of Cu-regulatory genes from the choroid plexus. The age-related increase of MTs and decrease of Ctr1 may contribute to the high Cu level in this neurogenesis active brain region.

  19. T-cell epitope polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein among field isolates from Sierra Leone: age-dependent haplotype distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalloh Muctarr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of the development of a successful malaria vaccine, understanding the polymorphisms exhibited by malaria antigens in natural parasite populations is crucial for proper vaccine design. Recent observations have indicated that sequence polymorphisms in the C-terminal T-cell epitopes of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (Pfcsp are rather low and apparently stable in low endemic areas. This study sought to assess the pattern in a malaria endemic setting in Africa, using samples from Freetown, Sierra Leone. Methods Filter-paper blood samples were collected from subjects at a teaching hospital in Freetown during September–October 2006 and in April–May 2007. The C-terminal portion of the Pfcsp gene spanning the Th2R and Th3R epitopes was amplified and directly sequenced; sequences were analysed with subject parameters and polymorphism patterns in Freetown were compared to that in other malaria endemic areas. Results and Discussion Overall, the genetic diversity in Freetown was high. From a total of 99 sequences, 42 haplotypes were identified with at least three accounting for 44.4% (44/99: the 3D7-type (19.2%, a novel type, P-01 (17.2%, and E12 (8.1%. Interestingly, all were unique to the African sub-region and there appeared to be predilection for certain haplotypes to distribute in certain age-groups: the 3D7 type was detected mainly in hospitalized children under 15 years of age, while the P-01 type was common in adult antenatal females (Pearson Chi-square = 48.750, degrees of freedom = 34, P = 0.049. In contrast, the single-haplotype predominance (proportion > 50% pattern previously identified in Asia was not detected in Freetown. Conclusion Haplotype distribution of the T-cell epitopes of Pfcsp in Freetown appeared to vary with age in the study population, and the polymorphism patterns were similar to that observed in neighbouring Gambia, but differed significantly at the sequence level from

  20. Cytoplasmic androgen binding protein of rat liver: molecular characterization after photoaffinity labeling and functional correlation with the age-dependent synthesis of alpha 2u-globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liver of the mature male rat contains a moderate affinity (Kd = 10(-8)M), low-capacity, cytoplasmic androgen binding protein (CAB) whose appearance during puberty and disappearance during senescence correlate with the androgen-dependent synthesis of alpha 2u-globulin. Molecular properties of CAB were examined by photoaffinity labeling with tritiated methyltrienolone (R-1881), a synthetic androgen, and by its localization within the hepatocytes which are competent to produce alpha 2u-globulin. Photoaffinity labeling of the liver cytosol derived from postpubertal male rats, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography, showed a predominant androgen binding band corresponding to Mr 31,000. This 31-kilodalton (kDa) binding component was conspicuously absent in the liver of androgen-insensitive prepubertal and senescent male rats and in adult male rats treated with estradiol-17 beta. In addition, unlike the cytoplasmic extract, the nuclear lysate of the male rat hepatocytes did not contain the 31-kDa androgen binder. Disappearance of the 31-kDa androgen binding band from the cytosolic fraction of androgen-insensitive animals was associated with a concomitant appearance of a minor androgen binding component of apparent Mr 29,000. The livers of postpubertal male rats normally contain two subpopulations of hepatocytes, only one of which is highly active (competent) in alpha 2u-globulin synthesis. Separation of these two subpopulations through a fluorescence-activated cell sorter followed by whole cell labeling showed more than a 2-fold higher uptake of R-1881 by the competent cells

  1. Levels and Age Dependency of Neurofilament Light and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Healthy Individuals and Their Relation to the Brain Parenchymal Fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Vågberg

    Full Text Available Neurofilament light (NFL and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP are integral parts of the axonal and astrocytal cytoskeletons respectively and are released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of cellular damage. In order to interpret the levels of these biomarkers in disease states, knowledge on normal levels in the healthy is required. Another biomarker for neurodegeneration is brain atrophy, commonly measured as brain parenchymal fraction (BPF using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Potential correlations between levels of NFL, GFAP and BPF in healthy individuals have not been investigated.To present levels of NFL and GFAP in healthy individuals stratified for age, and investigate the correlation between them as well as their correlation with BPF.The CSF was analysed in 53 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 70 (1 sample missing for GFAP analysis and 48 of the volunteers underwent determination of BPF using MRI.Mean (±SD NFL was 355 ng/L (±214, mean GFAP was 421 ng/L (±129 and mean BPF was 0.867 (±0.035. All three biomarkers correlated with age. NFL also correlated with both GFAP and BPF. When controlled for age, only the correlation between NFL and GFAP retained statistical significance.This study presents data on age-stratified levels of NFL and GFAP in the CSF of healthy individuals. There is a correlation between levels of NFL and GFAP and both increase with age. A correlation between NFL and BPF was also found, but did not retain statistical significance if controlled for age.

  2. Apple phenolics as inhibitors of the carbonylation pathway during in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation of myofibrillar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Tine; Utrera, Mariana; Morcuende, David; Van Royen, Geert; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; De Smet, Stefaan; Estévez, Mario

    2016-11-15

    The effect of apple phenolics on the oxidative damage caused to myofibrillar proteins by an in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation system was investigated. Three pure phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and phloridzin) and an apple peel extract were added to myofibrillar proteins in three concentrations (50, 100 and 200μM), and a blank treatment was included as a control. All suspensions were subjected to Fe(3+)/H2O2 oxidation at 37°C during 10days, and protein oxidation was evaluated as carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes) and Schiff base cross-links. Significant inhibition by apple phenolics was found as compared to the control treatment, with (-)-epicatechin being the most efficient antioxidant and phloridzin showing the weakest antioxidant effect. The higher concentrations of apple extract showed effective antioxidant activity against protein oxidation in myofibrillar proteins, emphasizing the potential of apple by-products as natural inhibitors of protein oxidation in meat products. PMID:27283697

  3. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10 protein detoxifies dietary and lipid-derived alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyls at physiological levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyls are highly reactive mutagens and carcinogens to which humans are exposed on a daily basis. This study demonstrates that aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is a critical protein in detoxifying dietary and lipid-derived unsaturated carbonyls. Purified AKR1B10 recombinant protein efficiently catalyzed the reduction to less toxic alcohol forms of crotonaldehyde at 0.90 μM, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) at 0.10 μM, trans-2-hexanal at 0.10 μM, and trans-2,4-hexadienal at 0.05 μM, the concentrations at or lower than physiological exposures. Ectopically expressed AKR1B10 in 293T cells eliminated immediately HNE at 1 (subtoxic) or 5 μM (toxic) by converting to 1,4-dihydroxynonene, protecting the cells from HNE toxicity. AKR1B10 protein also showed strong enzymatic activity toward glutathione-conjugated carbonyls. Taken together, our study results suggest that AKR1B10 specifically expressed in the intestine is physiologically important in protecting the host cell against dietary and lipid-derived cytotoxic carbonyls.

  4. Study of Protein Carbonyl Group, Nitric Oxide and MDA (Index of Lipid Peroxidation) as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vilas U Chavan, R R Melinkeri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormalities in lipid and protein metabolism. The free radicals and oxidative stress may act as a common pathway to diabetes itself, as well as to its later complications. Objectives: The present study was planned to study the bio-markers of oxidative stress, such as protein carbonyl (CO) group, nitric oxide (NO.) in the form of total nitrite (NOx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid p...

  5. Study of Protein Carbonyl Group, Nitric Oxide and MDA (Index of Lipid Peroxidation as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas U Chavan, R R Melinkeri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as protein carbonyl, NOx (total nitrites and MDA are significantly increased in type 2 DM compared to healthy subjects. There is increased protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and increased conversion of NO. to its end products like nitrite and nitrates in type 2 DM. This suggests that there is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress in type 2 DM patients compared to healthy subjects.

  6. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  7. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharie, Gabriela; Antonia POPESCU; BLAGA, LIGIA; Melinda MATYAS

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations...

  8. Protein Carbonylation in a Murine Model for Early Alcoholic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galligan, James J.; Smathers, Rebecca L.; Fritz, Kristofer S.; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Petersen, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic oxidative stress and subsequent lipid peroxidation are well-recognized consequences of sustained ethanol consumption. The covalent adduction of nucleophilic amino acid side-chains by lipid electrophiles is significantly increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD); a global assessment of in vivo protein targets and the consequences of these modifications, however, has not been conducted. In this report, we describe identification of novel protein targets for covalent adduc...

  9. 50 Hz electric field effects on protein carbonyl (PCO), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydroxyproline levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation sources, such as power lines and other Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) sources have become one of the most ubiquitous components of the spectrum of the human environment, and the possibility that they may have hazardous effects on human health is a major a public concern. Although it is well documented that EMFs have biological effects, the degree to which these exposures constitute a human health hazard is not clear yet. Today relation between production of oxidative stress resulted by reactive oxygen species and electrical stimulus, also the protective effects of antioxidant treatments are mentioned in many researches. In this study, it was aimed to determine both oxidation of proteins and protein collagen levels under 50 Hz 12 kV/m vertical Electric (E) Field exposure and the N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) administration which is a well-known antioxidant. To this end, protein carbonyl levels (PCO) as bio-markers of oxidative stress and Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme analyzed to figure out the protein oxidation. Hydroxyproline level, a major component of the protein collagen was measured in order to express the level of collagen in lung tissue. Guinea pigs, weighted 250-300 g, were used in the study. A total forty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups which are composed of 10 guinea pigs each for groups: 1) Group I (Sham); 2) Group II (NAC-administrated group); 3) Group III (E Field Exposure group); 4) Group IV (NAC administrated + E Field exposed group). One week exposure period for 8 hours per daily was conducted for each exposure groups (Group III, Group IV ). The electric field exposure period was from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. After the last exposure day, the guinea pigs were anesthetized by the injection of ketamine and xylazine. The guinea pigs were killed by decapitation. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software (SPSS 11.5 for windows

  10. Age-dependant expression of alpha-macula adherens protein in rat heart%α-黏着斑蛋白在大鼠心脏表达分布随增龄变化的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光谋; 吴俊琢; 张艳芬; 郭志坤

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macula adherens protein is found closely associated with congenital cardiac malformation and myocardial differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression characteristics of α-macula adherens protein in rat heart, as well as the property of age-dependant expression during myocardial growth. DESIGN: Randomized controlled, observational comparative study. SETTING: Department of Cell Biology of Xinxiang Medical College; Department of Bioengineering and Agricultural Economics of Puyang Vocational Technical School. MATERIALS: This study was conducted at the Morphological Laboratory of Xinxiang Medical College between January and June 2003. Totally 28 Wistar rats of clean grade were divided into infant group, youth group,middle-age group, and old-age group with 7 rats in each group. METHODS: All rats were anaesthetized and then cardiac tissues were cut into consecutive coronal slices of 5 μm thick. The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of infant, youth, middle-age and oldage groups was detected using IHC method. The positive cells displayed brownish yellow granules on the surface, cytoplasm and intercalated disc. Routine HE staining was performed on all specimens for structural comparison. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of different groups. RESULTS: All the 28 rats entered the final results analysis. ① α-macula adherens protein was found to be expressed in myocardium in atrium, ventricle, papilla muscles and interventricular septum. ② In infant rats, the expression of α-macula adherens protein was mainly observed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium, with less expression on cell surface and in cytoplasm; in contrast, α-macula adherens protein in young, middleaged and old rats was found to be typically expressed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium. CONCLUSION: The expression of α-macula adherens protein displays age-dependant manner during rat

  11. Protein Carbonyl as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Severe Leptospirosis, and Its Usefulness in Differentiating Leptospirosis from Dengue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Narmada; Wickremesinghe, Shalini; Niloofa, Roshan; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Karunanayake, Lilani; de Silva, H Janaka; Wickremesinghe, A R; Premawansa, Sunil; Rajapakse, Senaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma M

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of disease severity in leptospirosis is not clearly understood whether it is due to direct damage by pathogen or by adverse immune responses. Knowledge on biomarkers of oxidative stress which could be used in identifying patients with severe illness has shown to be of great value in disease management. Thus, the main aim of this study was to assess the damage to serum proteins and lipids, and their significance as biomarkers of oxidative stress in severe leptospirosis. In regions endemic for both leptospirosis and dengue, leptospirosis cases are often misdiagnosed as dengue during dengue epidemics. Therefore, the second aim was to assess the potential of the oxidative stress markers in differentiating severe leptospirosis from critical phase dengue. We measured serum antioxidants (uric acid and bilirubin), total antioxidant capacity (AOC), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid hydroperoxide (LP) in patients with severe leptospirosis (n = 60), mild leptospirosis (n = 50), dengue during the critical phase (n = 30) and in healthy subjects (n = 30). All patient groups had similar total antioxidant capacity levels. However, the presence of significantly high uric acid and total bilirubin levels may reflect the degree of renal and hepatic involvement seen in severe leptospirosis patients (p<0.02). Serum PC and LP levels were significantly higher in leptospirosis patients compared to critical phase dengue infections (p<0.005). Moreover, high serum PC levels appear to differentiate SL from DC [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96; p<0.001]. Serum PC may be a reliable biomarker of oxidative damage to serum proteins to identify severe leptospirosis patients (AUC = 0.99) and also to differentiate severe leptospirosis from mild cases (AUC = 0.78; p<0.005) indicating its contribution to pathogenesis. Use of serum PC as an indicator of leptospirosis severity and as an oxidative stress biomarker in differentiating leptospirosis from dengue would provide the opportunity to

  12. Protein Carbonyl as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Severe Leptospirosis, and Its Usefulness in Differentiating Leptospirosis from Dengue Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada Fernando

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of disease severity in leptospirosis is not clearly understood whether it is due to direct damage by pathogen or by adverse immune responses. Knowledge on biomarkers of oxidative stress which could be used in identifying patients with severe illness has shown to be of great value in disease management. Thus, the main aim of this study was to assess the damage to serum proteins and lipids, and their significance as biomarkers of oxidative stress in severe leptospirosis. In regions endemic for both leptospirosis and dengue, leptospirosis cases are often misdiagnosed as dengue during dengue epidemics. Therefore, the second aim was to assess the potential of the oxidative stress markers in differentiating severe leptospirosis from critical phase dengue. We measured serum antioxidants (uric acid and bilirubin, total antioxidant capacity (AOC, protein carbonyl (PC and lipid hydroperoxide (LP in patients with severe leptospirosis (n = 60, mild leptospirosis (n = 50, dengue during the critical phase (n = 30 and in healthy subjects (n = 30. All patient groups had similar total antioxidant capacity levels. However, the presence of significantly high uric acid and total bilirubin levels may reflect the degree of renal and hepatic involvement seen in severe leptospirosis patients (p<0.02. Serum PC and LP levels were significantly higher in leptospirosis patients compared to critical phase dengue infections (p<0.005. Moreover, high serum PC levels appear to differentiate SL from DC [area under the curve (AUC = 0.96; p<0.001]. Serum PC may be a reliable biomarker of oxidative damage to serum proteins to identify severe leptospirosis patients (AUC = 0.99 and also to differentiate severe leptospirosis from mild cases (AUC = 0.78; p<0.005 indicating its contribution to pathogenesis. Use of serum PC as an indicator of leptospirosis severity and as an oxidative stress biomarker in differentiating leptospirosis from dengue would provide the opportunity

  13. Proteomic Identification of Carbonylated Proteins in 1,3-Dinitrobenzene Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Stephen R.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that 1,3-dinitrobenzene-induced (1,3-DNB) oxidative stress led to the oxidative carbonlyation of specific protein targets in DI TNC1 cells. 1,3-DNB-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by loss of tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence, was initially observed at 5 h and coincided with peak reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS production was inhibited in cells pre-treated with the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor, ...

  14. Plasma Protein Carbonyls and Breast Cancer Risk in Sisters Discordant for Breast Cancer from the New York Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Terry, Mary Beth; Liao, Yuyan; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Gurvich, Irina; Senie, Ruby; Santella, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including breast cancer. Several population-based case-control studies have demonstrated that various biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. We selected sisters discordant for breast cancer (n=645) from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry to explore factors that contribute to variation in plasma protein carbonyls, and to determine whether this bio...

  15. Elevated protein carbonylation, and misfolding in sciatic nerve from db/db and Sod1(-/- mice: plausible link between oxidative stress and demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Hamilton

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy is associated with decrements in motor/sensory neuron myelination, nerve conduction and muscle function; however, the mechanisms of reduced myelination in diabetes are poorly understood. Chronic elevation of oxidative stress may be one of the potential determinants for demyelination as lipids and proteins are important structural constituents of myelin and highly susceptible to oxidation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether there is a link between protein oxidation/misfolding and demyelination. We chose two distinct models to test our hypothesis: 1 the leptin receptor deficient mouse (dbdb model of diabetic polyneuropathy and 2 superoxide dismutase 1 knockout (Sod1(-/- mouse model of in vivo oxidative stress. Both experimental models displayed a significant decrement in nerve conduction, increase in tail distal motor latency as well as reduced myelin thickness and fiber/axon diameter. Further biochemical studies demonstrated that oxidative stress is likely to be a potential key player in the demyelination process as both models exhibited significant elevation in protein carbonylation and alterations in protein conformation. Since peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 is a key component of myelin sheath and has been found mutated and aggregated in several peripheral neuropathies, we predicted that an increase in carbonylation and aggregation of PMP22 may be associated with demyelination in dbdb mice. Indeed, PMP22 was found to be carbonylated and aggregated in sciatic nerves of dbdb mice. Sequence-driven hydropathy plot analysis and in vitro oxidation-induced aggregation of purified PMP22 protein supported the premise for oxidation-dependent aggregation of PMP22 in dbdb mice. Collectively, these data strongly suggest for the first time that oxidation-mediated protein misfolding and aggregation of key myelin proteins may be linked to demyelination and reduced nerve conduction in peripheral

  16. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post γ-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H2O2 and 60Co γ-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H2O2 (2O2 (30% v/v) produced a small difference. 60Co γ-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and between species. PC=Os can be detected by DNPH-reactivity/Western blotting assay in host A. agaricites. UPCs can be assayed via Western blotting and

  17. Age-dependent dosimetry and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides into the environment following the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 created an urgent need for internationally acceptable dose coefficients for calculating the doses delivered to all members of the public, from conception to old age. Organ masses and the kinetics of distribution and retention of elements in humans generally vary with age and often not in simple linear relationship to body weight. Unless variations are considered calculated radiation doses to children may be seriously underestimated. The International Commission on Radiological Protection created in 1987 a Task Group on Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides (AGDOS). The work of AGDOS and the general problems encountered in deriving age-dependent dose coefficients will be discussed in this paper. The first two AGDOS reports, ICRP Publication 56 Parts 1 and 2, provide dose coefficients for the ages 3 months, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and for adults for the 21 elements considered to be of most immediate importance for radiation protection. To develop these dose coefficients, the ICRP Publication 30 dosimetric and biokinetic models were reevaluated and extended. The basic dosimetric model is retained but equivalent dose is now integrated from age at intake to 70 years and the new ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors are incorporated. The development of age-dependent biokinetic models is complicated by the lack of age-related human, or even animal data for the majority of the elements. Thus in formulating the models it has been necessary to use all the available information, biokinetic, physiological chemical and biochemical, and to adopt a number of new approaches including the development of generic biokinetic models for chemically related families of elements such as the actinides and the alkaline earth elements. (author)

  18. Effect of helium neon laser therapy for enhancing healing of chronic leg ulcers on growth factors and oxidative status: Correlation with protein carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of He:Ne laser irradiation on growth factors and oxidative stress during its biostimulatory effects on wound healing. Twenty two chronic leg ulcer patients, were exposed to three sessions per week of 632.8 nm2 He Ne laser irradiation at power output 10 mW and energy density of 1-4 J/cm2. Serum protein carbonyls, wound edge DNA, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (BGF) were estimated in sera and tissue of each patient before and after the 8∼ session post He:Ne laser irradiation used for treatment of chronic leg ulcer. Laser irradiation decreased ulcer size in all of the treated patients. 65% of ulcers exhibited 100%, complete recovery and 35% of ulcers exhibited recovery below 80%. Biochemical investigations revealed significant increase in the levels of serum and tissue FGF, and EGF, while serum protein carbonyls were decreased. The decrease in serum protein carbonyls was inversely correlated with the percentage of ulcer healing, while the increase in tissue growth factors was positively correlated with the percentage of ulcer healing. There was no significant increase in the level of DNA after laser therapy. However, DNA-fragmentation before and after laser therapy revealed the presence of small DNA fractions ranging from 21 kb to less than 0.5 kb before laser therapy, which decreased in intensity or was completely eliminated after laser therapy. Me:Ne therapy is of great benefit in the treatment of chronic wounds and shades the light on the oxidative stress and growth factor status during the treatment of chronic leg ulcer with soft laser irradiation. (author)

  19. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa J Schafer

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR enhances longevity and mitigates aging phenotypes in numerous species. Physiological responses to CR are cell-type specific and variable throughout the lifespan. However, the mosaic of molecular changes responsible for CR benefits remains unclear, particularly in brain regions susceptible to deterioration during aging. We examined the influence of long-term CR on the CA1 hippocampal region, a key learning and memory brain area that is vulnerable to age-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Through mRNA sequencing and NanoString nCounter analysis, we demonstrate that one year of CR feeding suppresses age-dependent signatures of 882 genes functionally associated with synaptic transmission-related pathways, including calcium signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP, and Creb signaling in wild-type mice. By comparing the influence of CR on hippocampal CA1 region transcriptional profiles at younger-adult (5 months, 2.5 months of feeding and older-adult (15 months, 12.5 months of feeding timepoints, we identify conserved upregulation of proteome quality control and calcium buffering genes, including heat shock 70 kDa protein 1b (Hspa1b and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (Pdia4 and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (Pdia6, and calreticulin (Calr. Expression levels of putative neuroprotective factors, klotho (Kl and transthyretin (Ttr, are also elevated by CR in adulthood, although the global CR-specific expression profiles at younger and older timepoints are highly divergent. At a previously unachieved resolution, our results demonstrate conserved activation of neuroprotective gene signatures and broad CR-suppression of age-dependent hippocampal CA1 region expression changes, indicating that CR functionally maintains a more youthful transcriptional state within the hippocampal CA1 sector.

  20. Mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone induces the multimer assembly and activity of repair enzyme protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanélus, Irvens; Desrosiers, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    The protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) repairs damaged aspartyl residues in proteins. It is commonly described as a cytosolic protein highly expressed in brain tissues. Here, we report that PIMT is an active monomeric as well as a multimeric protein in mitochondria isolated from neuroblastoma cells. Upon treatments with mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), PIMT monomers level decreased by half while that of PIMT multimers was higher. Gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions of CCCP-induced PIMT multimers led to PIMT monomers accumulation, indicating that multimers resulted from disulfide-linked PIMT monomers. The antioxidant ascorbic acid significantly lowered CCCP-induced formation of PIMT multimers, suggesting that reactive oxygen species contributed to PIMT multimerization. In addition, the elevation of PIMT multimers catalytic activity upon treatments with CCCP was severely inhibited by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. This indicated that PIMT monomers have lower enzymatic activity following CCCP treatments and that activation of PIMT multimers is essentially dependent on the formation of disulfide-linked monomers of PIMT. Furthermore, the perturbation of mitochondrial function by CCCP promoted the accumulation of damaged aspartyl residues in proteins with high molecular weights. Thus, this study demonstrates the formation of active PIMT multimers associated with mitochondria that could play a key role in repairing damaged proteins accumulating during mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23319267

  1. Carbonyl reductase inactivation may contribute to mouse lung tumor promotion by electrophilic metabolites of butylated hydroxytoluene: protein alkylation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Colin T; Fritz, Kristofer S; Meier, Brent W; Kirichenko, Oleg V; Thompson, John A

    2008-08-01

    Promotion of lung tumors in mice by the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is mediated by electrophilic metabolites produced in the target organ. Identifying the proteins alkylated by these quinone methides (QMs) is a necessary step in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Covalent adducts of the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin 6 and Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase were detected previously in lung cytosols from BALB/c mice injected with BHT, and complimentary in vitro studies demonstrated that QM alkylation causes inactivation and enhances oxidative stress. In the present work, adducts of another protective enzyme, carbonyl reductase (CBR), were detected by Western blotting and mass spectrometry in mitochondria from lungs of mice one day after a single injection of BHT and throughout a 28-day period of weekly injections required to achieve tumor promotion. BHT treatment was accompanied by the accumulation of protein carbonyls in lung cytosol from sustained oxidative stress. Studies in vitro demonstrated that CBR activity in lung homogenates was susceptible to concentration- and time-dependent inhibition by QMs. Recombinant CBR underwent irreversible inhibition during QM exposure, and mass spectrometry was utilized to identify alkylation sites at Cys 51, Lys 17, Lys 189, Lys 201, His 28, and His 204. Except for Lys 17, all of these adducts were eliminated as a cause of enzyme inhibition either by chemical modification (cysteine) or site-directed mutagenesis (lysines and histidines). The data demonstrated that Lys 17 is the critical alkylation target, consistent with the role of this basic residue in NADPH binding. These data support the possibility that CBR inhibition occurs in BHT-treated mice, thereby compromising one pathway for inactivating lipid peroxidation products, particularly 4-oxo-2-nonenal. These data, in concert with previous evidence for the inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, provide a molecular basis to explain lung inflammation leading to

  2. Optimized biotin-hydrazide enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis of peptide carbonyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Wojdyla, K; Jensen, O. N.; Møller, Ian Max; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    Irreversible cell damage through protein carbonylation is the result of reaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been coupled to many diseases. The precise molecular consequences of protein carbonylation, however, are still not clear. The localization of the carbonylated amino acid is ...

  3. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis) and...

  4. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity ☆

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vidal; J.P. Cavaille; Graziani, F.; M. Robin; Ouari, O; Pietri, S.; Stocker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or...

  5. AGE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN ACTIVITY OF MALLARD PLASMA CHOLINESTERASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was measured repeatedly in 27 mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings between 7 and 85 days of age to determine age-dependent changes in enzyme activity. Plasma AChE, BChe, and total cholinesterase (ChE) a...

  6. Stability analysis for a general age-dependent vaccination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination model is investigated when the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We give threshold criteria of the existence of equilibriums and perform stability analysis. Furthermore a critical vaccination coverage that is sufficient to eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 12 refs

  7. Age-dependent protection quantities for external photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age-dependent conversion coefficients of the protection quantities, the equivalent dose and the effective dose defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), are obtained. A Monte Carlo computer code and the age-dependent hermaphrodite mathematical phantoms of six age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years old and adult are used for the evaluation. Twenty-three photon source energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and six kinds of irradiation geometries: AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT, and ISO are chosen in the calculation. The evaluated conversion coefficients for the adult are compared with those in ICRP Publication 74 with good agreement. The conversion coefficients of the equivalent dose and the effective dose increase while the age of the phantom decreases, but with some exceptions for the AP irradiation geometry under certain conditions. (author)

  8. Age-dependent complex noise fluctuations in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the parameters of colored noise in EEG data of 17 722 professional drivers aged 18–70. The whole study is based upon experiments showing that biological neural networks may operate in the vicinity of the critical point and that the balance between excitation and inhibition in the human brain is important for the transfer of information. This paper is devoted to the study of EEG power spectrum which can be described best by a power function with 1/fλ distribution and colored noise corresponding to the critical point in the EEG signal has the value of λ = 1 (purple noise). The slow accumulation of energy and its quick release is a universal property of the 1/f distribution. The physiological mechanism causing energy dissipation in the brain seems to depend on the number and strength of the connections between clusters of neurons. With ageing, the number of connections between the neurons decreases. Learning ability and intellectual performance also decrease. Therefore, age-related changes in the λ coefficient can be anticipated. We found that absolute values of λ coefficients decrease significantly with increasing age. Deviations from this rule are related to age-dependent slowing of the dominant frequency in the alpha band. Age-dependent change in the parameter and colored noise may be indicative of age-related changes in the self-organization of brain activity. Results obtained include (i) the age-dependent decrease of the absolute values of the average λ coefficient with the regression coefficient 0.005 1/year, (ii) distribution of λ value changes related to EEG frequency bands and to localization of electrodes on the scalp, and (iii) relation of age-dependent changes of colored noise and EEG energy in separate frequency bands. (paper)

  9. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Peng, Jigen

    2007-07-01

    Based on J. Mena-Lorca and H.W. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.

  10. Age Dependencies in the Modelling of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kellerer, Albrecht M.; Barclay, D

    1992-01-01

    Models for the dose and age dependence of radiation induced cancer have been based primarily on the follow-up of the atomic bomb survivors. Two different concepts have been deduced for leukaemias and for other cancers. The excess leukaemias appear in a distinct temporal wave with a maximum 5 to 10 years after radiation exposure; the distribution is more narrow for younger ages, but there is little dependence of the total attributable risk on age at exposure. For other cancers the latent perio...

  11. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point. PMID:25768548

  12. Targeting Reactive Carbonyl Species with Natural Sequestering Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Won Hwang; Yoon-Mi Lee; Giancarlo Aldini; Kyung-Jin Yeum

    2016-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl species generated by the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars are highly reactive due to their electrophilic nature, and are able to easily react with the nucleophilic sites of proteins as well as DNA causing cellular dysfunction. Levels of reactive carbonyl species and their reaction products have been reported to be elevated in various chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In an effort to identify sequestering agents...

  13. Targeting Reactive Carbonyl Species with Natural Sequestering Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Hwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive carbonyl species generated by the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars are highly reactive due to their electrophilic nature, and are able to easily react with the nucleophilic sites of proteins as well as DNA causing cellular dysfunction. Levels of reactive carbonyl species and their reaction products have been reported to be elevated in various chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In an effort to identify sequestering agents for reactive carbonyl species, various analytical techniques such as spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, western blot, and mass spectrometry have been utilized. In particular, recent advances using a novel high resolution mass spectrometry approach allows screening of complex mixtures such as natural products for their sequestering ability of reactive carbonyl species. To overcome the limited bioavailability and bioefficacy of natural products, new techniques using nanoparticles and nanocarriers may offer a new attractive strategy for increased in vivo utilization and targeted delivery of bioactives.

  14. Targeting Reactive Carbonyl Species with Natural Sequestering Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Won; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Aldini, Giancarlo; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl species generated by the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars are highly reactive due to their electrophilic nature, and are able to easily react with the nucleophilic sites of proteins as well as DNA causing cellular dysfunction. Levels of reactive carbonyl species and their reaction products have been reported to be elevated in various chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In an effort to identify sequestering agents for reactive carbonyl species, various analytical techniques such as spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, western blot, and mass spectrometry have been utilized. In particular, recent advances using a novel high resolution mass spectrometry approach allows screening of complex mixtures such as natural products for their sequestering ability of reactive carbonyl species. To overcome the limited bioavailability and bioefficacy of natural products, new techniques using nanoparticles and nanocarriers may offer a new attractive strategy for increased in vivo utilization and targeted delivery of bioactives. PMID:26927058

  15. Calcium signaling in cognition and aging-dependent cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M M; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Calcium-dependent signals are key triggers of the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis in the aging brain has been proposed to underlie aging-dependent cognitive decline. Mechanisms triggered by calcium in neurons include activity-dependent activation of transcription responsible for the synthesis of molecules underlying the long-term changes of neuronal function. Effectors of calcium signaling with a primordial role in transcription regulation are calcium signal-regulated transcription factors. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the contribution of key calcium signal-regulated transcription factors, namely CREB, NFAT, and DREAM, to memory formation. We further describe evidence for dysregulation of the activity of these factors during aging. PMID:21698696

  16. Age dependencies in the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, A.M. (Munich Univ. (Germany). Radiobiological Inst. GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection); Barclay, D. (GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection)

    1992-01-01

    Models for the dose and age dependence of radiation induced cancer have been based primarily on the follow-up of the atomic bomb survivors. Two different concepts have been deduced for leukaemias and for other cancers. The excess leukaemias appear in a distinct temporal wave with a maximum 5 to 10 years after radiation exposure; the distribution is more narrow for younger ages, but there is little dependence of the total attributable risk on age at exposure. For other cancers the latent periods are longer and, according to the current interpretation, the excess rates are then proportional to the age specific spontaneous rates, so that most excess cases would arise at old age. The factors of proportionality, and thus the attributable risks, are assumed to be markedly higher for young ages at exposure. It is argued here, that there is no firm support for this interpretation. (author).

  17. Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Xu

    Full Text Available Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation, CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  18. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10-11 Sv Bq-1 for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10-11 Sv Bq-1 for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10-11 Sv Bq-11 compared to 4.6 x 10-11 Sv Bq-1 for Reference Man. (author)

  19. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  20. Age-dependent forest carbon sink: Estimation via inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Shi, Peijun; Jia, Gensuo; Dai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Xiang; Shangguan, Wei; Du, Ling; Wu, Hao; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-12-01

    Forests have been recognized to sequester a substantial amount of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the magnitude and time course of the C sink. Revealing the intrinsic relationship between forest age and C sink is crucial for reducing uncertainties in prediction of forest C sink potential. In this study, we developed a stepwise data assimilation approach to combine a process-based Terrestrial ECOsystem Regional model, observations from multiple sources, and stochastic sampling to inversely estimate carbon cycle parameters including carbon sink at different forest ages for evergreen needle-leaved forests in China. The new approach is effective to estimate age-dependent parameter of maximal light-use efficiency (R2 = 0.99) and, accordingly, can quantify a relationship between forest age and the vegetation and soil C sinks. The estimated ecosystem C sink increases rapidly with age, peaks at 0.451 kg C m-2 yr-1 at age 22 years (ranging from 0.421 to 0.465 kg C m-2 yr-1), and gradually decreases thereafter. The dynamic patterns of C sinks in vegetation and soil are significantly different. C sink in vegetation first increases rapidly with age and then decreases. C sink in soil, however, increases continuously with age; it acts as a C source when the age is less than 20 years, after which it acts as a sink. For the evergreen needle-leaved forest, the highest C sink efficiency (i.e., C sink per unit net primary productivity) is approximately 60%, with age between 11 and 43 years. Overall, the inverse estimation of carbon cycle parameters can make reasonable estimates of age-dependent C sequestration in forests.

  1. The role of HSP70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Fox, Amy C.; Clark, Andrew T.; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Farris, Alton B.; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6–12week old) and aged (16–17 month old) HSP70−/− and wild type (WT) mice to determine if HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70−/− and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70−/− mice than aged WT mice subjected to CLP (p=0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared to WT mice, aged septic HSP70−/− mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70−/−mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β compared to WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  2. SEECAL: Program to calculate age-dependent specific effective energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the computer program SEECAL, which calculates specific effective energies (SEE) to specified target regions for ages newborn, 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, a 70-kg adult male, and a 58-kg adult female. The dosimetric methodology is that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and is generally consistent with the schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee of the US Society of Nuclear Medicine. Computation of SEEs is necessary in the computation of equivalent dose rate in a target region, for occupational or public exposure to radionuclides taken into the body. Program SEECAL replaces the program SEE that was previously used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program SEE was used in the dosimetric calculations for occupational exposures for ICRP Publication 30 and is limited to adults. SEECAL was used to generate age-dependent SEEs for ICRP Publication 56, Part 1. SEECAL is also incorporated into DCAL, a radiation dose and risk calculational system being developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. Electronic copies of the program and data files and this report are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  3. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments. The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables. Given an environment ξ, the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process, whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+, and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N. Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t. We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation, and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process. We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t), and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  4. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-12-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  5. Age dependence of natural uranium and thorium concentrations in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Packer, Ana Paula; Marro, Leonora; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jing; Cornett, R Jack

    2007-02-01

    The age dependence of the natural concentration of uranium and thorium in the skeleton was investigated using human vertebrae bone collected from two Canadian locations (Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Regina, Saskatchewan). The concentration of both radioelements in digested ashed bone samples was determined using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric means for uranium level in bones showed a significant statistical difference between the two locations studied. Similarly for thorium, a statistical difference was observed, although this difference was considered marginal. The thorium concentration differed only marginally with respect to age group, indicating that its behavior in the body could be age-independent. Conversely, the uranium level in bones was found to change for the age groups tested, an indication of age-specific deposition. The age profile for uranium was comparable to the calcium turn-over rate, indicating that uranium deposition is probably, in part, dictated by this metabolic process, showing the role of present uptake into the uranium concentration in bones for populations exposed to significant uranium intake. PMID:17220713

  6. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-09-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  7. A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates or risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks

  8. Age dependence of the renal apparent diffusion coefficient in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion imaging has proved to be a powerful tool for diagnosing ischemic lesions in the brain, and the technique is now being applied to other organs, including the kidneys. For quantitative studies it is important to define the normal values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), given the important physiological changes that occur in the kidney during early childhood it is likely that the ADC changes markedly during this period. To evaluate the age dependent changes in the ADC of normal kidneys in the pediatric population. The whole kidney ADC was calculated for 62 pediatric patients on a 1.5-T system using a respiratory-triggered, single-shot diffusion tensor imaging sequence with b values of 50, 200, and 350 mm2/s. The ADC was found to increase with age with the largest increase being in the first year of life, the rate of change being described by a constant plus a power function, specifically 1349+{358.5*{age0.34}}, (P < 0.001). The renal ADC changes significantly during childhood. (orig.)

  9. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  10. Age-dependence and intersubject variability of tracheobronchial particle clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY.Background: The detailed study of tracheobronchial clearanceof inhaled particles represents one of the basic research questionsin lung medicine. The clearance efficiency varies in different agegroups and between males and females.The differences can bepartly clarified by the application of a well validated theoreticalapproach. This study applied a relevant model to children (1 year,5 years, 10 years, juveniles (15 years, and adults of different ages(18, 21, 25, 34, 50, and 60 years and to both sexes. Methods: Themathematical model used for clearance simulation is based on theconcept of a stochastic lung structure and considers both early fastmucociliary clearance and a later, slow clearance fraction, fs, effectedby particular uptake by tracheobronchial cells, e.g., macrophagesand epithelial cells. According to this model, the calculated mucusvelocities for each airway generation of the tracheobronchial compartmentare normalized to a respective tracheal mucus velocitythat is estimated for each of the age groups studied from an allometricfunction. Results: In general, tracheobronchial clearanceefficiency undergoes a significant increase from childhood to youngadulthood, reaching a maximum at 25-30 years and decreasingagain from about 30 years to 60 years. Conversely to the improvementof clearance, the continuous change of airway morphometrywith increasing age causes a decrease of the filtering effect in thetrachea and main bronchi, which is of marked importance in infants.The modelling results demonstrate differences in tracheobronchialclearance between males and females, generally in the range from0 to 5%, which are exclusively determined by the individual lunggeometry. Conclusions: Based on theoretical computations itcan be concluded that tracheobronchial clearance is a phenomenonthat depends on both age and sex. Biological studies are necessaryto determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlyingthe age-dependent development of

  11. Age-dependent morphological and compositional variations on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Extended smooth plains cover the interior of a number of craters on Ceres. Smooth plains appear on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains also ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating distinct geological boundaries. Ikapati crater shows smooth plains on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains, ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating a distinct geological boundary. The interior of Occator also exhibits extended plains of ponded material, multiple flows originating from the center overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim, dome-like features, vents cracks and fissures. Furthermore, crater densities on Occator's floor are lower than those on the ejecta blanket indicating a post-impact formation age of the flows. The flows to the northeast appear to originate from the central region and move slightly uphill. This indicates either a feeding zone that pushes the flows forward by supplying low-viscosity material or a depression of the crater center, possibly after discharging a subsurface reservoir. The plains and flows as well as some areas surrounding the craters appear spectrally blue. Both plains and flow material are characterized in camera and spectrometer visible spectra by a slightly negative slope with a gradual drop off up to 10% in reflectance from 0.5μm to 1μm. Although the spectral variations in the visible are subtle, they are clearly expressed in the color ratio composite. The crater densities of 20 locations across the surface of Ceres with different spectral behavior were analyzed in order to investigate the age dependence of spectral surface features. The results indicate that bluish material is mainly associated with the youngest impact craters on Ceres ( 1 Ga

  12. A Method to Site-Specifically Identify and Quantitate Carbonyl End Products of Protein Oxidation Using Oxidation-Dependent Element Coded Affinity Tags (O-ECAT) and NanoLiquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Young, N L; Whetstone, P A; Cheal, S M; Benner, W H; Lebrilla, C B; Meares, C F

    2005-08-25

    Protein oxidation is linked to cellular stress, aging, and disease. Protein oxidations that result in reactive species are of particular interest, since these reactive oxidation products may react with other proteins or biomolecules in an unmediated and irreversible fashion, providing a potential marker for a variety of disease mechanisms. We have developed a novel system to identify and quantitate, relative to other states, the sites of oxidation on a given protein. A specially designed Oxidation-dependent carbonyl-specific Element-Coded Affinity Mass Tag (O-ECAT), AOD, ((S)-2-(4-(2-aminooxy)-acetamido)-benzyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic acid, is used to covalently tag the residues of a protein oxidized to aldehyde or keto end products. After proteolysis, the resulting AOD-tagged peptides are affinity purified, and analyzed by nanoLC-FTICR-MS, which provides high specificity in extracting co-eluting AOD mass pairs with a unique mass difference and affords relative quantitation based on isotopic ratios. Using this methodology, we have mapped the surface oxidation sites on a model protein, recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in its native form (as purchased) and after FeEDTA oxidation. A variety of modified amino acid residues including lysine, arginine, proline, histidine, threonine, aspartic and glutamic acids, were found to be oxidized to aldehyde and keto end products. The sensitivity of this methodology is shown by the number of peptides identified, twenty peptides on the native protein and twenty-nine after surface oxidation using FeEDTA and ascorbate. All identified peptides map to the surface of the HSA crystal structure validating this method for identifying oxidized amino acids on protein surfaces. In relative quantitation experiments between FeEDTA oxidation and native protein oxidation, identified sites showed different relative propensities towards oxidation independent of amino acid

  13. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrokhotov, Igor; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey

    It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity. The special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Germany). List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human (international index of protein) using the program Mascot (MS version 2.0.04 , UK) according to the following criteria: 1 - enzyme-trypsin; 2 - peptide tol. ± 5 ppm; 3 - MS / MS tol. 0.5Da. From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than 24. Analysis of the list of proteins was performed using software developed in the laboratory of VA Ivanisenko (ICG SB RAS) Age of healthy individuals was ranged from 18 to 54 years. Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years (youth and mature age 1), 25-40 years (mature age 2) and 40-54 years (mature age 3) It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age. It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients (under 25 years old) , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons (25 to 40 years). When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group (40-54 years ) there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Thus

  14. Age-Dependent Effects of Haptoglobin Deletion in Neurobehavioral and Anatomical Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583

  15. Mutant TDP-43 and FUS cause age-dependent paralysis and neurodegeneration in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    Full Text Available Mutations in the DNA/RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Intracellular accumulations of wild type TDP-43 and FUS are observed in a growing number of late-onset diseases suggesting that TDP-43 and FUS proteinopathies may contribute to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand the mechanisms of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity we have created transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains that express full-length, untagged human TDP-43 and FUS in the worm's GABAergic motor neurons. Transgenic worms expressing mutant TDP-43 and FUS display adult-onset, age-dependent loss of motility, progressive paralysis and neuronal degeneration that is distinct from wild type alleles. Additionally, mutant TDP-43 and FUS proteins are highly insoluble while wild type proteins remain soluble suggesting that protein misfolding may contribute to toxicity. Populations of mutant TDP-43 and FUS transgenics grown on solid media become paralyzed over 7 to 12 days. We have developed a liquid culture assay where the paralysis phenotype evolves over several hours. We introduce C. elegans transgenics for mutant TDP-43 and FUS motor neuron toxicity that may be used for rapid genetic and pharmacological suppressor screening.

  16. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  17. Elevated Protein Carbonylation, and Misfolding in Sciatic Nerve from db/db and Sod1−/− Mice: Plausible Link between Oxidative Stress and Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Ryan T.; Arunabh Bhattacharya; Walsh, Michael E.; Yun Shi; Rochelle Wei; Yiqiang Zhang; Rodriguez, Karl A.; Rochelle Buffenstein; Chaudhuri, Asish R.; Holly Van Remmen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy is associated with decrements in motor/sensory neuron myelination, nerve conduction and muscle function; however, the mechanisms of reduced myelination in diabetes are poorly understood. Chronic elevation of oxidative stress may be one of the potential determinants for demyelination as lipids and proteins are important structural constituents of myelin and highly susceptible to oxidation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether there is a link...

  18. Age-dependent alterations of decorin glycosaminoglycans in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Ying Liu; Wei Xia; Dan Lei; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans, a family of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) conjugated proteins, are important constituents of human skin connective tissue (dermis) and are essential for maintaining mechanical strength of the skin. Age-related alterations of dermal proteoglycans have not been fully elucidated. We quantified transcripts of 20 known interstitial proteoglycans in human skin and found that decorin was the most highly expressed. Decorin was predominantly produced by dermal fibroblasts. Decorin was localiz...

  19. αβγ-Synuclein triple knockout mice reveal age-dependent neuronal dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greten-Harrison, Becket; Polydoro, Manuela; Morimoto-Tomita, Megumi; Diao, Ling; Williams, Andrew M.; Nie, Esther H.; Makani, Sachin; Tian, Ning; Castillo, Pablo E.; Buchman, Vladimir L.; Chandra, Sreeganga S.

    2010-01-01

    Synucleins are a vertebrate-specific family of abundant neuronal proteins. They comprise three closely related members, α-, β-, and γ-synuclein. α-Synuclein has been the focus of intense attention since mutations in it were identified as a cause for familial Parkinson's disease. Despite their disease relevance, the normal physiological function of synucleins has remained elusive. To address this, we generated and characterized αβγ-synuclein knockout mice, which lack all members of this protein family. Deletion of synucleins causes alterations in synaptic structure and transmission, age-dependent neuronal dysfunction, as well as diminished survival. Abrogation of synuclein expression decreased excitatory synapse size by ∼30% both in vivo and in vitro, revealing that synucleins are important determinants of presynaptic terminal size. Young synuclein null mice show improved basic transmission, whereas older mice show a pronounced decrement. The late onset phenotypes in synuclein null mice were not due to a loss of synapses or neurons but rather reflect specific changes in synaptic protein composition and axonal structure. Our results demonstrate that synucleins contribute importantly to the long-term operation of the nervous system and that alterations in their physiological function could contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:20974939

  20. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their Scaling Limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Siva R Athreya; Srikanth K Iyer

    2010-06-01

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  1. Proteomic and Carbonylation Profile Analysis of Rat Skeletal Muscles following Acute Swimming Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    F. Magherini; T. Gamberi; Pietrovito, L; T. Fiaschi; L. Bini; Esposito, F; M. Marini; P.M. Abruzzo; Gulisano, M; Modesti, A

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies by us and other groups characterized protein expression variation following long-term moderate training, whereas the effects of single bursts of exercise are less known. Making use of a proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of acute swimming exercise (ASE) on protein expression and carbonylation patterns in two hind limb muscles: the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) and the Soleus, mostly composed of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres, respectively. Carbonylation is ...

  2. Towards an Analytical Age-Dependent Model of Contrast Sensitivity Functions for an Ageing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulan, Karine; Brémond, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) describes how the visibility of a grating depends on the stimulus spatial frequency. Many published CSF data have demonstrated that contrast sensitivity declines with age. However, an age-dependent analytical model of the CSF is not available to date. In this paper, we propose such an analytical CSF model based on visual mechanisms, taking into account the age factor. To this end, we have extended an existing model from Barten (1999), taking into account the dependencies of this model's optical and physiological parameters on age. Age-dependent models of the cones and ganglion cells densities, the optical and neural MTF, and optical and neural noise are proposed, based on published data. The proposed age-dependent CSF is finally tested against available experimental data, with fair results. Such an age-dependent model may be beneficial when designing real-time age-dependent image coding and display applications. PMID:26078994

  3. LINC00507 Is Specifically Expressed in the Primate Cortex and Has Age-Dependent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Ward, Melanie; Chen, Bei Jun; Iyer, Anand M; Aronica, Eleonora; Janitz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the appreciation of the role of non-coding RNA in the development of organism phenotype. It is possible to divide the non-coding elements of the transcriptome into three categories: short non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Long non-coding RNAs are those transcripts that are greater than 200 nts in length and lack any significant open reading frames that produce proteins greater then 100 amino acids. Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a subclass of long non-coding RNAs. In contrast to protein coding RNAs, lincRNAs are expressed in a more tissue- and species-specific manner. In particular, many lincRNAs are only conserved amongst higher primates. This coupled with the propensity of many lincRNAs to be expressed in the brain, suggests that they are in fact one of the major drivers of organism complexity. We analysed 39 lincRNAs that are expressed in the frontal cortex and identified LINC00507 as being expressed in a cortex-specific manner in non-human primates and humans. The expression patterns of LINC00507 appear to be age-dependent, suggesting it may be involved in brain development of higher primates. Moreover, the analysis of LINC00507 potential to bind ribosomes revealed that this previously identified non-coding transcript may harbour a micropeptide. PMID:27059230

  4. Protective mechanisms of Cucumis sativus in diabetes-related modelsof oxidative stress and carbonyl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Himan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Noubarani, Maryam; Rahmati, Mokhtar; Jafarian, Iman; Adiban, Hasan; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oxidative stress and carbonyl stress have essential mediatory roles in the development of diabetes and its related complications through increasing free radicals production and impairing antioxidant defense systems. Different chemical and natural compounds have been suggested for decreasing such disorders associated with diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) fruit (cucumber) in oxidative and carbonyl stress models. These diabetes-related models with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) simulate conditions observed in chronic hyperglycemia. Methods: Cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonyl stress model) were measured and the protective effects of C. sativus were evaluated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit (40 μg/mL) prevented all cytotoxicity markers in both the oxidative and carbonyl stress models including cell lysis, ROS formation, membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal labialization, and proteolysis. The extract also protected hepatocytes from protein carbonylation induced by glyoxal. Our results indicated that C. sativus is able to prevent oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in the isolated hepatocytes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that C. sativus has protective effects in diabetes complications and can be considered a safe and suitable candidate for decreasing the oxidative stress and carbonyl stress that is typically observed in diabetes mellitus.

  5. Kinetics of the Double Carbonylation of Benzylchloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is a multi-phase-catalyzed reaction to produce calcium phenylpyruvate by double carbonylation of benzylchloride. Based on the analysis of the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model of the carbonylation reaction was obtained. The model was verified through experiments in which the diffusion effect was neglected with the appropriate operation manner. But it is inevitable that the carbonylation process is controlled by diffusion as the autoclave scaling up.

  6. Intrinsic Age-Dependent Changes and Cell-Cell Contacts Regulate Nephron Progenitor Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Salomonis, Nathan; Aronow, Bruce J; Hong, Christian I; Zhang, Tongli; Kopan, Raphael

    2015-10-12

    During fetal development, nephrons of the metanephric kidney form from a mesenchymal progenitor population that differentiates en masse before or shortly after birth. We explored intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling progenitor lifespan in a transplantation assay that allowed us to compare engraftment of old and young progenitors into the same young niche. The progenitors displayed an age-dependent decrease in proliferation and concomitant increase in niche exit rates. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed progressive age-dependent changes, with heterogeneity increasing in older populations. Age-dependent elevation in mTor and reduction in Fgf20 could contribute to increased exit rates. Importantly, 30% of old progenitors remained in the niche for up to 1 week post engraftment, a net gain of 50% to their lifespan, but only if surrounded by young neighbors. We provide evidence in support of a model in which intrinsic age-dependent changes affect inter-progenitor interactions that drive cessation of nephrogenesis. PMID:26460946

  7. Surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabatti, Iacopo; Femoni, Cristina; Iapalucci, Maria Carmela; Longoni, Giuliano; Zacchini, Stefano; Zarra, Salvatore

    2012-06-01

    Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters.Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters. CCDC 867747 and 867748. For crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30400g

  8. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E

    2015-06-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a "standard" model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  9. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  10. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  11. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  12. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Mark; Haberthur, Kristen; Brown, Monica; Engelmann, Flora; Murphy, Ashleigh; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2012-01-01

    Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i) innate immune cell frequencies; (ii) expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and innate signaling molecules; (iii) cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv) plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC). Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6), and ODN2006 (TLR7/9) induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM), were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques. PMID:22953039

  13. Age-dependent dynamics of screening metabolic parameters in long-livers and its biophysical estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: to examine age-dependent dynamics of parameters of biochemical screening in long-livers. Material and methods. The study included 201 long-livers divided (Saratov into two groups: the main group (centenarians and the control group (90-99 y.o.. Basic parameters of biochemical screening were analyzed. Results. The suited sample of centenarians characterized by significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, triglycerids, glucose and creatinine. All studied parameters progrediently decreased from early long-livers age to centenarians. Maximal rates of age dependencies allowed us to confirm maximal weight of lipids in early longevity and glucose and creatinine in centenarians. Conclusion. All present results are most likely explained by the combined effects of genetic, environmental and "hundred years" factors leading to dynamic remodeling of control systems. Major result of such remodeling is age-dependent optimal level of metabolic factors as a mechanism of successive ageing.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Lesions in Ulcerative Colitis and Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has long been known as a pathogenic factor of ulcerative colitis (UC and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC, but the effects of secondary carbonyl lesions receive less emphasis. In inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as superoxide anion free radical (O2∙-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (HO∙, are produced at high levels and accumulated to cause oxidative stress (OS. In oxidative status, accumulated ROS can cause protein dysfunction and DNA damage, leading to gene mutations and cell death. Accumulated ROS could also act as chemical messengers to activate signaling pathways, such as NF-κB and p38 MAPK, to affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. More importantly, electrophilic carbonyl compounds produced by lipid peroxidation may function as secondary pathogenic factors, causing further protein and membrane lesions. This may in turn exaggerate oxidative stress, forming a vicious cycle. Electrophilic carbonyls could also cause DNA mutations and breaks, driving malignant progression of UC. The secondary lesions caused by carbonyl compounds may be exceptionally important in the case of host carbonyl defensive system deficit, such as aldo-keto reductase 1B10 deficiency. This review article updates the current understanding of oxidative stress and carbonyl lesions in the development and progression of UC and CAC.

  15. Trifluoromethylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Sodium Trifluoroacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of copper (Ⅰ) halide as catalyst, a variety of carbonyl compounds could be trifluoromethylated with sodium trifluoroacetate to give the corresponding alcohols in moderate to high yields.

  16. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  17. An age-dependent population equation with diffusion and delayed birth process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fragnelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new age-dependent population equation which takes into account not only a delay in the birth process, but also other events that may take place during the time between conception and birth. Using semigroup theory, we discuss the well posedness and the asymptotic behavior of the solution.

  18. Age-dependent attractivity of males’ sexual pheromones in Bombus terrestris (L.) [Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coppée, Audrey; Mathy, T.; Cammaerts, M.; Verheggen, F. J.; Terzo, M.; Iserbyt, S.; Valterová, Irena; Rasmont, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2011), s. 75-82. ISSN 0937-7409 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bombus terrestris * sexual pheromones * age-dependent variation * behavioural tests Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2011

  19. Optimal harvesting for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-xue; DU Ming-yin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal harvesting policy for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative solution of the system are proved using the fixed point theorem. By Mazur's theorem, the existence of optimal control strategy is demonstrated and optimality conditions derived by means of normal cone.

  20. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  1. OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR A PERIODIC PREDATOR-PREY MODEL WITH AGE-DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate optimal policy for periodic predator-prey system with age-dependence.Namely,we consider the model with periodic vital rates and initial distribution.The existence of optimal control strategy is discussed by Mazur's theorem and optimality condition is derived by means of normal cone.

  2. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions have become a powerful tool for advanced organic synthesis. This type of reaction is of significant value for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, as well as advanced materials. Both, academic as well as industrial laboratories continuously investigate new applications of the different methodologies. Clearly, this area constitutes one of the major topics in homogeneous catalysis and organic synthesis. Among the different palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions, several carbonylations have been developed and widely used in organic syntheses and are even applied in the pharmaceutical industry on ton-scale. Furthermore, methodologies such as the carbonylative Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions allow for the preparation of interesting building blocks, which can be easily refined further on. Although carbonylative coupling reactions of aryl halides have been well established, palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions are also interesting. Compared with the reactions of aryl halides, oxidative carbonylation reactions offer an interesting pathway. The oxidative addition step could be potentially avoided in oxidative reactions, but only few reviews exist in this area. In this Minireview, we summarize the recent development in the oxidative carbonylation reactions. PMID:23307763

  3. Stratospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Corinna; Walker, Kaley A.; Deshler, Terry; von Hobe, Marc

    2015-04-01

    An estimation of the global stratospheric burden of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) calculated using satellite based measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) will be presented. OCS is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the atmosphere in the absence of volcanic eruptions. With a long lifetime of 2-6 years it reaches the stratosphere where it is photolyzed and the sulfur oxidized and condensed to aerosols, contributing to the stratospheric aerosol layer. The aerosol layer is the one factor of the middle-atmosphere with a direct impact on the Earth's climate by scattering incoming solar radiation back to space. Therefore it is crucial to understand and estimate the different processes and abundances of the species contributing to the aerosol layer. However, the exact amount of OCS in the stratosphere has not been quantified yet. A study on the OCS mixing ratio distribution based on ACE-FTS data has already been made by Barkley et al. (2008), also giving an estimation for the total atmospheric OCS mass. ACE-FTS is an infrared solar occultation spectrometer providing high- resolution profile observations since 2004. In the scope of this work the focus lies on the stratospheric OCS burden, calculated by integrating the ACE profiles. A global overview on the stratospheric OCS amount in the past and present based on the ACE data as well as a look at regional and seasonal variability will be given. Furthermore, the results of this work will be useful for further studies on OCS fluxes and lifetimes, and in quantifying the contribution of OCS to the global stratospheric sulfur burden. Barkley et al., 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14810.

  4. Proteomic and carbonylation profile analysis of rat skeletal muscles following acute swimming exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Magherini

    Full Text Available Previous studies by us and other groups characterized protein expression variation following long-term moderate training, whereas the effects of single bursts of exercise are less known. Making use of a proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of acute swimming exercise (ASE on protein expression and carbonylation patterns in two hind limb muscles: the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL and the Soleus, mostly composed of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres, respectively. Carbonylation is one of the most common oxidative modifications of proteins and a marker of oxidative stress. In fact, several studies suggest that physical activity and the consequent increase in oxygen consumption can lead to increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS production, hence the interest in examining the impact of RONS on skeletal muscle proteins following ASE. Results indicate that protein expression is unaffected by ASE in both muscle types. Unexpectedly, the protein carbonylation level was reduced following ASE. In particular, the analysis found 31 and 5 spots, in Soleus and EDL muscles respectively, whose carbonylation is reduced after ASE. Lipid peroxidation levels in Soleus were markedly reduced as well. Most of the decarbonylated proteins are involved either in the regulation of muscle contractions or in the regulation of energy metabolism. A number of hypotheses may be advanced to account for such results, which will be addressed in future studies.

  5. Plasma Protein Oxidation and Its Correlation with Antioxidant Potential During Human Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan; Mehdi, Mohd Murtaza; Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the main molecular characteristic of aging is the progressive accumulation of oxidative damages in cellular macromolecules. Proteins are one of the main molecular targets of age-related oxidative stress, which have been observed during aging process in cellular systems. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidation of amino acid side chains, formation of protein-protein cross-linkages, and oxidation of the peptide backbones. In the present study, we report the age-dependent oxidative alterations in biomarkers of plasma protein oxidation: protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and plasma total thiol groups (T-SH) in the Indian population and also correlate these parameters with total plasma antioxidant potential. We show an age dependent decrease in T-SH levels and increase in PCO and AOPPs level. The alterations in the levels of these parameters correlated significantly with the total antioxidant capacity of the plasma. The levels of oxidized proteins in plasma provide an excellent biomarker of oxidative stress due to the relative long half-life of such oxidized proteins. PMID:20826915

  6. Defects of Lipid Synthesis Are Linked to the Age-Dependent Demyelination Caused by Lamin B1 Overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Hernandez, Marylens; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Nmezi, Bruce C.; Lu, Yue; Estécio, Marcos R. H.; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Junda; He, Rong-Rong; Gong, Pin; Rigatti, Lora H.; Dupree, Jeffrey; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina and plays a critical role in maintaining nuclear architecture, regulating gene expression and modulating chromatin positioning. We have previously shown that LMNB1 gene duplications cause autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disease. The mechanisms by which increased LMNB1 levels cause ADLD are unclear. To address this, we used a transgenic mouse model where Lamin B1 overexpression is targeted to oligodendrocytes. These mice showed severe vacuolar degeneration of the spinal cord white matter together with marked astrogliosis, microglial infiltration, and secondary axonal damage. Oligodendrocytes in the transgenic mice revealed alterations in histone modifications favoring a transcriptionally repressed state. Chromatin changes were accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis pathways, many of which are known to play important roles in myelin regulation and are preferentially expressed in oligodendrocytes. Decreased lipogenic gene expression resulted in a significant reduction in multiple classes of lipids involved in myelin formation. Many of these gene expression changes and lipid alterations were observed even before the onset of the phenotype, suggesting a causal role. Our findings establish, for the first time, a link between LMNB1 and lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes, and provide a mechanistic framework to explain the age dependence and white matter involvement of the disease phenotype. These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and may also shed light on the regulation of lipid synthesis pathways in myelin maintenance and turnover. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is fatal neurological disorder caused by increased levels of the nuclear protein, Lamin B1. The disease is characterized by an age-dependent loss of myelin, the fatty sheath that covers nerve fibers. We have studied a mouse model where Lamin B

  7. Fast photolysis of carbonyl nitrates from isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jean-Francois; Peeters, Jozef; Stavrakou, Trisevgeni

    2014-05-01

    We show that photolysis is, by far, the major atmospheric sink of isoprene-derived carbonyl nitrates. Empirical evidence from published laboratory studies on the absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of α-nitrooxy ketones suggests that the presence of the nitrate group (i) greatly enhances the absorption cross sections, and (ii) facilitates dissociation to a point that the photolysis quantum yield is close to unity, with O-NO2 dissociation as the likely major channel. On this basis, we provide new recommendations for estimating the cross sections and photolysis rates of carbonyl nitrates. The newly estimated photorates are validated using a chemical box model against measured temporal profiles of carbonyl nitrates in an isoprene oxidation experiment by Paulot et al. (2009). The comparisons for ethanal nitrate and for the sum of methacrolein- and methylvinylketone nitrates strongly supports our assumptions of large cross section enhancements and a near-unit quantum yield for these compounds. These findings have significant atmospheric implications, as carbonyl nitrates constitute an important component of the total organic nitrate pool over vegetated areas: the photorates of key carbonyl nitrates from isoprene are estimated to be typically between ~3 and 20 times higher than their sink due to reaction with OH in relevant atmospheric conditions. Moreover, since the reaction is expected to release NO2, photolysis is especially effective in depleting the total organic nitrate pool.

  8. Age-Dependent Modulation of Cortical Transcriptomes in Spinal Cord Injury and Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jaerve, Anne; Kruse, Fabian; Malik, Katharina; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-01-01

    Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI). Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of t...

  9. The age-dependent influence of self-reported health and job characteristics on retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Mortelmans, Dimitri; Vannieuwenhuyze, Jorre T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Social scientists and economists doubt the usefulness of self-reported health status as an indicator of overall health status. Self-reported health acts as a justification for retirement when this decision is in reality driven by other reasons. In this study, we looked at income, job satisfaction, and job status. Methods We introduce a survival model (Cox model) that simultaneously includes both health and job characteristics as independent variables. We also take the age-dependent...

  10. Age-dependent effects of conditioning on cholinergic and vasopressin systems in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Biemans, BAM; Van der Zee, EA; Daan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Active shock avoidance was used to explore the impact of behavioural stimulation on the neurochemistry of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We have found previously that the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of young rats was significantly enhanced 24 hours after fear conditioning. Here, we investigated whether this observation is age-dependent. We used 26 month-old Wistar rats with a deteriorated circadian system, and compared them with young rats (4 ...

  11. Comparison between Numerical and Simulation Methods for Age-dependent Branching Models with Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, R.; Slavtchova-Bojkova, M.

    2005-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: primary: 60J80, 60J85, secondary: 62M09, 92D40 This work aims to provide and to compare numerical computation and simulation method to estimate the distribution of some relevant variables related to an age-dependent model allowing immigration at state zero. Specifically, we analyze the behaviour of the following variables: the extinction time and the waiting time for the beginning of the survival of population forever. They are strongly related to t...

  12. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  13. Impact of radiobiological considerations on epidemiological inferences of age-dependent radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current epidemiological studies of the age-dependent risk of radiogenic carcinomas are based on populations still in the early stages of cancer expression. The result is a set of logical uncertainties concerning the manner in which inferences may be drawn from the existing data. These uncertainties may be formalized and examined through the application of various radiobiological principles developed from more fundamental experimental data. Chief amongst these considerations are the time course of tumor expression, the role of relative and absolute risk models, the distribution of effects between initiation and promotion, the age-dependent fraction of time a critical cell remains in radiosensitive stages and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these principles are examined in light of their impact on the structuring of epidemiologic data and the drawing of inferences concerning age-dependent radiogenic risk. The data on atomic bomb survivors are employed as a relevant example

  14. Age-Dependent Pancreatic Gene Regulation Reveals Mechanisms Governing Human β Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, H Efsun; Li, Lingyu; Tsai, Jennifer; Torre, Eduardo A; Rosli, Yenny; Peiris, Heshan; Spitale, Robert C; Dai, Chunhua; Gu, Xueying; Qu, Kun; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jing; Grompe, Markus; Scharfmann, Raphael; Snyder, Michael S; Bottino, Rita; Powers, Alvin C; Chang, Howard Y; Kim, Seung K

    2016-05-10

    Intensive efforts are focused on identifying regulators of human pancreatic islet cell growth and maturation to accelerate development of therapies for diabetes. After birth, islet cell growth and function are dynamically regulated; however, establishing these age-dependent changes in humans has been challenging. Here, we describe a multimodal strategy for isolating pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells from children and adults to identify age-dependent gene expression and chromatin changes on a genomic scale. These profiles revealed distinct proliferative and functional states of islet α cells or β cells and histone modifications underlying age-dependent gene expression changes. Expression of SIX2 and SIX3, transcription factors without prior known functions in the pancreas and linked to fasting hyperglycemia risk, increased with age specifically in human islet β cells. SIX2 and SIX3 were sufficient to enhance insulin content or secretion in immature β cells. Our work provides a unique resource to study human-specific regulators of islet cell maturation and function. PMID:27133132

  15. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  16. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  17. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tania I.; Appleby, Nancy; Raya, Michael; Bailey, Leonard; Hasaniya, Nahidh; Stodieck, Louis; Kearns-Jonker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05). Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation). These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors. The effect of

  18. Synthesis of carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor' (2-chloro-N-ethoxymethyl-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)acetamide) was prepared by chlorination of acetic-1-14C acid obtained from barium radiocarbonate to monochloroacetic-1-14C acid which was further chlorinated to monochloroacetyl-1-14C chloride. The addition reaction of this latter with 2-ethyl-6-methylene aniline gave a chloromethyl derivative the ethanolysis of which resulted in 'acetochlor' labelled in its carbonyl carbon. The overall radiochemical yield is 51%. (author)

  19. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of fres...

  20. Polyimides Containing Carbonyl and Ether Connecting Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    Semicrystallinity gives rise to tough, solvent-resistant polymers. New polyimides prepared from reaction of aromatic dianhydrides with new diamines containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups between aromatic rings. Damines prepared from reaction of 4-aminophenol with activated aromatic difluoro compounds in presence of potassium carbonate. These types of polymers have potential applications in molded products, films, adhesives, and composites.

  1. Age-Dependent Neuroimmune Modulation of IGF-1R in the Traumatic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress is accompanied by discordant upregulation of Fyn signaling in the frontal cortex, but the mechanistic details of the potential cellular behavior regarding IGF-1R/Fyn have not been established. Methods Trans-synaptic IGF-1R signaling during the traumatic stress was comparably examined in wild type, Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice. Techniques included primary neuron culture, in vitro kinase activity, immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, sucrose discontinuous centrifugation. Besides that, [3 H] incorporation was used to assay lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate robust upregulation of synaptic Fyn activity following traumatic stress, with higher amplitude in 2-month mice than that in 1-year counterpart. We also established that the increased Fyn signaling is accompanied by its molecular connection with IGF-1R within the synaptic zone. Detained analysis using Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice reveal that IGF-1R/Fyn signaling is governed to a large extent by mu opioid receptor (MOR, and with age-dependent manner; these signaling cascades played a central role in the modulation of lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Conclusions Our data argued for a pivotal role of synaptic IGF-1R/Fyn signaling controlled by MOR downstream signaling cascades were crucial for the age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress. The result here might present a new quality of synaptic cellular communication governing the stress like events and have significant potential for the development of therapeutic approaches designed to minimize the heightened vulnerability during aging.

  2. The work of the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on age-dependent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the accident at Chernobyl and developing concern in regard to the consequences of discharging radionuclides into the environment has come increasing awareness of the need to assess radiation doses to all age groups in the population. In 1987, ICRP set up a Task Group of Committee 2 on Age-dependent Dosimetry with the responsibility for calculating internationally agreed dose coefficients for members of the public. This covered the calculation and ingestion, as well as doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. This paper reviews the programme of work.(authors). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  3. A preliminary approach to age-dependent deposition modeling for human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the respiratory tract model, presented by the ICRP Task Group on Lung Dynamics, is limited to adult workers for determining internal radiation exposure from inhaled radionuclides, the development of the model for estimating radiation doses in the general public, including all age groups, from environmental radioactive materials is required. This paper provides background information in developing the age-dependent respiratory tract model. A way of obtaining deposition probability through major mechanisms, such as impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion, in the respiratory airways is given. A computer program for estimating the percent deposition of inhaled monodisperse particles is described. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Fluctuation limit theorems for age-dependent critical binary branching systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo-Salas Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an age-dependent branching particle system in ℝd, where the particles are subject to α-stable migration (0 < α ≤ 2, critical binary branching, and general (non-arithmetic lifetimes distribution. The population starts off from a Poisson random field in ℝd with Lebesgue intensity. We prove functional central limit theorems and strong laws of large numbers under two rescalings: high particle density, and a space-time rescaling that preserves the migration distribution. Properties of the limit processes such as Markov property, almost sure continuity of paths and generalized Langevin equation, are also investigated.

  5. Fitting model of ABR age dependency in a clinical population of normal hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad, Saskia; Immerzeel, Tabitha; Hoeve, Hans; Goedegebure, Andre

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to present a simple and powerful fitting model that describes age-dependent changes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in a clinical population of normal hearing children. A total of 175 children (younger than 200 weeks postconceptional age) were referred for audiologic assessment with normal ABR results. ABR parameters of normal hearing children between 2003 and 2008 were included. The results of the right ears recorded at 90 dB nHL were analyzed....

  6. Age-dependent effective doses for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-06-15

    Age-dependent effective doses for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air are reported. The calculations were performed for 160 radionuclides, which are important for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. The energies and intensities of photons emitted from radionuclides were taken from the decay data DECDC used for dose calculations. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m{sup -3}) for 6 age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years-old and adult. The effective doses for the adult are also compared to values given in the literature.

  7. Age-Dependent Differences in Systemic and Cell-Autonomous Immunity to L. monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Sherrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Host defense against infection can broadly be categorized into systemic immunity and cell-autonomous immunity. Systemic immunity is crucial for all multicellular organisms, increasing in importance with increasing cellular complexity of the host. The systemic immune response to Listeria monocytogenes has been studied extensively in murine models; however, the clinical applicability of these findings to the human newborn remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the ability to control infection at the level of an individual cell, known as “cell-autonomous immunity,” appears most relevant following infection with L. monocytogenes; as the main target, the monocyte is centrally important to innate as well as adaptive systemic immunity to listeriosis. We thus suggest that the overall increased risk to suffer and die from L. monocytogenes infection in the newborn period is a direct consequence of age-dependent differences in cell-autonomous immunity of the monocyte to L. monocytogenes. We here review what is known about age-dependent differences in systemic innate and adaptive as well as cell-autonomous immunity to infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  8. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Azuma

    Full Text Available Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR, are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging.

  9. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR), are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a) as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging. PMID:25749104

  10. Experimental febrile seizures induce age-dependent structural plasticity and improve memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Ichikawa, J; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y; Koyama, R

    2016-03-24

    Population-based studies have demonstrated that children with a history of febrile seizure (FS) perform better than age-matched controls at hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Here, we report that FSs induce two distinct structural reorganizations in the hippocampus and bidirectionally modify future learning abilities in an age-dependent manner. Compared with age-matched controls, adult mice that had experienced experimental FSs induced by hyperthermia (HT) on postnatal day 14 (P14-HT) performed better in a cognitive task that requires dentate granule cells (DGCs). The enhanced memory performance correlated with an FS-induced persistent increase in the density of large mossy fiber terminals (LMTs) of the DGCs. The memory enhancement was not observed in mice that had experienced HT-induced seizures at P11 which exhibited abnormally located DGCs in addition to the increased LMT density. The ectopic DGCs of the P11-HT mice were abolished by the diuretic bumetanide, and this pharmacological treatment unveiled the masked memory enhancement. Thus, this work provides a novel basis for age-dependent structural plasticity in which FSs influence future brain function. PMID:26794590

  11. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  12. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata. PMID:26927090

  13. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  14. Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Species: Carbonyl Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts satisfact......A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts...... satisfactorily oxidation of OCS over a wide range of stoichiometric air–fuel ratios (0.5 ≤λ≤7.3), temperatures (450–1700 K), and pressures (0.02–3.0 atm) under dry conditions. The governing reaction mechanisms are outlined based on calculations with the kinetic model. The oxidation rate of OCS is controlled...

  15. Age-dependent changes in cat masseter nerve: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, M H; Engelhardt, J K; Adinolfi, A M; Chirwa, S S

    1992-07-24

    The present study was undertaken to determine the manner in which aging affects the function and structure of the masseter nerve in old cats. Electrophysiological data demonstrated a significant decrease in the conduction velocity of the action potential in old cats compared with that observed in adult cats. Light microscopic analyses revealed an age-dependent decrease in axon diameter. Electron microscopic observations of the masseter nerve in the aged cats revealed a disruption of the myelin sheaths and a pronounced increase in collagen fibers in the endoneurium and perineurium. These morphological changes are discussed and then related to the decrease in conduction velocity which was observed in the electrophysiological portion of this study. PMID:1521161

  16. Liquid scintillation analysis of commercial drinking water in India and subsequent age dependent ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the probable impact of natural radioactivity present in drinking water, preliminary investigations were carried out on commercially available drinking waters in India using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. Various brands of packaged and natural mineral drinking water samples were collected from highly populated areas in Maharashtra and other parts of India. The present study is aimed to evaluate the radioactive content of these water samples and their contribution to public exposure. Gross activities deduced by liquid scintillation counting were ranged from < 0.0193E-3 Bq/L to maximum 0.0946 Bq/L for alpha and 0.0280 Bq/L to 0.28 Bq/L for beta. The associated age-dependent annual dose along with lifetime dose from water ingestion route of intake is estimated. (author)

  17. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, ThuDuc, HoChiMinh City (VT)

    2013-07-15

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L-1. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated 226Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 μSv yr-1). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 μSv yr-1 from water intake of 2 L day-1

  19. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  20. Magnetorheological characterisation of carbonyl iron based suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kciuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this article was to present the investigation results of magnetorheological fluids (MR composed of carbonyl iron (CI particles and analyse their flow behaviour in terms of the internal structure formation by a control of applied external magnetic field. The morphology, magnetic properties, sedimentation stability, and magnetorheological properties of the examined MR fluids were studied.Design/methodology/approach: Model MR fluid was prepared using silicone oil OKS 1050 mixed with carbonyl iron powder CI. Furthermore, to reduce sedimentation Aerosil 200 was added as stabilizers. In the purpose to determine the properties of the analyzed fluids the sedimentation and dynamic viscosity were investigated.Findings: Dynamic viscosity of investigated magnetorheological fluids rapidly and reversibly change in response to the applied external magnetic field. Moreover added particles of fumed silica inhibited sedimentation of carbonyl iron particles.Research limitations/implications: MR fluids with excellent properties can be applied in various fields of civil engineering, safety engineering, transportation and life science. They offer an outstanding capability of active control of mechanical properties. But there are no systematic published studies of factors affecting the durability of MR fluids and devices. There is very little information on the effects of exposing different MR fluids to temperature, for this reasons further efforts are needed in order to obtain even better results.Originality/value: The investigation results are reliable and could be very useful both for designers and the practitioners of many branches of industry.

  1. Is the metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 age-dependent in dairy cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Mirja R; Cohrs, Imke; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Fraser, David R; Olszewski, Katharina; Schröder, Bernd; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that prepartum administered 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) is a promising candidate to assist the maintenance of peripartal calcium homeostasis in dairy cows. Since the incidence of peripartal hypocalcemia and the reported beneficial effects of the treatment are both associated with the lactation number, we investigated pharmacokinetic aspects of 25-OHD3 related to the age of dairy cows. The daily oral administration of 3mg 25-OHD3 in rapeseed oil as well as a treatment with 4 and 6mg included in the feed during the last eight to ten days of gestation resulted in linear dosage- and age-dependent increases in plasma 25-OHD3. After parturition the administration was stopped and blood samples were taken to calculate the plasma half-life. Irrespective of the supplemented dosage, cows starting the 2nd lactation showed a significantly longer plasma half-life of 25-OHD3 than cows starting the 3rd or higher lactation. Age-dependent differences in the increase of plasma 25-OHD3 could already be found before parturition when calcium homeostasis was not yet significantly challenged. Additionally, no correlations between plasma half-life of 25-OHD3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, PTH or the bone resorption marker CrossLaps were observed after parturition. Thus we conclude that the influence of the lactation number on the pharmacokinetics of 25-OHD3 is related directly to the age of the cows. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23220546

  2. Cadmium affects the episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in male rats: possible age-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Márquez, N; Piquero, S; Esquifino, A I

    1999-01-11

    Cadmium affects luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through unknown mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to assess whether chronic exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may affect the episodic secretion of LH and if these effects are age-dependent. Male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life. Age-matched rats with access to cadmium-free water were used as controls. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected every 7 min for 3 h, from 10:30 to 13.30 in conscious, freely moving rats. In control animals, mean serum LH levels and pulse duration increased with age (P < or = 0.001), and pulse frequency and the relative amplitude of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.001). Cadmium administration, from day 30 to 60 of life, decreased the pulse frequency and mean half-life of the hormone (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.01, respectively). However, no changes in any other parameters studied were observed as compared to the control group. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90, mean serum LH levels and the duration of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.05), whereas the pulse frequency increased (P < or = 0.05). The absolute and relative amplitude of the LH peaks and the mean half-life of the hormone were not changed after cadmium administration from day 60 to 90. These results indicate that low doses of cadmium change the pulsatile secretion of LH in male rats and that the effect of cadmium on episodic LH release was age-dependent. PMID:10048746

  3. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  4. Age-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Kyu Kang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB, with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in postnatal day 7, 10 and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.

  5. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of mass-selected metal carbonyl cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, A. M.; Reed, Z. E.; Duncan, M. A.

    2011-04-01

    Metal carbonyl cations of the form M(CO)n+ are produced in a molecular beam by laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle source. These ions, and their corresponding rare gas atom "tagged" analogs, M(CO)n(RG)m+, are studied with mass-selected infrared photodissociation spectroscopy in the carbonyl stretching region and with density functional theory computations. The number of infrared-active bands, their frequency positions, and their relative intensities provide distinctive patterns allowing determination of the geometries and electronic structures of these complexes. Cobalt penta carbonyl and manganese hexacarbonyl cations are compared to isoelectronic iron pentacarbonyl and chromium hexacarbonyl neutrals. Gold and copper provide examples of "non-classical" carbonyls. Seven-coordinate carbonyls are explored for the vanadium group metal cations (V +, Nb + and Ta +), while uranium cations provide an example of an eight-coordinate carbonyl.

  7. Clinical Features of Schizophrenia With Enhanced Carbonyl Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Makoto; Kobori, Akiko; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Toriumi, Kazuya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Okazaki, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Amano, Naoji; Miyata, Toshio; Itokawa, Masanari

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that advanced glycation end products, generated as a consequence of facilitated carbonyl stress, are implicated in the development of a variety of diseases. These diseases include neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer disease. Pyridoxamine is one of the 3 forms of vitamin B6, and it acts by combating carbonyl stress and inhibiting the formation of AGEs. Depletion of pyridoxamine due to enhanced carbonyl stress eventually leads to a decrease in the other...

  8. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  9. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems

  10. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonsom@oaep.go.th; Srisuksawad, Kanitha [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. {sup 226}Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L{sup -1}. The highest {sup 226}Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated {sup 226}Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} from water intake of 2 L day{sup -1}.

  11. Age-dependent radiation dose due to uranium in public drinking water in Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was done to evaluate the ingestion dose due to uranium in drinking water. The area of study is the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. The uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent radiation dose was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values and dose conversion factors for different age groups. The concentration of uranium varies from below the detection limit (detection limit 0.20 μg.L-1) to 2.50 ± 0.18 μg.L-1, with a geometric mean of 0.67 μg.L-1 in tap water, whereas in groundwater the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 μg.L-1 with a geometric mean of 10.07 μg.L-1. The annual ingestion dose by the drinking water pathway due to uranium in tap water for various age groups was found to vary from 0.23 to 6.35 μSv.y-1 with an average of 1.08 μSv.y-1. The ingestion dose due to uranium in tap water is 15 times lower than that of groundwater consumption. (authors)

  12. Age-dependent modulation of cortical transcriptomes in spinal cord injury and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jaerve

    Full Text Available Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI. Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of the corticospinal tract as there was only a small overlap between the significantly lesion-regulated genes in both age groups. Over-representation analysis of the lesion-regulated genes revealed that, in addition to biological processes in common, such as lipid metabolism, others, such as activation of complement cascade, were specific for aged animals. When a recently developed treatment to suppress fibrotic scarring (anti-scarring treatment AST was applied to the injured spinal cord of aged (22 months and young (2 months rats, we found that the cortical gene expression in old rats was modulated to resemble regeneration-associated profiles of young animals including the up-regulation of known repair promoting growth and transcription factors at 35 dpo. In combination with recent immunohistochemical findings demonstrating regenerative axon growth upon AST in aged animals, the present investigation on the level of gene expression strongly supports the feasibility of a successful AST therapy in elderly patients.

  13. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  14. Age-Dependent Defects of Regulatory B Cells in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Gene Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadafumi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, thrombocytopenia, eczema, and high incidence of malignancy and autoimmunity. The cellular mechanisms underlying autoimmune complications in WAS have been extensively studied; however, they remain incompletely defined. We investigated the characteristics of IL-10-producing CD19+CD1dhighCD5+ B cells (CD1dhighCD5+ Breg obtained from Was gene knockout (WKO mice and found that their numbers were significantly lower in these mice compared to wild type (WT controls. Moreover, we found a significant age-dependent reduction of the percentage of IL-10-expressing cells in WKO CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells as compared to age-matched WT control mice. CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice did not suppress the in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines from activated CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice displayed a basal activated phenotype which may prevent normal cellular responses, among which is the expression of IL-10. These defects may contribute to the susceptibility to autoimmunity with age in patients with WAS.

  15. Age-Dependent Decline of Endogenous Pain Control: Exploring the Effect of Expectation and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, Wiebke; Sprenger, Christian; Forkmann, Katarina; Wrobel, Nathalie; Bingel, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic pain affects all age ranges, it is particularly common in the elderly. One potential explanation for the high prevalence of chronic pain in the older population is impaired functioning of the descending pain inhibitory system which can be studied in humans using conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigms. In this study we investigated (i) the influence of age on CPM and (ii) the role of expectations, depression and gender as potential modulating variables of an age-related change in CPM. 64 healthy volunteers of three different age groups (young = 20–40 years, middle-aged = 41–60 years, old = 61–80 years) were studied using a classical CPM paradigm that combined moderate heat pain stimuli to the right forearm as test stimuli (TS) and immersion of the contralateral foot into ice water as the conditioning stimulus (CS). The CPM response showed an age-dependent decline with strong CPM responses in young adults but no significant CPM responses in middle-aged and older adults. These age-related changes in CPM responses could not be explained by expectations of pain relief or depression. Furthermore, changes in CPM responses did not differ between men and women. Our results strongly support the notion of a genuine deterioration of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms with age. PMID:24086595

  16. Collagene order of articular cartilage by clinical magnetic resonance images and its age dependency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P.; Gruender, W. [Inst. of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present papers describes a novel method to obtain information on the degree of order of the collagen network of the knee meniscal cartilage by means of a single clinical MRI. Images were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers aged between 6 and 76 years as well as from one patient with clinically-diagnosed arthrosis at the age of 32 and 37 years. A siemens vision (1.5 T) MRT with TR = 750 ms, TE = 50 ms, FoV = 160 mm, and Matrix 512 x 512 was used for this purpose. The MR signal intensities of the cartilage were read out along slices with constant height above the subchondral bone and plotted versus the actual angle to the external magnetic field. The obtained intensity curves were fitted by a model distribution, and the degree of order of the collagen fibers was calculated. For the knee meniscal cartilage, there was an age-dependency of the degree of order and a significant deviation of the volunteer with arthrosis from the normal curve. The results are discussed in view of the arcade model and of a possible use of non-invasive clinical MRT for the detection of early arthrotic changes of cartilage. (orig.)

  17. Collagene order of articular cartilage by clinical magnetic resonance images and its age dependency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present papers describes a novel method to obtain information on the degree of order of the collagen network of the knee meniscal cartilage by means of a single clinical MRI. Images were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers aged between 6 and 76 years as well as from one patient with clinically-diagnosed arthrosis at the age of 32 and 37 years. A siemens vision (1.5 T) MRT with TR = 750 ms, TE = 50 ms, FoV = 160 mm, and Matrix 512 x 512 was used for this purpose. The MR signal intensities of the cartilage were read out along slices with constant height above the subchondral bone and plotted versus the actual angle to the external magnetic field. The obtained intensity curves were fitted by a model distribution, and the degree of order of the collagen fibers was calculated. For the knee meniscal cartilage, there was an age-dependency of the degree of order and a significant deviation of the volunteer with arthrosis from the normal curve. The results are discussed in view of the arcade model and of a possible use of non-invasive clinical MRT for the detection of early arthrotic changes of cartilage. (orig.)

  18. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems.

  19. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers. PMID:27537082

  20. Endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi of Camellia japonica: seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osono, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and leaf age-dependent variations in the endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungal assemblages of Camellia japonica were examined and compared. Live leaves of C. japonica were collected in four seasons (May, Aug, Nov, Feb), and fungi were isolated from healthy-looking leaves of 0, 1, 2 and 3 y old. The infection rate and total number of endophytic fungi increased May-Feb, and species richness of endophytes increased as leaves aged. In contrast the infection rate of epiphytic fungi was 100% for all leaf ages at every sampling date. The total number of epiphytic fungi isolated was greatest in May and lowest in Aug. The species richness of epiphytes did not differ significantly by season or leaf age. Eight fungal species were recorded as major phyllosphere fungi of C. japonica. Seasonal variations were detected for the frequencies of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, and epiphytes Pestalotiopsis sp.1, Aureobasidium pullulans, Phoma sp.1 and Ramichloridium sp., whereas the frequency of the endophyte Geniculosporium sp.1 varied with leaf age. The frequency of the epiphyte Cladosporium cladosporioides varied with both season and leaf age. PMID:18751546

  1. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  2. Calculation of age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air were calculated. The size of the source region in the calculation was assumed to be effectively semi-infinite in extent. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using MCNP code, a Monte Carlo transport code. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources of twelve energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. The calculated effective doses were used to interpolate the conversion coefficients of the effective doses for 160 radionuclides, which are important for dose assessment of nuclear facilities. In the calculation, energies and intensities of emitted photons from radionuclides were taken from DECDC, a recent compilation of decay data for radiation dosimetry developed at JAERI. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m-3). (author)

  3. Spatial and Age-Dependent Hair Cell Generation in the Postnatal Mammalian Utricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Kelly, Michael C; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao; Lin, Xi; Chi, Fang-Lu; Chen, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Loss of vestibular hair cells is a common cause of balance disorders. Current treatment options for bilateral vestibular dysfunction are limited. During development, atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is sufficient and necessary for the formation of hair cells and provides a promising gene target to induce hair cell generation in the mammals. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse line to test the age and cell type specificity of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle in mice. We found that forced Atoh1 expression in vivo can induce hair cell formation in the utricle from postnatal days 1 to 21, while the efficacy of hair cell induction is progressively reduced as the animals become older. In the utricle, the induction of hair cells occurs both within the sensory region and in cells in the transitional epithelium next to the sensory region. Within the sensory epithelium, the central region, known as the striola, is most subjective to the induction of hair cell formation. Furthermore, forced Atoh1 expression can promote proliferation in an age-dependent manner that mirrors the progressively reduced efficacy of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle. These results suggest that targeting both cell proliferation and Atoh1 in the utricle striolar region may be explored to induce hair cell regeneration in mammals. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the animal model that provides an in vivo Atoh1 induction model for vestibular regeneration studies. PMID:25666161

  4. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  5. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  6. Risk evaluations of aging: Procedures guide for an age-dependent PSA with emphasis on prioritization and sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the previous work which has been performed in the project, a procedures guide is being developed for carrying out an age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for evaluating the core damage frequency with aging effects explicitly treated. A PSA is basically a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The emphasis of the guide is on prioritization and sensitivity studies. Focus is also on active components although consideration of aging effects in passive components is also treated. The guide is intended to become a NUREG/CR and is the first of three volumes which are being developed. The following topics with demonstrations and applications are described in the presentation: (1) the age-dependent PSA versus the standard PSA; (2) component reliability models used in an age-dependent PSA; (3) approaches for transforming a PSA into an age-dependent PSA; (4) application of an age-dependent PSA; (5) using a PSA to evaluate the risk effects from aging passive components; (6) evaluation of the risk importance of passive components; (7) prioritizations of aging contributors; (8) evaluations of test and maintenance effectiveness; and (9) sensitivity studies and uncertainty analyses of aging effects

  7. Carbonyl emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakober, Chris A; Robert, Michael A; Riddle, Sarah G; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured by use of an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery: 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for or = C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 to 2000 microg/L of fuel for LDVs and from 1.8 to 27 000 microg/L of fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95% of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88% from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19% of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37% of POC emissions from three-way catalyst-equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9% depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas and particle phases under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the present study. PMID:18677993

  8. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  9. Human TTR conformation altered by rhenium tris-carbonyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Lidia; Policar, Clotilde; Stura, Enrico A; Shepard, William

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a 54 kDa homotetrameric serum protein that transports thyroxine (T4) and retinol. TTR is potentially amyloidogenic due to homotetramer dissociation into monomeric intermediates that self-assemble as amyloid deposits and insoluble fibrils. Most crystallographic structures, including those of amyloidogenic variants show the same tetramer without major variations in the monomer-monomer interface nor in the volume of the interdimeric cavity. Soaking TTR crystals in a solution containing rhenium tris-carbonyl derivatives yields a TTR conformer never observed before. Only one of the two monomers of the crystallographic dimer is significantly altered, and the inner part of the T4 binding cavity is expanded at one end and shrunk at the other. The result redefines the mechanism of allosteric communication between the two sites, suggesting that negative cooperativity is a function of dimer asymmetry, which can be induced through internal or external binding. An aspect that remains unexplained is why the conformational changes are ubiquitous throughout the crystal although the heavy metal content of the derivatized crystals is relatively low. The conformational changes observed, which include Leu(82), may represent a form of TTR better at scavenging β-Amyloid. At a resolution of 1.69Å, with excellent refinement statistics and well defined electron density for all parts of the structure, it is possible to envisage answering important questions that range from protein cooperative behavior to heavy atom induced protein conformational modifications that can result in crystallographic non-isomorphism. PMID:27402536

  10. Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Lesions in Ulcerative Colitis and Associated Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqi Wang; Sai Li; Yu Cao; Xuefei Tian; Rong Zeng; Duan-Fang Liao; Deliang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has long been known as a pathogenic factor of ulcerative colitis (UC) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), but the effects of secondary carbonyl lesions receive less emphasis. In inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion free radical (O2 ∙−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO∙), are produced at high levels and accumulated to cause oxidative stress (OS). In oxidative status, accumulated ROS can cause protein dy...

  11. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  12. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  13. Influence of carbonyl stress on rheological alterations of blood materials and decarbonylation effect of glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭密军; 蔡建光; 贺洪; 龚萍; 李国林; 汤婷; 朱泽瑞; 印大中

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various toxic carbonyls such as malondialdehyde(MDA),a secondary product of lipid peroxidation,and other aldehydes on rheological parameters and their relationship with aging-associated alterations were studied.Both MDA and glutaraldehyde(Glu) in different concentrations significantly increase viscosity,plastic viscosity and yield stress of human plasma and erythrocyte suspensions.MDA(20 mmol/L) reduces sharply the typical fluorescence of proteins(excitation 280 nm/emission 350 nm),and produces age pigment-like fluorescence with a strong emission peak at 460 nm when excites at 395 nm by only being incubated for some hours.In contrast,Glu decreases merely the fluorescence of proteins without producing age pigment-like fluorescence.These data suggest interestingly that the MDA-induced gradual protein cross linking seems to form from different mechanisms compared to the fast rheological changes of blood materials which may take place either in acute and chronic diseases or during aging.On the other hand,MDA induces various deleterious alterations of erythrocytes whereas glutathione(GSH) inhibits the MDA-related carbonyl stress in a concentration-dependent manner.The results indicate that carbonyl-amino reaction exists in the blood widely and GSH has the ability to interrupt or reverse this reaction in a certain way.It implies that carbonyl stress may be one of the important factors in blood stasis and suggests a theoretical and practical approach in anti-stresses and anti-aging.

  14. The Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide at Low Temperature: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shanxue; Gao, Fengyu; Zhang, Bowen; Zuo, Yanran; Wang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrolysis technology of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature was reviewed, including the development of catalysts, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanism of COS hydrolysis. It was indicated that the catalysts are mainly involved metal oxide and activated carbon. The active ingredients which can load on COS hydrolysis catalyst include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal oxides, rare earth metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, and nanometal oxides. The catalytic hydrolysis of COS is a first-order reaction with respect to carbonyl sulfide, while the reaction order of water changes as the reaction conditions change. The controlling steps are also different because the reaction conditions such as concentration of carbonyl sulfide, reaction temperature, water-air ratio, and reaction atmosphere are different. The hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide is base-catalyzed reaction, and the force of the base site has an important effect on the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide. PMID:23956697

  15. Carbonyl 13C NMR spectrum of basin pancreatic trypsin inhibitor: resonance assignments by selective amide hydrogen isotope labeling and detection of isotope effects on 13C nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbonyl region of the natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor is examined, and 65 of the 66 expected signals are characterized at varying pH and temperature. Assignments are reported for over two-thirds of the signals, including those of all buried backbone amide groups with slow proton exchange and all side-chain carbonyl groups. This is the first extensively assigned carbonyl spectrum for any protein. A method for carbonyl resonance assignments utilizing amide proton exchange and isotope effects on nuclear shielding is described in detail. The assignments are made by establishing kinetic correlation between effects of amide proton exchange observed in the carbonyl 13C region with development of isotope effects and in the amide proton region with disappearance of preassigned resonances. Several aspects of protein structure and dynamics in solution may be investigated by carbonyl 13C NMR spectroscopy. Some effects of side-chain primary amide group hydrolysis are described. The main interest is on information about intramolecular hydrogen-bond energies and changes in the protein due to amino acid replacements by chemical modification or genetic engineering

  16. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for age-dependent unavailability model integrating test and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Application of analytical unavailability model integrating T and M, ageing, and test strategy. ► Ageing data uncertainty propagation on system level assessed via Monte Carlo simulation. ► Uncertainty impact is growing with the extension of the surveillance test interval. ► Calculated system unavailability dependence on two different sensitivity study ageing databases. ► System unavailability sensitivity insights regarding specific groups of BEs as test intervals extend. - Abstract: The interest in operational lifetime extension of the existing nuclear power plants is growing. Consequently, plants life management programs, considering safety components ageing, are being developed and employed. Ageing represents a gradual degradation of the physical properties and functional performance of different components consequently implying their reduced availability. Analyses, which are being made in the direction of nuclear power plants lifetime extension are based upon components ageing management programs. On the other side, the large uncertainties of the ageing parameters as well as the uncertainties associated with most of the reliability data collections are widely acknowledged. This paper addresses the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses conducted utilizing a previously developed age-dependent unavailability model, integrating effects of test and maintenance activities, for a selected stand-by safety system in a nuclear power plant. The most important problem is the lack of data concerning the effects of ageing as well as the relatively high uncertainty associated to these data, which would correspond to more detailed modelling of ageing. A standard Monte Carlo simulation was coded for the purpose of this paper and utilized in the process of assessment of the component ageing parameters uncertainty propagation on system level. The obtained results from the uncertainty analysis indicate the extent to which the uncertainty of the selected

  17. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  18. Age dependent association of endometrial polyps with increased risk of cancer involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel Maritza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial polyps (EMPs are commonly encountered in routine surgical pathology practice, but opinions differ on whether they are intrinsically a marker for concurrent or subsequent malignancy. The objectives of the present study are 1 to investigate the age-group in which EMP are most commonly encountered 2 to document the age-group in which EMP are most commonly associated with malignancies 3 To investigate whether the age of diagnosis of the various carcinoma subtypes in EMPs is congruent with published data on similar malignancies arising in non-polypoid endometrium and 4 To investigate whether the histologic subtype distribution of malignancies associated with EMPs are similar or different from the distribution of malignancies arising from non-polypoid endometrium based on published data. Patients and methods All cases of EMPs were retrieved from the files of Yale-New Haven Hospital for the period 1986–1995. The patients were divided into 5 age groups: Each group was further subclassified based on an association (or lack thereof of EMPs with endometrial carcinoma. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of malignancy associated EMPs between the age groups. Results We identified 513 EMPs, of which 209 (41% were from biopsy specimens and 304 (59% from hysterectomy specimens. Sixty six (13% of all EMPs were malignant. The 66 malignant EMPs included 58 endometrioid, 6 serous, 1 carcinosarcoma, and 1 clear cell carcinoma. In age group >35, only 1(2.5% of 40 EMPs was associated with endometrial malignancy. In contrast, 37(32% of 115 EMPs were associated with malignancy in the age group > 65. The frequency of malignant EMPs increased with age and reached statistical significance in the age group >65 (p Conclusions EMPs show statistically significant age dependent association with malignant tumor involvement. Careful search for malignancy, particularly in women with multiple risk factors is advised in daily practice

  19. Carbonyl Emissions From Oil and Gas Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Tran, T.

    2015-12-01

    A number of recent studies have targeted emissions of methane and other hydrocarbons from oil and gas exploration and production activity. These measurements are greatly increasing understanding of the atmospheric impacts of oil and gas development. Very few measurements exist, however, of emissions of formaldehyde and other carbonyls from oil and gas equipment. Carbonyls are toxic and serve as important ozone precursors, especially during winter ozone episodes in places like Utah's Uintah Basin. Current air quality models are only able to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone if they incorporate emissions inventories with very high carbonyl emissions. We measured carbonyl emissions from oil and gas equipment and facilities—including glycol dehydrators, liquid storage tanks, raw gas leaks, raw gas-burning engines, and produced water surface impoundments—in Rocky Mountain oil and gas fields. Carbonyl emissions from raw gas were below detection, but emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other carbonyls were detected from liquid storage tanks, glycol dehydrators, and other oil and gas equipment. In some cases, carbonyls may be formed from the degradation of methanol and other chemicals used in oil and gas production, but the collected data provide evidence for other non-combustion formation pathways. Raw gas-burning engines also emitted carbonyls. Emissions from all measured sources were a small fraction of total volatile organic compound emissions. We incorporated our measurements into an emissions inventory, used that inventory in an air quality model (WRF-SMOKE-CAMx), and were unable to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone. This could be because (1) emission sources we have not yet measured, including compressors, gas processing plants, and others, are large; (2) non-carbonyl emissions, especially those that quickly degrade into carbonyls during photochemical processing, are underestimated in the inventory; or (3) the air quality model is unable

  20. Preparation of Tc-carbonyl complexes of tryptophan and histidine and biodistribution in mice bearing S180 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tc-carbonyl complexes of tryptophan and histidine were synthesized by two-step method. The yielded complexes were found by paper electrophoresis to be electrically neutral in three buffer solutions (pH = 4.7, 7.4, 9.2). Their possible structures were postulated based on ab initio MO calculations. The biodistribution in mice bearing S180 tumor demonstrated that the Tc-carbonyl complex of histidine showed good stability in vivo and quick clearance, selectively accumulated in tumor. The tumor/muscle ratio attained 3 to 4. However, the complex of tryptophan showed poor stability in vivo and slow clearance, and retained for a long time in organs and tissues. It also accumulated in tumor to some extent. The tumor.muscle ratio attained 2 to 3. The labelling of proteins and polypeptides with the Tc(I)-carbonyl complex was also discussed

  1. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the putative breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor [11C]methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl) amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The multidrug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where it limits brain entry of a broad range of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl) amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate (1) is a recently discovered BCRP-selective inhibitor, which is structurally derived from the potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar. The aim of this study was to develop a new PET tracer based on 1 to map BCRP expression levels in vivo. Methods: Compound 1 was labelled with 11C in its methyl ester function by reaction of the corresponding carboxylic acid 2 with [11C]methyl triflate. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of [11C]-1 was performed in wild-type, Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-) and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice (n=3 per mouse type) and radiotracer metabolism was assessed in plasma and brain. Results: Brain-to-plasma ratios of unchanged [11C]-1 were 4.8- and 10.3-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(-/-) and in Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice, respectively, as compared to wild-type animals, but only modestly increased in Bcrp1(-/-) mice. [11C]-1 was rapidly metabolized in vivo giving rise to a polar radiometabolite which was taken up into brain tissue. Conclusion: Our data suggest that [11C]-1 preferably interacts with P-gp rather than BCRP at the murine BBB which questions its reported in vitro BCRP selectivity. Consequently, [11C]-1 appears to be unsuitable as a PET tracer to map cerebral BCRP expression.

  2. Reactivity, Selectivity, and Reaction Mechanisms of Aminoguanidine, Hydralazine, Pyridoxamine, and Carnosine as Sequestering Agents of Reactive Carbonyl Species: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzani, Mara; De Maddis, Danilo; Casali, Gaia; Carini, Marina; Vistoli, Giulio; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-08-19

    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are endogenous or exogenous byproducts involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of different oxidative-based disorders. Detoxification of RCS by carbonyl quenchers is a promising therapeutic strategy. Among the most studied quenchers are aminoguanidine, hydralazine, pyridoxamine, and carnosine; their quenching activity towards four RCS (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and malondialdehyde) was herein analyzed and compared. Their ability to prevent protein carbonylation was evaluated in vitro by using an innovative method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The reactivity of the compounds was RCS dependent: carnosine efficiently quenched 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, pyridoxamine was particularly active towards malondialdehyde, aminoguanidine was active towards methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and hydralazine efficiently quenched all RCS. Reaction products were generated in vitro and were characterized by HRMS. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the reactivity was controlled by specific stereoelectronic parameters that could be used for the rational design of improved carbonyl quenchers. PMID:26891408

  3. A New HPLC Method to Determine Carbonyl Compounds in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new HPLC method was established to determine the carbonyl compounds in air. As the absorbent, 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2, 4-DNPH) reacted with carbonyls specifically, which form the corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, then analyzed by HPLC. The chromatographic conditions, the recovery rate, stability of samples, reagent blank, sampling efficiency were all studied systematically. The results showed that this established method had high sensitivity and good selectivity compared with other analytical methods, and it can determine ten carbonyl compounds in air in 26 min simultaneously.

  4. 16th Carbonyl Metabolism Meeting: from enzymology to genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maser Edmund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 16th International Meeting on the Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Carbonyl Metabolism, Castle of Ploen (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, July 10–15, 2012, covered all aspects of NAD(P-dependent oxido-reductases that are involved in the general metabolism of xenobiotic and physiological carbonyl compounds. Starting 30 years ago with enzyme purification, structure elucidation and enzyme kinetics, the Carbonyl Society members have meanwhile established internationally recognized enzyme nomenclature systems and now consider aspects of enzyme genomics and enzyme evolution along with their roles in diseases. The 16th international meeting included lectures from international speakers from all over the world.

  5. TDP-1/TDP-43 regulates stress signaling and age-dependent proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 is a multifunctional nucleic acid binding protein linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia. To learn more about the normal biological and abnormal pathological role of this protein, we turned to Caenorhabditis elegans and its orthologue TDP-1. We report that TDP-1 functions in the Insulin/IGF pathway to regulate longevity and the oxidative stress response downstream from the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO3a. However, although tdp-1 mutants are stress-sensitive, chronic upregulation of tdp-1 expression is toxic and decreases lifespan. ALS-associated mutations in TDP-43 or the related RNA binding protein FUS activate the unfolded protein response and generate oxidative stress leading to the daf-16-dependent upregulation of tdp-1 expression with negative effects on neuronal function and lifespan. Consistently, deletion of endogenous tdp-1 rescues mutant TDP-43 and FUS proteotoxicity in C. elegans. These results suggest that chronic induction of wild-type TDP-1/TDP-43 by cellular stress may propagate neurodegeneration and decrease lifespan.

  6. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-02-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of /sup 35/S-labeled NaSO/sub 4/ into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage.

  7. The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a higher oxidative stress and age-dependent degenerative diseases model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Kumagai, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Ishii, Sanae; Furukawa, Ayako; Takei, Shiro; Sakura, Masaaki; Kawamura, Noriko; Hosokawa, Masanori

    2009-04-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of a series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant) strains. Compared with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains show a more accelerated senescence process, a shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to human geriatric disorders. The higher oxidative stress status observed in SAMP mice is partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be a cause of this senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function. Based on our recent observations, we discuss a possible mechanism for mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, and a role for the hyperoxidative stress status in neurodegeneration in SAMP mice. These SAM strains can serve as a useful tool to understand the cellular mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:18688709

  8. Age dependent food consumption data provided for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averaged age dependent food consumption data are compiled and evaluated to provide input data for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway. For special population groups (self-suppliers e.g.) factors are provided, by which the consumption for special foods may be exceeded. The evaluated data are compared with those of the 'USNRC-Regulatory Guide 1.109 (revised 1977)' and those of the 'Recommendation of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (Draft 1977)'. (orig.)

  9. Temporal trend and age-dependent serum concentration of phenolic organohalogen contaminants in Japanese men during 1989–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporal trend in serum concentrations of phenolic organohalogen contaminants (POCs) were investigated in two age groups of men from Kyoto, Japan, from 1989 to 2010. These concentrations and trends were compared with neutral contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Serum concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PenCP) and 4-hydroxy-PCB187 were age-dependent and decreased to approximately one-half during the two decades, whereas no contamination trends were observed for 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and 6-hydroxy-2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). 6-OH-BDE47 was found in all samples (up to 3000 pg/g wet weight), whereas TBBPA was detected in 17 of 60 serum samples (up to 950 pg/g wet weight). The concentrations of TriBP, TBBPA and 6-OH-BDE47 were not correlated to those of PenCP or 4-OH-PCB187 in either age group, suggesting the different kinetics on exposure routes and fate between these brominated and chlorinated POCs. -- Highlights: • Pentachlorophenol and 6-hydroxy-tetrabromobiphenyl ether were predominant in serum. • Tetrabromobisphenol A was detected in 28% of serum samples. • Age-dependent decrease of serum neutral organohalogen concentrations during the two decades. • No age-dependency was observed for phenolic halogenated contaminants except for hydroxy-PCB. • Brominated phenolic contaminants showed different trends from chlorinated ones. -- Pentachlorophenol and 6-hydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ether were predominant in serum. Age-dependent decrease of serum neutral organohalogen concentrations during the two decades

  10. A recalculation of the age dependent dose-effect-relationship of the life span study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the presented model is the multistage process of carcinogenesis as a biological effect. It provides simultaneously the age-dependent mortality of spontaneous and radiation induced solid tumors and dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The model has been used to describe the solid cancer mortality rates of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has characteristics of both relative and absolute risk projections depending on the age of exposure. (author)

  11. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general theory of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates is illustrated by examples. Mathematically, it turns out that models consisting of partial differential equations include ordinary, delayed and integro-differential equations, a general fact which is treated here in the context of linear tracer kinetics. The examples include standard compartments as a degenerate case, systems of standard compartments (compartment blocks), models resulting in special residence time distributions, models with pipes, and systems with heterogeneous particles. (orig./BBR)

  12. Age dependency of central and peripheral systolic blood pressures: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in European populations

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Richart, Tom; Seidlerová, Jitka; Cwynar, Marcin; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Filipovský, Jan; Casiglia, Edoardo; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; O'Rourke, Michael; Staessen, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. As arteries become stiffer with ageing, reflected waves move faster and augment late systolic pressure. We investigated the age dependency of peripheral and central systolic pressure, pressure amplification (peripheral systolic blood pressure - central systolic blood pressure), and peripheral and central systolic augmentation (maximal systolic pressure minus the first peak of the pressure wave). Methods. We randomly recruited 1420 White Europeans (mean age, 41.7 years). p...

  13. Study of age dependent half-life of iodine in man: a reinforcement-depletion urn model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An urn contains balls of s different colors. The problem of the reinforcement of a specified color and random depletion of balls has been considered previously by one of the authors. In this paper, the theory is applied to the biological age dependent half-life of radioactive iodine in man; the data of Cook and Snyder (1965 ORNL-3849,190-193) is used. The intake of radioactive iodine and its retention subsequently is studied. (author)

  14. Microsurgeons do better--tactile training might prevent the age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Megerle, Kai; Weinzierl, Andrea; Agua, Kariem; Cerny, Michael; Schmauss, Verena; Lohmeyer, Joern A; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Erne, Holger

    2015-12-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the normal sensibility of the hand seems to be age-dependent with the best values in the third decade and a consecutive deterioration afterwards. However, it is not clear if long-term tactile training might prevent this age-dependent decline. We evaluated sensibility of the hand in 125 surgeons aged between 26 and 75 years who perform microsurgical operations, thereby undergoing regular tactile training. We examined sensibility of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) and the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10) using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and compared the results to 154 age-matched individuals without specific long-term tactile training. We found significantly lower static and moving 2PD values for the sixth, seventh, and eighth decade of life in the microsurgery group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that long-term tactile training might prevent the known age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand. PMID:26306813

  15. Mutant TDP-43 and FUS Cause Age-Dependent Paralysis and Neurodegeneration in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Tauffenberger, Arnaud; Aggad, Dina; Rouleau, Guy; Drapeau, Pierre; Parker, J. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the DNA/RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Intracellular accumulations of wild type TDP-43 and FUS are observed in a growing number of late-onset diseases suggesting that TDP-43 and FUS proteinopathies may contribute to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand the mechanisms of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity we have created transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains that express ful...

  16. Theoretical Estimate of Hydride Affinities of Aromatic Carbonyl Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Teng; ZHU Xiao-Qing; CHENG Jin-Pei

    2003-01-01

    @@ Aromatic carbonyl compounds are one type of the most important organic compounds, and the reductions ofthem by hydride agents such as LiAlH4 or NaBH4 are widely used in organic synthesis. The reactivity of carbonyl compounds generally increases in the following order: ketone < aldehyde, and amide < acid < ester < acid halide, which could be related to their hydride affinities (HA). In the previous paper, Robert[1] calculated the absolute HAof a series of small non-aromatic carbonyl compounds. In this paper, we use DFT method at B3LYP/6-311 + + G (2d, 2p)∥B3LYP/6-31 + G* level to estimate hydride affinities of five groups of aromatic carbonyl compounds. The detailed results are listed in Table 1.

  17. Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  18. Age dependence of the rapid antidepressant and synaptic effects of acute NMDA receptor blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eNosyreva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist that produces rapid antidepressant responses in individuals with major depressive disorder. The antidepressant action of ketamine has been linked to blocking NMDA receptor activation at rest, which inhibits eukaryotic elongation factor2 kinase leading to desuppression of protein synthesis and synaptic potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Here, we investigated ketamine mediated antidepressant response and the resulting synaptic potentiation in juvenile animals. We found that ketamine did not produce an antidepressant response in juvenile animals in the novelty suppressed feeding or the forced swim test. In addition ketamine application failed to trigger synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile animals, unlike its action in slices from older animals (6-9 weeks old. The inability of ketamine to trigger an antidepressant response or subsequent synaptic plasticity processes suggests a developmental component to ketamine mediated antidepressant efficacy. We also show that the NMDAR antagonist AP5 triggers synaptic potentiation in mature hippocampus similar to the action of ketamine, demonstrating that global competitive blockade of NMDA receptors is sufficient to trigger this effect. These findings suggest that global blockade of NMDA receptors in developmentally mature hippocampal synapses are required for the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine.

  19. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

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    Adam W Oaks

    Full Text Available Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  20. Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Dong, Yuanlin; Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The Aβ accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. γ-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated Aβ accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.

  1. Leaf age dependent changes in within-canopy variation in leaf functional traits: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-05-01

    Within-canopy variation in leaf structural and photosynthetic characteristics is a major means by which whole canopy photosynthesis is maximized at given total canopy nitrogen. As key acclimatory modifications, leaf nitrogen content (N A) and photosynthetic capacity (A A) per unit area increase with increasing light availability in the canopy and these increases are associated with increases in leaf dry mass per unit area (M A) and/or nitrogen content per dry mass and/or allocation. However, leaf functional characteristics change with increasing leaf age during leaf development and aging, but the importance of these alterations for within-canopy trait gradients is unknown. I conducted a meta-analysis based on 71 canopies that were sampled at different time periods or, in evergreens, included measurements for different-aged leaves to understand how within-canopy variations in leaf traits (trait plasticity) depend on leaf age. The analysis demonstrated that in evergreen woody species, M A and N A plasticity decreased with increasing leaf age, but the change in A A plasticity was less suggesting a certain re-acclimation of A A to altered light. In deciduous woody species, M A and N A gradients in flush-type species increased during leaf development and were almost invariable through the rest of the season, while in continuously leaf-forming species, the trait gradients increased constantly with increasing leaf age. In forbs, N A plasticity increased, while in grasses, N A plasticity decreased with increasing leaf age, reflecting life form differences in age-dependent changes in light availability and in nitrogen resorption for growth of generative organs. Although more work is needed to improve the coverage of age-dependent plasticity changes in some plant life forms, I argue that the age-dependent variation in trait plasticity uncovered in this study is large enough to warrant incorporation in simulations of canopy photosynthesis through the growing period. PMID

  2. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed...... on the C-3 carbons of Ala, Val, Leu, and Asp residues undergo beta-scission to give backbone alpha-carbon radicals, with the release of the side- chain as a carbonyl compound. We now show that this is a general mechanism that occurs with a wide range of oxidants. The quantitative significance...... of this process depends on the extent of oxidation at C-3 compared with other sites. HO*, generated by gamma radiolysis, gave the highest total carbonyl yield, with protein-bound carbonyls predominating over released. In contrast, metal ion/H2O2 systems, gave more released than bound carbonyls, with this ratio...

  3. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models in tracer kinetics are usually based on ordinary differential equations which correspond to a system of kinetically homogeneous compartments (standard compartments). A generalization is possible by the admission of inhomogeneities in the behaviour of the elements belonging to a compartment. The important special case of the age-dependence of elimination rates is treated in its deterministic version. It leads to partial different equations (i.e., systems with distributed coefficients) with the 'age' or the 'residence time' of an element of the compartment as a variable additional to 'time'. The basic equations for one generalized compartment and for systems of such compartments are given together with their general solutions. (orig.)

  4. Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Karson Ayşe; Utkan Tijen; Balcı Fuat; Arıcıoğlu Feyza; Ateş Nurbay

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy Ayşe Karson1*, Tijen Utkan2, Fuat Balcı3, Feyza Arıcıoğlu4 and Nurbay Ateş1 Abstract Recent clinical studies revealed emotional and cognitive impairments associated with absence epilepsy. Preclinical research with genetic models of absence epilepsy however have primarily focused on dysfunctional emotional processes and paid relatively less attention t...

  5. Age-dependent effects of UCP2 deficiency on experimental acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Müller

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 μg/kg body weight at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively, suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions.

  6. Age-dependent alterations in the inflammatory response to pulmonary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Helena M; Ochani, Kanta; Lin, Ke; Lee, Ji Young; Miller, Edmund J

    2015-12-01

    The aging lung is increasingly susceptible to infectious disease. Changes in pulmonary physiology and function are common in older populations, and in those older than 60 years, pneumonia is the major cause of infectious death. Understanding age-related changes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and how they affect both pulmonary and systemic responses to pulmonary challenge are critical to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the elderly patient. In this observational study, we examined age-associated differences in inflammatory responses to pulmonary challenge with cell wall components from Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6 months or greater than 18 months (approximating humans of 20 and 55-65 years), were challenged, intratracheally, with lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan. Cellular and cytokine evaluations were performed on both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and plasma, 24 h post-challenge. The plasma concentration of free thyroxine, a marker of severity in non-thyroidal illness, was also evaluated. The older animals had an increased chemotactic gradient in favor of the airspaces, which was associated with a greater accumulation of neutrophils and protein. Furthermore, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory mediator and putative biomarker in acute lung injury, was increased in both the plasma and BAL of the older, but not young animals. Conversely, plasma free thyroxine, a natural inhibitor of MIF, was decreased in the older animals. These findings identify age-associated inflammatory/metabolic changes following pulmonary challenge that it may be possible to manipulate to improve outcome in the older, critically ill patient. PMID:26318747

  7. Age dependence of radiation-induced renal cell carcinomas in an Eker rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carcinogens early in life may contribute to cancer development later in life. The amount of radiation exposure children experience during medical procedures has been increasing, so it is important to evaluate the radiation risk of cancer in developing organs. Toward this goal, we assessed the risk of developing renal cell carcinoma using Eker rats as a kidney tumor model. F1 hybrids of male Eker (Tsc2 mutant) and female F344 rats were irradiated with 0.5 or 2 Gy gamma radiation on gestation days 15 and 19, and on postnatal days 5, 20, and 49. At 27 weeks of age, kidneys were examined for proliferative lesions. Preneoplastic lesions such as phenotypically altered tubules increased after postnatal irradiation as a function of age-at-irradiation, and hyperplasia were greatly increased after perinatal and postnatal irradiation. In contrast, development of adenoma and adenocarcinoma were evident in animals irradiated at perinatal ages, being maximal at gestational day 19. The frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the Tsc2 locus was unexpectedly low -0% (0 of 4) for the unirradiated control, and 17% (6 of 35) for the irradiated group. Irrespective of LOH, the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, which is negatively regulated by the Tsc1/2 complex, was activated in both benign and malignant lesions, as evidenced by phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein and 4E-BP1. This suggests that the wild-type Tsc2 allele may be functionally inactivated. In conclusion, actively growing kidneys in perinatal-aged (F344 x Eker) F1 rats (Tsc2+/- are at risk for radiation-induced malignant transformation of the renal epithelium associated with mTOR activation. (author)

  8. NRFL-1, the C. elegans NHERF orthologue, interacts with amino acid transporter 6 (AAT-6 for age-dependent maintenance of AAT-6 on the membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Hagiwara

    Full Text Available The NHERF (Na(+/H(+ exchanger regulatory factor family has been proposed to play a key role in regulating transmembrane protein localization and retention at the plasma membrane. Due to the high homology between the family members, potential functional compensations have been a concern in sorting out the function of individual NHERF numbers. Here, we studied C. elegans NRFL-1 (C01F6.6 (nherf-like protein 1, the sole C. elegans orthologue of the NHERF family, which makes worm a model with low genetic redundancy of NHERF homologues. Integrating bioinformatic knowledge of C. elegans proteins into yeast two-hybrid scheme, we identified NRFL-1 as an interactor of AAT-6, a member of the C. elegans AAT (amino acid transporter family. A combination of GST pull-down assay, localization study, and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding and characterized the PDZ interaction. AAT-6 localizes to the luminal membrane even in the absence of NRFL-1 when the worm is up to four-day old. A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP analysis suggested that NRFL-1 immobilizes AAT-6 at the luminal membrane. When the nrfl-1 deficient worm is six-day or older, in contrast, the membranous localization of AAT-6 is not observed, whereas AAT-6 tightly localizes to the membrane in worms with NRFL-1. Sorting out the in vivo functions of the C. elegans NHERF protein, we found that NRFL-1, a PDZ-interactor of AAT-6, is responsible for the immobilization and the age-dependent maintenance of AAT-6 on the intestinal luminal membrane.

  9. Clinical features of schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Makoto; Kobori, Akiko; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Toriumi, Kazuya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Okazaki, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Amano, Naoji; Miyata, Toshio; Itokawa, Masanari

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that advanced glycation end products, generated as a consequence of facilitated carbonyl stress, are implicated in the development of a variety of diseases. These diseases include neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer disease. Pyridoxamine is one of the 3 forms of vitamin B6, and it acts by combating carbonyl stress and inhibiting the formation of AGEs. Depletion of pyridoxamine due to enhanced carbonyl stress eventually leads to a decrease in the other forms of vitamin B6, namely pyridoxal and pyridoxine. We previously reported that higher levels of plasma pentosidine, a well-known biomarker for advanced glycation end products, and decreased serum pyridoxal levels were found in a subpopulation of schizophrenic patients. However, there is as yet no clinical characterization of this subset of schizophrenia. In this study, we found that these patients shared many clinical features with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. These include a higher proportion of inpatients, low educational status, longer durations of hospitalization, and higher doses of antipsychotic medication, compared with patients without carbonyl stress. Interestingly, psychopathological symptoms showed a tendency towards negative association with serum vitamin B6 levels. Our results support the idea that treatment regimes reducing carbonyl stress, such as supplementation of pyridoxamine, could provide novel therapeutic benefits for this subgroup of patients. PMID:24062594

  10. Role of acid sphingomyelinase in the age-dependent dysregulation of sphingolipids turnover in the tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Nataliya A; Garkavenko, Vladimir V; Storozhenko, Galina V; Timofiychuk, Olga A

    2016-04-01

    Old age-associated pathologies usually coincide with altered sphingolipid metabolism. In the present article, the role of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in the age-dependent changes of sphingomyelin (SM) and ceramide contents in the tissues has been investigated by means of ASMase inhibitors, imipramine and zoledronic acid. It has been determined that ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio increased, while SM level decreased in the heart, liver, blood serum and skeletal muscles of 24-month old rats in contrast to 3-month old animals. Injections of imipramine or zoledronic acid to 24-month old rats resulted in significant downregulation of ASMase in the liver and skeletal and heart muscles. The both inhibitors decreased the ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio and increased the SM content in all tissues studied, except the heart, of old rats to the levels close to those observed in the young animals. Long-term treatment of rats by inhibitors, which have different mechanisms of action on ASMase, exerts the similar, but not equal effects on enzyme activity and SM turnover. In summary, the data above strongly suggest that the age-dependent up-regulation of ASMase plays an important role in the modulation of ceramide and SM contents in rat tissues and that imipramine and zoledronic acid are useful tools for SM turnover manipulation at old age. PMID:26830134

  11. Age-Dependent Cell Trafficking Defects in Draining Lymph Nodes Impair Adaptive Immunity and Control of West Nile Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M Richner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impaired immune responses in the elderly lead to reduced vaccine efficacy and increased susceptibility to viral infections. Although several groups have documented age-dependent defects in adaptive immune priming, the deficits that occur prior to antigen encounter remain largely unexplored. Herein, we identify novel mechanisms for compromised adaptive immunity that occurs with aging in the context of infection with West Nile virus (WNV, an encephalitic flavivirus that preferentially causes disease in the elderly. An impaired IgM and IgG response and enhanced vulnerability to WNV infection during aging was linked to delayed germinal center formation in the draining lymph node (DLN. Adoptive transfer studies and two-photon intravital microscopy revealed a decreased trafficking capacity of donor naïve CD4+ T cells from old mice, which manifested as impaired T cell diapedesis at high endothelial venules and reduced cell motility within DLN prior to antigen encounter. Furthermore, leukocyte accumulation in the DLN within the first few days of WNV infection or antigen-adjuvant administration was diminished more generally in old mice and associated with a second aging-related defect in local cytokine and chemokine production. Thus, age-dependent cell-intrinsic and environmental defects in the DLN result in delayed immune cell recruitment and antigen recognition. These deficits compromise priming of early adaptive immune responses and likely contribute to the susceptibility of old animals to acute WNV infection.

  12. Age-dependent impairment of cognitive and synaptic function in the htau mouse model of tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polydoro, Manuela; Acker, Christopher M; Duff, Karen; Castillo, Pablo E; Davies, Peter

    2009-08-26

    A hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease pathology is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are intracellular aggregates of conformationally abnormal and hyperphosphorylated tau. The presence of NFTs in the forebrain is associated with impairments of cognitive function, supporting a central role for tau in dementia. The significance of the accumulation of NFTs for neuronal and cognitive function is still obscure. It is possible that NFTs disrupt synaptic transmission and plasticity, leading to memory deficits and cognitive malfunction. To elucidate the relationship between the development of tau pathology and synaptic and cognitive functions, we performed behavioral tests and electrophysiological experiments in the htau mouse. Here we report age-dependent cognitive and physiological impairments in htau mice that preceded neurodegeneration. Twelve-month-old htau mice with moderate tau pathology, but not 4-month-old mice with early-stage tau pathology, presented cognitive deficits in an object recognition memory task in which the visual recognition memory of a novel object was disrupted. Moreover, only 12-month-old htau mice exhibit spatial memory deficits, as indicated by the impaired performance in the Morris water maze. In addition, we report that basal synaptic transmission and induction of long-term potentiation with high-frequency stimulation, but not theta burst stimulation, is perturbed in hippocampal CA1 region of old but not young htau mice. Our results suggest that tau pathology may underlie an age-dependent learning impairment through disruption of synaptic function. PMID:19710325

  13. Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karson Ayşe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent clinical studies revealed emotional and cognitive impairments associated with absence epilepsy. Preclinical research with genetic models of absence epilepsy however have primarily focused on dysfunctional emotional processes and paid relatively less attention to cognitive impairment. In order to bridge this gap, we investigated age-dependent changes in learning and memory performance, anxiety-like behavior, and locomotor activity of WAG/Rij rats (a valid model of generalized absence epilepsy using passive avoidance, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, and locomotor activity cage. We tested 5 month-old and 13 month-old WAG/Rij rats and compared their performance to age-matched Wistar rats. Results revealed a decline in emotional and spatial memory of WAG/Rij rats compared to age-matched Wistar rats only at 13 months of age. Importantly, there were no significant differences between WAG/Rij and Wistar rats in terms of anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity at either age. Results pointed at age-dependent learning and memory deficits in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy.

  14. Altered connexin 43 expression underlies age-dependent decrease of regulatory T cell suppressor function in nonobese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczma, Michal; Wang, Cong-Yi; Ignatowicz, Leszek; Gourdie, Robert; Kraj, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most extensively studied autoimmune diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β cells are still not well understood. In this study, we show that regulatory T cells (T(regs)) in NOD mice undergo age-dependent loss of suppressor functions exacerbated by the decreased ability of activated effector T cells to upregulate Foxp3 and generate T(regs) in the peripheral organs. This age-dependent loss is associated with reduced intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions, which is caused by impaired upregulation and decreased expression of connexin 43. Regulatory functions can be corrected, even in T cells isolated from aged, diabetic mice, by a synergistic activity of retinoic acid, TGF-β, and IL-2, which enhance connexin 43 and Foxp3 expression in T(regs) and restore the ability of conventional CD4(+) T cells to upregulate Foxp3 and generate peripherally derived T(regs). Moreover, we demonstrate that suppression mediated by T(regs) from diabetic mice is enhanced by a novel reagent, which facilitates gap junction aggregation. In summary, our report identifies gap junction-mediated intercellular communication as an important component of the T(reg) suppression mechanism compromised in NOD mice and suggests how T(reg) mediated immune regulation can be improved. PMID:25911751

  15. Surveillance test and monitoring strategy for the availability improvement of standby equipment using age-dependent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases, the safety of a nuclear power plant greatly depends on the successful operation of specific standby equipment at the time of demand arrival. For the effective management of safety-critical standby equipment, unavailability measures are introduced and widely applied. In this study, we propose an age-dependent unavailability model for standby equipment that considers aging-relevant information, such as the number of actual operations, the elapsed time from installation, and maintenance activities, in an integrated manner. Based on the proposed model, we present two availability enhancement strategies: the Online Monitoring based Inspection Method (OMIM) and the Shortening Surveillance Test Interval Method (SSTIM). In the OMIM, ‘elapsed-time sensitive' elements are monitored, without actual operation, at the differentiated monitoring interval with the help of sensing devices. For the remaining parts of the elements, actual testing is performed with an adaptive interval for each standby turn by the SSTIM. The effectiveness of the proposed enhancement schemes is demonstrated through a case study for the motor-operated valve (MOV). It is our belief that the proposed schemes can be widely applied in areas such as equipment testing, maintenance strategies, dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and risk-informed regulations. - Highlights: • An age-dependent unavailability model for standby equipment was investigated. • An Online Monitoring-based Inspection Method was suggested. • Changing the test interval for each standby turn was suggested. • The effectiveness of the suggested methods was analyzed quantitatively

  16. A higher oxidative status accelerates senescence and aggravates age-dependent disorders in SAMP strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masanori

    2002-11-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone, short-lived) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant, longer-lived) strains. Comparing with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains of mice show a more accelerated senescence process, shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders observed in humans, including senile osteoporosis, degenerative joint disease, age-related deficits in learning and memory, olfactory bulb and forebrain atrophy, presbycusis and retinal atrophy, senile amyloidosis, immunosenescence, senile lungs, and diffuse medial thickening of the aorta. The higher oxidative stress observed in the SAMP strains of mice are partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be one cause of the senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function, including neuronal cell degeneration. This senescence acceleration is also observed during senescence/crisis in cultures of isolated fibroblast-like cells from SAMP strains of mice, and was associated with a hyperoxidative status. These observations suggest that the SAM strains are useful tools in the attempt to understand the mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration of cells and tissues, and their aggravation, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:12470893

  17. Age dependent sampling biases in tsetse flies (Glossina): Problems associated with estimating mortality from sample age distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a closed (island) population of G. morsitans morsitans Westwood, the probability per week of capturing females on ox fly rounds was about 0.3 in the first week of life, less than 0.2 for 27 to 35-d-old flies and greater than 0.4 for flies more than 80 d old. For open populations, the relative changes in capture probability were measured from the ovarian age distributions of trap and ox fly round samples. They were used (with island data) to show that the age dependent sampling bias of traps for female G. m. morsitans increased more than sixfold over the first 80 d of life. The age dependent bias for G. pallidipes Austen taken from odour baited traps is probably at least as serious as for G. m. morsitans. Estimates of daily mortality from the mark-recapture studies were always (up to 20 times) higher than estimates from ovarian age samples taken at the same times. The mortalities recalculated from samples adjusted for sampling biases were closer to, but still lower than, the mark-recapture estimates. Odour baited targets are successful in controlling tsetse populations, despite the relatively low probability of treating young females. If sterilants instead of insecticides were used on the targets, young females could be treated indirectly via treated males, which transfer the sterilant to virgin females during copulation. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs

  18. Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Metal Oxide Carbonyl Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Antonio D.; Duncan, Michael A.

    2013-06-01

    Mass selected metal oxide-carbonyl cations of the form MO_{m}(CO)_{n}^{+} are studied via infrared laser photodissociation spectroscopy, in the 600-2300cm^{1} region. Insight into the structure and bonding of these complexes is obtained from the number of infrared active bands, their relative intensities and their frequency positions. Density functional theory calculations are carried out in support of the experimental data. Insight into the bonding of CO ligands to metal oxides is obtained and the effect of oxidation on the carbonyl stretching frequency is revealed.

  19. Age-dependent potassium iodide effect on the thyroid irradiation by 131I and 133I in the nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial near-field exposure is primarily through inhalation in a nuclear emergency and the dominant contribution to the effective inhalation dose comes from radioiodine. Thyroid blockade by oral potassium iodide (KI) is efficient and practical for public in the nuclear emergency. Age-dependent radioprotective effect of KI on the thyroid irradiation by 131I and 133I has been derived using the simplified compartment model of iodine metabolism and WinSAAM program. Administration of KI within 2 h after 131I and 133I intake can block thyroid uptake significantly, yielding protective effect of 78.9% and 74.3%, respectively, for 131I and 133I for adults. The mean absorbed doses decrease with age, while protective effects of KI are similar for all age groups. (authors)

  20. Estimation of age dependent effective dose due to intake of 226Ra from drinking water in Vizag, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the ongoing baseline survey, present work deals with the measurement of 226Ra concentration in ground water samples collected around Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) site Vizag by emanometry technique and subsequent estimation of age dependent effective dose to the people inhabited in that area. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra was 15.8 mBq/L which is much lower than the WHO guideline value of 1 Bq/L. The highest dose was observed for the age group of 14-18 yr (male). The dose for all age group are ranged between 2.2-56 which is well below the WHO recommended dose level of 100 μSv/y. (author)

  1. TIEG1-null tenocytes display age-dependent differences in their gene expression, adhesion, spreading and proliferation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix is a crucial mechanism in tendon development and the proliferation of fibroblasts is a key factor in this process. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the role of TIEG1 in mediating important tenocyte properties throughout the aging process. Wildtype and TIEG1 knockout tenocytes adhesion, spreading and proliferation were characterized on different substrates (fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin) and the expression levels of various genes known to be involved with tendon development were analyzed by RT-PCR. The experiments revealed age-dependent and substrate-dependent properties for both wildtype and TIEG1 knockout tenocytes. Taken together, our results indicate an important role for TIEG1 in regulating tenocytes adhesion, spreading, and proliferation throughout the aging process. Understanding the basic mechanisms of TIEG1 in tenocytes may provide valuable information for treating multiple tendon disorders.

  2. Estimating true age-dependence in survival when only adults can be observed: an example with Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.

  3. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  4. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  5. Financing Old Age Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Nishiyama; Kent Smetters

    2014-01-01

    Baby boomers are now retiring in large numbers, and most do not have enough assets of their own to finance retirement. Social insurance programs help baby boomers afford retirement, but these programs are substantially underfunded. Reforming these institutions earlier will produce fewer distortions than continued delays. Several options also exist for helping households prepare for their own retirement: improving financial literacy, more opt-out defaults, better guidance about the value of de...

  6. An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.

    2007-08-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

  7. The Importance of Age Dependent Mortality and the Extrinsic Incubation Period in Models of Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Bellan, Steve E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared acr...

  8. Formation of vesicles with an organometallic amphiphilic bilayer by supramolecular arrangement of metal carbonyl metallosurfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Parera Piella, Elisabet; Comelles, Francesc; Barnadas Rodríguez, Ramon; Suades Ortuño, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Metallo-vesicles are formed in water medium as a result of the supramolecular arrangement of molybdenum carbonyl metallosurfactants. These new kind of surfactants contain a hydrophobic metal carbonyl fragment and are easily prepared from surfactant phosphine ligands

  9. Organometallic and Bioorganometallic Chemistry - Ferrocene and Metal Carbonyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čakić Semenčić, M.

    2011-02-01

    -substituted products. Owing to the low barrier to internal rotation around Cp-Fe-Cp axis (ω torsion angle ferrocene is characterized by D5d-symmetrical staggered and D5h-symetrical eclipsed forms. In the appropriately substituted ferrocenes, deviation from Cp coplanarity (tilt angle Θ may occur as well; e. g. ferrocenophanes are derivatives in which homo- or heteroatomic bridges spanned two Cp rings, causing appreciable deformations of ferrocene molecule (ω=0–26°; Θ=9–24°. A characteristic development of the science in the new age has been the gradual merging of what were once separate research disciplines. In such a way, on the border between classical organic and inorganic chemistry (long ago organometallic chemistry was established and in the last decades "hybridization" of biology (biochemistry and organometallic chemistry has resulted in the appearance of bioorganometallic chemistry. In short, this new discipline deals with conjugates of organometallics with biomolecules (DNA, PNA, carbohydrates, steroids, amino acids, peptides.... The principal fields of research activity in bioorganometallic chemistry are therapy, bioanalysis (sensors, molecular recognition in aqueous medium, enzymes (proteins, peptides, toxicology and environment.This article reviews only a few (interesting examples out of the immense number of bioorganometallics (classes. Many bioorganometallic drugs showed improved bioactivity in comparison with their classical anticancer and antimalarial analogues (e. g. tamoxifene → hydroxyferrocifene; chloroquine → ferroquine. Organometallic bioprobes are the molecules incorporating organometallic responding components (e. g. metal carbonyls. In the appropriately designed devices, these "molecular sensors" read out the information that is available from the molecular recognition events by FT-IR spectroscopy. Electrochemically active bioorganometallics (e. g. probes containing ferrocene are used in biosensors for detection of DNA, glucose in blood, etc. The

  10. Age-dependent decrease and alternative splicing of methionine synthase mRNA in human cerebral cortex and an accelerated decrease in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Muratore

    Full Text Available The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-α, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  11. Iron-Sulfur-Carbonyl and -Nitrosyl Complexes: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidewell, Christopher; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information, materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained, are provided for an experiment on iron-sulfur-carbonyl and -nitrosyl complexes. The experiment involved (1) use of inert atmospheric techniques and thin-layer and flexible-column chromatography and (2) interpretation of infrared, hydrogen and carbon-13 nuclear…

  12. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  13. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Ales; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg

    2015-01-01

    An alternative and robust method for the reduction of carbonyl groups by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is reported in this paper. With its very mild reaction conditions, good to excellent yields, absolute regioselectivity and the non-metallic character of the reagent, it provides an excellent too...

  14. Orthogonal dipolar interactions between amide carbonyl groups

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Felix R.; Wood, Peter A.; Allen, Frank H; Diederich, François

    2008-01-01

    Orthogonal dipolar interactions between amide C=O bond dipoles are commonly found in crystal structures of small molecules, proteins, and protein–ligand complexes. We herein present the experimental quantification of such interactions by employing a model system based on a molecular torsion balance. Application of a thermodynamic double-mutant cycle allows for the determination of the incremental energetic contributions attributed to the dipolar contact between 2 amide C=O groups. The stabili...

  15. Free backbone carbonyls mediate rhodopsin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Naoki; Pope, Andreyah; Sanchez-Reyes, Omar B; Eilers, Markus; Opefi, Chikwado A; Ziliox, Martine; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O

    2016-08-01

    Conserved prolines in the transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often considered to function as hinges that divide the helix into two segments capable of independent motion. Depending on their potential to hydrogen-bond, the free C=O groups associated with these prolines can facilitate conformational flexibility, conformational switching or stabilization of the receptor structure. To address the role of conserved prolines in family A GPCRs through solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we focus on bovine rhodopsin, a GPCR in the visual receptor subfamily. The free backbone C=O groups on helices H5 and H7 stabilize the inactive rhodopsin structure through hydrogen-bonds to residues on adjacent helices. In response to light-induced isomerization of the retinal chromophore, hydrogen-bonding interactions involving these C=O groups are released, thus facilitating repacking of H5 and H7 onto the transmembrane core of the receptor. These results provide insights into the multiple structural and functional roles of prolines in membrane proteins. PMID:27376589

  16. Orally administrated Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 ameliorates age-dependent colitis by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway via the regulation of lipopolysaccharide production by gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ju Jeong

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammaging effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB on age-dependent inflammation, we first screened and selected a tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and reactive oxygen species (ROS-inhibitory LAB, Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29, among the LABs isolated from fermented vegetables using LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of C29 (2 × 109 CFU/rat for 8 weeks in aged Fischer 344 rats (age, 16 months inhibited the expression of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase, inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 and the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB, activator protein 1 (AP1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Treatment with C29 induced the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1, and reduced intestinal microbial LPS and plasmatic LPS levels and ROS, as well as the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, which is significantly higher in aged rats than in young rats. C29 treatment also reduced plasmatic reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, and TNF-α, and suppressed expression of senescence markers p16 and p53 in the colon of the aged rats, but increased SIRT 1 expression. Based on these findings, we concluded that C29 treatment may suppress aging-dependent colitis by inhibiting NF-κB, AP1, and MAPK activation via the inhibition of gut microbiota LPS production and the induction of tight junction protein expression.

  17. An efficient synthesis of 2-[carbonyl-11C]acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (N-[carbonyl-11C]acetyl-D-glucosamine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid chemical synthesis of 2-[carbonyl-11C]acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (N-[carbonyl-11C]acetyl-D-glucosamine) starting from [11C]carbon dioxide is described. The total time required for the synthesis, the radiochemical yield, and purity of the titled sugar are ca. 60 min, 49.5% (based on [carbonyl-11C] acetic acid), and >98%, respectively. (author)

  18. Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

  19. Contribution to the penetration of radionuclides across the skin. Age dependence of promethium through rat skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper: - the time dependence of permeation of 147Pm3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model was studied; - the age dependence of promethium through the skin was proved; - the optimum biological model of human skin was selected, and - the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 147Pm3+ the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels was assessed. Concluding it can be said, that: -it was proved, that the 5-day-old rats (5DR) represents the optimum animal model to the human skin; - in the case of 8DR to 11DR the dominant route of 147Pm3+ penetration is along the follicles; - the permeation resistance of the skin depends on the thickness and mechanical properties of the skin. Comparing amounts of penetrated ions of promethium through the skin without hairs (3DR to 6DR) and through the skin with hairs, it was showed that the additional diffusion along hair's follicles pronounced with animal skin can be important also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in used animal models. (authors)

  20. Histamine 1 receptor knock out mice show age-dependent susceptibility to status epilepticus and consequent neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukko-Lukjanov, Tiina-Kaisa; Grönman, Maria; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Laurén, Hanna B; Michelsen, Kimmo A; Panula, Pertti; Holopainen, Irma E

    2012-06-01

    The central histaminergic neuron system is an important regulator of activity stages such as arousal and sleep. In several epilepsy models, histamine has been shown to modulate epileptic activity and histamine 1 (H1) receptors seem to play a key role in this process. However, little is known about the H1 receptor-mediated seizure regulation during the early postnatal development, and therefore we examined differences in severity of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and consequent neuronal damage in H1 receptor knock out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice at postnatal days 14, 21, and 60 (P14, P21, and P60). Our results show that in P14 H1 receptor KO mice, SE severity and neuronal damage were comparable to those of WT mice, whereas P21 KO mice had significantly decreased survival, more severe seizures, and enhanced neuronal damage in various brain regions, which were observed only in males. In P60 mice, SE severity did not differ between the genotypes, but in KO group, neuronal damage was significantly increased. Our results suggest that H1 receptors could contribute to regulation of seizures and neuronal damage age-dependently thus making the histaminergic system as a challenging target for novel drug design in epilepsy. PMID:22348791

  1. Application of dynamic system reliability methods for incorporation of age-dependant reliability parameters and data into the PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest way to quantify reliability models consists in using the hypothesis that SSC failure and repair rates are constant. However, failures and repairs are implemented in time and consequently they are age-dependent. That is why the dynamic aspects of aging and decision-making in NPP lifetime management become increasingly notable and more advanced tools are needed for their analysis. The paper presents the dynamic system reliability approaches - GO-FLOW and ATRD - to extend the FT methodology for NPP aging systems. Alternative methodologies to investigate the feasibility of increasing of failure, restore and repair rates of all component categories or reducing the surveillance intervals of repairable components to take into account aging processes in plant availability. Both approaches are used for preparation of comparable aging process component and system models of the three-train residual heat removal and low pressure injection system of a Russian-design pressurized water reactor WWER-1000/V320. The possible extensions of these methodologies are compared with the equivalent FT models of this system. (author)

  2. Histoautoradiographic investigation concerning the age-dependent proliferation kinetics of the epithelium of the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aging of the cells depends on their mitotic activity, which is particularly evident in multicellular organisms. By means of histoautoradiography we studied the cell kinetics on a total of 244 Wistar rats aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23 and 28 months, respectively, with these studies being centred on the mucosa of the small intestine since this mucosa is one of those tissues having the most intensive cellular metabolism. We succeeded in demonstrating that the regeneration rate of cells per hour in the crypts of the small intestine and the migration speed of the enterocytes differ in young and old individuals and that the intermitotic cells have age-dependent properties as well. Moreover the intermitotic cells revealed a non-growth fraction which, at an advanced age, decreases only a little, although significantly in terms of statistics. For the easily vulnerable crypt epithelium it proved to be a reserve capacity and can be included in the proliferating pool, if necessary. (author)

  3. Contents of chemical elements in stomach during prenatal development: different age-dependent dynamical changes and their significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Fan Hou; Hai-Rong Li; Li-Zhen Wang; De-Zhu Li; Lin-Sheng Yang; Chong-Zheng Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe dynamic of different chemical elements in stomach tissue during fetal development.METHODS: To determine contents of the 21 chemical elements in each stomach samples from fetus aging four to ten months. The content values were compared to those from adult tissue samples, and the values for each month group were also analyzed for dynamic changes.RESULTS: Three representations were found regarding the relationship between contents of the elements and ages of the fetus, including the positive correlative (K), reversely correlative (Na, Ca, P, Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Li, Cd, Ba,Se ) and irrelevant groups (Mg, Co, Ni, V, Pb, Ti).CONCLUSION: The chemical elements' contents in stomach tissues were found to change dynamically with the stomach weights. The age-dependent representations for different chemical elements during the prenatal development may be of some significance for assessing development of fetal stomach and some chemical elements. The data may be helpful for the nutritional balance of fetus and mothers during prenatal development and even the perinatal stages.

  4. [Age-dependent changes of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia of albino rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantseva, T A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain the normative data on the age-dependent transformation of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia in albino rats. Cell cross-sectional area, activities of cholinesterase (demonstrated with thioacetic acid method) monoamine oxidase (demonstrated with Glenner method) were measured in neurocytes of stellate, spinal, trigeminal and gastric ganglia in rats aged 2 to 360 days. Measurements were made with the help of "Bioscan" videoanalyzer. Informational analysis was used for the evaluation of the degree of maturation of neurocyte systems. General features, age- and organ-related peculiarities of morphometric and enzyme-histochemical characteristics were established for neurocytes of different ganglia, as well as a heterochronism of their definitive state attainment. The time of stabilization for neurocytes of stellate and I thoracic spinal ganglia was the age of 60 days, for those of trigeminal ganglion and intramural gastric ganglia -90 and 120 days, respectively. By this time, neurocyte systems turned from a determined state into a probabilistic-determined one, this transformation being considered as a population stabilization. PMID:15359692

  5. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Kang, Dai-In; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki Bog

    2015-07-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix. PMID:26330833

  6. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  7. Phenolic carbonyls undergo rapid aqueous photodegradation to form low-volatility, light-absorbing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the aqueous photochemistry of six phenolic carbonyls - vanillin, acetovanillone, guaiacyl acetone, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, and coniferyl aldehyde - that are emitted from wood combustion. The phenolic carbonyls absorb significant amounts of solar radiation and decay rapidly via direct photodegradation, with lifetimes (τ) of 13-140 min under Davis, CA winter solstice sunlight at midday (solar zenith angle = 62°). The one exception is guaiacyl acetone, where the carbonyl group is not directly connected to the aromatic ring: This species absorbs very little sunlight and undergoes direct photodegradation very slowly (τ > 103 min). We also found that the triplet excited states (3C*) of the phenolic carbonyls rapidly oxidize syringol (a methoxyphenol without a carbonyl group), on timescales of 1-5 h for solutions containing 5 μM phenolic carbonyl. The direct photodegradation of the phenolic carbonyls, and the oxidation of syringol by 3C*, both efficiently produce low volatility products, with SOA mass yields ranging from 80 to 140%. Contrary to most aliphatic carbonyls, under typical fog conditions we find that the primary sink for the aromatic phenolic carbonyls is direct photodegradation in the aqueous phase. In areas of significant wood combustion, phenolic carbonyls appear to be small but significant sources of aqueous SOA: over the course of a few hours, nearly all of the phenolic carbonyls will be converted to SOA via direct photodegradation, enhancing the POA mass from wood combustion by approximately 3-5%.

  8. Special Topic 3B: Acidity, Basicity, and Carbonyl Condensation Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Mike A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this video is to help second-year organic chemistry students review the concepts and questions that most frequently appear on standardized entrance exams, like the MCAT, DAT, PCAT, and GRE. I'll here teach you how to sort molecules according to acidity and basicity. I'll also review the following carbonyl condensation and related reactions: the aldol reaction, the Claisen and intramolecular diketone condensations, and the malonic ester synthesis. --Dr. Mike Christiansen from Ut...

  9. Nucleophilic tetrafluoroethylation of carbonyl compounds with fluorinated sulfones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jiří; Chernykh, Yana; Jurásek, Bronislav; Beier, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2015), s. 24-31. ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0421 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * tetrafluoroethylation * sulfones * nucleophilic addition * carbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2014

  10. Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl-olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jacob R; Zimmerman, Paul M; Gianino, Joseph B; Schindler, Corinna S

    2016-05-19

    The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon-carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl-olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon-carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis. PMID:27120158

  11. Supplementation of selenium-enriched yeast attenuates age-dependent transcriptional changes of heart in mitochondrial DNA mutator mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijin Xiao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age is a major risk factor in developing heart diseases and has been associated with profound transcriptional changes in mammalian tissues. Low tissue selenium has recently been linked to several age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the global effects of age and dietary supplementation of selenium on heart transcriptional profiles in POLG mutator mice. Methods: Heart transcription profiles from young (2-month-old and old (13-month-old animals fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 1.0 mg selenium from seleniumenriched yeast (SP/kg diet were obtained and validated using microarray and real-time RTPCR techniques. Results: Aging led to significant transcriptional changes, where the expression of 1942 genes in old animals was changed by a fold change larger than 2.0, when compared to young animals. Age-regulated genes are associated with cardiovascular system development, immune and inflammatory response, and cellular oxidative stress response. Multiple genes linked with cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy, and cardiac fibrosis, such as Myh7, Lcn2, Spp1, and Serpine1, were significantly up-regulated in old animals. SP supplementation also caused significant transcriptional changes in the heart, especially in old mice where many age-dependent transcriptional changes were totally or partially reversed by SP. Upstream regulator analysis further indicated that genes for Foxo1 and Foxo3, two transcriptional regulators involved in the regulation of cardiac muscle remodeling, were significantly activated by SP, suggesting that Foxo-mediated transcriptional activities play important roles in the anti-aging properties of SP. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(3:98- 119 Page 99 of 119 Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that SP supplementation attenuated age-related transcriptional changes in the heart of old POLG mice, which implies a potential clinical application of

  12. Age- dependent effect of Alzheimer’s risk variant of CLU on EEG alpha rhythm in non-demented adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya ePonomareva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the genomic region harboring the CLU gene (rs11136000 has been associated with the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. CLU C allele is assumed to confer risk for AD and the allele T may have a protective effect.We investigated the influence of the AD-associated CLU genotype on a common neurophysiological trait of brain activity (resting-state alpha-rhythm activity in non-demented adults and elucidated whether this influence is modified over the course of aging. We examined quantitative EEG (qEEG in cohort of non-demented individuals (age range 20-80 divided into young (age range 20-50 and old (age range 51-80 cohorts and stratified by CLU polymorphism. To rule out the effect of the ApoE genotype on EEG characteristics, only subjects without the ApoE epsilon4 allele were included in the study.The homozygous presence of the AD risk variant CLU CC in non-demented subjects was associated with an increase of alpha3 absolute power. Moreover, the influence of CLU genotype on alpha3 was found to be higher in the subjects older than 50 years of age. The study also showed age-dependent alterations of alpha topographic distribution that occur independently of the CLU genotype.The increase of upper alpha power has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Moretti et al., 2012a. In our study, the CLU CC- dependent increase in upper alpha rhythm, particularly enhanced in elderly non-demented individuals, may imply that the genotype is related to preclinical dysregulation of hippocampal neurophysiology in aging and that this factor may contribute to pathogenesis of AD.

  13. Adult age-dependent differences in resting-state connectivity within and between visual-attention and sensorimotor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by structural and functional changes in the brain, among which a loss of neural specificity (i.e., dedifferentiation is one of the most consistent findings. Little is known, however, about changes in interregional integration underlying a dedifferentiation across different functional systems. In a large sample (n = 399 of healthy adults aged from 18 to 85 years, we analyzed age-dependent differences in resting-state (task-independent functional connectivity (FC of a set of brain regions derived from a previous fMRI study. In that study, these regions had shown an age-related loss of activation specificity in visual-attention (superior parietal area 7A and dorsal premotor cortex or sensorimotor (area OP4 of the parietal operculum tasks. In addition to these dedifferentiated regions, the FC analysis of the present study included “task-general” regions associated with both attention and sensorimotor systems (rostral supplementary motor area and bilateral anterior insula as defined via meta-analytical co-activation mapping. Within this network, we observed both selective increases and decreases in resting-state FC with age. In line with regional activation changes reported previously, we found diminished anti-correlated FC for inter-system connections (i.e., between sensorimotor-related and visual attention-related regions. Our analysis also revealed reduced FC between system-specific and task-general regions, which might reflect age-related deficits in top-down control possibly leading to dedifferentiation of task-specific brain activity. Together, our results underpin the notion that resting-state FC changes concur with regional activity changes in the healthy aging brain, presumably contributing jointly to age-related behavioral changes.

  14. Beads,Necklaces, Chains and Strings in Capping Carbonyl Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enos Masheija Kiremire

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explain at length the close relationship between transition metal carbonyl clusters with main group clusters especially the boranes using the 14n and 4n rules. When the ‘shielding’ electrons are removed from a transition metal carbonyl cluster and becomes ‘naked’, it resembles a corresponding one in the main group elements. A an expanded table of osmium carbonyl clusters was constructed using the capping fragment Os(CO2(14n-2 and the fragment Os(CO3 (14n+0. The table reveals the fact that the known series such closo, nido and arachno are part and parcel of a wide range of series especially the capping series 14n+q, where q takes up negative multiple integers of two including 0 such as such = 0, -2,-4, -6, and so on. The linkage between capping series in transition metal carbonyl clusters has also been identified. Apart from the capping series generated in the table, there is another type of series where the skeletal cluster elements remained the same but the number of carbonyl ligands successively decreased. These types of series are referred to as stripping series. Mapping generating functions were also derived which produces any cluster formula or series required. Also the table shows that many clusters form utilizing some of its atoms as closo nucleus around which the larger ones are built and thus forming clusters within larger clusters. The table may be used to categorize a given cluster formula that falls within its range. Otherwise, using the 14n rule or 4n rule can be used for cluster classification. Furthermore, the table indicated that atoms, fragments and molecules can be classified into series. Through this approach of using series, Hoffmann’s important isolobal relationship of chemical species can splendidly be explained.Using the 14n rule and 4n rules creates a framework under which chemical species such as atoms, fragments, molecules and ions some of which may appear unrelated from main group

  15. Carbonyl compounds in gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) are important constituents of cigarette smoke and some are toxic and may be carcinogenic or mutagenic to humans. In this study carbonyl emissions in the gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke were assessed by GC-MS with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) derivatization. Seven brands of cigarettes and one brand of cigar common in the UK market and having differing nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide yields were investigated. Sixteen carbonyl components were identified in gaseous emissions and twenty in the particle phase. In the gaseous emissions, acetaldehyde presented as the predominant species, followed by formaldehyde, 2-propenal, and pentanal. In the particulate emissions, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone was the most abundant followed by formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde. Significant differences were found in carbonyl emissions among the brands of cigarettes. The gaseous carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 216-405 μg cigarette-1 (μg cig-1) and the particulate carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 23-127 μg cig-1. Positive correlations were found between the total emission of carbonyls, tar yield and carbon monoxide yield. Similar gas/particle (G/P) partitioning ratios of carbonyls were found among all cigarettes, which implies that G/P partitions of carbonyls in smoke mainly depend on the physical properties of the carbonyls. The gaseous carbonyl emissions were enhanced by 40% to 130% when some of the water, accounting for 8-12% of cigarettes in mass, was removed from the tobacco. Non-filtered cigarettes showed significantly higher carbonyl emissions compared to their filtered equivalents. Carbonyl particulate accounted for 11-19% by mass of total particulate matter from tobacco smoke. The cigar generated 806 μg cig-1 gaseous and 141 μg cig-1 particulate carbonyls, which is 2-4 times greater than the cigarettes. - Highlights: → Carbonyl emission factors in both gas (16 species) and

  16. Carbonyl compounds in gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiaobing, E-mail: pangxbyuanj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lewis, Alastair C., E-mail: ally.lewis@york.ac.uk [National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-01

    Carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) are important constituents of cigarette smoke and some are toxic and may be carcinogenic or mutagenic to humans. In this study carbonyl emissions in the gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke were assessed by GC-MS with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) derivatization. Seven brands of cigarettes and one brand of cigar common in the UK market and having differing nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide yields were investigated. Sixteen carbonyl components were identified in gaseous emissions and twenty in the particle phase. In the gaseous emissions, acetaldehyde presented as the predominant species, followed by formaldehyde, 2-propenal, and pentanal. In the particulate emissions, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone was the most abundant followed by formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde. Significant differences were found in carbonyl emissions among the brands of cigarettes. The gaseous carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 216-405 {mu}g cigarette{sup -1} ({mu}g cig{sup -1}) and the particulate carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 23-127 {mu}g cig{sup -1}. Positive correlations were found between the total emission of carbonyls, tar yield and carbon monoxide yield. Similar gas/particle (G/P) partitioning ratios of carbonyls were found among all cigarettes, which implies that G/P partitions of carbonyls in smoke mainly depend on the physical properties of the carbonyls. The gaseous carbonyl emissions were enhanced by 40% to 130% when some of the water, accounting for 8-12% of cigarettes in mass, was removed from the tobacco. Non-filtered cigarettes showed significantly higher carbonyl emissions compared to their filtered equivalents. Carbonyl particulate accounted for 11-19% by mass of total particulate matter from tobacco smoke. The cigar generated 806 {mu}g cig{sup -1} gaseous and 141 {mu}g cig{sup -1} particulate carbonyls, which is 2-4 times greater than the cigarettes. - Highlights: {yields} Carbonyl

  17. Oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 protects against aging-dependent neurodegeneration by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain of R6/2 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheue-Er Wang,1,2 Ching-Lung Lin,1 Chih-Hsiang Hsu,1 Shuenn-Jyi Sheu,3 Chung-Hsin Wu1 1Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 2Department of Pathological Inspection, Saint Paul’s Hospital, Taoyuan, 3Brion Research Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Neurodegeneration is characterized by progressive neurological deficits due to selective neuronal loss in the nervous system. Huntington’s disease (HD is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder. Neurodegeneration in HD patients shows aging-dependent pattern. Our previous study has suggested that a herbal formula B401 may have neuroprotective effects in the brains of R6/2 mice. Objective: To clarify possible mechanisms for neurodegeneration, which improves the understanding the aging process. This study focuses on clarifying neurodegenerative mechanisms and searching potential therapeutic targets in HD patients. Methods: The oxidative stress and apoptosis were compared in the brain tissue between R6/2 HD mice with and without oral B401 treatment. Expressions of proteins for oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain tissue of R6/2 HD mice were examined by using immunostaining and Western blotting techniques. Results: R6/2 HD mice with oral B401 treatment significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels in the blood, but markedly increased expressions of superoxide dismutase 2 in the brain tissue. Furthermore, R6/2 HD mice with oral B401 treatment significantly increased expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, but significantly reduced expressions of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, calpain, and caspase-3 in the brain tissue. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that the herbal formula B401 can remedy for aging-dependent neurodegeneration of R6/2 mice via suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 can be developed as a potential health supplement for ameliorating aging-dependent

  18. Ambient levels of carbonyl compounds and their sources in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanli; Wen, Sheng; Chen, Yingjun; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Huixiong; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    Ambient levels of carbonyl compounds and their possible sources, vehicular exhaust and cooking exhaust, were studied at seven places in Guangzhou, including five districts (a residential area, an industrial area, a botanical garden, a downtown area and a semi-rural area), a bus station and a restaurant during the period of June-September 2003. Nineteen carbonyl compounds were identified in the ambient air, of which acetone was the most abundant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Only little changes were found in carbonyl concentration levels in the five different districts because of their dispersion and mixture in the atmosphere in summer. The lower correlations between the carbonyls' concentrations might result from the mixture of carbonyls derived from different sources, including strong photochemical reactions at noon in summer. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the main carbonyls in bus station, while straight-chain carbonyls were comparatively abundant in cooking exhaust. Besides vehicular exhaust, cooking might be another major source of carbonyl compounds in Guangzhou City, especially for high molecular weight carbonyls.

  19. Indoor carbonyl compounds in an academic building in Beijing, China: concentrations and influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjia JIANG; Pengyi ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Carbonyl compounds in indoor air are of great concern for their adverse health effects. Between February and May, 2009, concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were measured in an academic building in Beijing, China. Total concentration of the detected carbonyls ranged from 20.7 to 189.1 I.tg.m3, and among them acetone and formaldehyde were the most abundant, with mean concentrations of 26.4 and 22.6gg.m-3, respectively. Average indoor concentrations of other carbonyls were below I 0 gg. m~3. Principal component analysis identified a combined effect of common indoor carbonyl sources and ventilation on indoor carbonyl levels. Diurnal variations of the carbonyl compounds were investigated in one office room, and carbonyl concentrations tended to be lower in the daytime than at night, due to enhanced ventilation. Average concentrations of carbonyl compounds in the office room were generally higher in early May than in late February, indicating the influence of temperature. Carbo- nyl source emission rates from both the room and human occupants were estimated during two lectures, based on one-compartment mass balance model. The influence of human occupants on indoor carbonyl concentrations varies with environmental conditions, and may become signifi- cant in the case of a large human occupancy.

  20. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  1. Analysis of a Multivariate Counting Process Generated from an Age-dependent Non-homogeneous Poisson Process Defined on a Finite Semi-Markov Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sumita, Ushio; HUANG, Jia-Ping

    2008-01-01

    We consider a multivariate counting process generated from an age-dependent non-homogeneous Poisson process defined on a finite semi-Markov pro-cess, generalizing many existing counting processes of importance. The dynamicbehavior of the multivariate counting process is captured through analysis of theunderlying Laplace transform generating functions. Some asymptotic results arealso obtained.

  2. Happy Birthday, you're Fired! : The Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult" minimu

  3. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Roel A.; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C.; Yakala, Gopala K.; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complicat

  4. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  5. Natural radioactivity in tap water and associated age-dependent dose and lifetime risk assessment in Amman, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amir, Sajedah M. [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, Amman 11934 (Jordan); Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F., E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan); Al-Abed, Tahseen [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, Amman 11934 (Jordan); Awadallah, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan)

    2012-04-15

    With the aim of assessing potential public impact, preliminary investigations on tap waters collected from highly populated areas in Amman and Aqaba, Jordan were conducted by measuring gross alpha and beta activities as well as uranium and radium radionuclides. Gross activities deduced by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were ranged in <50-250{+-}23 mBq l{sup -1} for alpha and <188-327{+-}29 mBq l{sup -1} for beta in Amman whereas higher concentrations were found in Aqaba. The results show that gross {beta} activities are generally higher than the corresponding gross {alpha} activities and direct correlations between gross activities and total dissolved solids (TDS) exist. Moreover, the effect of TDS on gross analyses was studied and devoted to the optimization of LSC parameters. {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry after separation from the matrix by extraction chromatography and electroplating. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations were measured, respectively, using de-gassing and gas proportional counter techniques. Uranium and radium concentrations do not reach the WHO recommended levels and the radioisotopic activity ratios were discussed. The associated age-dependent dose from water ingestion in Amman was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value of 0.15 mSv y{sup -1}, which exceeds the WHO recommended limit of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} but still below the Jordanian limit of 0.5 mSv y{sup -1}. Although the Jordanian limit was exceeded for babies and infants, the lifetime risk assessment showed values as low as 10{sup -4}. Thereby it is concluded that tap waters of Amman is radiologically safe and pose no significant hazard to the public. Finally, a comparison of the investigated waters with worldwide data was made. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Current levels of natural radioactivity in tap water in Amman, Jordan are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water radioactivity

  6. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimura Kaoru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. Results We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4 of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post

  7. The age dependence of T2 relaxation times of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine and choline in the human brain at 3 and 4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiru, F; Skoch, A; Wagnerova, D; Dezortova, M; Viskova, J; Profant, O; Syka, J; Hajek, M

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the T2 age dependence is of importance for MRS clinical studies involving subject groups with a wide age range. A number of studies have focused on the age dependence of T2 values in the human brain, with rather conflicting results. The aim of this study was to analyze the age dependence of T2 values of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) in the human brain using data acquired at 3T and 4T and to assess the influence of the macromolecule (MM) baseline handling on the obtained results. Two distinct groups of young and elderly controls have been measured at 3T (TE = 30-540 ms, 9 young and 11 elderly subjects) and 4T (TE = 10-180 ms, 18 young and 14 elderly subjects) using single-voxel spectroscopy. In addition, MM spectra were measured from two subjects using the inversion-recovery technique at 4T. All spectra were processed with LCModel using basis sets with different MM signals (measured or simulated) and also with MM signals included for a different TE range. Individual estimated T2 values were statistically analyzed using the R programming language for the age dependence of T2 values as well as the influence of the MM baseline handling. A significant decrease of T2 values of NAA and Cr in elderly subjects compared with young subjects was confirmed. The same trend was observed for Cho. Significantly higher T2 values calculated using the measured MM baseline for all studied metabolites at 4T were observed for both young and elderly subjects. To conclude, while the handling of MM and lipid signals may have a significant effect on estimated T2 values, we confirmed the age dependence of T2 values of NAA and Cr and the same trend for Cho in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26752593

  8. Carbonyl-twisted 6-acyl-2-dialkylaminonaphthalenes as solvent acidity sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Amy M.; Naughton, Hannah R.; Nealy, Zachariah B.; Robert D. Pike; Abelt, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of 2-propionyl-6-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) with twisted carbonyl groups were investigated as highly responsive sensors of H-bond donating ability. The PRODAN derivative bearing a pivaloyl group (4) was prepared. The torsion angle between the carbonyl and naphthalene is 26° in the crystal. It shows solvatochromism that is similar to five other PRODAN derivatives (1-3, 5-6). Twisted-carbonyl derivatives 3, 4 and 6 show strong fluorescence quenching in protic solvents. The or...

  9. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone+acrolein. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed

  10. Temporal profiles of age-dependent changes in cytokine mRNA expression and glial cell activation after status epilepticus in postnatal rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohonen Saku

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Status epilepticus (SE is proposed to lead to an age-dependent acute activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes, which may contribute to neuronal damage in the hippocampus. The extent and temporal profiles of activation of these processes are well known in the adult brain, but less so in the developing brain. We have now further elucidated to what extent inflammation is activated by SE by investigating the acute expression of several cytokines and subacute glial reactivity in the postnatal rat hippocampus. Methods SE was induced by an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of kainic acid (KA in 9- and 21-day-old (P9 and P21 rats. The mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-10 (IL-10, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 were measured from 4 h up to 3 days after KA injection with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. IL-1β protein expression was studied with ELISA, GFAP expression with western blotting, and microglial and astrocyte morphology with immunohistochemistry 3 days after SE. Results SE increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in hippocampus of both P9 and P21 rats, their induction being more rapid and pronounced in P21 than in P9 rats. MMP-9 expression was augmented similarly in both age groups and GDNF expression augmented only in P21 rats, whereas neither IFN-γ nor TGF-β1 expression was induced in either age group. Microglia and astrocytes exhibited activated morphology in the hippocampus of P21 rats, but not in P9 rats 3 d after SE. Microglial activation was most pronounced in the CA1 region and also detected in the basomedial amygdala. Conclusion Our results suggest that SE provokes an age-specific cytokine expression in the acute phase, and age-specific glial cell activation in the subacute phase as verified now in the

  11. The carbonyl oxide-aldehyde complex: a new intermediate of the ozonolysis reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi; McKee, M. L.; Radharkrishnan, T. P.

    1991-12-01

    MP4(SDQ)/6-31G (d,p) calculations suggest that the ozonolysis of alkenes in solution phase does not proceed via carbonyl oxide, but via a dipole complex between aldehyde and carbonyl oxide, which is 9 kcal/mol more stable than the separated molecules. The dipole complex is probably formed in the solvent cage upon decomposition of primary ozonide to aldehyde and carbonyl oxide. Rotation of either aldehyde or carbonyl oxide in the solvent cage leads to an antiparallel alignment of molecular dipole moments and dipole-dipole attraction.

  12. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...... may not only induce quality losses but may be desirable in some type of foods, such as salted herring....

  13. trans-Di-μ-carbonyl-bis{carbonyl[η5-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-1-(5-methyl-2-furylcyclopentadienyl]ruthenium(I}(Ru—Ru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Ru2(C14H17O2(CO4], each RuI atom is connected to one end-on and two bridging carbonyl groups and one cyclopentadienyl ring. The two Ru atoms are connected into binuclear complexes via two bridging carbonyl groups, forming four-membered rings which are located on centres of inversion. The Ru—Ru distance of 2.7483 (11 Å corresponds to a single bond. The two carbonyl groups in these binuclear complexes are trans-oriented.

  14. Age-dependent changes in the proteome following complete spinal cord transection in a postnatal South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natassya M Noor

    Full Text Available Recovery from severe spinal injury in adults is limited, compared to immature animals who demonstrate some capacity for repair. Using laboratory opossums (Monodelphis domestica, the aim was to compare proteomic responses to injury at two ages: one when there is axonal growth across the lesion and substantial behavioural recovery and one when no axonal growth occurs. Anaesthetized pups at postnatal day (P 7 or P28 were subjected to complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level T10. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury and from age-matched controls. Proteins were separated based on isoelectric point and subunit molecular weight; those whose expression levels changed following injury were identified by densitometry and analysed by mass spectrometry. Fifty-six unique proteins were identified as differentially regulated in response to spinal transection at both ages combined. More than 50% were cytoplasmic and 70% belonged to families of proteins with characteristic binding properties. Proteins were assigned to groups by biological function including regulation (40%, metabolism (26%, inflammation (19% and structure (15%. More changes were detected at one than seven days after injury at both ages. Seven identified proteins: 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 gamma, cofilin, alpha enolase, heart fatty acid binding protein (FABP3, brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7 and ubiquitin demonstrated age-related differential expression and were analysed by qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA levels for FABP3 at P7+1day and ubiquitin at P28+1day were statistically significant. Immunocytochemical staining showed differences in ubiquitin localization in younger compared to older cords and an increase in oligodendrocyte and neuroglia immunostaining following injury at P28. Western blot analysis supported proteomic results for ubiquitin and 14-3-3 proteins. Data obtained at the two ages demonstrated changes in response to injury, compared to controls, that were

  15. Reactivity of Ir(III) carbonyl complexes with water: alternative by-product formation pathways in catalytic methanol carbonylation

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, A.; Elliott, P. I. P.; Haak, S; Meijer, A.J.H.M.; Sunley, G.J

    2013-01-01

    The reactions of water with a number of iridium(III) complexes relevant to the mechanism for catalytic methanol carbonylation are reported. The iridium acetyl, [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)]−, reacts with water under mild conditions to release CO2 and CH4, rather than the expected acetic acid. Isotopic labeling and kinetic experiments are consistent with a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack by water on a terminal CO ligand of [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)]− to give an (undetected) hydroxycarbonyl spec...

  16. Prosthetic iodination methods for radiolabeling of carbonyl moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demonstrable need for an indirect, prosthetic-group, radioiodination of carbonyl-containing biomolecules such as ketosteroids, carbohydrates, gangliosides, glycoproteins and aldehydo- and keto-drugs. This need has been addressed by developing a route to iodinated (radioiodination) aryl hydrazides which are subsequently condensed with carbonyl-containing moieties. This dissertation is directed at improving the utility of this reaction and at comparing the hydrolytic stability of the resulting hydrazones to that of similar tyramine imines, a type presently employed in indirect radioiodinations. The aryl carboxylic acid hydrazones were virtually inert to hydrolysis under simulated physiological conditions which caused imine bond rupture. Further improvements to this new prosthetic labeling method were sought in simplifying its two-step, acid-catalyzed cleavage of triazenooxadiazoles (the protected, pre-labeling form of the aryl carboxylic acid hydrazides) to the iodinated hydrazide. Synthetic procedures were explored which might yield non-conjugated aryl oxadiazoles--bearing methylenes inserted between the phenyl and the heterocyclic ring--in the expectation that these substances would be less stable and would hydrolyze in a single-acid-catalyzed step. Four synthetic pathways to amino (or nitro) aryl-methyl oxadiazoles could not be advanced beyond the open-chain precursors of the heterocyclics. Pyrolysis, thermolysis, and catalyzed cyclization reagents could not effect ring closure. A method was developed, however, to an oxadiazolone which can serve as a protective functionality for the iodinated aryl acid hydrazides

  17. IRC analysis of methanol carbonylation reaction catalyzed by rhodium complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Maorong; FENG Wenlin; JI Yongqiang; LEI Ming

    2004-01-01

    In the reaction cycle for methanol carbonylation catalyzed by Rh complex, the structure geometries of the reactant, intermediates, transition states and product of each elemental reaction have been studied by using the energy gradient method at HF/LANL2DZ level, and the changes of their potential profiles have also been calculated. Through IRC analyses of the transition states for each elemental reaction, it is confirmed that the various structure geometries obtained are stationary points on the cycle reaction pathway of methanol carbonylation catalyzed by Rh complex, and the changes are given in energies and structure geometries of the reactant molecules along the reaction pathway of lowest energy. It has been proposed that the geometrical conversions of intermediates play an important role during the cycle reaction. Through analyses of structure geometries, it has been suggested that, in addition to cis- and trans- structure exchange linkage of catalysis reactive species, the two pathways, cis- and trans-cata- lyzed cycle reactions, can also be linked through geometrical conversion of intermediates, of which the activation energy is 49.79 kJ/mol. Moreover, the reductive elimination elemental reaction may be neither cis-cycle nor trans- one, showing that the cycle reaction can be achieved through various pathways. However different the pathway, the oxidative addition elemental reaction of CH3I is the rate-controlling step.

  18. Transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation reactions of olefins and alkynes: a personal account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Fang, Xianjie; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Carbon monoxide was discovered and identified in the 18th century. Since the first applications in industry 80 years ago, academic and industrial laboratories have broadly explored CO's use in chemical reactions. Today organic chemists routinely employ CO in organic chemistry to synthesize all kinds of carbonyl compounds. Despite all these achievements and a century of carbonylation catalysis, many important research questions and challenges remain. Notably, apart from academic developments, industry applies carbonylation reactions with CO on bulk scale. In fact, today the largest applications of homogeneous catalysis (regarding scale) are carbonylation reactions, especially hydroformylations. In addition, the vast majority of acetic acid is produced via carbonylation of methanol (Monsanto or Cativa process). The carbonylation of olefins/alkynes with nucleophiles, such as alcohols and amines, represent another important type of such reactions. In this Account, we discuss our work on various carbonylations of unsaturated compounds and related reactions. Rhodium-catalyzed isomerization and hydroformylation reactions of internal olefins provide straightforward access to higher value aldehydes. Catalytic hydroaminomethylations offer an ideal way to synthesize substituted amines and even heterocycles directly. More recently, our group has also developed so-called alternative metal catalysts based on iridium, ruthenium, and iron. What about the future of carbonylation reactions? CO is already one of the most versatile C1 building blocks for organic synthesis and is widely used in industry. However, because of CO's high toxicity and gaseous nature, organic chemists are often reluctant to apply carbonylations more frequently. In addition, new regulations have recently made the transportation of carbon monoxide more difficult. Hence, researchers will need to develop and more frequently use practical and benign CO-generating reagents. Apart from formates, alcohols, and metal

  19. Age-Dependent Decrease in Chaperone Activity Impairs MANF Expression, Leading to Purkinje Cell Degeneration in Inducible SCA17 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su; Huang, Shanshan; Gaertig, Marta A.; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Although protein-misfolding-mediated neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to aging, how aging contributes to selective neurodegeneration remains unclear. We established spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) knockin mice that inducibly express one copy of mutant TATA box binding protein (TBP) at different ages by tamoxifen-mediated Cre recombination. We find that more mutant TBP accumulates in older mouse and that this accumulation correlates with age-related decreases in Hsc70 and chaperone activity. Consistently, older SCA17 mice experienced earlier neurological symptom onset and more severe Purkinje cell degeneration. Mutant TBP shows decreased association with XBP1s, resulting in the reduced transcription of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), which is enriched in Purkinje cells. Expression of Hsc70 improves the TBP-XBP1s interaction and MANF transcription, and overexpression of MANF ameliorates mutant TBP-mediated Purkinje cell degeneration via protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling. These findings suggest that the age-related decline in chaperone activity affects polyglutamine protein function that is important for the viability of specific types of neurons. PMID:24462098

  20. Effects of x rays on histogenesis of abnormal epidermis and age dependency of radiosensitivity during metamorphosis of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of x rays on metamorphosis of the abdominal epidermis in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina, and age dependence of radiosensitivity were studied. The imaginal epidermis of abdomen is formed from the histoblast nests, which are composed of undifferentiated tiny cells lying between large larval epidermal cells. There were two types of effects of x rays: (1) the arrest of metamorphosis including degeneration of larval epidermal cells and histogenesis of imaginal epidermis; (2) partial deficit of imaginal epidermis at the final stage of development. It was suggested that the second type of effect was brought about by a decrease in the number of abdominal histoblasts caused by x rays. Age dependency of radiosensitivity on the second type of effect was examined in detail, and it was shown that the most sensitive stage occurred just before transition to a highly radiation-resistant period

  1. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. PMID

  2. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-Sung Lee; Dai-In Kang; Seung Zhoo Yoon; Yeon Hee Ryu; Inhyung Lee; Hoon-Gi Kim; Byung-Cheon Lee; Ki Bog Lee

    2015-01-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-depen-dent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-depen-dent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increas-ing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  3. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log Kow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  4. Evaluation of carbonyl compounds formed during gamma irradiation of maize starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the levels of radionduced carbonyl compounds were analysed as a function of irradiation conditions (dose, dose rate, temperature, atmosphere), starch properties (water content) and post irradiation treatments (storage, autoclaving). The percentages of identified and unknown carbonyl fractions were respectively 40 and 60%. The half unknown fraction was linked on the radiodextrins (polysaccharides formed during irradiation of starch). (orig.)

  5. Preparation and microwave shielding property of silver-coated carbonyl iron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiao Guo, E-mail: xgcao@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Ren, Hao [Guangzhou Research Institute of O-M-E Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Hai Yan [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is prepared by the electroless plating process. • The silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is a new kind of conductive filler. • The reflection and absorption dominate the shielding mechanism of the prepared powder. • Increasing the thickness of electroconductive adhesive will increase the SE. - Abstract: Electroless silver coating of carbonyl iron powder is demonstrated in the present investigation. The carbonyl iron powders are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) before and after the coating process. The relatively uniform and continuous silver coating is obtained under the given coating conditions. In this paper, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding mechanism of the silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is suggested. The reflection of silver coating and absorption of carbonyl iron powder dominate the shielding mechanism of the silver-coated carbonyl iron powder. The silver-coated carbonyl iron powders are used as conductive filler in electroconductive adhesive for electromagnetic interference shielding applications. The effect of the thickness of electroconductive adhesive on the shielding effectiveness (SE) is investigated. The results indicate that the SE increases obviously with the increase of the thickness of electroconductive adhesive. The SE of the electroconductive adhesive with 0.35 mm thickness is above 38 dB across the tested frequency range.

  6. Preparation and microwave shielding property of silver-coated carbonyl iron powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is prepared by the electroless plating process. • The silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is a new kind of conductive filler. • The reflection and absorption dominate the shielding mechanism of the prepared powder. • Increasing the thickness of electroconductive adhesive will increase the SE. - Abstract: Electroless silver coating of carbonyl iron powder is demonstrated in the present investigation. The carbonyl iron powders are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) before and after the coating process. The relatively uniform and continuous silver coating is obtained under the given coating conditions. In this paper, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding mechanism of the silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is suggested. The reflection of silver coating and absorption of carbonyl iron powder dominate the shielding mechanism of the silver-coated carbonyl iron powder. The silver-coated carbonyl iron powders are used as conductive filler in electroconductive adhesive for electromagnetic interference shielding applications. The effect of the thickness of electroconductive adhesive on the shielding effectiveness (SE) is investigated. The results indicate that the SE increases obviously with the increase of the thickness of electroconductive adhesive. The SE of the electroconductive adhesive with 0.35 mm thickness is above 38 dB across the tested frequency range

  7. Impact of HVAC filter on indoor air quality in terms of ozone removal and carbonyls generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at detecting ozone removal rates and corresponding carbonyls generated by ozone reaction with HVAC filters from various building, i.e., shopping mall, school, and office building. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental chamber. By examining dust properties including organic carbon proportion and specific surface area of dusts adsorbed on filters along with ozone removal rates and carbonyls generation rate, the relationship among dust properties, ozone removal rates, and carbonyls generation was identified. The results indicate a well-defined positive correlation between ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generation on filters, as well as a positive correlation among the mass of organic carbon on filters, ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generations.

  8. Development of an automatic sampling device for the continuous measurement of atmospheric carbonyls compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sampling strategies were studied to develop an automatic instrument for the continuous measurement of atmospheric carbonyl compounds. Because of its specificity towards carbonyls compounds, sampling by using a transfer of gaseous phase in a liquid phase associated with a simultaneous chemical derivatization of the trapped compounds was first studied. However, this method do not allow a quantitative sampling of all studied carbonyl compounds, nor a continuous measurement in the field. To overcome the difficulties, a second strategy was investigated: the cryogenic adsorption onto solid adsorbent followed by thermodesorption and a direct analysis by GC/MS. Collection efficiency using different solid adsorbents was found greater than 95% for carbonyl compounds consisting of 1 to 7 carbons. This work is a successful first step towards the realization of the automatic sampling device for a continuous measurement of atmospheric carbonyls compounds. (author)

  9. Protein Carbonylation and Heat Shock Proteins in Human Skeletal Muscle: Relationships to Age and Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran Valls, Maria R.; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Narici, Marco V.; Smith, Kenneth; Phillips, Bethan E.; Caporossi, Daniela; Atherton, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass termed sarcopenia, which has significant impact on quality-of-life. Because oxidative stress is proposed to negatively impact upon musculoskeletal aging, we investigated links between human aging and markers of oxidative stress, and relationships to muscle mass and strength in young and old nonsarcopenic and sarcopenic adults. Sixteen young and 16 old males (further subdivided into “old” and “old sarcopenic”) were studied. The abundance o...

  10. Direct Vapor Phase Carbonylation of Methanol over NiCl2/C Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction The carbonylation of alcohols via homogenous catalysis is important in manufacturing acetic acid and higher carboxylic acids and their esters[1,2]. The main route to produce acetic acid is to make methanol carbonylated by means of the Monsanto and BP process in which a homogeneous rhodium catalyst is used. Although the homogeneous carbonylation of methanol is a highly selective process, it is affected by the disadvantages associated with a highly corrosive reaction medium due to the use of methyl iodide as the promoter, and the difficulty of the product separation[3]. The use of a heterogeneous catalyst seems very interesting and attractive to us[4], especially the direct vapor phase carbonylation of methanol without a halide promoter is of considerable importance and is strong incentive economically. There has, however, been very little success in finding either heterogeneous or homogeneous catalysts that can catalyze the reaction effectively without the addition of a promoter[5,6]. According to the known carbonylation mechanism[7,8], the methyl iodide directly carbonylates with CO to from MeCOI which interacts with methanol(MeOH) to produce methyl acetate(MeCOOMe) and HI, and then MeOH reacts with HI to from CH3I. In fact, this carbonylation reaction is the indirect catalytic carbonylation of methanol[9]. In this work, a novel catalyst for the direct vapor phase carbonylation of methanol without the addition of any halide in the feed as a promoter was investigated. Compared to the known liquid phase methanol carbonylation process, some advantages of this vapor phase reaction are as follows:

  11. Synthesis, characterization and bioactivities of N,O-carbonylated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; Liu, Xiaoli; Yue, Lin; Jiang, Qixing; Xia, Wenshui

    2016-10-01

    N,O-Carbonylated chitosan derivative (NTCS) was synthesized via oxidation and substitution reaction, respectively. The carboxyethylation of the polysaccharide was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Zeta potential measurement and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is revealed that compared with chitosan (CS), NTCS exhibited an excellent solubility in distilled water, high in vitro bile acid binding capacity, as well as a low viscosity. The in vitro bile acid binding capacity reached 17.21mg/g, which was 4.5-fold higher than that of CS. The results suggest that NTCS may be useful as a potential functional food supplement in food industry or a key ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. These findings provide important supports for developing new food additive, and expand the scope of application of CS in the food industry. PMID:27189702

  12. SILP catalysis in gas-phase hydroformylation and carbonylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riisager, A.; Fehrmann, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Haumann, M.; Wasserscheid, P. [Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemische Reaktionstechnik

    2006-07-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts are new materials consisting of an ionic liquid-metal catalyst solution highly dispersed on a porous support. The use of a non-volatile, ionic liquid catalyst phase in SILP catalysts results in a stable heterogeneous-type material with selectivity and efficiency like homogeneous catalysts. The silica-supported SILP Rh-bisphosphine hydroformylation catalyst exhibited good activities and excellent selectivities in gas phase hydroformylation with stability exceeding 700 hours time-on-stream. Spectroscopic and kinetic data confirmed the homogeneous nature of the catalyst. In the Rh- SILP catalysed carbonylation of methanol the formation of undesired by-products could be suppressed by variation of residence time and gas pressure. (orig.)

  13. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lei; Zhi-Ying Li; Jia-Bin Wang; Yun-Liu Fu; Meng-Fei Ao; Li Xu

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions...

  14. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in t...

  15. Influence of caffeine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration and neuroinflammation is age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Lucia; Costa, Giulia; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Khairnar, Amit; Castelli, Maria Paola; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Madeddu, Camilla; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration to adult mice potentiates glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As neuroinflammatory response seems to correlate with neurodegeneration, and the young brain is particularly vulnerable to neurotoxicity, we evaluated dopamine neuron degeneration and glial activation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adolescent and adult mice. Mice were treated with MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg), alone or with caffeine (10 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were evaluated in CPu, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CD11b were evaluated in CPu and SNc by immunohistochemistry. MDMA decreased TH in SNc of both adolescent and adult mice, whereas TH-positive fibers in CPu were only decreased in adults. In CPu of adolescent mice, caffeine potentiated MDMA-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein without altering CD11b, whereas in SNc caffeine did not influence MDMA-induced glial activation. nNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased by MDMA in CPu of adults, whereas in adolescents, levels were only elevated after combined MDMA plus caffeine. Caffeine alone modified only nNOS. Results suggest that the use of MDMA in association with caffeine during adolescence may exacerbate the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine potentiated glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in adult mice. In this study, caffeine was shown to potentiate MDMA-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta, astrogliosis, and TNF-α levels in caudate-putamen of adolescent mice. Results suggest that combined use of MDMA plus caffeine during adolescence may worsen the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. PMID:26442661

  16. Variation of ambient carbonyl levels in urban Beijing between 2005 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wentai; Shao, Min; Wang, Ming; Lu, Sihua; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Bin; Yang, Yudong; Zeng, Limin; Chen, Zhongming; Chang, Chih-Chung; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Min

    2016-03-01

    Carbonyl compounds are important precursors of secondary air pollutants. With the rapid economic development and the implementation of stricter control measures in Beijing, the sources of carbonyls possibly changed. Based on measurement data obtained at an urban site in Beijing between 2005 and 2012, we investigated annual variations in carbonyl levels and sources during these years. In summer, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels decreased significantly at a rate of 9.1%/year and 7.2%/year, respectively, while acetone levels increased at a rate of 4.3%/year. In winter, formaldehyde levels increased and acetaldehyde levels decreased. We also investigated the factors driving the variation in carbonyls levels during summer by determination of emission ratios for carbonyls and their precursors, and calculation of photochemical formation of carbonyls. The relative declines for primary formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were larger than those for secondary formation. This is possibly due to the increasing usage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas which could result in the rise of carbonyl precursor emission ratios. The increase in acetone levels might be related to the rising solvent usage in Beijing during these years. The influences of these sources should be paid more attention in future research.

  17. Electroless plating preparation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Zhou, Wancheng; Li, Rong; Qing, Yuchang; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To solve the serious electromagnetic interference problems at elevated temperature, one thin microwave-absorbing sheet employing Co-coated carbonyl iron particles and polyimide was prepared. The Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were successfully prepared using an electroless plating method. The microstructure, composition, phase and static magnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized by combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The electromagnetic parameters of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and the electromagnetic loss mechanism of the material-obtained was discussed. The microwave absorption properties of composites before and after heat treatment at 300 °C for 100 h were characterized in 2-18 GHz frequency range. It was established that composites based on Co-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate thermomagnetic stability, indicating that Co coating reduces the oxidation of carbonyl iron. Thus, Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composites are useful in the design of microwave absorbers operating at temperatures up to 300 °C.

  18. Claudin-4 undergoes age-dependent change in cellular localization on pig jejunal villous epithelial cells, independent of bacterial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, J Alex; Kent-Dennis, Coral; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Wilson, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases. PMID:25948883

  19. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alex Pasternak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs. In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases.

  20. [Age-dependent characteristics of oxidative stress formation in the liver of rats with hypothyroidism during intensive physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhazaérli, Mokhamad Salem; Davydov, V V

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study free radical protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 1.5-month-old and 12-month-old rats with drug-induced hypothyroidism caused by exercises. The results of the present study suggest that intensive exercises are accompanied by an increase of intensity of free radical processes in the liver. Hypothyroidism and exercises do not greatly affect free radical processes in the liver of 12-month-old rats but result in additional stimulation of free radical oxidation in subcellular liver fractions of 1.5-month-old rats. An increase of free radical processes in the liver of 1.5-month-old rats with hypothyroidism caused by exercises is associated neither with changes in the first level antioxidant defense system enzymes function, nor with modulation of hepatocytes subcellular sensitivity to prooxidants. Such change is due largely to an increase of free radical production in the liver cells. PMID:17290792

  1. Strong, but Age-Dependent, Protection Elicited by a Deoxyribonucleic Acid/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Kannanganat, Sunil; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Nabi, Rafiq; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Montefiori, David C; LaBranche, Celia C; Wrammert, Jens; Keele, Brandon F; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Santra, Sampa; Basu, Rahul; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background.  In this study, we analyzed the protective efficacy of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque 239 (SIVmac239) analogue of the clinically tested GOVX-B11 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Methods.  The tested vaccine used a DNA immunogen mutated to mimic the human vaccine and a regimen with DNA deliveries at weeks 0 and 8 and MVA deliveries at weeks 16 and 32. Twelve weekly rectal challenges with 0.3 animal infectious doses of SIV sootey mangabey E660 (SIVsmE660) were administered starting at 6 months after the last immunization. Results.  Over the first 6 rectal exposures to SIVsmE660, <10-year-old tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5)α-permissive rhesus macaques showed an 80% reduction in per-exposure risk of infection as opposed to a 46% reduction in animals over 10 years old; and, over the 12 challenges, they showed a 72% as opposed to a 10% reduction. Analyses of elicited immune responses suggested that higher antibody responses in the younger animals had played a role in protection. Conclusions.  The simian analogue of the GOVX-B11 HIV provided strong protection against repeated rectal challenges in young adult macaques. PMID:27006959

  2. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca2+ entry and IP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages. • IP3-pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]d) and diastolic Na+ concentration ([Na+]d) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd3+)-sensitive Ca2+ entry and inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd3+ treatment significantly reduced both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP3-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd3+ normalized both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca2+ entry through Gd3+ sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP3 receptors

  3. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna mungo is altered by overexpression of ALDRXV4 gene via reactive carbonyl detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Deepak; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2016-06-01

    Vigna mungo (blackgram) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein rich edible seeds. Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the growth and productivity of crop plants including blackgram. The ALDRXV4 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of carbonyl metabolites in the cells and plays an important role in the osmoprotection and detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species. In the present study, we developed transgenic plants of V. mungo using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis whereas the expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme activity. The T1 generation transgenic plants displayed improved tolerance to various environmental stresses, including drought, salt, methyl viologen and H2O2 induced oxidative stress. The increased aldose reductase activity, higher sorbitol content and less accumulation of the toxic metabolite, methylglyoxal in the transgenic lines under non-stress and stress (drought and salinity) conditions resulted in increased protection through maintenance of better photosynthetic efficiency, higher relative water content and less photooxidative damage. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type plants. This study of engineering multiple stress tolerance in blackgram, is the first report to date and this strategy for trait improvement is proposed to provide a novel germplasm for blackgram production on marginal lands. PMID:26956699

  4. Engineering of a novel carbonyl reductase with coenzyme regeneration in E. coli for efficient biosynthesis of enantiopure chiral alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ping; Gao, Jia-Xin; Zheng, Gao-Wei; Wu, Hong; Zong, Min-Hua; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-07-20

    The novel anti-Prelog stereospecific carbonyl reductase from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 was successfully expressed in E. coli combined with glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) to construct an efficient whole-cell biocatalyst with coenzyme NADH regeneration. The enzymatic activity of GAcCR (AcCR with a GST tag) reached 304.9U/g-dcw, even 9 folds higher than that of wild strain, and the activity of GDH for NADH regeneration recorded 46.0U/mg-protein in the recombinant E. coli. As a whole-cell biocatalyst, the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS (pETDuet-gaccr-gdh) possessed a broad substrate spectrum for kinds of carbonyl compounds with encouraging yield and stereoselectivity. Besides, the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate (COBE) to optically pure ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate (CHBE) catalyzed by the whole-cell biocatalyst was systematically investigated. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the optical purity of CHBE was over 99% e.e. for (S)-enantiomer, and the initial rate and product yield reached 8.04μmol/min and 99.4%, respectively. Moreover, the space-time yield was almost 20 folds higher than that catalyzed by the wild strain. Therefore, a new, high efficiency biocatalyst for asymmetric reductions was constructed successfully, and the enantioselective reduction of prochiral compounds using the biocatalyst was a promising approach for obtaining enantiopure chiral alcohols. PMID:27211999

  5. Feasibility study on the investigation of age-dependent effects of high-fre quency electromagnetic fields based on relevant biophysical and biological parameters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a comprehensive literature study on the potential health hazard for children due to high frequency electromagnetic fields compared to adults the actual status of scientific knowledge is compiled and documented. The analysis of the available scientific literature can neither divert nor confirm indications on age dependent effects of electromagnetic fields. Concerning dosimetry the open questions result mainly from the missing representative detailed anatomic body or head models for children and missing data on possible age dependent dielectric tissue properties. There is also missing information on the maximum transmission power fluctuation range and the maximum antenna current close to the head of children using the mobile telephone which is dependent on the telephone type. The dosimetry related open questions can be defined and categorized, - the questions concerning the biological effects are more complicated, since up to now no assured low-dose mechanism is available. The so far published papers are controversial and were performed mostly with small animals and whole-body exposure. Due to the multitude of open questions concerning doses and biological effects it is not yet clear whether the health hazards for children due to HF fields are higher compared to adults or not. The study recommends the main research fields to be treated in the next future

  6. Comparison of captive lifespan, age-associated liver neoplasias and age-dependent gene expression between two annual fish species: Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius korthause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mario; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Rossi, Giacomo; Cellerino, Alessandro; Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi

    2015-02-01

    Nothobranchius is a genus of annual fish broadly distributed in South-Eastern Africa and found into temporary ponds generated during the rain seasons and their lifespan is limited by the duration of their habitats. Here we compared two Nothobranchius species from radically different environments: N. furzeri and N. korthausae. We found a large difference in life expectancy (29- against 71-weeks of median life span, 40- against 80-weeks of maximum lifespan, respectively), which correlates with a diverse timing in the onset of several age dependent processes: our data show that N. korthause longer lifespan is associated to retarded onset of age-dependent liver-neoplasia and slower down-regulation of collagen 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2) expression in the skin. On the other hand, the expression of cyclin B1 (CCNB1) in the brain was strongly age-regulated, but with similar profiles in N. furzeri and N. korthausae. In conclusion, our data suggest that the different ageing rate of two species of the same genus could be used as novel tool to investigate and better understand the genetic bases of some general mechanism leading to the complex ageing process, providing a strategy to unravel some of the genetic mechanisms regulating longevity and age-associate pathologies including neoplasias. PMID:25315356

  7. Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. Elliott [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States); Berry, Joseph A. [Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Billesbach, Dave [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Torn, Margaret S [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zahniser, Mark [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Seibt, Ulrike [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maseyk, Kadmiel [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    The April-June 2012 campaign was located at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site Central Facility and had three purposes. One goal was to demonstrate the ability of current instrumentation to correctly measure fluxes of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS). The approach has been describe previously as a critical approach to advancing carbon cycle science1,2, but requires further investigation at the canopy scale to resolve ecosystem processes. Previous canopy-scale efforts were limited to data rates of 1Hz. While 1 Hz measurements may work in a few ecosystems, it is widely accepted that data rates of 10 to 20 Hz are needed to fully capture the exchange of traces gases between the atmosphere and vegetative canopy. A second goal of this campaign was to determine if canopy observations could provide information to help interpret the seasonal double peak in airborne observations at SGP of CO2 and COS mixing ratios. A third goal was to detect potential sources and sinks of COS that must be resolved before using COS as a tracer of gross primary productivity (GPP).

  8. Characterization of aura tropospheric emissions spectrometer carbonyl sulfide retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kuai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a description of the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES carbonyl sulfide (OCS retrieval algorithm, along with evaluation of the biases and uncertainties against aircraft profiles from the HIPPO campaign and data from the NOAA Mauna Loa site. In general, the OCS retrievals (1 have less than 1.0 degree of freedom for signals (DOFs, (2 are sensitive in the mid-troposphere with a peak sensitivity typically between 300 to 500 hPa, (3 but have much smaller systematic errors from temperature, CO2 and H2O calibrations relative to random errors from measurement noise. Here we estimate the monthly means from TES measurements averaged over multiple years so that random errors are reduced and useful information about OCS seasonal and latitudinal variability can be derived. With this averaging, TES OCS data are found to be consistent (within the calculated uncertainties with NOAA ground observations and HIPPO aircraft measurements. TES OCS data also captures the seasonal and latitudinal variations observed by these in situ data.

  9. Aldol Condensation of Volatile Carbonyl Compounds in Acidic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noziere, B.; Esteve, W.

    2003-12-01

    Reactions of volatile organic compounds in acidic aerosols have been shown recently to be potentially important for organic aerosol formation and growth. Aldol condensation, the acid-catalyzed polymerization of carbonyl compounds, is a likely candidate to enhance the flux of organic matter from the gas phase to the condensed phase in the atmosphere. Until now these reactions have only been characterized for conditions relevant to synthesis (high acidities and liquid phase systems) and remote from atmospheric ones. In this work, the uptake of gas-phase acetone and 2,4\\-pentanedione by sulfuric acid solutions has been measured at room temperature using a Rotated Wetted Wall Reactor coupled to a Mass Spectrometer. The aldol condensation rate constants for 2,4\\-pentanedione measured so far for sulfuric acid solutions between 96 and 70 % wt. display a variation with acidity in agreement with what predicted in the organic chemical literature. The values of these constants, however, are much lower than expected for this compound, and comparable to the ones of acetone. Experiments are underway to complete this study to lower acidities and understand the discrepancies with the predicted reactivity.

  10. Heterogeneous oxidation of carbonyl sulfide on mineral oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YongChun; LIU JunFeng; HE Hong; YU YunBo; XUE Li

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) on mineral oxides including SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, ZnO and TiO2, which are the main components of atmospheric particles, were investigated using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (in situ DRIFTS), ion chromatography (IC), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The main products and intermediates of the heterogeneous oxidation of OCS on these oxides were identified with in situ DRIFTS and IC. The reaction mechanism and kinetics were also discussed. It is found that the reaction mechanism on these mineral oxides is the same as that on Al2O3 for the same final products and the intermediates at room temperature. Namely, OCS can be catalytically oxidized to produce surface SO42- species and gaseous CO2 through the surface hydrogen thiocarbonate (HSCO2-) and HSO3- species. The activity series for heterogeneous oxidation of OCS follows: Al2O3 ≈ CaO>MgO>TiO2 ≈ ZnO>Fe2O3>SiO2. The specific area, basic hydroxyl and surface basicity of these oxides have effect on the reactivity. This study suggests that heterogeneous reactions of OCS on mineral dust may be an unneglectable sink of OCS.

  11. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  12. Tropical sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Baker, I. T.; Berry, J.; Campbell, J. E.; Kawa, S. R.; Krysztofiak, G.; Leyser, A.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Stiller, G. P.; Stinecipher, J.; Clarmann, T.

    2015-11-01

    According to current budget estimations the seasonal variation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) is governed by oceanic release and vegetation uptake. Its assimilation by plants is assumed to be similar to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 but, contrary to the latter process, to be irreversible. Therefore, COS has been suggested as cotracer of the carbon cycle. Observations of COS, however, are sparse, especially in tropical regions. We use the comprehensive data set of spaceborne measurements of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding to analyze its global distribution. Two major features are observed in the tropical upper troposphere around 250 hPa: enhanced amounts over the western Pacific and the Maritime Continent, peaking around 550 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) in boreal summer, and a seasonally varying depletion of COS extending from tropical South America to Africa. The large-scale COS depletion, which in austral summer amounts up to -40 pptv as compared to the rest of the respective latitude band, has not been observed before and reveals the seasonality of COS uptake through tropical vegetation. The observations can only be reproduced by global models, when a large vegetation uptake and a corresponding increase in oceanic emissions as proposed in several recent publications are assumed.

  13. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  14. Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commane, Róisín; Meredith, Laura K.; Baker, Ian T.; Berry, Joseph A.; Munger, J. William; Montzka, Stephen A.; Templer, Pamela H.; Juice, Stephanie M.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2015-11-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, has a summer minimum associated with uptake by vegetation and soils, closely correlated with CO2. We report the first direct measurements to our knowledge of the ecosystem flux of OCS throughout an annual cycle, at a mixed temperate forest. The forest took up OCS during most of the growing season with an overall uptake of 1.36 ± 0.01 mol OCS per ha (43.5 ± 0.5 g S per ha, 95% confidence intervals) for the year. Daytime fluxes accounted for 72% of total uptake. Both soils and incompletely closed stomata in the canopy contributed to nighttime fluxes. Unexpected net OCS emission occurred during the warmest weeks in summer. Many requirements necessary to use fluxes of OCS as a simple estimate of photosynthesis were not met because OCS fluxes did not have a constant relationship with photosynthesis throughout an entire day or over the entire year. However, OCS fluxes provide a direct measure of ecosystem-scale stomatal conductance and mesophyll function, without relying on measures of soil evaporation or leaf temperature, and reveal previously unseen heterogeneity of forest canopy processes. Observations of OCS flux provide powerful, independent means to test and refine land surface and carbon cycle models at the ecosystem scale.

  15. Nanostructured palladium tailored via carbonyl chemical route towards oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical Abstract: Mass-depending morphologies of nanostructured Palladium obtained via the carbonyl chemical route. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Mass-depending morphology was observed in nanostructured palladium supported on carbon prepared by the carbonyl chemical route. •The Morphological effect of carbon supported Pd was investigated towards ORR. -- Abstract: Carbon supported palladium nanostructures were synthesized via the carbonyl chemical route. Compared with nanostructured platinum, prepared via carbonyl chemical route, Pd nanomaterials showed mass-loading morphology, whereas particle size and morphology of Pt nanostructures was constant. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on nanostructured Pd, with different morphology in both acid and alkaline medium was investigated. A relationship, based on X-ray diffraction structural analysis pattern, transmission electron microscope, with the Pd morphological effect on ORR activity was identified

  16. Structure and Bonding in Binuclear Metal Carbonyls. Classical Paradigms vs. Insights from Modern Theoretical Calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponec, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1053, SI (2015), s. 195-213. ISSN 2210-271X Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : binuclear metal carbonyls * DAFH analysis * 18-electron rule Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2014

  17. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  18. Ruthenium carbonyl catalyst supported on ceric oxide for preparation of olefins from synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    A catalyst comprising a ruthenium carbonyl compound deposited on a cerium oxide-containing support material provides for the selective synthesis of low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  19. Synthesis of 2-Cyclopentenone Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Carbonyl α-Alkenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Panpan; Meng, Yinggao; Wang, Han; Han, Feipeng; Wang, Yulong; Song, Chuanjun; Chang, Junbiao

    2016-08-01

    2-Cyclopentenone derivatives have been efficiently synthesized from 5-bromo-5-hexen-2-ones via palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbonyl α-alkenylation followed by double-bond migration under mild reaction conditions. PMID:27463262

  20. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xiao-Yu

    2014-02-07

    A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  1. Fabrication and electromagnetic characteristics of microwave absorbers containing PPY and carbonyl iron composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dengao, E-mail: lidengao123@163.com [College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang Hongbin; Zhao Jumin [College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yang Xiaoli [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, IN 46323-2094 (United States)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Polypyrrole powders are prepared by in situ polymerization method. {yields} Then PPY-carbonyl iron composite with different mixture ratios have been prepared. {yields} The effect of the mass ratio of PPY-carbonyl iron on the microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. {yields} A possible microwave absorbing mechanism of PPY-carbonyl iron composite has been proposed. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop microwave absorbers using both dielectric and magnetic lossy materials. Polypyrrole (PPY) is used as dielectric lossy materials and carbonyl iron particles is used as magnetic lossy materials. Polypyrrole powders are prepared by in situ polymerization method. Then PPY-carbonyl iron composite with different mixture ratios have been prepared by as-prepared material. The structure, morphology and properties of the composites are characterized with IR, XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Net-work Anlyzer. The complex permittivity ({epsilon}{sup '}{sub r}-j{epsilon}{sup ''}{sub r}) and reflection loss (dB) of the composites have been measured at different microwave frequencies in S-band and C-band (30-6000 MHz) employing vector network analyzer model HP 8722ET vector. The effect of the mass ratio of PPY-carbonyl iron on the microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. A possible microwave absorbing mechanism of PPY-carbonyl iron composite has been proposed. The PPY-carbonyl iron composite can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI), and reduction of radar signature.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks for each patient. They were given Carbonyl Iron 100 mg/day and FeS04 100gm/day . Before and after treatment all the baseline and specific investigations were one. Results were tabulated, comparison and significance were tested by unpaired student ’s’ test and their 'p' value was calculated. Results were shown graphically also. Carbonyl Iron showed improvement in hemoglobin, PCV and better than ferrous Sulphate (P <0.001. Incidence of side effects were less with Carbonyl Iron than Ferrous Sulphate, better compliance was seen with Carbonyl Iron. In conclusion, the present study s howed that Carbonyl Iron had better efficacy and safety in the management of Iron deficiency anemia in antenatal women than ferrous Sulphate

  3. Metabolism of bupropion by carbonyl reductases in liver and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connarn, Jamie N; Zhang, Xinyuan; Babiskin, Andrew; Sun, Duxin

    2015-07-01

    Bupropion's metabolism and the formation of hydroxybupropion in the liver by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) has been extensively studied; however, the metabolism and formation of erythro/threohydrobupropion in the liver and intestine by carbonyl reductases (CR) has not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the relative contribution of the two metabolism pathways of bupropion (by CYP2B6 and CR) in the subcellular fractions of liver and intestine and to identify the CRs responsible for erythro/threohydrobupropion formation in the liver and the intestine. The results showed that the liver microsome generated the highest amount of hydroxybupropion (Vmax = 131 pmol/min per milligram, Km = 87 μM). In addition, liver microsome and S9 fractions formed similar levels of threohydrobupropion by CR (Vmax = 98-99 pmol/min per milligram and Km = 186-265 μM). Interestingly, the liver has similar capability to form hydroxybupropion (by CYP2B6) and threohydrobupropion (by CR). In contrast, none of the intestinal fractions generate hydroxybupropion, suggesting that the intestine does not have CYP2B6 available for metabolism of bupropion. However, intestinal S9 fraction formed threohydrobupropion to the extent of 25% of the amount of threohydrobupropion formed by liver S9 fraction. Enzyme inhibition and Western blots identified that 11β-dehydrogenase isozyme 1 in the liver microsome fraction is mainly responsible for the formation of threohydrobupropion, and in the intestine AKR7 may be responsible for the same metabolite formation. These quantitative comparisons of bupropion metabolism by CR in the liver and intestine may provide new insight into its efficacy and side effects with respect to these metabolites. PMID:25904761

  4. New Ir Bis-Carbonyl Precursor for Water Oxidation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daria L; Beltrán-Suito, Rodrigo; Thomsen, Julianne M; Hashmi, Sara M; Materna, Kelly L; Sheehan, Stafford W; Mercado, Brandon Q; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces Ir(I)(CO)2(pyalc) (pyalc = (2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate) as an atom-efficient precursor for Ir-based homogeneous oxidation catalysis. This compound was chosen to simplify analysis of the water oxidation catalyst species formed by the previously reported Cp*Ir(III)(pyalc)OH water oxidation precatalyst. Here, we present a comparative study on the chemical and catalytic properties of these two precursors. Previous studies show that oxidative activation of Cp*Ir-based precursors with NaIO4 results in formation of a blue Ir(IV) species. This activation is concomitant with the loss of the placeholder Cp* ligand which oxidatively degrades to form acetic acid, iodate, and other obligatory byproducts. The activation process requires substantial amounts of primary oxidant, and the degradation products complicate analysis of the resulting Ir(IV) species. The species formed from oxidation of the Ir(CO)2(pyalc) precursor, on the other hand, lacks these degradation products (the CO ligands are easily lost upon oxidation) which allows for more detailed examination of the resulting Ir(pyalc) active species both catalytically and spectroscopically, although complete structural analysis is still elusive. Once Ir(CO)2(pyalc) is activated, the system requires acetic acid or acetate to prevent the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of the activated bis-carbonyl complex also suggests several Ir(pyalc) isomers may exist in solution. By (1)H NMR, activated Ir(CO)2(pyalc) has fewer isomers than activated Cp*Ir complexes, allowing for advanced characterization. Future research in this direction is expected to contribute to a better structural understanding of the active species. A diol crystallization agent was needed for the structure determination of 3. PMID:26901517

  5. Highly efficient energy transfer from a carbonyl carotenoid to chlorophyll a in the main light harvesting complex of Chromera velia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchan, Milan; Keşan, Gürkan; Slouf, Václav; Fuciman, Marcel; Staleva, Hristina; Tichý, Josef; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    2014-10-01

    We report on energy transfer pathways in the main light-harvesting complex of photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites, Chromera velia. This complex, denoted CLH, belongs to the family of FCP proteins and contains chlorophyll (Chl) a, violaxanthin, and the so far unidentified carbonyl carotenoid related to isofucoxanthin. The overall carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer exhibits efficiency over 90% which is the largest among the FCP-like proteins studied so far. Three spectroscopically different isofucoxanthin-like molecules were identified in CLH, each having slightly different energy transfer efficiency that increases from isofucoxanthin-like molecules absorbing in the blue part of the spectrum to those absorbing in the reddest part of spectrum. Part of the energy transfer from carotenoids proceeds via the ultrafast S2 channel of both the violaxanthin and isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid, but major energy transfer pathway proceeds via the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid. Two S1/ICT-mediated channels characterized by time constants of ~0.5 and ~4ps were found. For the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid excited at 480nm the slower channel dominates, while those excited at 540nm employs predominantly the fast 0.5ps channel. Comparing these data with the excited-state properties of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid in solution we conclude that, contrary to other members of the FCP family employing carbonyl carotenoids, CLH complex suppresses the charge transfer character of the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid to achieve the high carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer efficiency. PMID:24928296

  6. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra, E-mail: A.Kwiatkows@gmail.com [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Zebrowski, Jacek [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Oklejewicz, Bernadetta [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Czarnik, Justyna [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Halibart-Puzio, Joanna [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Wnuk, Maciej [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage.

  7. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Barron

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  8. Modeling of age-dependent amyloid accumulation and γ-secretase inhibition of soluble and insoluble Aβ in a transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Joanna; Ploeger, Bart; Appelkvist, Paulina; Bogstedt, Anna; Dillner Bergstedt, Karin; Eketjäll, Susanna; Visser, Sandra A G

    2013-12-01

    According to the "amyloid hypothesis," accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. The aims of this investigation were to develop a model for the age-dependent amyloid accumulation and to quantify the age- and treatment-duration-dependent efficacy of the γ-secretase inhibitor MRK-560 in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition. Soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 brain concentrations were compiled from multiple naïve, vehicle, and MRK-560-treated animals. The age of Tg2576 mice in the studies ranged between 3.5 and 26 months. Single doses of MRK-560 inhibited soluble Aβ40 levels in animals up to 9 months old. In contrast, MRK-560 did not cause significant acute effects on soluble Aβ40 levels in animals older than 13 months. Absolute levels of Aβ variants increased exponentially over age and reached a plateau at ∼20 months. In the final model, it was assumed that MRK-560 inhibited the Aβ production rate with an Aβ level-dependent IC50.The age-dependent increase in Aβ levels was best described by a logistic model that stimulated the production rate of soluble Aβ. The increase in insoluble Aβ was defined as a function of soluble Aβ by using a scaling factor and a different turnover rate. The turnover half-life for insoluble Aβ was estimated at 30 days, explaining that at least a 4-week treatment in young animals was required to demonstrate a reduction in insoluble Aβ. Taken together, the derived knowledge could be exploited for an improved design of new experiments in Tg2576 mice. PMID:25505567

  9. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage

  10. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel carbonyl reductase isolated from Rhodococcus erythropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, T; Peters, J; Kula, M R

    1994-04-15

    During growth on n-tetradecane a novel NADH-dependent carbonyl reductase is induced in the Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis (Peters, P., Zelinski, T. and Kula, M.R. (1992) Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38, 334-340). The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity using fractional pH precipitation, anion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. The isoelectric point of the oxidoreductase is 4.4. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme is 161 kDa, that of the subunits 40 kDa as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis. A tetrameric structure of the carbonyl reductase is consistent with these results. Important biochemical data concerning the application of the reductase are: a broad pH-optimum, temperature optimum at 40 degrees C and stability at room temperature for more than 5 days. The oxidoreductase accepted as substrate aliphatic and aromatic ketones, keto esters (esters of keto carboxylic acids) and halogenated carbonyl compounds and reduced them to the corresponding hydroxyl compounds with (S)-configuration with more than 98% enantiomeric excess. The NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of primary alcohols was not catalyzed by the carbonyl reductase, whereas secondary alcohols and hydroxy acid esters were oxidized to the corresponding carbonyl compounds at about 10-fold slower reaction rates compared to the reduction. PMID:7764739

  12. Assessment of organ-specific neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy using computational whole-body age-dependent voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton beams used for radiotherapy will produce neutrons when interacting with matter. The purpose of this study was to quantify the equivalent dose to tissue due to secondary neutrons in pediatric and adult patients treated by proton therapy for brain lesions. Assessment of the equivalent dose to organs away from the target requires whole-body geometrical information. Furthermore, because the patient geometry depends on age at exposure, age-dependent representations are also needed. We implemented age-dependent phantoms into our proton Monte Carlo dose calculation environment. We considered eight typical radiation fields, two of which had been previously used to treat pediatric patients. The other six fields were additionally considered to allow a systematic study of equivalent doses as a function of field parameters. For all phantoms and all fields, we simulated organ-specific equivalent neutron doses and analyzed for each organ (1) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of distance to the target; (2) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of patient age; (3) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of field parameters; and (4) the ratio of contributions to secondary dose from the treatment head versus the contribution from the patient's body tissues. This work reports organ-specific equivalent neutron doses for up to 48 organs in a patient. We demonstrate quantitatively how organ equivalent doses for adult and pediatric patients vary as a function of patient's age, organ and field parameters. Neutron doses increase with increasing range and modulation width but decrease with field size (as defined by the aperture). We analyzed the ratio of neutron dose contributions from the patient and from the treatment head, and found that neutron-equivalent doses fall off rapidly as a function of distance from the target, in agreement with experimental data. It appears that for the fields used in this study, the neutron dose lateral to the

  13. Derivation of a Provisional, Age-dependent, AIS2+ Thoracic Risk Curve for the THOR50 Test Dummy via Integration of NASS Cases, PMHS Tests, and Simulation Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laituri, Tony R; Henry, Scott; El-Jawahri, Raed; Muralidharan, Nirmal; Li, Guosong; Nutt, Marvin

    2015-11-01

    A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, "risk curve") was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants. However, known deficiencies had to be addressed (e.g., the NASS cases had unknown stimuli, and the PMHS tests required transformation of known stimuli into THOR50 stimuli). For the NASS portion of the analysis, chest-injury outcomes for adult male drivers about the size of the THOR50 were collected from real-world, 11-1 o'clock, full-engagement frontal crashes (NASS, 1995-2012 calendar years, 1985-2012 model-year light passenger vehicles). The screening for THOR50-sized men involved application of a set of newly-derived "correction" equations for self-reported height and weight data in NASS. Finally, THOR50 stimuli were estimated via field simulations involving attendant representative restraint systems, and those stimuli were then assigned to corresponding NASS cases (n=508). For the PMHS portion of the analysis, simulation-based closure equations were developed to convert PMHS stimuli into THOR50 stimuli. Specifically, closure equations were derived for the four measurement locations on the THOR50 chest by cross-correlating the results of matched-loading simulations between the test dummy and the age-dependent, Ford Human Body Model. The resulting closure equations demonstrated acceptable fidelity (n=75 matched simulations, R2≥0.99). These equations were applied to the THOR50-sized men in the PMHS dataset (n=20). The NASS and PMHS datasets were combined and subjected to survival

  14. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  15. RNA-Seq approach for genetic improvement of meat quality in pig and evolutionary insight into the substrate specificity of animal carbonyl reductases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Jung

    Full Text Available Changes in meat quality traits are strongly associated with alterations in postmortem metabolism which depend on genetic variations, especially nonsynonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs having critical effects on protein structure and function. To selectively identify metabolism-related nsSNVs, next-generation transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq was carried out using RNAs from porcine liver, which contains a diverse range of metabolic enzymes. The multiplex SNV genotyping analysis showed that various metabolism-related genes had different nsSNV alleles. Moreover, many nsSNVs were significantly associated with multiple meat quality traits. Particularly, ch7:g.22112616A>G SNV was identified to create a single amino acid change (Thr/Ala at the 145th residue of H1.3-like protein, very close to the putative 147th threonine phosphorylation site, suggesting that the nsSNV may affect multiple meat quality traits by affecting the epigenetic regulation of postmortem metabolism-related gene expression. Besides, one nonsynonymous variation, probably generated by gene duplication, led to a stop signal in porcine testicular carbonyl reductase (PTCR, resulting in a C-terminal (E281-A288 deletion. Molecular docking and energy minimization calculations indicated that the binding affinity of wild-type PTCR to 5α-DHT, a C(21-steroid, was superior to that of C-terminal-deleted PTCR or human carbonyl reductase, which was very consistent with experimental data, reported previously. Furthermore, P284 was identified as an important residue mediating the specific interaction between PTCR and 5α-DHT, and phylogenetic analysis showed that P284 is an evolutionarily conserved residue among animal carbonyl reductases, which suggests that the C-terminal tails of these reductases may have evolved under evolutionary pressure to increase the substrate specificity for C(21-steroids and facilitate metabolic adaptation. Altogether, our RNA-Seq revealed that selective ns

  16. Utilization in rats of 14C-L-lysine-labeled casein browned by amino-carbonyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was carried out in order to elucidate the reason for the reduction in nutritive value of browned protein, by using labeled casein as a model protein. Goat casein preparation in which lysine residues had been labeled with 14C was browned by amino-carbonyl reaction with glucose at 370C. Browned or non-browned casein was ingested by growing rats by spaced feeding. When the rats ingested the browned casein the experimental group, higher radioactivity was found in TCA-soluble fraction in the small intestine as compared with that in the control group, while radioactivity was scarecely found in feces for 22 hr. Along with absorption delay, considerably high radioactivity was found in urine. The recovery of radioactivity in expired air of rats fed the labeled casein (browned and non-browned) was measured. In the experimental group, expired 14CO2 came out slower than the control group. From these results, it is suggested that the main reason for the reduction in nutritive value by browning reaction may be the formation of a lysine derivative in a protein, which remains in the small intestinal lumen as an absorption-delayed material and is finally excreted in urine. (auth.)

  17. Mechanistic differences between methanol and dimethyl ether carbonylation in side pockets and large channels of mordenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Mercedes; Martínez, Cristina; Corma, Avelino

    2011-02-21

    The activity and selectivity towards carbonylation presented by Brønsted acid sites located inside the 8MR pockets or in the main 12MR channels of mordenite is studied by means of quantum-chemical calculations, and the mechanistic differences between methanol and DME carbonylation are investigated. The selectivity towards carbonylation is higher inside the 8MR pockets, where the competitive formation of DME and hydrocarbons that finally leads to catalyst deactivation is sterically impeded. Moreover, inclusion of dispersion interactions in the calculations leads to agreement between the calculated activation barriers for the rate determining step and the experimentally observed higher reactivity of methoxy groups located inside the 8MR channels. PMID:21249237

  18. Effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function: age-dependent shifts from beneficial to detrimental in small cerebral arteries of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer, Rachel R; Stallone, John N

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, interactions of age and estrogen in the modulation of cerebrovascular function were examined in small arteries vasoconstriction was attenuated in ovariectomized + estrogen-replaced, multigravid adult rats (5-6 mo; MAE) but potentiated in older ovariectomized + estrogen-replaced, reproductively senescent rats (12-14 mo; RSE). SC560 and NS398 reduced reactivity similarly in ovariectomized multigravid adult rats (5-6 mo; MAO) and ovariectomized reproductively senescent rat (12-14 mo; RSO). In MAE, reactivity to VP was reduced to a greater extent by SC560 than by NS398; however, in RSE, this effect was reversed. VP-stimulated PGI2 was increased by estrogen, yet reduced by age. VP-stimulated TXA2 was increased by estrogen and age in RSE but did not differ in MAO and RSO. Taken together, these data reveal that the vascular effects of estrogen are distinctly age-dependent in F rats. In younger MA, beneficial and protective effects of estrogen are evident (decreased vasoconstriction, increased dilator prostanoid function). Conversely, in older RS, detrimental effects of estrogen begin to be manifested (enhanced vasoconstriction and CP function). These findings may lead to age-specific estrogen replacement therapies that maximize beneficial and minimize detrimental effects of this hormone on small cerebral arteries that regulate blood flow. PMID:26993224

  19. Age-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation Deficits in the Prefrontal Cortex of the Fmr1 Knockout Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Henry G S; Lassalle, Olivier; Brown, Jonathan T; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2016-05-01

    The most common inherited monogenetic cause of intellectual disability is Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The clinical symptoms of FXS evolve with age during adulthood; however, neurophysiological data exploring this phenomenon are limited. TheFmr1knockout (Fmr1KO) mouse models FXS, but studies in these mice of prefrontal cortex (PFC) function are underrepresented, and aging linked data are absent. We studied synaptic physiology and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the medial PFC ofFmr1KO mice from 2 to 12 months. In young adultFmr1KO mice, NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) is intact; however, in 12-month-old mice this LTP is impaired. In parallel, there was an increase in the AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and a concomitant decrease of synaptic NMDAR currents in 12-month-oldFmr1KO mice. We found that acute pharmacological blockade of mGlu5receptor in 12-month-oldFmr1KO mice restored a normal AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and LTP. Taken together, the data reveal an age-dependent deficit in LTP inFmr1KO mice, which may correlate to some of the complex age-related deficits in FXS. PMID:25750254

  20. Synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates from allenols through cascade carbonylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-11-21

    Novel synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates via palladium-catalyzed one-pot multi-component reactions of allenols, aryl iodides, alcohols, and carbon monoxide has been developed. Notably, the formation of the title compounds features a cascade process combining carbonylation of aryl iodide, alcohoxyl carbonylation of the in situ formed allyl palladium complex, and intramolecular condensation of the α-hydroxyl enone intermediate. Moreover, the 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates obtained herein were found to be ready intermediates for the construction of the biologically significant naphtho[1,2-b]furan-5-ol scaffold. PMID:26399394

  1. Improvement on stability of square planar rhodium (Ⅰ) complexes for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华; 潘平来; 袁国卿; 陈新滋

    1999-01-01

    A series of square planar cis-dicarbonyl polymer coordinated rhodium complexes with uncoordinated donors near the central rhodium atoms for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid are reported. Data of IR, XPS and thermal analysis show that these complexes are very stable. The intramolecular substitution reaction is proposed for their high stability. These complexes show excellent catalytic activity, selectivity and less erosion to the equipment for the methanol carbonylation to acetic acid. The distillation process may be used instead of flash vaporization in the manufacture of acetic acid, which reduces the investment on the equipment.

  2. First application of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis for continuous methanol carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Jørgensen, Betina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A solid, silica-supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) rhodium iodide Monsanto-type catalyst system, [BMIM][Rh(CO)(2)I-2]-[BMIM]I -SiO2, exhibits excellent activity and selectivity towards acetyl products in fixed-bed, continuous gas-phase methanol carbonylation.......A solid, silica-supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) rhodium iodide Monsanto-type catalyst system, [BMIM][Rh(CO)(2)I-2]-[BMIM]I -SiO2, exhibits excellent activity and selectivity towards acetyl products in fixed-bed, continuous gas-phase methanol carbonylation....

  3. Activation of Carbonyl-Containing Molecules with Solid Lewis Acids in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Chemical Engineering; Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering

    2011-09-28

    Current interest in reacting carbonyl-containing molecules in aqueous media is primarily due to the growing emphasis on conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Recently, solid Lewis acids have been shown to perform catalytic reactions with carbonyl-containing molecules such as sugars in aqueous media. Here, catalysis mediated by Lewis acids is briefly discussed, Lewis acid solids that perform catalysis in aqueous media are then described, and the review is concluded with a few comments on the outlook for the future.

  4. Synthesis of carbonyl-/sup 14/C labelled 'acetochlor'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonkai, I.; Marton, A.F.; Dutka, F. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-09-20

    Carbonyl-/sup 14/C labelled 'acetochlor' (2-chloro-N-ethoxymethyl-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)acetamide) was prepared by chlorination of acetic-1-/sup 14/C acid obtained from barium radiocarbonate to monochloroacetic-1-/sup 14/C acid which was further chlorinated to monochloroacetyl-1-/sup 14/C chloride. The addition reaction of this latter with 2-ethyl-6-methylene aniline gave a chloromethyl derivative the ethanolysis of which resulted in 'acetochlor' labelled in its carbonyl carbon. The overall radiochemical yield is 51%.

  5. Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide in Binary Mixture of Diethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether and Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新学; 刘迎新; 魏雄辉

    2005-01-01

    The solubility and hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in binary mixture of diethylene glycol diethyl ether and water are studied as a function of composition. The use of an aqueous solution of diethylene glycol diethyl ether enhances the solubility and hydrolysis rate of carbonyl sulfide compared with that in pure water. The composition of the mixture with maximum hydrolysis rate varies with temperature. The thermophysical properties including density, viscosity, and surface tension as a function of composition at 20℃ under atmospheric pressure as well as liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data over the temperature range from 28℃ to 90℃ are also measured for the binary mixture.

  6. Kinetics of Vapor—Phase Carbonylation of Ethanol on Ni—Zn/C Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGFeng

    2002-01-01

    A novel heterogeneous Ni-Zn/C catalyst was used for vapor-phase carbonylation of ethanol under atmospheric pressure.Experiments were designed with the elimination of mass-transfer resistances.The data of primary reaction in the carbonylation were collected with a differential tubular reactor.Power law rate models were emplyed to express the conversion of ethanol and the yields of ethyl propionated and diethyl ether.The results obtained with the models were in agreement with the experimental data.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO DETERMINE CONCENTRATIONS OF ACROLEIN AND OTHER CARBONYLS IN AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sampler developed by Charles and Cahill, with Dr. Vincent Seaman, consists of a custom-built glass mist chamber in which air enters at a high flow rate and carbonyls are trapped in a solution of sodium bisulfite as carbonyl-bisulfite adducts. This reaction is rapid (on ...

  8. Enhanced antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated flaky carbonyl iron particles prepared by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yingying, E-mail: zyzlchappy1989@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Zhou, Wancheng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Li, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); No. 603 Faculty, Xi’an Institute of High Technology, Xi’an 710025 (China); Mu, Yang; Qing, Yuchang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were prepared by electroless plating method. • The obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 400 °C after Co-coated. • The permeability of the Co-coated particle composite kept almost invariable. • Co-coated carbonyl iron composite reserves a better absorption after heat treatment. - Abstract: Co was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using an electroless plating method. The morphologies, composition, as well as magnetic, antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows that the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred from 300 to 400 °C after Co-coated. In contrast to raw carbonyl iron, the Co-coated carbonyl iron shows better stability on electromagnetic properties after 300 °C heat treatment for 10 h, demonstrating that the Co coating can act as the protection of carbonyl iron.

  9. Green Synthesis and Regioselective Control of Sn/I2 Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Crotyl Halide in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yan; ZHA,Zhang-Gen; ZHOU,Yu-Qing; WANG,Zhi-Yong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Barbier-type carbonyl allylation is particularly useful due to ease of operation and the availability and tractability of allylic substrates,[1] Metals such as indium, zinc and tin are often used as the mediator. Here we present a green approach toward the synthesis, that is, Sn/I2 mediated allylation of carbonyl compounds with crotyl halide in water.

  10. Photopromoted carbonylation of olefins with carbon dioxide and labelling studies with 13CO2 and 13CH3OH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jingmei; GAO Dabin; HU Jiehan; ZHOU Guangyun; JIA Yingping; WANG Xiangsheng

    2003-01-01

    Photopromoted carbonylation of olefins with carbon dioxide can be completed in ambient conditions (room temperatures and atmospheric pressure) by Co(OAc)2 catalysis. It was found that in carbonyl carbons of methyl ester of aliphatic acid 50% is from CO2 and the other 50% from CH3OH by labelling experimental with 13CO2 and 13CH3OH.

  11. Hydrogen bonding to carbonyl oxygen of nitrogen-pyramidalized amide - detection of pyramidalization direction preference by vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Taniguchi, Tohru; Monde, Kenji; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-pyramidalization of amide increases electron density on nitrogen and decreases that on carbonyl oxygen. We identified hydrogen-bonding to carbonyl of nitrogen-pyramidalized bicyclic β-proline derivatives by crystallography, and by NMR and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy in solution. Such hydrogen-bonding can switch the preferred nitrogen-pyramidalization direction, as detected by VCD spectroscopy. PMID:26889607

  12. Oxidized tissue proteins after intestinal reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanaider Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse if the carbonyl proteins measurement could be validated as a method that allows the identification of an intestinal oxidative stress after ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats (n =21 weighting 200 to 250g were divided into three groups. Group I - control (n = 10. Group II - sham (n = 5 and Group III (n = 10 subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and equal period of reperfusion. For this purpose it was clamped the superior mesenteric artery in its distal third. Histological changes and carbonyl protein levels were determined in the samples of all groups. In group III, samples of both normal and reperfused ileal segment were studied. RESULTS: All the reperfused segments showed mucosal and submucosal swelling and inflammatory infiltrate of the lamina propria. Levels of carbonyl protein rose in group III, including in the non-ischemic segments. The sensitivity and specificity of the carbonyl protein tissue levels were respectively 94% and 88%. CONCLUSION: The carbonyl protein method is a useful biologic marker of oxidative stress after the phenomenon of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. It was also noteworthy that the effects of oxidative stress could be seen far from the locus of the primary injury.

  13. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo-in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28) and older animals (PD40-62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits. PMID:27065812

  14. Exercise training attenuates age-dependent elevation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and Nox2 signaling in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Hord, Jeff; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lawler, John M

    2015-10-01

    Fibrosis of the aging heart impedes cardiac function and increases the risk of arrhythmias and heart disease. Previously, we demonstrated that exercise-induced reduction of collagen I in the aging heart was linked to a suppression of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). The renin-angiotensin II system (RAS) increases oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2) and thus elevates TGF-ß and collagen accumulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that exercise training would alleviate age-related upregulation of the angiotensin II receptor I (AT1R) and NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2), concomitant with suppression of TGF-β and fibrosis. Young (3 months, n=20) and old (31 months, n=20) Fischer 344 ×B rown Norway F1 (FBNF1) hybrid rats were assigned into sedentary and exercise groups, with exercise training rats training on a treadmill 45 min/day, 5 days/week for the next 12 weeks. Exercise training mitigated age-related upregulation of AT1R, Nox2 activity, and Nox2 subunits gp91phox and p47phox. Exercise training also attenuated TGF-ß positive staining and downstream effectors of fibrosis in the aging heart: connective tissue growth factor, phosphorylation of Smad2 at Ser423, myofibroblast proliferation, and collagen I-positive staining. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exercise training protects against age-dependent cardiac fibrosis by suppressing AT1R and Nox2 as part of a RAS-Nox2-TGF-β pathway. PMID:26239262

  15. Age-dependent frequencies of NPM1 mutations and FLT3-ITD in patients with normal karyotype AML (NK-AML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Friederike; Hoster, Eva; Schneider, Stephanie; Dufour, Annika; Benthaus, Tobias; Kakadia, Purvi M; Bohlander, Stefan K; Braess, Jan; Heinecke, Achim; Sauerland, Maria C; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Buechner, Thomas; Woermann, Bernhard J; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Buske, Christian; Creutzig, Ursula; Thiede, Christian; Zwaan, Michel C; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Reinhardt, Dirk; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Spiekermann, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Prognosis of AML in elderly patients is poor due to adverse patient characteristics and comorbidities. In addition, disease-associated parameters reveal differences between older and younger patients with AML. Survival in normal karyotype AML (NK-AML) is influenced by different clinical and molecular markers. The aim of this work was to investigate the frequencies of molecular markers in patients with NK-AML with a focus on NPM1 mutations and FLT3-ITD in different age groups. In the present study, we analyzed the frequencies of mutations of NPM1 and FLT3-ITD in a cohort of 1,321 adult patients and 148 children with AML treated within the AMLCG99, the AML98, and AML04 trials and their distribution in different age groups. Additionally, the frequencies of mutations in CEBPA genes, FLT3-TKD, and MLL-PTD were analyzed in the cohort with NK-AML (n = 729). Our data show that the presence of mutations of NPM1 (from 60% to 40%) and FLT3-ITD (from 50% to 20%) significantly decreased with age in adult AML. Consequently, the proportion of NPM1-/FLT3-ITD- patients increased with age. The decreasing frequency of NPM1 mutations in elderly patients was paralleled by a reduced complete remission (CR) rate in the elderly of 55% compared to 80% in the younger patients. By contrast, the frequencies of other gene mutations, like FLT3-TKD and MLL-PTD, and mutations in CEBPA were not age-dependent. The decreasing frequency of the favorable NPM1 mutations with increasing age may partially explain the worse outcome in the elderly patients. Furthermore, the increasing amount of elderly patients without NPM1 mutations or FLT3-ITD suggests that other molecular and clinical risk factors may influence prognosis in this age group. PMID:21744003

  16. Extrastriatal binding of [123I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [123I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [123I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [123I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  17. Extrastriatal binding of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry Vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, CHU Dinant Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  18. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie L Chow

    Full Text Available Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess

  19. Inhibitory effects of reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chloro-phenylhydrazone on fluoroquinolone resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-feng; JIANG Jian-ping; XU Ning; HUANG Zhi-mi; WANG Yu-yue

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to fluoro-quinolones may be grouped into three principal categories: gene mutations of DNA topoisomerase Ⅱ (GyrA or GyrB), DNA topoisomerase Ⅳ (ParC or ParE), decrease of outer membrane permeation and upregulation of multi-drug efflux pump (active efflux system).1 Efflux pumps are transport proteins removing toxic substrates (including virtually all classes of clinically relevant antibiotics) from cells to the external environment. These proteins exist in both Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria as well as in fungi and mammalian (tumour) cells.2-4 It has been reported that alkaloid reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) can inhibit NorA multi-drug efflux.5,6 In order to explore the universality of drug efflux in microorganisms, 85 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. Baumannii) were tested using reserpine and CCCP. The quinolone-resistant-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC genes in 35 isolates of A. Baumannii were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced by DNA sequencer. The correlation between resistant mutation regularity and bacterial drug efflux were analysed.

  20. Magnetically Recoverable Supported Ruthenium Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Alkynes and Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A ruthenium (Ru) catalyst supported on magnetic nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized and used for hydrogenation of alkynes at room temperature as well as transfer hydrogenation of a number of carbonyl compounds under microwave irradiation conditions. The cata...

  1. Magnetic Silica-Supported Ruthenium Nanoparticles: An Efficient Catalyst for Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-pot synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles on magnetic silica is described which involve the in situ generation of magnetic silica (Fe3O4@ SiO2) and ruthenium nano particles immobilization; the hydration of nitriles and transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds occurs in hi...

  2. An Eco-Friendly System for Oximation of Organic Carbonyl Compounds Under Microwave Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Batmani; Davood Setamdideh

    2014-01-01

    The oximation of a variety of organic carbonyl compounds was efficiently carried out with NH2OH·HCl under microwave irradiation. The reactions were performed in water or water-ethanol as green solvents to give Z-aldoxime isomers from the corresponding aldehydes and E-ketoxime isomers from the corresponding ketones in a perfect selectively with excellent yields.

  3. α-Regioselective Barbier Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds and Allyl Halides Mediated by Praseodymium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San; Li, Ying; Zhang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    The first utility of praseodymium as a mediating metal in the Barbier reaction of carbonyl compounds with allyl halides was reported in this paper. In contrast to the traditional metal-mediated or catalyzed Barbier reactions, exclusive α-adducts were obtained in this one-pot reaction with a broad scope of substrates and feasible reaction conditions. PMID:27490708

  4. Effect of carotenoid structure on excited-state dynamics of carbonyl carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chábera, P.; Fuciman, M.; Hříbek, P.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2009), s. 8795-8703. ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : excited-state dynamics * carbonyl carotenoids * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.116, year: 2009

  5. Ketene as a Reaction Intermediate in the Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate over Mordenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Temel, Burcin;

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented insight into the carbonylation of dimethyl ether over Mordenite is provided through the identification of ketene (CH2CO) as a reaction intermediate. The formation of ketene is predicted by detailed DFT calculations and verified experimentally by the observation of doubly deuterated ...

  6. NMR Studies of Structure-Reactivity Relationships in Carbonyl Reduction: A Collaborative Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincean, Simona; Smith, Sheila R.; Fritz, Michael; Lee, Byung Joo; Rizk, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    An upper-division laboratory project has been developed as a collaborative investigation of a reaction routinely taught in organic chemistry courses: the reduction of carbonyl compounds by borohydride reagents. Determination of several trends regarding structure-activity relationship was possible because each student contributed his or her results…

  7. [pi] Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon-Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    An exercise is described that has illustrated the effect of various factors on [pi] backbonding to carbonyl ligands, where the students can view the molecular orbitals corresponding to the M-CO [pi] interaction as well as the competing interaction between the metal and co-ligands. The visual and hands-on nature of the modeling exercise has helped…

  8. Temporal variation of carbonyl compound concentrations at a semi-rural site in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Skov, H.; Nielsen, T.; Lohse, C.

    2000-01-01

    for PAN and ozone during high-pressure episodes also indicated that photochemical production was a major controlling factor. Here the highest concentrations of carbonyl compounds were observed in air masses with the highest photochemical age (PCA) and a likely source was determined to be the oxidation...

  9. Heterogeneous Chemistry of Carbonyls and Alcohols With Sulfuric Acid: Implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Levitt, N.; Zhang, R.

    2006-12-01

    Recent environmental chamber studies have suggested that acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions of organic carbonyls lead to multifold increases in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass and acid-catalyzed reactions between alcohols and aldehydes in the condensed phase lead to the formation of hemiacetals and acetals, also enhancing secondary organic aerosol growth. The kinetics and mechanism of the heterogeneous chemistry of carbonyls and alcohols with sulfuric acid, however, remain largely uncertain. In this talk, we present measurements of heterogeneous uptake of several carbonyls and alcohols on liquid H2SO4 in a wide range of acid concentrations and temperatures. The results indicate that uptake of larger carbonyls is explained by aldol condensation. For small dicarbonyls, heterogeneous reactions are shown to decrease with acidity and involve negligible formation of sulfate esters. Hydration and polymerization likely explain the measured uptake of such small dicarbonyls on H2SO4 and the measurements do not support an acid- catalyzed uptake. Atmospheric implications from our findings will be discussed.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterizations, crystal structures and DFT studies of nalidixic acid carbonyl hydrazones derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, F. R. G.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Lancellotti, M.; Machado, D.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Cuin, A.; Formiga, A. L. B.; Corbi, P. P.

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the synthesis and characterization of the 1-ethyl-7-methyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbohydrazide (hzd) and six carbonyl hydrazones derivatives of the nalidixic with 1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene (hpyrr), 1H-imidazol-2-ylmethylidene (h2imi), pyridin-2-ylmethylidene (h2py), pyridin-3-ylmethylidene (h3py), pyridin-4-ylmethylidene(h4py) and (2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene (hsali). The carbonyl hydrazones were characterized by elemental and ESI-QTOF-MS analyses, IR and detailed NMR spectroscopic measurements. The 2D NMR experiments allowed the unambiguous assignment of the hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen atoms, which have not been reported for nalidixic acid carbonyl hydrazone derivatives so far. Crystal structures of hzd and the new carbonyl hydrazones h2imi, hpyrr and h3py were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Although the synthesis of hzd was reported decades ago, the hzd crystal structure have not been reported yet. Geometric optimizations of all the characterized structures were performed with the aid of DFT studies. Despite the fact that the hydrazones with 2-pyridine carboxylic acid (h2py) and salicyl aldehyde (hsali) were already reported by literature, a detailed spectroscopic study followed by DFT studies are also reported for such compounds in this manuscript. Antimicrobial studies of the compounds are also presented.

  11. Carbonylative Heck Reactions Using CO Generated ex Situ in a Two-Chamber System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermange, Philippe; Gøgsig, Thomas; Lindhardt, Anders Thyboe; Taaning, Rolf Hejle; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2011-01-01

    A carbonylative Heck reaction of aryl iodides and styrene derivatives employing a two-chamber system using a stable, crystalline, and nontransition metal based carbon monoxide source is reported. By applying near-stoichiometric amounts of the carbon monoxide precursor, an effective exploitation of...

  12. Specificity of sites within eight-membered ring zeolite channels for carbonylation of methyls to acetyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Aditya; Allian, Ayman D; Sunley, Glenn J; Law, David J; Iglesia, Enrique

    2007-04-25

    The acid-catalyzed formation of carbon-carbon bonds from C1 precursors via CO insertion into chemisorbed methyl groups occurs selectively within eight-membered ring (8-MR) zeolite channels. This elementary step controls catalytic carbonylation rates of dimethyl ether (DME) to methyl acetate. The number of O-H groups within 8-MR channels was measured by rigorous deconvolution of the infrared bands for O-H groups in cation-exchanged and acid forms of mordenite (M,H-MOR) and ferrierite (H-FER) after adsorption of basic probe molecules of varying size. DME carbonylation rates are proportional to the number of O-H groups within 8-MR channels. Na+ cations selectively replaced protons within 8-MR channels and led to a disproportionate decrease in carbonylation turnover rates (per total H+). These conclusions are consistent with the low or undetectable rates of carbonylation on zeolites without 8-MR channels (H-BEA, H-FAU, H-MFI). Such specificity of methyl reactivity upon confinement within small channels appears to be unprecedented in catalysis by microporous solids, which typically select reactions by size exclusion of bulkier transition states. PMID:17397162

  13. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  14. Direct photolysis of carbonyl compounds dissolved in cloud and fog~droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S. A.; Tapavicza, E.; Furche, F.; Nizkorodov, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Gas-phase photolysis is an important tropospheric sink for many carbonyl compounds; however the significance of direct photolysis of these compounds dissolved in cloud and fog droplets is uncertain. We develop a theoretical approach to assess the importance of aqueous photolysis for a series of carbonyls that possess carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups by comparison with rates of other atmospheric processes. We use computationally and experimentally derived effective Henry's law constants, hydration equilibrium parameters, aqueous hydroxyl radical (OH) rate constants, and optical extinction coefficients to identify types of compounds that will (or will not) have competitive aqueous photolysis rates. We also present molecular dynamics simulations designed to estimate gas- and aqueous-phase extinction coefficients of unstudied atmospherically relevant compounds found in d-limonene and isoprene secondary organic aerosol. In addition, experiments designed to measure the photolysis rate of glyceraldehyde, an atmospherically relevant water-soluble organic compound, reveal that aqueous quantum yields are highly molecule-specific and cannot be extrapolated from measurements of structurally similar compounds. We find that only two out of the 92 carbonyl compounds investigated, pyruvic acid and acetoacetic acid, may have aqueous photolysis rates that exceed the rate of oxidation by dissolved OH. For almost all carbonyl compounds lacking α,β-conjugation that were investigated, atmospheric removal by direct photolysis in cloud and fog droplets can be neglected under typical atmospheric conditions.

  15. The Palladium-Catalyzed Vinylation and Carbonylation of Bromoindoles and N-Acety1-bromoindoline

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, Akira; Izumi, Taeko; Ogata, Hideaki

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts The palladium-catalyzed vinylic substitution reaction of alkenes has been shown to proceed in moderate yields with 5- and 6-bromoindols, and N-acetyl-5-bromoindoline. 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-Bromoindoles also undergo facile palladium-assisted carbonylation with carbon monoxide in methanol to produce methoxycarbonylindoles in moderate yields.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Primary Amines in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 江焕峰; 陈鸣才

    2001-01-01

    The chemoselectity of the palladimm-catalyzed carbonylation of amines was affected by the addition of MeOH in supercritical carbon dioxide. The results show different selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide CO2(sc) from that in alcohol.Methyl carbamate and its derivatives were obtained in high yields in CO2(sc).

  17. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions, in sev...

  18. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Guan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  19. Synthesis of an Epoxide Carbonylation Catalyst: Exploration of Contemporary Chemistry for Advanced Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzler, Yutan D. Y. L.; Schmidt, Joseph A. R.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2005-01-01

    A class of highly active, well-defined compounds for the catalytic carbonylation of epoxides and aziridines to beta-lactones and beta-lactams are introduced. The synthesis of one of the catalysts involves a simple imine condensation to form the ligand followed by air-sensitive metalation and salt metathesis steps.

  20. A selective palladium-catalyzed carbonylative arylation of aryl ketones to give vinylbenzoate compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranck, Johannes; Tlili, Anis; Neumann, Helfried; Alsabeh, Pamela G; Stradiotto, Mark; Beller, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Preparation of enols: when treated with [{Pd(cinnamyl)Cl}(2)]/cataCXium A (nBuPAd(2), Ad=adamantyl) under an atmosphere of CO, aryl ketones react with aryl halides in a carbonylative C-O coupling reaction to form (Z)-vinyl benzoates. PMID:23143936

  1. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  2. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    862 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis Abstract The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis) were evaluated....N. Verlecar* Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403004 *For correspondence - verlecar@nio.org 863Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Jena et al...

  3. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of ...

  4. Evaluation of hazardous airborne carbonyls on a university campus in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Ho, Kin Fai; Ng, Louisa Pan Ting; Dai, W T; Cao, Junji; Chan, Chi Sing; Ho, Legolas Baggio

    2014-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of indoor carbonyl compounds for the academic staff workers, and students was conducted on a university campus in Xiamen, China. A total of 15 representative environment categories, including 12 indoor workplaces and three residential units, were selected. The potential indoor pollution sources were identified based on the variability in the molar compositions and correlation analyses for the target carbonyls. Furnishing materials, cooking emissions, and electronic equipment, such as photocopiers, can generate various carbonyls in the workplace. Comparison studies were conducted in the clerical offices, demonstrating that off-gases from wooden furniture and lacquer coatings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the use of cleaning reagents elevated the indoor carbonyl levels. The measured concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in most locations surpassed the exposure limit levels. The lifetime cancer hazard risk (R) associated with formaldehyde was above the concern risk level (1 x 10(-6)) in all of the workplaces. The results indicate that formaldehyde exposure is a valid occupational health and safety concern. Wooden furniture and refurbishing materials can pose serious health threats to occupants. The information in this study could act as a basis for future indoor air quality monitoring in Mainland China. Implications: A university campus represents a microscale city environment consisting of all the working, living, and commercial needs of staff and students. The scope of this investigation covers 21 hazardous carbonyl species based on samples collected from 15 categories of workplaces and residential building in a university campus in southern China. Findings of the study provide a comprehensive assessment of indoor air quality with regards to workers' health and safety. No similar study has been carried out in China. PMID:25185393

  5. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism; Altersangepasste Anhebung des D-Dimer-Grenzwertes zur Vermeidung unnoetiger CT-Untersuchungen bei Verdacht auf Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.M.; Hoehne, M.; Herold, T. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Radiology; Wrede, C.E. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Emergency Department; Peetz, D. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Laboratory Medicine; Stroszczynski, C. [University Medical Center, Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  6. Age-dependent metallicity gradients of the MilkyWay disk from main sequence turn-off stars in LSS-GAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Maosheng; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-08-01

    The stellar metallicity gradient plays an important role on constraining the formation and assemblage history of the Galactic disk. We use 297, 042 main sequence turn-off stars from LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC) to study the radial metallicity gradient, [Fe/H]/R, and the vertical metallicity gradient, [Fe/H]/|Z|, of the Galactic disk in the anti-center direction. We carry out age determination for these turnoff stars via isochrone fitting and study the age-dependent metallicity gradients. We have implemented a detailed analysis on the sample selection effect to account for the target selection in the color - magnitude diagram (CMD) and the potential bias on metallicity gradients of a magnitude limited sample. Our results show that both the radial and vertical gradients have strong spatial and temporal evolution. The radial gradients of the oldest (age > 11Gyr) stars are almost zero at all heights above the Galactic disk plane, while those of the younger stars are always negative. The vertical gradients of the oldest stars are negative and show very weak evolution with the Galactocentric distance in the disk plane, R, while those of the younger stars show strong evolution with R. At the early epoch, the radial gradient steepens as the age becomes younger, with a maximum occurs at 7 - 8Gyr, after then it becomes flatter. Similar trend with age is also presented in the vertical gradients. We infer that the formation of the Galactic disk has experienced at least two phases. The earlier phase is probably a slow, pressure-supported collapse of gas, where the gas settle down to the disk from the vertical direction. In the later phase, there is significant radial flow of gas. Transition of the gas behaviors between the two phases occurs between 8 and 11Gyr. The two phases are responsible for the formation of the Galactic thick and thin disks, respectively, and consequently, we recommend that the age is a natural, physical criterion to

  7. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  8. Age-dependent modifications of AMPA receptor subunit expression levels and related cognitive effects in 3xTg-AD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eCantanelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs, the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca2+-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q to R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca2+-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca2+ and Zn2+. The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. With qRT-PCR, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1-4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.] and old (12 m.o.a Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1-4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in maintaining cognition in pre-symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice.

  9. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  10. Efficient light-harvesting using non-carbonyl carotenoids: Energy transfer dynamics in the VCP complex from Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keşan, Gürkan; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Violaxanthin-chlorophyll a protein (VCP) from Nannochloropsis oceanica is a Chl a-only member of the LHC family of light-harvesting proteins. VCP binds carotenoids violaxanthin (Vio), vaucheriaxanthin (Vau), and vaucheriaxanthin-ester (Vau-ester). Here we report on energy transfer pathways in the VCP complex. The overall carotenoid-to-Chla energy transfer has efficiency over 90%. Based on their energy transfer properties, the carotenoids in VCP can be divided into two groups; blue carotenoids with the lowest energy absorption band around 480nm and red carotenoids with absorption extended up to 530nm. Both carotenoid groups transfer energy efficiently from their S2 states, reaching efficiencies of ~70% (blue) and ~60% (red). The S1 pathway, however, is efficient only for the red carotenoid pool for which two S1 routes characterized by 0.33 and 2.4ps time constants were identified. For the blue carotenoids the S1-mediated pathway is represented only by a minor route likely involving a hot S1 state. The relaxed S1 state of blue carotenoids decays to the ground state within 21ps. Presence of a fraction of non-transferring red carotenoids with the S1 lifetime of 13ps indicates some specific carotenoid-protein interaction that must shorten the intrinsic S1 lifetime of Vio and/or Vau whose S1 lifetimes in methanol are 26 and 29ps, respectively. The VCP complex from N. oceanica is the first example of a light-harvesting complex binding only non-carbonyl carotenoids with carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer efficiency over 90%. PMID:26744091

  11. Interplay of carbonyl-carbonyl, Csbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯π interactions in hierarchical supramolecular assembly of tartaric anhydrides - Tartaric acid and its O-acyl derivatives: Part 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Izabela D.; Zachara, Janusz; Hajmowicz, Halina; Synoradzki, Ludwik

    2012-06-01

    The detailed analysis of molecular and crystal structure of the O-acyltartaric anhydrides is presented. The role of both intra- and intermolecular weak interactions is discussed. The Hirshfeld surfaces analysis in form of dnorm representation and decomposed finger print plots was used to find out the types of weak but directional carbonyl-carbonyl, Csbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯π interactions. The major interactions at the subsequent levels of the crystal architecture were identified. The interplay between carbonyl-carbonyl interactions and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds both at the molecular level as well as in basic supramolecular motives was analyzed. In all cases the primary supramolecular motif was found to be the ribbon showing the p21 rod group symmetry. The key role of the ribbon motif is reflected in the hexagonal packing of rods.

  12. Recherches récentes sur le cobalt carbonyle et ses dérivés Recent Studies of Cobalt Carbonyl and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poilblanc R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Faisant le point sur l'ensemble de leurs résultats obtenus au cours des dernières années, les auteurs développent divers aspects relatifs aux synthèses, à la physico-chimie et aux structures des complexes dérivés des cobalt carbonyle. L'étude concerne essentiellement : - les dérivés de simple substitution de l'octacarbonyle dicobalt et la tautomérie des complexes dinucléaires; - les dérivés mononucléaires ioniques et leur relation avec les formes alkyle et acétyle du cobalt (I; - le bis (tétracarbonyle cobalt mercure et ses dérivés de substitution ; - les dérivés tétranucléaires et le phénomène de « migration intramoléculaire » des ligands. Les caractéristiques spectrographiques de quelque soixante-dix complexes sont fournies en annexe. The authors review their findings concerning the synthesis, physico-chemical properties and structural nature of cobalt carbonyl derivatives. The article deals with : - Normal substitution of Col (CO,, and tautomerism of binuclear complexes; - lonic mononuclear derivatives in relation with alkyl and acetylcobaltcarbonyls ; - Bis (tetracarbonylcobalt mercury and its substituted derivatives ; - Tetranuclear cobalt complexes exhibiting intramolecular scrambling. Spectrographic data of some 70 compounds are given.

  13. p62 prevents carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP)-induced apoptotic cell death by activating Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Su; Kang, Dong Hoon; Bae, Soo Han

    2015-09-01

    Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) is a mitochondrial depolarizing agent that induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is crucial for the elimination of ROS in stressed cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in CCCP-induced cell death is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that CCCP promotes Keap1 degradation, and thereby activates Nrf2. This CCCP-mediated Keap1 degradation is partly dependent on autophagy. Moreover, CCCP-induced Keap1 degradation is mainly reliant on p62, which functions as an adaptor protein during selective autophagy. Lack of p62 blocked CCCP-induced Keap1 degradation and inhibited Nrf2 activation, and thereby increased the accumulation of ROS. Ablation of p62 increased the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against oxidative stress through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. PMID:26208452

  14. Protein-bound acrolein: Potential markers for oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Koji; Kanematsu, Masamichi; Sakai, Kensuke; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Hattori, Nobutaka; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyata, Toshio; Noguchi, Noriko; Niki, Etsuo; Osawa, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    Acrolein (CH2=CH—CHO) is known as a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment. Here we show that this notorious aldehyde is not just a pollutant, but also a lipid peroxidation product that could be ubiquitously generated in biological systems. Upon incubation with BSA, acrolein was rapidly incorporated into the protein and generated the protein-linked carbonyl derivative, a putative marker of oxidatively modified proteins under oxidative stress. To verify the presence of protein-bound acrolein ...

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of pig heart carbonyl reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pig heart carbonyl reductase has been crystallized in the presence of NADPH. Diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation. Pig heart carbonyl reductase (PHCR), which belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms (I and II) have been obtained in the presence of NADPH. Form I crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P42, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.61, c = 94.31 Å, and diffract to 1.5 Å resolution. Form II crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.10, c = 147.00 Å, and diffract to 2.2 Å resolution. Both crystal forms are suitable for X-ray structure analysis at high resolution

  16. Polar [3 + 2] cycloaddition of ketones with electrophilically activated carbonyl ylides. Synthesis of spirocyclic dioxolane indolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentabed-Ababsa, Ghenia; Derdour, Aicha; Roisnel, Thierry; Sáez, Jose A; Domingo, Luis R; Mongin, Florence

    2008-09-01

    The [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between carbonyl ylides generated from epoxides and ketones (ethyl pyruvate, ethyl phenylglyoxylate, isatin, N-methylisatin and 5-chloroisatin) to give substituted dioxolanes and spirocyclic dioxolane indolinones was investigated. The effect of microwave irradiation on the outcome of the reaction was studied. The thermal reaction between 2,2-dicyano-3-phenyloxirane and N-methylisatin was theoretically studied using DFT methods. This reaction is a domino process that comprises two steps. The first is the thermal ring opening of the epoxide to yield a carbonyl ylide intermediate, whereas the second step is a polar [3 + 2] cycloaddition to yield the final spiro cycloadducts. The cycloaddition presents a low stereoselectivity and a large regio- and chemoselectivity. Analysis of the electrophilicity values and the Fukui functions of the reagents involved in the cycloaddition step allowed the chemical outcome to be explained. PMID:18698474

  17. Amino acid decarboxylations produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls in amino acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; León, M Mercedes; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-10-15

    The formation of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde in mixtures of phenylalanine, a lipid oxidation product, and a second amino acid was studied to determine the role of the second amino acid in the degradation of phenylalanine produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. The presence of the second amino acid usually increased the formation of the amine and reduced the formation of the Strecker aldehyde. The reasons for this behaviour seem to be related to the α-amino group and the other functional groups (mainly amino or similar groups) present in the side-chain of the amino acid. These groups are suggested to modify the lipid-derived reactive carbonyl but not the reaction mechanism because the Ea of formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde remained unchanged in all studied systems. All these results suggest that the amine/aldehyde ratio obtained by amino acid degradation can be modified by adding free amino acids during food formulation. PMID:27173560

  18. Influence of gamma radiation reaction on the hydroesterification of butenes catalyzed by metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hydro carboxylation reaction, which first has been studied by Reppe, olefine and acetylene compounds are processed with carbon monoxide and water at high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of metal carbonyls. This reaction can be enhanced considerably by application of ionizing radiation. Lower pressures and in particular lower temperatures can be used if gamma irradiation is performed during carboxylation. For the experiments a mixture of buten-1 and buten-2 as well as pure buten-1 and pure buten-2 has been used to study the behaviour of these olefines with respect to the isomerization of the reaction products and to the olefines not transformed in the reaction process. Replacing water, methanol has been used as a reaction component, thus obtaining directly the respective carbonyl acid esters, which can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively with respect to their isomeric composition by gaschromatography. (orig./HK)

  19. Contribution to radiation-chemically catalyzed hydroformylation of butenes in the presence of metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a study is presented of the influence of gamma-radiation on the catalytic hydroformylation of olefines. As model olefines buten-1 and buten-2 as well as their mixtures have been used together with the catalysts di-cobalt octacarbonyle and rhodium (I) tristri phenyl-phosphine carbonyle hydride. In addition the catalytic activity of the VI. side group carbonyles Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6 and W(CO)6 has been studied under radiation chemical conditions. For this purpose a mixture of olefine, solvent (cyclo hexane) and calalyst has been pressurized and processed in a mixing autoklave together with a Co and H2 (1:1) mixture, variing the reaction variables within certain limits. (orig.)

  20. Design and fabrication of microfluidic mixer from carbonyl iron–PDMS composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jiaxing

    2010-10-12

    This paper introduces a carbonyl iron-PDMS (CI-PDMS) composite magnetic elastomer in which carbonyl iron (CI) particles are uniformly distributed in a PDMS matrix. The CI particles and the PDMS were mixed at different weight ratios and tested to determine the influence of CI concentration. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnetic elastomers were characterized, respectively, by vibrating-sample magnetometer and by tensile testing using a mechanical analyzer. The elastomer was found to exhibit high magnetization and good mechanical flexibility. The morphology and deformation of the CI-PDMS membrane also were observed. A magnetically actuated microfluidic mixer (that is, a micromixer) integrated with CI-PDMS elastomer membranes was successfully designed and fabricated. The high efficiency and quality of the mixing makes possible the impressive potential applications of this unique CI-PDMS material in microfluidic systems. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  1. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. PMID:27173550

  2. The Pharmacological Activities of the Metabolites of N-[(Trimethylamineboryl)-Carbonyl]-L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M. C.III; Sood, A.; Spielvogel, B. F.; Shrewsbury, R. P.; Hall, I. H.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolites of N-[(trimethylamineboryl)-carbonyl]-L-phenylalanine methyl ester 1 proved to be active in a number of pharmacological screens where the parent had previously demonstrated potent activity. The proposed metabolites demonstrated significant activity as cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, and anti-inflammatory agents. In cytotoxicity screens several of the proposed metabolites afforded better activity than the parent compound against the growth of suspended and solid tumor cell lines. Eva...

  3. Formation of Small Gas Phase Carbonyls from Heterogeneous Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A.; Gao, S.; Abbatt, J.

    2011-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are emitted into the atmosphere from gas and diesel powered vehicles, cooking, plants, and marine biota. Field measurements have suggested that FAs, including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), could make up an important contribution to the organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols. Due to the existence of carbon-carbon double bonds in their molecules, PUFA are believed to be highly reactive towards atmospheric oxidants such as OH and NO3 radicals and ozone, which will contribute to aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei activity. Previous work from our group has shown that small carbonyls formed from the heterogeneous reaction of linoleic acid (LA) thin films with gas-phase O3. It is known that the formation of small carbonyls in the atmosphere is not only relevant to the atmospheric budget of volatile organic compounds but also to secondary organic aerosol formation. In the present study, using an online proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) we again investigated carbonyl formation from the same reaction system, i.e. the heterogeneous ozonolysis of LA film. In addition to the previously reported carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA), a source of reactive oxygen species that is mutagenic, has been identified as a product for the first time. Small dicarbonyls, e.g. glyoxal, are expected to be formed from the further oxidation of MDA. In this presentation, the gas-phase chemistry of MDA with OH radicals using a newly built Teflon chamber in our group will also be presented.

  4. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel N-Pyridylpyrazole Carbonyl Thioureas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝雷; 马翼; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel N-pyridylpyrazole carbonyl thioureas were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by melting points, 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis or HRMS. The bioassay tests indicated that some of these compounds exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against Mythirnna separata Walker and Culex pipiens pallens. Among 17 compounds, 5n and 5p showed 100% larvicidal activity against Mythimna separata Walker at the test concentration of 100 mg/L.

  5. Polar [3 + 2] cycloaddition of ketones with electrophilically activated carbonyl ylides. Synthesis of spirocyclic dioxolane indolinones.

    OpenAIRE

    Bentabed-Ababsa, Ghenia; Derdour, Aicha; Roisnel, Thierry; Sáez, Jose A.; Luis R. Domingo; Mongin, Florence

    2008-01-01

    The [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between carbonyl ylides generated from epoxides and ketones (ethyl pyruvate, ethyl phenylglyoxylate, isatin, N-methylisatin and 5-chloroisatin) to give substituted dioxolanes and spirocyclic dioxolane indolinones was investigated. The effect of microwave irradiation on the outcome of the reaction was studied. The thermal reaction between 2,2-dicyano-3-phenyloxirane and N-methylisatin was theoretically studied using DFT methods. This reaction is a domino proc...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika; Souris

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks fo...

  7. Influence of shape anisotropy on microwave complex permeability in carbonyl iron flakes/epoxy resin composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Fu-Sheng; Qiao Liang; Zhou Dong; Zuo Wen-Liang; Yi Hai-Bo; Li Fa-Shen

    2008-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of carbonyl iron flake composites for microwave complex permeability, this paper investigates the feature of the flakes. The shape anisotropy was certified by the results of the magnetization hysteresis loops and the Mossbauer spectra. Furthermore, the shape anisotropy was used to explain the origin of composite microwave performance, and the calculated results agree with the experiment. It is believed that the shape anisotropy dominates microwave complex permeability, and the natural resonance plays main role in flake.

  8. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Mary E.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Berry, Joseph A; Berkelhammer, Max; Desai, Ankur R; Campbell, J. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil–COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been made show smal...

  9. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and various soils in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J; C. Geng; Mu, Y; Zhang, Y.; Z. Xu; Wu, H

    2010-01-01

    Using a dynamic enclosure, the exchange rates of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and 18 soils from 12 provinces in China were investigated. The emission or uptake of COS from the soils was highly dependent on the soil type, soil temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric COS mixing ratio. In general, with the only exception being paddy soils, the soils in this investigation acted as sinks for atmospheric COS under wide ranges of soil temperature and soil moisture. Two intensive...

  10. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Whelan; T. W. Hilton; J. A. Berry; M. Berkelhammer; A. R. Desai; Campbell, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil-COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been ...

  11. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and various soils in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J; C. Geng; Mu, Y; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H

    2009-01-01

    Using a dynamic enclosure, the exchange fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and 18 soils from 10 provinces in China were investigated. The emission or uptake of COS from the soils was highly dependent on the soil type, soil temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric COS mixing ratio. In general, with the only exception being paddy soils, the soils in this investigation acted as sinks for atmospheric COS under wide ranges of soil temperature and soil moisture. Two i...

  12. Novel Routes to Ethylene Glycol Synthesis via Acid-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Formaldehyde and Dimethoxymethane

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Fuat Emin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond forming carbonylation reactions were investigated as candidates to replace ethene epoxidation as the major source of ethylene glycol production. This work was motivated by the potentially lower cost of carbon derived from synthesis gas as compared to ethylene. Synthesis gas can be produced from relatively abundant and cheap natural gas, coal, and biomass resources whereas ethylene is derived from increasingly scarce and expensive crude oil. From synthesis gas, a range of...

  13. The interaction of metal carbonyl compounds with organic polymers and monomers

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    The photochemistry of W(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and Cr(CO)6 in the presence of monomeric and polymeric triphenylphosphine ligands was investigated in toluene solution, using laser flash photolysis with 355nm excitation. The mechanism and kinetics of interaction of the primary photoproducts M(CO)5(toluene) (M = W, Mo, or Cr) with the various monomeric ligands were investigated. Interaction of the metal carbonyl photofragments with various homopolymers is also discussed. The polymerisation methods used ...

  14. Density functional theory study of electroreductive hydrocoupling of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Naoki

    2006-11-24

    [reaction: see text] The electroreductive hydrocoupling of methyl cinnamate, methyl crotonate, cumarin, and benzalacetone was studied by DFT (B3LYP/6-311++ G**) calculations. The computational outcomes for the transition states in the hydrocoupling of anion radicals generated by a one-electron transfer to the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds well agree with the diastereoselectivities in the experimental results previously reported. PMID:17109548

  15. Synthesis and complexing properties of carbonyl-containing thiacalyx[4]arenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereoisomers of unsubstituted by upper rim of thiacalyx(4)arenes containing four carbonyl fragments have been prepared for the first time, their structure has been investigated by one- and two-dimensional spectroscopy, NMR, IR-spectroscopy and mass-spectrometry. Complexing properties of macrocycles concerning alkali metal cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+) is evaluated by picrate extraction. Lack of the preorganization in the case of unsubstituted by upper rim thiacalyxarenes accounts for sudden decreasing extraction ability

  16. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Regazzoni; Barbora de Courten; Davide Garzon; Alessandra Altomare; Cristina Marinello; Michaela Jakubova; Silvia Vallova; Patrik Krumpolec; Marina Carini; Jozef Ukropec; Barbara Ukropcova; Giancarlo Aldini

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, whi...

  17. Hydrogen bond and protonation during interaction of transition metal carbonyl complexes with HCl and perfluoro-tert-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of IR-spectrometry HCl interaction with some carbonyl complexes of transition metals: (Et5C5)Re(CO)3, (η6 - Me3C6H3)M(CO)3, where M = Cr, Mo, W at low temperatures in solution of liquid xenon, as well as interaction of certain complexes of Arene M (CO)L2 type with perfluoro-tert-butanol, have been investigated. It is ascertained that HCl is able to form H-bond with carbonyl Π-complexes by transition metals via oxygen atom of carbonyl group at metal atom in xenon solution. The protonation of carbonyl complexes of transition metals to metal atom can proceed via the stage of hydrogen bond formation to oxygen atom of CO group

  18. Effect of carbonyl inhibitors and their H₂O₂ detoxification on lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Caiqing; Tu, Maobing; Han, Pingping; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-04-01

    Biomass degradation compounds significantly inhibit biochemical conversion of biomass prehydrolysates to biofuels and chemicals, such as lactic acid. To characterize the structure-activity relationship of carbonyl inhibition on lactic acid fermentation, we examined effects of eight carbonyl compounds (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phthalaldehyde, benzoic acid, and pyrogallol aldehyde) and creosol on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Pyrogallol aldehyde reduced the cell growth rate by 35 % at 1.0 mM and inhibited lactic acid production completely at 2.0 mM. By correlating the molecular descriptors to the inhibition constants in lactic acid fermentation, we found a good relationship between the hydrophobicity (Log P) of aldehydes and their inhibition constants in fermentation. The inhibitory effect of carbonyl inhibitors appeared to correlate with their thiol reactivity as well. In addition, we found that H2O2 detoxified pyrogallol aldehyde and phthalaldehyde inhibitory activity. H2O2 detoxification was applied to real biomass prehydrolysates in lactic acid fermentation. PMID:25666370

  19. Gas chromatographic analysis of reactive carbonyl compounds formed from lipids upon UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroxidation of lipids produces carbonyl compounds; some of these, e.g., malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, are genotoxic because of their reactivity with biological nucleophiles. Analysis of the reactive carbonyl compounds is often difficult. The methylhydrazine method developed for malonaldehyde analysis was applied to simultaneously measure the products formed from linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and squalene upon ultraviolet-irradiation (UV-irradiation). The photoreaction products, saturated monocarbonyl, alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls, and beta-dicarbonyls, were derivatized with methylhydrazine to give hydrazones, pyrazolines, and pyrazoles, respectively. The derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Lipid peroxidation products identified included formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, malonaldehyde, n-hexanal, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Malonaldehyde levels formed upon 4 hr of irradiation were 0.06 micrograms/mg from squalene, 2.4 micrograms/mg from linolenic acid, and 5.7 micrograms/mg from arachidonic acid. Significant levels of acrolein (2.5 micrograms/mg) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (0.17 micrograms/mg) were also produced from arachidonic acid upon 4 hr irradiation

  20. Uncertainties of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon and carbonyl measurements in heavy-duty diesel emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Guerriero, Ettore; Possanzini, Massimiliano

    2006-02-01

    In this note we describe the speciated particle-phase PM2.5 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and gas-phase carbonyl emissions as collected from a heavy-duty diesel bus outfitted with an oxidation catalyst for exhaust after-treatment. The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer during a transient cycle test reproducing a typical city bus route (Azienda Tramviaria Municipalizzata cycle). The diluted tailpipe emissions were sampled for PAH using a 2.5 microm cut size cyclone glass fiber filter assembly, while carbonyls were absorbed onto dinitrophenyl hydrazine-coated silica cartridges. The former compounds were analysed by CGC-MS, the latter by HPLC-UV. Combining the two sets of speciation data resulting from 15 identical dynamometer tests provided a profile of both unregulated organic emissions. PAH emission rates decreased with the number of benzene fused rings. Fluoranthene and pyrene amounted to 90% of total PAHs quantified; six-ring PAHs accounted only for 0.5%. Similarly, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde accounted for approximately 80% of the total carbonyl emissions. Uncertainties of the method in the determination of individual emission factors were calculated. Statistical data processing revealed that all the measurements were quite unaffected by systematic errors and repeatability percentages did not exceed 50% for the majority of components of both groups. PMID:16524107

  1. Gas chromatographic analysis of reactive carbonyl compounds formed from lipids upon UV-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, K.J.; Shibamoto, T. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Peroxidation of lipids produces carbonyl compounds; some of these, e.g., malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, are genotoxic because of their reactivity with biological nucleophiles. Analysis of the reactive carbonyl compounds is often difficult. The methylhydrazine method developed for malonaldehyde analysis was applied to simultaneously measure the products formed from linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and squalene upon ultraviolet-irradiation (UV-irradiation). The photoreaction products, saturated monocarbonyl, alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls, and beta-dicarbonyls, were derivatized with methylhydrazine to give hydrazones, pyrazolines, and pyrazoles, respectively. The derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Lipid peroxidation products identified included formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, malonaldehyde, n-hexanal, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Malonaldehyde levels formed upon 4 hr of irradiation were 0.06 micrograms/mg from squalene, 2.4 micrograms/mg from linolenic acid, and 5.7 micrograms/mg from arachidonic acid. Significant levels of acrolein (2.5 micrograms/mg) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (0.17 micrograms/mg) were also produced from arachidonic acid upon 4 hr irradiation.

  2. Vapor phase carbonylation of dimethyl ether and methyl acetate with supported transition metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of acetic acid (AcOH) from methanol (MeOH) and carbon monoxide has been performed industrially in the liquid phase using a rhodium complex catalyst and an iodide promoter. The selectivity to AcOH is more than 99% under mild conditions (1750C, 28 atm). The homogeneous rhodium catalyst has been also effective for the synthesis of acetic anhydride (Ac2O) by carbonylation of dimethyl ether (DME) or methyl acetate (AcOMe). However, rhodium is one of the most expensive metals and its proved reserves are quite limited. It is highly desired, therefore, to develop a new catalyst as a substitute for rhodium. The authors have already reported that nickel supported on active carbon exhibits an excellent activity for the vapor phase carbonylation of MeOh in the presence of iodide promoter and under moderately pressurized conditions. In addition, corrosive attack on reactors by iodide compounds is expected to be negligible in the vapor phase system. In the present work, vapor phase carbonylation of DME and AcOMe on nickel-active carbon (Ni/A.C.) and molybdenum-active carbon (Mo/A.C.) catalysts was studied

  3. Synthesis, structural and vibrational properties of 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-halophenyl thioureas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Erben, Mauricio F.; Bolte, Michael

    2013-02-01

    1-(Adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)thiourea (1) and 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(2-bromo-4,6-difluorophenyl)thiourea (2) were synthesized by the reaction of adamantane-1-carbonyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate to afford the adamantane-1-carbonylisothiocyanate in situ followed by treatment with suitable halogenated anilines. The structures of the products were established by elemental analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Bond lengths and angles show the usual values. All of three condensed cyclohexane rings of the adamantane residues adopt the usual chair conformation. The molecular conformation of 1 and 2 is stabilized by an intramolecular (Nsbnd H⋯Odbnd C) hydrogen bond which forms a pseudo-six-membered ring. Structural features have been complemented with the joint analysis of the FTIR and FT-Raman spectra along with quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level.

  4. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species.

  5. Asymmetric Conjugate Alkynylation of Cyclic α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds with a Chiral Diene Rhodium Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaowei; Huang, Yinhua; Hayashi, Tamio

    2016-01-18

    Asymmetric conjugate alkynylation of cyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (ketones, esters, and amides) was realized by use of diphenyl[(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl]methanol as an alkynylating reagent in the presence of a rhodium catalyst coordinated with a new chiral diene ligand (Fc-bod; bod=bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5-diene, Fc=ferrocenyl) to give high yields of the corresponding β-alkynyl-substituted carbonyl compounds with 95-98% ee. PMID:26636764

  6. Spatial distributions of and diurnal variations in low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater, and the controlling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the spatial distributions of and the diurnal variations in four low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and glyoxal, in coastal seawater. The samples were taken from the coastal areas of Hiroshima Bay, the Iyo Nada, and the Bungo Channel, western Japan. The formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyoxal concentrations were higher in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay than at offshore sampling points in the Iyo Nada and the Bungo Channel. These three compounds were found at much higher concentrations in the surface water than in deeper water layers in Hiroshima Bay. It is noteworthy that propionaldehyde was not detected in any of the seawater samples, the concentrations present being lower than the detection limit (1 nanomole per liter (nM)) of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system we used. Photochemical and biological experiments were performed in the laboratory to help understand the characteristic distributions and fates of the LMW carbonyl compounds. The primary process controlling their fate in the coastal environment appears to be their biological consumption. The direct photo degradation of propionaldehyde, initiated by ultraviolet (UV) absorption, was observed, although formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not degraded by UV irradiation. Our results suggest that the degradation of the LMW carbonyl compounds by photochemically formed hydroxyl radicals is relatively insignificant in the study area. Atmospheric deposition is a possible source of soluble carbonyl compounds in coastal surface seawater, but it may not influence the carbonyl concentrations in offshore waters. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater were determined. • Photochemical productions of LMW carbonyl compounds in seawater were observed. • LMW carbonyl compounds were largely consumed biologically. • Photochemical degradation was relatively insignificant in the study area

  7. Synthesis of beta-lactones by the regioselective, cobalt and Lewis acid catalyzed carbonylation of simple and functionalized epoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J T; Thomas, P J; Alper, H

    2001-08-10

    The PPNCo(CO)(4) and BF(3) x Et(2)O catalyzed carbonylation of simple and functionalized epoxides in DME gives the corresponding beta-lactones regioselectively in good to high yields. The carbonylation occurred selectively at the unsubstituted C-O bond of the epoxide ring, and this reaction tolerates various functional groups such as alkenyl, halide, hydroxy, and alkyl ether. PMID:11485465

  8. Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ahmed A.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Orasche, J.; Abbaszade, G.; Lintelmann, J.; Arteaga-Salas, J. M.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Harndorf, H.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-09-01

    Gas phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from a research ship diesel engine at Rostock University, Germany. The ship engine was operated using two different types of fuels, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF). Sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using cartridges and impingers. Both sampling methods involved the derivatization of CCs with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by two analytical techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). Analysis of DNPH cartridges by GC-SIM-MS method has resulted in the identification of 19 CCs in both fuel operations. These CCs include ten aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, isobutanal, butanal, isopentanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, nonanal), three unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde), three aromatic aldehyde (benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde, m,o-molualdehyde), two ketones (acetone, butanone) and one heterocyclic aldehyde (furfural). In general, all CCs under investigation were detected with higher emission factors in HFO than DF. The total carbonyl emission factor was determined and found to be 6050 and 2300 μg MJ-1 for the operation with HFO and DF respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the dominant carbonyls in the gas phase of ship engine emission. Formaldehyde emissions factor varied from 3500 μg MJ-1 in HFO operation to 1540 μg MJ-1 in DF operation, which is 4-30 times higher than those of other carbonyls. Emission profile contribution of CCs showed also a different pattern between HFO and DF operation. The contribution of formaldehyde was found to be 58% of the emission profile of HFO and about 67% of the emission profile of DF. Acetaldehyde showed opposite behavior with higher contribution of 16% in HFO compared to 11% for DF. Heavier carbonyls

  9. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    -dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of......The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid...... in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine...

  10. A monotonic increase of formal metal–metal bond orders from one to five upon loss of carbonyl groups from binuclear benzene chromium carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Density functional theory studies on (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)n (n = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) are reported. • The predicted Cr–Cr distances in (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)n (n = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) decrease monotonically as CO groups are lost. • The formal Cr–Cr bond orders in (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)n (n = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) increase monotonically from 1 to 5 as CO groups are lost. • Comparison of the (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)n and (C5H5)2Mn2(CO)n systems are made. - Abstract: Benzene forms a binuclear chromium carbonyl derivative (η6-C6H6)2Cr2(μ-CO)3, shown by X-ray crystallography to have a very short Cr≡Cr distance, suggesting the formal triple bond required to give each chromium atom the favored 18-electron configuration. We now describe theoretical studies on the entire series of binuclear benzene chromium carbonyls (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)n (n = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1). The predicted Cr–Cr distances in the lowest energy singlet structures determined by the BP86 method decrease monotonically as carbonyl groups are lost starting from 2.95 Å in (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)5 to 1.95 Å in (C6H6)2Cr2(CO) corresponding to a steady increase in the formal bond order from one to five. This increase in formal Cr–Cr bond order is also supported by a monotonic increase in the Wiberg bond indices ranging from 0.29 for the single bond in (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)5 to ∼2 for the formal quintuple bond in (C6H6)2Cr2(CO)

  11. OPTIMAL HARVESTING CONTROL PROBLEM FOR LINEAR AGE-DEPENDENT POPULATION DYNAMICS%具有年龄结构的种群线性动力系统的最优收获控制问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒志学; 王绵森

    2003-01-01

    An optimal harvesting problem for linear age-dependent population dynamics is investigated.By Mazur's Theorem,the existence of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is demonstrated.The first order necessary conditions of optimality for problem (OH) is obtained by the conception of normal cone. Finally,under suitable assumptions,the uniqueness of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is given.The results extend some known criteria.

  12. The use of biodiesel blends on a non-road generator and its impacts on ozone formation potentials based on carbonyl emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, emissions of carbonyl compounds from the use B50 and B100 were measured with a non-road diesel generator. A total of 25 carbonyl compounds were identified in the exhaust, including 10 with laboratory-synthesized standards. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein were found as the most abundant carbonyl compounds emitted for both diesel and biodiesel. The sulphur content of diesel fuels and the source of biodiesel fuels were not found to have a significant impact on the emission of carbonyl compounds. The overall maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) was the highest at 0 kW and slightly increased from 25 to 75 kW. The MIR of B100 was the highest, followed by diesel and B50, which is consistent with the emission rates of total carbonyl compounds. This suggests that the use of biodiesel blends may be more beneficial to the environment than using pure biodiesel. -- Highlights: •Carbonyl compound emission from biodiesel blends combustion on a non-road generator. •25 compounds were identified, including 10 by laboratory-synthesized standards. •Sources of biodiesel have insignificant impacts on carbonyl compounds emission. •Sulphur contents have insignificant impacts on carbonyl compounds emission. •MIR of emitted carbonyls decreases in the following order: B100, diesel, B50. -- The study found that B50 resulted in lower total carbonyl emission rates and ozone formation potential resultant from these compounds, whereas both increased with B100

  13. In Vivo Microdialysis Reveals Age-Dependent Decrease of Brain Interstitial Fluid Tau Levels in P301S Human Tau Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kaoru; Cirrito, John R.; Stewart, Floy R; Jiang, Hong; Finn, Mary Beth; Holmes, Brandon B.; Binder, Lester I.; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Diamond, Marc I.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Holtzman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Although tau is a cytoplasmic protein, it is also found in brain extracellular fluids, e.g., CSF. Recent findings suggest that aggregated tau can be transferred between cells and extracellular tau aggregates might mediate spread of tau pathology. Despite these data, details of whether tau is normally released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), its concentration in ISF in relation to CSF, and whether ISF tau is influenced by its aggregation are unknown. To address these issues, we develo...

  14. Mitochondrial protein oxidation in yeast mutants lacking manganese-(MnSOD) or copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD): evidence that MnSOD and CuZnSOD have both unique and overlapping functions in protecting mitochondrial proteins from oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kristin M; Dirmeier, Reinhard; Engle, Marcella; Poyton, Robert O

    2004-12-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses two forms of superoxide dismutase (SOD): MnSOD, encoded by SOD2, which is located within the mitochondrial matrix, and CuZnSOD, encoded by SOD1, which is located in both the cytosol and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Because two different SOD enzymes are located in the mitochondrion, we examined the relative roles of each in protecting mitochondria against oxidative stress. Using protein carbonylation as a measure of oxidative stress, we have found no correlation between overall levels of respiration and the level of oxidative mitochondrial protein damage in either wild type or sod mutant strains. Moreover, mitochondrial protein carbonylation levels in sod1, sod2, and sod1sod2 mutants are not elevated in cells harvested from mid-logarithmic and early stationary phases, suggesting that neither MnSOD nor CuZnSOD is required for protecting the majority of mitochondrial proteins from oxidative damage during these early phases of growth. During late stationary phase, mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases in all strains, particularly in sod1 and sod1sod2 mutants. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have found that specific proteins become carbonylated in sod1 and sod2 mutants. We identified six mitochondrial protein spots representing five unique proteins that become carbonylated in a sod1 mutant and 19 mitochondrial protein spots representing 11 unique proteins that become carbonylated in a sod2 mutant. Although some of the same proteins are carbonylated in both mutants, other proteins are not. These findings indicate that MnSOD and CuZnSOD have both unique and overlapping functions in the mitochondrion. PMID:15385544

  15. Carbonyl compounds in dining areas, kitchens and exhaust streams in restaurants with varying cooking methods in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jen-Hsuan; Lee, Yi-Shiun; Chen, Kang-Shin

    2016-03-01

    Eighteen carbonyl species in C1-C10 were measured in the dining areas, kitchens and exhaust streams of six different restaurant types in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Measured results in the dining areas show that Japanese barbecue (45.06ppb) had the highest total carbonyl concentrations (sum of 18 compounds), followed by Chinese hotpot (38.21ppb), Chinese stir-frying (8.99ppb), Western fast-food (8.22ppb), Chinese-Western mixed style (7.38ppb), and Chinese buffet (3.08ppb), due to their different arrangements for dining and cooking spaces and different cooking methods. On average, low carbon-containing species (C1-C4), e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and butyraldehyde were dominant and contributed 55.01%-94.52% of total carbonyls in the dining areas of all restaurants. Meanwhile, Chinese-Western mixed restaurants (45.48ppb) had high total carbonyl concentrations in kitchens mainly because of its small kitchen and poor ventilation. However, high carbon-containing species (C5-C10) such as hexaldehyde, heptaldehyde and nonanaldehyde (16.62%-77.00% of total carbonyls) contributed comparatively with low carbon-containing compounds (23.01%-83.39% of total carbonyls) in kitchens. Furthermore, Chinese stir-frying (132.10ppb), Japanese barbecue (125.62ppb), Western fast-food (122.67ppb), and Chinese buffet (119.96ppb) were the four restaurant types with the highest total carbonyl concentrations in exhaust streams, indicating that stir-frying and grilling are inclined to produce polluted gases. Health risk assessments indicate that Chinese hotpot and Japanese barbecue exceeded the limits of cancer risk (10(-6)) and hazard index (=1), mainly due to high concentrations of formaldehyde. The other four restaurants were below both limits. PMID:26969068

  16. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Granold; Bernd Moosmann; Irina Staib-Lasarzik; Thomas Arendt; Adriana del Rey; Kristin Engelhard; Christian Behl; Parvana Hajieva

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old anim...

  17. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppendieck, D. G.; Hubbard, H. F.; Weschler, C. J.; Corsi, R. L.

    Ozone concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than typical urban ambient concentrations are necessary for gas-phase ozonation of buildings, either for deodorization or for disinfection of biological agents. However, there is currently no published literature on the interaction of building materials and ozone under such extreme conditions. It would be useful to understand, for example in the case of building re-occupation planning, what types and amounts of reaction products may form and persist in a building after ozonation. In this study, 24 materials were exposed to ozone at concentrations of 1000 ppm in the inlet stream of experimental chambers. Fifteen target carbonyls were selected and measured as building ozonation by-products (BOBPs). During the 36 h that include the 16 h ozonation and 20 h persistence phase, the total BOBP mass released from flooring and wall coverings ranged from 1 to 20 mg m -2, with most of the carbonyls being of lower molecular weight (C 1-C 4). In contrast, total BOBP mass released from wood-based products ranged from 20 to 100 mg m -2, with a greater fraction of the BOBPs being heavier carbonyls (C 5-C 9). The total BOBP mass released during an ozonation event is a function of both the total surface area of the material and the BOBP emission rate per unit area of material. Ceiling tile, carpet, office partition, and gypsum wallboard with flat latex paint often have large surface areas in commercial buildings and these same materials exhibited relatively high BOBP releases. The greatest overall BOBP mass releases were observed for three materials that building occupants might have significant contact with: paper, office partition, and medium density fiberboard, e.g., often used in office furniture. These materials also exhibited extended BOBP persistence following ozonation; some BOBPs (e.g., nonanal) persist for months or more at emission rates large enough to result in indoor concentrations that exceed their odor

  18. Sol–gel method as a way of carbonyl iron powder surface modification for interaction improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, P., E-mail: pawel.malecki@pwr.edu.pl [Polymer Engineering and Technology Division, W-3, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50 370 Wrocław (Poland); Kolman, K.; Pigłowski, J. [Polymer Engineering and Technology Division, W-3, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50 370 Wrocław (Poland); Kaleta, J. [Department of Mechanics, Materials Science and Engineering, W-10, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Krzak, J., E-mail: justyna.krzak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Mechanics, Materials Science and Engineering, W-10, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    This article presents a method for modification of carbonyl iron particles’ surface (CIP), (d{sub 50}=4–9 µm) by silica coatings obtained using the sol–gel method. Reaction parameters were determined to obtain dry magnetic powder with homogeneous silica coatings without further processing and without any by-product in the solid or liquid phase. This approach is new among the commonly used methods of silica coating of iron particles. No attempt has been made to cover a carbonyl iron surface by silica in a waste-free method, up to date. In the current work two different silica core/shell structures were made by the sol–gel process, based on different silica precursors: tetraethoxy-silane (TEOS) and tetramethoxy-silane (TMOS). The dependence between the synthesis procedure and thickness of silica shell covering carbonyl iron particles has been described. Surface morphology of the modified magnetic particles and the coating thickness were characterized with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determination of the physicochemical structure of the obtained materials was performed by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), and the infrared technique (IR). The surface composition was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, distribution of particle size was measured using light microscopy. The new, efficient process of covering micro-size CIP with a nanometric silica layer was shown. Results of a performed analysis confirm the effectiveness of the presented method. - Highlights: • Proper covering CIP by sol–gel silica layer avoids agglomeration. • A new solid waste-free method of CIP coating is proposed. • Examination of the properties of modified CIP in depends on washing process. • Coatings on CIP particles doesn’t change the magnetic properties of particles.

  19. Sol–gel method as a way of carbonyl iron powder surface modification for interaction improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a method for modification of carbonyl iron particles’ surface (CIP), (d50=4–9 µm) by silica coatings obtained using the sol–gel method. Reaction parameters were determined to obtain dry magnetic powder with homogeneous silica coatings without further processing and without any by-product in the solid or liquid phase. This approach is new among the commonly used methods of silica coating of iron particles. No attempt has been made to cover a carbonyl iron surface by silica in a waste-free method, up to date. In the current work two different silica core/shell structures were made by the sol–gel process, based on different silica precursors: tetraethoxy-silane (TEOS) and tetramethoxy-silane (TMOS). The dependence between the synthesis procedure and thickness of silica shell covering carbonyl iron particles has been described. Surface morphology of the modified magnetic particles and the coating thickness were characterized with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determination of the physicochemical structure of the obtained materials was performed by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), and the infrared technique (IR). The surface composition was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, distribution of particle size was measured using light microscopy. The new, efficient process of covering micro-size CIP with a nanometric silica layer was shown. Results of a performed analysis confirm the effectiveness of the presented method. - Highlights: • Proper covering CIP by sol–gel silica layer avoids agglomeration. • A new solid waste-free method of CIP coating is proposed. • Examination of the properties of modified CIP in depends on washing process. • Coatings on CIP particles doesn’t change the magnetic properties of particles

  20. Deep-blue phosphorescence from perfluoro carbonyl-substituted iridium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Seul-Ong; Shin, Hyun; Yun, Hui-Jun; Yang, Kiyull; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2013-09-25

    The new deep-blue iridium(III) complexes, (TF)2Ir(pic), (TF)2Ir(fptz), (HF)2Ir(pic), and (HF)2Ir(fptz), consisting of 2',4″-difluororphenyl-3-methylpyridine with trifluoromethyl carbonyl or heptafluoropropyl carbonyl at the 3' position as the main ligand and a picolinate or a trifluoromethylated-triazole as the ancillary ligand, were synthesized and characterized for applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Density function theory (DFT) calculations showed that these iridium complexes had a wide band gap, owing to the introduction of the strong electron withdrawing perfluoro carbonyl group. Time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations suggested that their lowest triplet excited state was dominated by a HOMO → LUMO transition and that the contribution of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) was higher than 34% for all four complexes, indicating that strong spin-orbit coupling exists in the complexes. The 10 wt % (TF)2Ir(pic) doped 9-(3-(9H-carbazole-9-yl)phenyl)-3-(dibromophenylphosphoryl)-9H-carbazole (mCPPO1) film exhibited the highest photoluminescence quantum yield of 74 ± 3% among the films based on the four complexes. Phosphorescent OLEDs based on (TF)2Ir(pic) and (TF)2Ir(fptz) exhibited maximum external quantum efficiencies of 17.1% and 8.4% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.141, 0.158) and (0.147, 0.116), respectively. These CIE coordinates represent some of the deepest blue emissions ever achieved from phosphorescent OLEDs with considerably high EQEs. PMID:23998654

  1. Electrochemical Dissolution Behavior and the Residue Formation Mechanism of Laboratory Made Carbonyl Nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Why residue is formed during anodic dissolution of carbonyl nickel was explained. • Spatiotemporal pattern of pitting in anodic Ni dissolution was described. • The role of sulfur impurities on anodic Ni dissolution was explained. - Abstract: The anodic dissolution of two laboratory-made Ni samples obtained using the carbonyl method was investigated to understand the origin of residue formation in the anode basket in an electroplating tank. The first sample was obtained with 3 ppm addition of carbonyl sulfide to introduce a small amount of sulfur (CN-S sample). The second was obtained without sulfur impurities (CN sample). Linear sweep voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were applied to characterize the dissolution of these samples. The dissolution of the CN-S sample took place in the active region at low overpotentials. This behavior is determined by the presence of sulfur impurities that break down the passive layer and facilitate Ni dissolution. The CN sample without sulfur was dissolved at high overpotentials. The overpotential-time plots displayed regular large amplitude oscillations in which the overvoltage periodically moved between the transpassive and passive regimes. The anodic dissolution of this sample was controlled by two competing processes: breakdown and formation of the passive layer. Scanning electron microscopy and white light interference microscopy were applied to monitor the morphological changes of the two samples as a function of the dissolution time. The results of these studies showed that the CN-S sample dissolved uniformly across the surface. However, the roughness and the aspect ratio of the protruding features on the surface increased with time. This sample produced a fine residue due to detachment of small protruding crystallites. In contrast, the dissolution of the CN sample involved pit formation and took place predominantly from the bulk of the pits. The dissolution of this sample left a porous skeleton of more

  2. STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A BIDENTATE POLYMER BOUND CIS-DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX AS CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhongyang; PAN Pinglai; YUAN Guoqing

    1996-01-01

    Copolymer of 2-vinylpyridine and vinylacetate coordinated with dicarbonylrhodium used as a catalyst for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and anhydride has been studied. The structural characteristics of the copolymer ligand and complex, and the influences of the reaction conditions on the carbonylation catalyzed by this polymer complex have been investigated. In comparison with small molecule catalyst of Rh complex, the bidentate copolymer coordinated complex has better thermal stability. The reaction mechanism of the carbonylation reaction is also illustrated.

  3. Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in Antarctic ice cores and an atmospheric history for the last 8000 years

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, M.; Fudge, TJ; Verhulst, KR; Nicewonger, MR; Waddington, ED; Saltzman, Es

    2014-01-01

    ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) was measured in Antarctic ice core samples from the Byrd, Siple Dome, Taylor Dome, and West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide sites covering the last 8000 years of the Holocene. COS levels decrease downcore in most of these ice cores. The magnitude of the downcore trends varies among the different ice cores and is related to the thermal histories of the ice sheet at each site. We hypothesize that this is due to the temper...

  4. A green synthesis of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from glyceraldehyde acetonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia O. Veloso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic behavior of Cs-exchanged and Cs-impregnated zeolites (X and Y was studied using the Knoevenagel condensation between glyceraldehyde acetonide and ethyl acetoacetate in order to produce the corresponding α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that is an important intermediate for fine chemicals. The influence of reaction temperature, type of zeolite, and basicity of the sites on the catalytic behavior of the samples was evaluated. All zeolites were active for the studied reaction. The formation of the main condensation product was favored at lower reaction temperatures. Products of further condensations were also observed especially for samples that were only dried before catalytic test.

  5. LASER-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION OF METAL CARBONYLS FOR CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF MICROSTRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Tonneau, D.; Auvert, G.; Pauleau, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten and nickel carbonyls were used to produce metal microstructures by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on various substrates. The deposition rate of microstructures produced by thermodecomposition of W(CO)6 on Si substrates heated with a cw Ar+ laser beam was relatively low (10 to 30 nm/s) even at high temperatures (above 900°C). Ni microstructures were deposited on quartz substrates irradiated with a CO2 laser beam. Relatively high laser powers were needed to heat the Ni s...

  6. Calculation of High Frequency Complex Permeability of Carbonyl Iron Flakes in a Nomagnetic Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fu-Sheng; QIAO Liang; YI Hai-Bo; ZHOU Dong; LI Fa-Shen

    2008-01-01

    The carbonyl iron flakes are fabricated by high-energy ball milling.The effective permeability is measured and calculated for the composite consisting of flakes embedded in a nonmagnetic matrix.The magnetic flakes with a shape anisotropy and random spatial distribution of normal direction are considered to calculate the complex permeability of magnetic flake materials.Its analytical model is derived from the Landau-Lifshitz- Gilbert equation and Bruggeman's effective medium theory.The calculated results agree well with the experiment.

  7. Non-Enzymatic Modification of Aminophospholipids by Carbonyl-Amine Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinald Pamplona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-enzymatic modification of aminophospholipids by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes and reducing sugars through carbonyl-amine reactions are thought to contribute to the age-related deterioration of cellular membranes and to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Much evidence demonstrates the modification of aminophospholipids by glycation, glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions. Therefore, a number of early and advanced Maillard reaction-lipid products have been detected and quantified in different biological membranes. These modifications may be accumulated during aging and diabetes, introducing changes in cell membrane physico-chemical and biological properties.

  8. Electromagnetic properties of carbonyl iron and their microwave absorbing characterization as filler in silicone rubber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuping Duan; Guofang Li; Lidong Liu; Shunhua Liu

    2010-10-01

    The complex permittivity, permeability and microwave-absorbing properties of rubber composites filled with carbonyl iron are measured at frequencies from 2–18 GHz. The results indicate that the reflection loss peak shifts towards low frequency region with increasing layer thickness or increasing weight concentration. The minimum reflection loss value of –23.06 dB was obtained at 3.3 GHz for the composites with 80% wt. These results show that the composites possess good microwave absorbing ability in both low- and highfrequency bands.

  9. An air-tolerant approach to the carbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura coupling: applications in isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlburg, Andreas; Lindhardt, Anders T; Taaning, Rolf H; Modvig, Amalie E; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2013-10-18

    Carbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions have been developed that proceed without the exclusion of oxygen and in the presence of nondegassed and nondried solvents. By adapting the method to a two-chamber setup, the direct handling of carbon monoxide, produced from stable CO precursors, is avoided. The protocol afforded the desired benzophenones with excellent functional group tolerance and in good yields. Substituting the CO precursor, in the CO-producing chamber, with its carbon-13 labeled version generated the corresponding carbon-13 labeled benzophenones. Finally, the developed system was applied in the synthesis and isotope labeling of two pharmaceuticals, nordazepam and Tricor. PMID:24004340

  10. Chemical reactions in organic monomolecular layers. Condensation of hydrazine on carbonyl functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence is given for chemical reactions of hydrazine (NH2-NH2) with different carbonyl functional groups of organic molecules in the solid state, in monomolecular layer structures. The condensation of hydrazine with these molecules leads to conjugated systems by bridging the N-N links, to cyclizations, and also to polycondensations. The reactions investigated were followed up by infrared spectrophotometry, by transmission and metallic reflection. These chemical reactions revealed in the solid phase constitute a polycondensation procedure which is valuable in obtaining organized polymers in monomolecular layers

  11. Carbonyl sulfide detection with a thermoelectrically cooled midinfrared quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Chad; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Tittel, Frank K.; Uehara, Kiyoji; Gmachl, Claire; Sivco, Deborah L.

    2003-11-01

    A compact absorption spectrometer with a midinfrared tunable quantum cascade laser operating at 4.86 μm (2054 cm-1) is used to measure lower concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in air. A detection sensitivity of ~30 parts in 109 of COS and the selectivity of two stable isotopes, 12C16O32S and 12C16O34S, are demonstrated. Specifically, the feasibility of detecting COS in expired human breath as a potential noninvasive medical diagnostic tool is investigated.

  12. Multiband microwave absorption films based on defective multiwalled carbon nanotubes added carbonyl iron/acrylic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Changxin; Pan, Xiaoyan; Ni, Yuwei; Zhang, Song; Huang, Jie; Chen, Da; Zhang, Yafei

    2009-05-01

    Defective multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were introduced to the carbonyl iron (CI) based composites to improve its microwave absorption by a simple ultrasonic mixing process. The electromagnetic parameters were measured in the 2-18 GHz range. Microwave absorption of CI based composites with 2 mm in thickness was evidently enhanced by adding as little as 1.0 wt% defective MWCNTs with two well separated absorption peaks exceeding -20 dB, as compared with that of pure CI based and defective MWCNTs composites. The enhancement mechanism is thought due to the interaction and better electromagnetic match between defective MWCNTs and ferromagnetic CI particles.

  13. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to utilize methyl acetate, a potential feedstock derived by carbonylation of methanol with CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Seungjung; Um, Youngsoon; Han, Sung Ok; Woo, Han Min

    2016-04-20

    The possibilities to utilize one-carbon substrates (C1) like CO, methane and methanol have been explored as a cheap alternative feedstock in the biotechnology. For the first time, methyl acetate (MeOAc), which can be formed from carbonylation of methanol with CO, was demonstrated to be an alternative carbon source for the cell growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model microbial cell factory. To do so, a carboxyl esterase activity was necessary to hydrolyze MeOAc to methanol and acetate. Although the wild-type has an unknown esterase activity to MeOAc, the activity was not high enough to grow from 270mM MeOAc as sole carbon source, reaching OD600 of 5.28±0.2 in 32h. Based on the literatures studied for the esterase, we chose three esterases (MekB of Pseudomonas veronii MEK700, AcmB of Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5, and Est of Pyrobaculum calidifontis VA1) and cloned into the wild-type. As a result, the recombinant C. glutamicum expressing the highly active MekB esterase (28.6±0.77U/mg protein) showed complete degradation of MeOAc and utilization of acetate, resulting in OD600 of 16.5±0.02at 24h. In addition, the recombinant strain exhibited the rapid degradation of MeOAc to methanol and acetate in 2h under anaerobic condition. Therefore, MeOAc can be used as another C1-derived carbon source in the biotechnology. PMID:26970052

  14. Myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation promotes the oxidative modification of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Magon, Nicholas J; Harwood, D Tim; Kettle, Anthony J; Vissers, Margreet C; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2015-04-10

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation. PMID:25697357

  15. Complete assignment of the methionyl carbonyl carbon resonance in switch variant anti-dansyl antibodies labeled with (1- sup 13 C)methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Koichi; Matsunaga, C.; Igarashi, Takako; Kim, Hahyung; Odaka, Asano; Shimada, Ichio; Arata, Yoji (Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    A {sup 13}C NMR study is reported of switch variant anti-dansyl antibodies developed by Dangl et al. who had used the fluorescence-activated cell sorter to select and clone these variants. These switch variant antibodies possess the identical V{sub H}, V{sub L}, and C{sub L} domains in conjunction with different heavy chain constant regions. In the present study, switch variant antibodies of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b subclasses were used along with a short-chain IgG2a antibody, in which the entire C{sub H}1 domain is deleted. The switch variant antibodies were specifically labeled with (1-{sup 13}C)methionine by growing hybridoma cells in serum-free medium. Assignments of all the methionyl carbonyl carbon resonances have been completed by using the intact antibodies along with their fragments and recombined proteins in which either heavy or light chain is labeled. A double labeling method has played a crucial role in the process of the spectral assignments. The strategy used for the assignments has been described in detail. In incorporating {sup 15}N-labeled amino acids into the antibodies for the double labeling, isotope dilution caused a serious problem except in the cases of ({alpha}-{sup 15}N)lysine and ({sup 15}N)threonine, both of which cannot become the substrate of transaminases. It was found that {beta}-chloro-L-alanine is most effective in suppressing the isotope scrambling. So far, spectral assignments by the double labeling method have been possible with {sup 15}N-labeled Ala, His, Ile, Lys, Met, Ser, Thr, Tyr, and Val. On the basis of the results of the present {sup 13}C study, possible use of the assigned carbonyl carbon resonances for the elucidation of the structure-function relationship in the antibody system has been briefly discussed.

  16. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI

  17. Impact of silica-coating on the microwave absorption properties of carbonyl iron powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave absorption properties, especially the band width and depth of reflection loss are highlighted as key measurement in studies of microwave absorber. In order to improve the band width and depth of reflection loss of carbonyl iron powder (CIP), we prepared SiO2 layers on the surface of CIP by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a SiO2 source and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a surface modifier. SiO2 layer was formed by the hydrolysis of TEOS. The results show that after treatment the CIP is covered by a 5–10 nm coating layer. Contrast to uncoated samples, coated samples show improved absorption properties. The minimum of reflection loss is −38.8 dB at 11 GHz and the band width of reflection loss exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz. - Highlights: • Silica coatings were prepared on the surface of carbonyl iron powder. • Coating layers were identified by several ways. • We discussed the absorbing mechanism of coated samples. • Reflection loss was significantly improved, the width of RL exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz

  18. Analysis of the carbonyl group stretching vibrations in some structural fragments of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsevich, George A; Doroshenko, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The structure and the medium effects exerted on the spectral characteristics of the carbonyl group stretching vibrations in some structural fragments of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate have been analyzed. Calculations of the equilibrium configurations and IR spectra were carried out using the Gaussian program set in the approximation B3LYP/cc-pVDZ. It has been shown that typical bending of the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate chain is observed with an increase in the number of structural units. In order to explain the difference between the calculated and experimental frequencies of the C=O group stretching vibrations, the calculations of the potential energy curve associated with variations in the length of C=O bond and the subsequent numerical solution of a one-dimensional vibrational Schr\\"odinger equation have been performed. The medium effects have been taken into account within the scope of a polarizable continuum model. Owing to the inclusion of the above-mentioned factors, which affect frequencies of the carbonyl groups...

  19. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of carbonyl diazide, OC(N3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberger, Brent K.; Esselman, Brian J.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter-wave absorption spectra for carbonyl diazide (OC(N3)2) are reported in the frequency range of 243-360 GHz, at both 293 K and 213 K. Transitions for two of the three possible conformations, one with both of the azide groups syn to the carbonyl group, or with one syn and the other anti, were observed in the spectra. Theoretical calculations at the CCSD(T)/ANO1 level do an excellent job of predicting the ground state rotational constants and 4th order centrifugal distortion terms for both conformers. Relative line intensities, along with theoretically predicted dipole moments, were used to estimate the energy difference of the two observed forms, yielding a result in good agreement with the ab initio potential energy surface. The spectra of the ν12, ν7, ν9 and 2ν12 excited vibrational states for the more abundant syn-syn conformer have been assigned, and a great many transitions for each of them have been fit using partial 6th and 8th order centrifugal distortion Hamiltonians. Anharmonic vibration-rotation interaction constants from the CCSD(T)/ANO1 calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined constants in the case of ν7 and ν9, but not for ν12.

  20. Impact of silica-coating on the microwave absorption properties of carbonyl iron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. [School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Feng, W.J., E-mail: wjfeng@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metal, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Wang, J.S.; Zhao, X.; Zheng, W.Q. [School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Yang, H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metal, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Microwave absorption properties, especially the band width and depth of reflection loss are highlighted as key measurement in studies of microwave absorber. In order to improve the band width and depth of reflection loss of carbonyl iron powder (CIP), we prepared SiO{sub 2} layers on the surface of CIP by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a SiO{sub 2} source and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a surface modifier. SiO{sub 2} layer was formed by the hydrolysis of TEOS. The results show that after treatment the CIP is covered by a 5–10 nm coating layer. Contrast to uncoated samples, coated samples show improved absorption properties. The minimum of reflection loss is −38.8 dB at 11 GHz and the band width of reflection loss exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz. - Highlights: • Silica coatings were prepared on the surface of carbonyl iron powder. • Coating layers were identified by several ways. • We discussed the absorbing mechanism of coated samples. • Reflection loss was significantly improved, the width of RL exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz.