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Sample records for age-dependent protein carbonylation

  1. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Muscle Type-Dependent and Age-Dependent Protein Carbonylation in Rat Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Juan; Xie, Hongwei; Meany, Danni L.; Thompson, LaDora V.; Arriaga, Edgar A.; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbonylation is a highly prevalent protein modification in skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly contributing to its functional decline with age. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified mitochondrial proteins susceptible to carbonylation in a muscle type (slow- vs fast-twitch)-dependent and age-dependent manner from Fischer 344 rat skeletal muscle. Fast-twitch muscle contained twice as many carbonylated mitochondrial proteins than did slow-twitch muscle, with 22 proteins showing signif...

  2. Validation of protein carbonyl measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustyniak, Edyta; Adam, Aisha; Wojdyla, Katarzyna;

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonyls are widely analysed as a measure of protein oxidation. Several different methods exist for their determination. A previous study had described orders of magnitude variance that existed when protein carbonyls were analysed in a single laboratory by ELISA using different commercial...

  3. Pattern of occurrence and occupancy of carbonylation sites in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are targets for modification by reactive oxygen species, and carbonylation is an important irreversible modification that increases during oxidative stress. While information on protein carbonylation is accumulating, its pattern is not yet understood. We have made a meta-analysis of the ......Proteins are targets for modification by reactive oxygen species, and carbonylation is an important irreversible modification that increases during oxidative stress. While information on protein carbonylation is accumulating, its pattern is not yet understood. We have made a meta...... sites. Comparison of metal-catalyzed oxidation of two closely related proteins indicates that this type of carbonylation might not be very specific in proteins. Interestingly, carbonylated sites show a very strong tendency to cluster together in the protein primary sequence hinting at some sort...

  4. Protein carbonylation as a novel mechanism in redox signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Ming; Cheema, Amrita K; Zhang, Lihua; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2008-02-15

    Reactive oxygen species serve as second messengers for signal transduction; however, molecular targets of oxidant signaling have not been defined. Here, we show that ligand-receptor-mediated signaling promotes reactive oxygen species-dependent protein carbonylation. Treatment of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with endothelin-1 increased protein carbonyls. Carbonylation of the majority of proteins occurred transiently, suggesting that there is also a mechanism for decarbonylation induced by endothelin-1. Decarbonylation was suppressed by inhibition of thioredoxin reductase, and cellular thioredoxin was upregulated during the decarbonylation phase. These results indicate that endothelin-1 promotes oxidant signaling as well as thioredoxin-mediated reductive signaling to regulate carbonylation and decarbonylation mechanisms. In cells treated with endothelin receptor antagonists, hydrogen peroxide scavengers, or an iron chelator, we identified, via mass spectrometry, proteins that are carbonylated in a receptor- and Fenton reaction-dependent manner, including annexin A1, which promotes apoptosis and suppresses cell growth. Carbonylation of annexin A1 by endothelin-1 was followed by proteasome-dependent degradation of this protein. We propose that carbonylation and subsequent degradation of annexin A1 may play a role in endothelin-mediated cell growth and survival, important events in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Protein carbonylation in response to ligand-receptor interactions represents a novel mechanism in redox signaling.

  5. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  6. Age-dependent expression of forkhead box O proteins in the duodenum of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan HUANG; Zhen-qi ZHOU; Rui-hua HUANG; Bo ZHOU; Quan-wei WEI; Fang-xiong SHI

    2011-01-01

    The O subfamily of forkhead box (FoxO) proteins is the downstream effector of the insulin-like growth factor-1/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/PKB) signal pathway.The objective of the present study was to examine the expressions of three members of FoxO proteins,FoxO1,FoxO3a,and FoxO4 in the duodenum of Sprague-Dawley rats at different ages.The result demonstrated that the expression of FoxO4 in rat duodenum showed an age-dependent manner.At Day 21,there were no detectable localization and expression of FoxO4 in the duodenum,while,at Months 2 and 6,localization and expression of FoxO4 were distinct.In addition,FoxO4 staining was primarily concentrated in the cell nuclei of the lamina propria around the intestinal gland of the duodenum in 2-month-old rats,but was not detectable in the same area in 6-month-old rats.Our results showed also that although FoxO3a existed in the cytoplasm of the lamina propria at a low level at the 2- and 6-month marks,it was still not detectable at Day 21.Besides,FoxO1 was not detectable in all parts and stages.Taken together,our findings suggested that the cell-specific and age-dependent expressional patterns of FoxO4 and FoxO3a proteins in the duodenum play some roles in the development and growth performance of the rat duodenum.

  7. Proteomic identification of age-dependent protein nitration in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, Jaroslaw; Alterman, Michail A; Schöneich, Christian

    2003-11-15

    Age-related protein nitration was studied in skeletal muscle of Fisher 344 and Fisher 344/Brown Norway (BN) F1 rats by a proteomic approach. Proteins from young (4 months) and old (24 months) Fisher 344 rats and young (6 months) and old (34 months) Fisher 344/BN F1 animals were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Western blot showed an age-related increase in the nitration of a few specific proteins, which were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS/MS. We identified age-dependent apparent nitration of beta-enolase, alpha-fructose aldolase, and creatine kinase, which perform important functions in muscle energy metabolism, suggesting that the nitration of such key proteins can be, in part, responsible for the decline of muscle motor function of the muscle. Furthermore, we have identified the apparent nitration of succinate dehydrogenase, rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GdI-2), triosephosphate isomerase, troponin I, alpha-crystallin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

  8. Protein carbonylation and metal-catalyzed protein oxidation in a cellular perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rao, R S P

    2011-01-01

    to be relevant in physiological processes, irreversible oxidative modifications are known to contribute to cellular damage and disease. The most well-studied irreversible protein oxidation is carbonylation. In this work we first examine how protein carbonylation occurs via metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) in vivo...... and in vitro with an emphasis on cellular metal ion homeostasis and metal binding. We then review proteomic methods currently used for identifying carbonylated proteins and their sites of modification. Finally, we discuss the identified carbonylated proteins and the pattern of carbonylation sites in relation...

  9. Role of Carbonyl Modifications on Aging-Associated Protein Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, Maya; Urbanska, Aleksandra M.; Zolla, Valerio; Clement, Cristina C.; Huang, Liling; Morozova, Kateryna; Follo, Carlo; Goldberg, Michael; Roda, Barbara; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common biological phenomenon, observed in different physiological and pathological conditions. Decreased protein solubility and a tendency to aggregate is also observed during physiological aging but the causes are currently unknown. Herein we performed a biophysical separation of aging-related high molecular weight aggregates, isolated from the bone marrow and splenic cells of aging mice and followed by biochemical and mass spectrometric analysis. The analysis indicated that compared to younger mice an increase in protein post-translational carbonylation was observed. The causative role of these modifications in inducing protein misfolding and aggregation was determined by inducing carbonyl stress in young mice, which recapitulated the increased protein aggregation observed in old mice. Altogether our analysis indicates that oxidative stress-related post-translational modifications accumulate in the aging proteome and are responsible for increased protein aggregation and altered cell proteostasis.

  10. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger ( or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  11. [Carbonyl stress and oxidatively modified proteins in chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargnoux, A-S; Morena, M; Badiou, S; Dupuy, A-M; Canaud, B; Cristol, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly observed in chronic renal failure patients resulting from an unbalance between overproduction of reactive oxygen species and impairement of defense mechanisms. Proteins appear as potential targets of uremia-induced oxidative stress and may undergo qualitative modifications. Proteins could be directly modified by reactive oxygen species which leads to amino acid oxydation and cross-linking. Proteins could be indirectly modified by reactive carbonyl compounds produced by glycoxidation and lipo-peroxidation. The resulting post-traductional modifications are known as carbonyl stress. In addition, thiols could be oxidized or could react with homocystein leading to homocysteinylation. Finally, tyrosin could be oxidized by myeloperoxidase leading to advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP). Oxidatively modified proteins are increased in chronic renal failure patients and may contribute to exacerbate the oxidative stress/inflammation syndrome. They have been involved in long term complications of uremia such as amyloidosis and accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:19297289

  12. Age-related variations of protein carbonyls in human saliva and plasma: is saliva protein carbonyls an alternative biomarker of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Yanyi; Liu, Hongchen; Che, Yuwei; Xu, Yingying; E, Lingling

    2015-06-01

    Free radical hypothesis which is one of the most acknowledged aging theories was developed into oxidative stress hypothesis. Protein carbonylation is by far one of the most widely used markers of protein oxidation. We studied the role of age and gender in protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma among 273 Chinese healthy subjects (137 females and 136 males aged between 20 and 79) and discussed the correlation between protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma. Protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma were, respectively, 2.391 ± 0.639 and 0.838 ± 0.274 nmol/mg. Variations of saliva and plasma different age groups all reached significant differences in both male and female (all p saliva and plasma protein carbonyls were found to be significantly correlated with age (r = 0.6582 and r = 0.5176, all p saliva and plasma protein carbonyl levels (all p > 0.05). Saliva and plasma protein carbonyls were positively related (r = 0.4405, p saliva and plasma protein carbonyls/ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) ratios were proved to be significantly correlated with age (r = 0.7796 and r = 0.6938, all p saliva protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio and plasma protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio were also correlated (r = 0.5573, p saliva protein carbonyls seem to be an alternative biomarker of aging while the mechanisms of protein carbonylation and oxidative stress and the relationship between saliva protein carbonyls and diseases need to be further investigated.

  13. Traditional reactive carbonyl scavengers do not prevent the carbonylation of brain proteins induced by acute glutathione depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, J; Bizzozero, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive carbonyl species (RCS)-trapping agents on the formation of protein carbonyls during depletion of brain glutathione (GSH). To this end, rat brain slices were incubated with the GSH-depletor diethyl maleate in the absence or presence of chemically different RCS scavengers (hydralazine, methoxylamine, aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, carnosine, taurine and z-histidine hydrazide). Despite their strong reactivity towards the most common RCS, none of the ...

  14. Protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and neuronal cell death in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anushka

    Many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Yet, the mechanism by which oxidative stress leads to tissue damage in these disorders is unclear. Recent work from our laboratory has revealed that protein carbonylation, a major oxidative modification caused by severe and/or chronic oxidative stress conditions, is elevated in MS and EAE. Furthermore, protein carbonylation has been shown to alter protein structure leading to misfolding/aggregation. These findings prompted me to hypothesize that carbonylated proteins, formed as a consequence of oxidative stress and/or decreased proteasomal activity, promote protein aggregation to mediate neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in EAE. To test this novel hypothesis, I first characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [Chapter 2]. The results show that carbonylated proteins accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. I discovered not only that there is a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation and apoptosis but also that carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are also present during the course of EAE, which seems to be due to reduced autophagy. In chapter 3, I show that when gluthathione levels are reduced to those in EAE spinal cord, both neuron-like PC12 (nPC12) cells and primary neuronal cultures accumulate carbonylated proteins and undergo cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis). Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies also revealed a temporal

  15. Traditional reactive carbonyl scavengers do not prevent the carbonylation of brain proteins induced by acute glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Bizzozero, O A

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive carbonyl species (RCS)-trapping agents on the formation of protein carbonyls during depletion of brain glutathione (GSH). To this end, rat brain slices were incubated with the GSH-depletor diethyl maleate in the absence or presence of chemically different RCS scavengers (hydralazine, methoxylamine, aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, carnosine, taurine and z-histidine hydrazide). Despite their strong reactivity towards the most common RCS, none of the scavengers tested, with the exception of hydralazine, prevented protein carbonylation. These findings suggest that the majority of protein-associated carbonyl groups in this oxidative stress paradigm do not derive from stable lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). This conclusion was confirmed by the observation that the amount of MDA-, acrolein- and 4-HNE-protein adducts does not increase upon GSH depletion. Additional studies revealed that the efficacy of hydralazine at preventing carbonylation was due to its ability to reduce oxidative stress, most likely by inhibiting mitochondrial production of superoxide and/or by scavenging lipid free radicals. PMID:20001647

  16. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Ablation Enhances Age-Dependent Weight Gain in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Payne, H. Ross; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although studies performed in vitro and with transfected cells in culture suggest a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in regulating fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition, the physiological significance of this possibility is not completely clear. To begin to address this question, the effect of L-FABP gene ablation on phenotype of standard rodent chow-fed male mice was examined with increasing age up to 18 mo. While young (2-3 mo) L-FABP null mice displayed no visually obvi...

  17. Analysis of dynamic protein carbonylation in rice embryo during germination through AP-SWATH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; He, Dongli; Yu, Jianlan; Li, Ming; Damaris, Rebecca Njeri; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Sun Tae; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-03-01

    Seed germination is an important aspect of the plant life cycle, during which, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate. The accumulation of ROS results in an increase in protein oxidation of which carbonylation is the most canonical one. However, there is insufficient information concerning protein oxidation, especially carbonylation and its contribution to seed germination. In this study, biotin hydrazide labeled chromatography combined with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH) method was used to analyze the dynamic pattern of protein carbonylation in rice embryos during germination. A total of 1872 unique proteins were quantified, among which 288 carbonylated peptides corresponding to 144 proteins were determined based on the filtering through mass shifts of modified amino acids. In addition, 66 carbonylated proteins were further analyzed based on their carbonylation intensity in four stages of germination. These identified carbonylated proteins were mainly involved in maintaining the levels of ROS, abscisic acid and seed reserves. Remarkably, a peroxiredoxin was found with 23 unique carbonylated peptides, and the expression of which was consistent with its increased activity. This study describes the dynamic pattern of carbonylated proteins during seed germination, and may help to further understand the biochemical mechanisms on this process. PMID:26801057

  18. A step-by-step protocol for assaying protein carbonylation in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Graziano; Clerici, Marco; Garavaglia, Maria Elisa; Giustarini, Daniela; Rossi, Ranieri; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella

    2016-04-15

    Protein carbonylation represents the most frequent and usually irreversible oxidative modification affecting proteins. This modification is chemically stable and this feature is particularly important for storage and detection of carbonylated proteins. Many biochemical and analytical methods have been developed during the last thirty years to assay protein carbonylation. The most successful method consists on protein carbonyl (PCO) derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and consequent spectrophotometric assay. This assay allows a global quantification of PCO content due to the ability of DNPH to react with carbonyl giving rise to an adduct able to absorb at 366 nm. Similar approaches were also developed employing chromatographic separation, in particular HPLC, and parallel detection of absorbing adducts. Subsequently, immunological techniques, such as Western immunoblot or ELISA, have been developed leading to an increase of sensitivity in protein carbonylation detection. Currently, they are widely employed to evaluate change in total protein carbonylation and eventually to highlight the specific proteins undergoing selective oxidation. In the last decade, many mass spectrometry (MS) approaches have been developed for the identification of the carbonylated proteins and the relative amino acid residues modified to carbonyl derivatives. Although these MS methods are much more focused and detailed due to their ability to identify the amino acid residues undergoing carbonylation, they still require too expensive equipments and, therefore, are limited in distribution. In this protocol paper, we summarise and comment on the most diffuse protocols that a standard laboratory can employ to assess protein carbonylation; in particular, we describe step-by-step the different protocols, adding suggestions coming from our on-bench experience.

  19. Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rachel C; Buonora, John E; Jacobowitz, David M; Mueller, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional

  20. NbCSPR underlies age-dependent immune responses to bacterial cold shock protein in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Isabel M L; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Sklenar, Jan; Holton, Nicholas J; Smakowska, Elwira; Belkhadir, Youssef; Zipfel, Cyril; Rathjen, John P

    2016-03-22

    Plants use receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typical of whole classes of microbes. After ligand perception, many leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing PRRs interact with the LRR-RK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). BAK1 is thus expected to interact with unknown PRRs. Here, we used BAK1 as molecular bait to identify a previously unknown LRR-RLP required for the recognition of the csp22 peptide derived from bacterial cold shock protein. We established a method to identify proteins that interact with BAK1 only after csp22 treatment. BAK1 was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and immunopurified after treatment with csp22. BAK1-associated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified several proteins including known BAK1 interactors and a previously uncharacterized LRR-RLP that we termed RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN REQUIRED FOR CSP22 RESPONSIVENESS (NbCSPR). This RLP associates with BAK1 upon csp22 treatment, and NbCSPR-silenced plants are impaired in csp22-induced defense responses. NbCSPR confers resistance to bacteria in an age-dependent and flagellin-induced manner. As such, it limits bacterial growth and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of flowering N. benthamiana plants. Transgenic expression of NbCSPR into Arabidopsis thaliana conferred responsiveness to csp22 and antibacterial resistance. Our method may be used to identify LRR-type RKs and RLPs required for PAMP perception/responsiveness, even when the active purified PAMP has not been defined.

  1. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J.; Grune, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented...... different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used...

  2. Blot-MS of Carbonylated Proteins: A Tool to Identify Oxidized Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rita; Domingues, Pedro; Amado, Francisco; Vitorino, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of proteostasis regulation declines during aging and the failure of protein homeostasis is common in age-related diseases. Protein oxidation is a major contributor to the loss of proteome homeostasis, also called "proteostasis," precluding protein misfolding and aggregation. So, the identification of the molecular pathways impaired by protein oxidation will increase the understanding of proteostasis and the pathophysiological conditions related to the loss of proteostasis. Sample derivatization with dinitrophenyl hydrazine and western blot immunoassay detection of carbonylated proteins (commonly known as Oxyblot™) coupled to mass spectrometry (blot-MS) is an attractive methodological approach to identify proteins that are more prone to carbonylation, a typical oxidative modification of amino acid residues. The integration of blot-MS data of carbonylated proteins with bioinformatics tools allows the identification of the biological processes more affected by protein oxidation and that, eventually, result in the loss of proteostasis.In this chapter, we describe a blot-MS methodology to identify the proteins more prone to oxidation in biological samples, as cell and tissue extracts, and biofluids. Analysis of mitochondria isolated from cardiac tissue is provided as an example. Bioinformatic strategy to deal with data retrieved from blot-MS experiments are proposed for the identification of relevant biological processes modulated by oxidative stress stimuli. PMID:27613049

  3. Proteomic analysis of age dependent nitration of rat cardiac proteins by solution isoelectric focusing coupled to nano-HPLC tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Jung; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Schöneich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Protein nitration occurs as a result of oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Therefore, protein nitration serves as a hallmark for protein oxidation in vivo. We have previously reported on age dependent protein nitration in cardiac tissue of Fisher 344 BN-F1 rats analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; however, only one specific nitration site was identified (Kanski et al., 2005a). In the present report, we used solution phase isoelec...

  4. Protein carbonylation and aggregation precede neuronal apoptosis induced by partial glutathione depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzheng Zheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While the build-up of oxidized proteins within cells is believed to be toxic, there is currently no evidence linking protein carbonylation and cell death. In the present study, we show that incubation of nPC12 (neuron-like PC12 cells with 50 μM DEM (diethyl maleate leads to a partial and transient depletion of glutathione (GSH. Concomitant with GSH disappearance there is increased accumulation of PCOs (protein carbonyls and cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis. Immunocytochemical studies also revealed a temporal/spatial relationship between carbonylation and cellular apoptosis. In addition, the extent of all three, PCO accumulation, protein aggregation and cell death, augments if oxidized proteins are not removed by proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the carbonyl scavengers hydralazine, histidine hydrazide and methoxylamine at preventing cell death identifies PCOs as the toxic species. Experiments using well-characterized apoptosis inhibitors place protein carbonylation downstream of the mitochondrial transition pore opening and upstream of caspase activation. While the study focused mostly on nPC12 cells, experiments in primary neuronal cultures yielded the same results. The findings are also not restricted to DEM-induced cell death, since a similar relationship between carbonylation and apoptosis was found in staurosporine- and buthionine sulfoximine-treated nPC12 cells. In sum, the above results show for the first time a causal relationship between carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis of neurons undergoing oxidative damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to place direct (oxidative protein carbonylation within the apoptotic pathway.

  5. Proteomic analysis and protein carbonylation profile in trained and untrained rat muscle

    OpenAIRE

    F.Magherini; P.M. Abruzzo; Puglia, M.; Bini, L.; T. Gamberi; Esposito, F; A. Veicsteinas; Marini, M.; Fiorillo, C; Gulisano, M; Modesti, A

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physical exercise, reactive oxygen species and skeletal muscle modification is important in order to better identify the benefits or the damages that appropriate or inappropriate exercise can induce. Unbalanced ROS levels can lead to oxidation of cellular macromolecules and a major class of protein oxidative modification is carbonylation. The aim of this investigation was to study muscle protein expression and carbonylation patterns in tra...

  6. Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins in F344 rat hippocampus after 1-bromopropane exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenlie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466‐8550 (Japan); Department of Toxicology, Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510‐300 (China); Ichihara, Sahoko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514‐8507 (Japan); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514‐8507 (Japan); Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Subramanian, Kaviarasan; Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466‐8550 (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466‐8550 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and humans. Previous proteomic analysis of rat hippocampus implicated alteration of protein expression in oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. To understand this role at the protein level, we exposed male F344 rats to 1-BP at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 week or 4 weeks by inhalation and quantitated changes in hippocampal protein carbonyl using a protein carbonyl assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, and matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). Hippocampal reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl were significantly increased, demonstrating 1-BP-associated induction of oxidative stress and protein damage. MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS identified 10 individual proteins with increased carbonyl modification (p < 0.05; fold-change ≥ 1.5). The identified proteins were involved in diverse biological processes including glycolysis, ATP production, tyrosine catabolism, GTP binding, guanine degradation, and neuronal metabolism of dopamine. Hippocampal triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity was significantly reduced and negatively correlated with TPI carbonylation (p < 0.001; r = 0.83). Advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels were significantly elevated both in the hippocampus and plasma, and hippocampal AGEs correlated negatively with TPI activity (p < 0.001; r = 0.71). In conclusion, 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus seems to involve oxidative damage of cellular proteins, decreased TPI activity, and elevated AGEs. -- Highlights: ► 1-BP increases hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampal and plasma protein carbonyls. ► 1-BP increases TPI carbonylation and decreases TPI activity in the hippocampus. ► 1-BP increases hippocampal and plasma AGE levels.

  7. Increased carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis in the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora I. Perrone‑Bizzozero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work from our laboratory implicated protein carbonylation in the pathophysiology of both MS (multiple sclerosis and its animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed that the accumulation of protein carbonyls, triggered by glutathione deficiency or proteasome inhibition, leads to protein aggregation and neuronal cell death. These findings prompted us to investigate whether their association can be also established in vivo. In the present study, we characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of MOG (myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35–55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. The results show that protein carbonyls accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. We also show a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation (but not oxidative stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells than in live cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are present during the course of EAE. The LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II/LC3-I ratio is significantly reduced in both acute and chronic EAE indicating reduced autophagy and explaining why aggresomes accumulate in this disorder. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest a link between protein oxidation and neuronal/glial cell death in vivo, and also demonstrate impaired proteostasis in this widely used murine model of MS.

  8. Resistance to age-dependent thymic atrophy in long-lived mice that are deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Abbe N.; Joshua J Michel; Bale, Laurie K.; Lemster, Bonnie H.; Borghesi, Lisa; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is a metalloproteinase that controls the tissue availability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Homozygous deletion of PAPPA in mice leads to lifespan extension. Since immune function is an important determinant of individual fitness, we examined the natural immune ecology of PAPPA−/− mice and their wild-type littermates reared under specific pathogen-free condition with aging. Whereas wild-type mice exhibit classic age-dependent thymic atrophy,...

  9. Dormancy alleviation by NO or HCN leading to decline of protein carbonylation levels in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Dębska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos can be overcome by short-term pre-treatment with nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Dormancy alleviation of embryos modulated by NO or HCN and the first step of germination depend on temporary increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct oxidative attack on some amino acid residues or secondary reactions via reactive carbohydrates and lipids can lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives. Protein carbonylation is a widely accepted covalent and irreversible modification resulting in inhibition or alteration of enzyme/protein activities. It also increases the susceptibility of proteins to proteolytic degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate protein carbonylation in germinating apple embryos, the dormancy of which was removed by pre-treatment with NO or HCN donors. It was performed using a quantitative spectrophotometric method, while patterns of carbonylated protein in embryo axes were analyzed by immunochemical techniques. The highest concentration of protein carbonyl groups was observed in dormant embryos. It declined in germinating embryos pre-treated with NO or HCN, suggesting elevated degradation of modified proteins during seedling formation. A decrease in the concentration of carbonylated proteins was accompanied by modification in proteolytic activity in germinating apple embryos. A strict correlation between the level of protein carbonyl groups and cotyledon growth and greening was detected. Moreover, direct in vitro carbonylation of BSA treated with NO or HCN donors was analyzed, showing action of both signaling molecules as protein oxidation agents.

  10. Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins in the kidney of trichloroethene-exposed MRL+/+ mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiuzhen; WANG, GANGDUO; English, Robert D.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE), a common environmental and occupational pollutant, is associated with multi-organ toxicity. Kidney is one of major target organs affected as a result of TCE exposure. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to TCE causes increased protein oxidation (protein carbonylation) in the kidneys of autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice, and suggested a potential role of protein oxidation in TCE-mediated nephrotoxicity. To assess the impact of chronic TCE exposure on protein oxidat...

  11. Oxi-DIGE: A novel proteomic approach for detecting and quantifying carbonylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraibar, Martin; Ladouce, Romain; Friguet, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    Proteins are involved in key cellular functions and our health and wellness depends on their quality. Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins is a hallmark of deleterious processes such increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, ageing and age-related diseases. Thus, quantifying and identifying oxidized proteins is a biomarker of choice for monitoring biological ageing and/or the efficiency of anti-oxidant, ant-inflammatory and anti-ageing therapies. However, the absence of reliable tools for analyses has inhibited its establishment as the gold standard for measuring the efficacy of anti-ageing and age related diseases interventions. Herein, we present a novel proteomics technology, named Oxi-DIGE?, which provides a significant improvement in terms of specificity, reproducibility and statistical support for proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins. In Oxi-DIGE, protein carbonyls are labelled with fluorescent hydrazide probes that bind specifically to carbonyl groups in proteins. Experimental groups (e.g. control and experimental samples) are labelled with different flurophore-binded hydrazides that fluoresce light at different wavelengths, producing different colour fluorescence. Thus samples from different experimental groups are co-resolved on a single 2D gel. Increased accuracy is provided due to: (i) reduced false positives by using an exogenous synthetic fluorescent tag; (ii) multiplexing, that is the possibility to run multiple samples on the same gel, (iii) the use of an internal standard on each gel which eliminates inter-gel variations and provides an increased statistical confidence. In addition, the resolution of the carbonyl groups is improved, forming distinct spots that can be identified by mass spectrometry. ?Patent Application (M. Baraibar, R. Ladouce., B. Friguet, A method for detecting and/or quantifying carbonylated proteins (WO/2012/175519) filed by UPMC and referring to the technology described in this abstract. PMID:26461312

  12. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is a target for TNBS-induced protein carbonylation in XS-106 dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Cho, Young Hun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Soo Chan; Lee, Sang-Kyou; Lee, Jaewon; Lee, Min-Geol

    2008-06-01

    ROS are produced in dendritic cells (DCs) during antigen presentation in contact hypersensitivity (CHS). As a result, ROS cause a number of nonenzymatic protein modifications, including carbonylation, which is the most widely used marker of oxidative stress. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) is a well-characterized contact allergen that results in the formation of ROS. However, proteins that are carbonylated in DCs in response to TNBS have not been identified. To study ROS-dependent protein carbonylation in response to TNBS, we used the well-established mouse DC line, XS-106. We focused on the effects of TNBS on oxidation by examining selected oxidative markers. We identified TNBS-induced ROS and myeloperoxidase (MPO) proteins and demonstrated that the increase in ROS resulted in IL-12 production. The increase in oxidation was further confirmed by an oxidation-dependent increase in protein modifications, such as carbonylation. In fact, TNBS strongly induced carbonylation of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase in XS-106 DCs, as determined by MALDI-TOF analysis and 2-D Western blotting. ROS production and protein carbonylation were confirmed in human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs). Furthermore, glutathione (GSH) decreased ROS and protein carbonylation in Mo-DCs. Carbonylation of ATP synthase in DCs may contribute to the pathophysiology of CHS.

  13. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of key cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to cellular injury and death. Protein oxidation including protein carbonylation was demonstrated to modify enzyme activity and DNA binding of transcription factors, while also rendering proteins more prone to proteolytic degradation. Given the relevance of protein oxidation in the pathophysiology of many chronic conditions and their comorbidities, the current review focuses on the analysis of different studies in which the biological and clinical significance of the modifications induced by reactive carbonyls on proteins have been explored so far in skeletal muscles of patients and animal models of chronic conditions such as COPD, disuse muscle atrophy, cancer cachexia, sepsis, and physiological aging. Future research will elucidate the specific impact and sites of reactive carbonyls on muscle protein content and function in human conditions.

  14. Impact of lipid content and composition on lipid oxidation and protein carbonylation in experimental fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Verónica; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of lipid content (∼4%, ∼10% and ∼15%) and composition (different lipid sources; animal fat and sunflower oil) on the oxidative stability of proteins and lipids in experimental fermented sausages. Increasing the lipid content of sausages enhanced the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation whereas the effect on the formation of specific carbonyls from protein oxidation was not so evident. Sausages manufactured with different lipid sources affected the susceptibility of lipids and proteins to oxidation as a likely result of the modifications in the fatty acid profile, as well as to the presence of antioxidant compounds. While the fatty acid profile had a major effect on the occurrence and extent of lipid oxidation, the presence of compounds with potential antioxidant activity may be more influential on the extent of protein carbonylation.

  15. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN CARBONYL LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS AND EVALUATION TOGETHER WITH OTHER PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    YALCIN, Serap

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the impact of oxidative stress, of which chronic alcohol consumption is an important indicator, on proteins and lipids. In this study, in order to evaluate oxidative damage, blood samples of 40 alcoholic patients, lying in the psychiatry clinic of Ankara University with the diagnosis of alcoholism, and 20 healthy people have been worked with spectrophotometric method. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation product, and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels observed as statisticall...

  16. Fish Proteins as Targets of Ferrous-Catalyzed Oxidation: Identification of Protein Carbonyls by Fluorescent Labeling on Two-Dimensional Gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    , indicating that post-translational modifications may change the resistance of proteins to oxidative damage. The Fe(II)/ascorbate treatment significantly increased carbonylation of important structural proteins in fish muscle, mainly actin and myosin, and degradation products of those proteins were observed...... with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) to tag carbonyl groups and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Consecutive visualization of protein carbonyl levels by capturing the FTSC signal and total protein levels by capturing the SyproRuby staining signal allowed us to quantify the relative change...... in protein carbonyl levels corrected for changes in protein content. Proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and homology-based searches. The results show that freshly extracted cod muscle proteins exhibit a detectable carbonylation background and that the incubation with Fe...

  17. Identification, quantification, and functional aspects of skeletal muscle protein-carbonylation in vivo during acute oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Maria; Kuleva, Nadezhda; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) play important roles in cellular signaling but can also modify and often functionally inactivate other biomolecules. Thus, cells have developed effective enzymatic and nonenzymatic strategies to scavenge ROS. However, under oxidative stress, ROS production is able to overwhelm the scavenging systems, increasing the levels of functionally impaired proteins. A major class of irreversible oxidative modifications is carbonylation, which refers to reactive carbonyl-groups. In this investigation, we have studied the production and clearance rates for skeletal muscle proteins in a rat model of acute oxidative stress over a time period of 24 h using a gel-based proteomics approach. Optimized ELISA and Western blots with 10-fold improved sensitivities showed that the carbonylation level was stable at 4 nmol per mg protein 3 h following ROS induction. The carbonylation level then increased 3-fold over 6 h and then remained stable. In total, the oxidative stress changed the steady state levels of 20 proteins and resulted in the carbonylation of 38 skeletal muscle proteins. Carbonylation of these proteins followed diverse kinetics with some proteins being highly carbonylated very quickly, whereas others peaked in the 9 h sample or continued to increase up to 24 h after oxidative stress was induced. PMID:20377239

  18. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation.

  19. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation. PMID:26471654

  20. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Female Mice Exhibit Increased Age-Dependent Obesity123

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Previous work done in our laboratory suggested a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in obesity that develops in aging female L-FABP gene-ablated (−/−) mice. To examine this possibility in more detail, cohorts of wild-type (+/+) and L-FABP (−/−) female mice were fed a standard low-fat nonpurified rodent diet for up to 18 mo. Various obesity-related parameters were examined including body weight and fat and lean tissue mass. Obesity in (−/−) mice was associated with increased ex...

  1. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods.

  2. Increased nitration and carbonylation of proteins in MRL +/+ mice exposed to trichloroethene: Potential role of protein oxidation in autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are implicated as mediators of autoimmune diseases (ADs), little is known about contribution of protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) in the pathogenesis of such diseases. The focus of this study was, therefore, to establish a link between protein oxidation and induction and/or exacerbation of autoimmunity. To achieve this, female MRL +/+ mice were treated with trichloroethene (TCE), an environmental contaminant known to induce autoimmune response, for 6 or 12 weeks (10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day). TCE treatment resulted in significantly increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT) and induction of iNOS in the serum at both 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, but the response was greater at 12 weeks. Likewise, TCE treatment led to greater NT formation, and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in the livers and kidneys. Moreover, TCE treatment also caused significant increases (∼3 fold) in serum protein carbonyls (a marker of protein oxidation) at both 6 and 12 weeks. Significantly increased protein carbonyls were also observed in the livers and kidneys (2.1 and 1.3 fold, respectively) at 6 weeks, and to a greater extent at 12 weeks (3.5 and 2.1 fold, respectively) following TCE treatment. The increases in TCE-induced protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) were associated with significant increases in Th1 specific cytokine (IL-2, IFN-γ) release into splenocyte cultures. These results suggest an association between protein oxidation and induction/exacerbation of autoimmune response. The results present a potential mechanism by which oxidatively modified proteins could contribute to TCE-induced autoimmune response and necessitates further investigations for clearly establishing the role of protein oxidation in the pathogenesis of ADs.

  3. Protein hydroperoxides and carbonyl groups generated by porphyrin-induced photo-oxidation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    disruption of the indole ring system. This study shows that these photo-oxidation processes also consume oxygen and give rise to hydrogen peroxide, protein hydroperoxides, and carbonyl functions. The yield of hydrogen peroxide, protein hydroperoxides, and carbonyl functions is shown to be dependent...... on illumination time, the nature of the sensitizer, and the concentration of oxygen; the yield of hydroperoxides can also be markedly diminished by the presence of a spin trap which reacts with the initial protein radicals. The mechanism of formation of the protein hydroperoxides is suggested to be primarily...... through type I processes (i.e., independent of singlet oxygen), while type II (singlet oxygen) mechanisms may play a significant role in protein carbonyl formation. Reaction of the protein hydroperoxide species with metal ion complexes is shown to produce further protein-derived radicals which...

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Carbonylated Proteins from the Striatum and Cortex of Pesticide-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies indicate exposures to the herbicide paraquat (PQ and fungicide maneb (MB are associated with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Oxidative stress appears to be a premier mechanism that underlies damage to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in PD and pesticide exposure. Enhanced oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation and production of reactive aldehydes; therefore, we conducted proteomic analyses to identify carbonylated proteins in the striatum and cortex of pesticide-treated mice in order to elucidate possible mechanisms of toxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated biweekly for 6 weeks with saline, PQ (10 mg/kg, MB (30 mg/kg, or the combination of PQ and MB (PQMB. Treatments resulted in significant behavioral alterations in all treated mice and depleted striatal dopamine in PQMB mice. Distinct differences in 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins were observed in the striatum and cortex. Proteomic analyses identified carbonylated proteins and peptides from the cortex and striatum, and pathway analyses revealed significant enrichment in a variety of KEGG pathways. Further analysis showed enrichment in proteins of the actin cytoskeleton in treated samples, but not in saline controls. These data indicate that treatment-related effects on cytoskeletal proteins could alter proper synaptic function, thereby resulting in impaired neuronal function and even neurodegeneration.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Carbonylated Proteins from the Striatum and Cortex of Pesticide-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Christina; Walker, Douglas I.; Lohr, Kelly M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Saba, Laura M.; Caudle, W. Michael; Fritz, Kristofer S.; Roede, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate exposures to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) and fungicide maneb (MB) are associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress appears to be a premier mechanism that underlies damage to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in PD and pesticide exposure. Enhanced oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation and production of reactive aldehydes; therefore, we conducted proteomic analyses to identify carbonylated proteins in the striatum and cortex of pesticide-treated mice in order to elucidate possible mechanisms of toxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated biweekly for 6 weeks with saline, PQ (10 mg/kg), MB (30 mg/kg), or the combination of PQ and MB (PQMB). Treatments resulted in significant behavioral alterations in all treated mice and depleted striatal dopamine in PQMB mice. Distinct differences in 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins were observed in the striatum and cortex. Proteomic analyses identified carbonylated proteins and peptides from the cortex and striatum, and pathway analyses revealed significant enrichment in a variety of KEGG pathways. Further analysis showed enrichment in proteins of the actin cytoskeleton in treated samples, but not in saline controls. These data indicate that treatment-related effects on cytoskeletal proteins could alter proper synaptic function, thereby resulting in impaired neuronal function and even neurodegeneration. PMID:26345149

  6. Engineered Trx2p industrial yeast strain protects glycolysis and fermentation proteins from oxidative carbonylation during biomass propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Pastor Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the yeast biomass production process, protein carbonylation has severe adverse effects since it diminishes biomass yield and profitability of industrial production plants. However, this significant detriment of yeast performance can be alleviated by increasing thioredoxins levels. Thioredoxins are important antioxidant defenses implicated in many functions in cells, and their primordial functions include scavenging of reactive oxygen species that produce dramatic and irreversible alterations such as protein carbonylation. Results In this work we have found several proteins specifically protected by yeast Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2p. Bidimensional electrophoresis and carbonylated protein identification from TRX-deficient and TRX-overexpressing cells revealed that glycolysis and fermentation-related proteins are specific targets of Trx2p protection. Indeed, the TRX2 overexpressing strain presented increased activity of the central carbon metabolism enzymes. Interestingly, Trx2p specifically preserved alcohol dehydrogenase I (Adh1p from carbonylation, decreased oligomer aggregates and increased its enzymatic activity. Conclusions The identified proteins suggest that the fermentative capacity detriment observed under industrial conditions in T73 wine commercial strain results from the oxidative carbonylation of specific glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Indeed, increased thioredoxin levels enhance the performance of key fermentation enzymes such as Adh1p, which consequently increases fermentative capacity.

  7. Inactivation of cellular enzymes by carbonyls and protein-bound glycation/glycoxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Philip E; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    products. In this study, we have examined the effect of glucose and carbonyl compounds (methylglyoxal, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and hydroxyacetone), and glycation products arising from reaction of these materials with model proteins, on the activity of three key cellular enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate...... dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glutathione reductase, and lactate dehydrogenase, both in isolation and in cell lysates. In contrast to glucose (1M, both fresh and aged for 8 weeks), which had no effect, marked inhibition of all three enzymes was observed with methylglyoxal and glyoxal. GAPDH was also inhibited...... by glycolaldehyde and hydroxyacetone. Incubation of these enzymes with proteins that had been preglycated with methylglyoxal, but not glucose, also resulted in significant time- and concentration-dependent inhibition with both isolated enzymes and cell lysates. This inhibition was not metal ion, oxygen, superoxide...

  8. Fish proteins as targets of ferrous-catalyzed oxidation: identification of protein carbonyls by fluorescent labeling on two-dimensional gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2011-07-27

    Protein oxidation in fish meat is considered to affect negatively the muscle texture. An important source of free radicals taking part in this process is Fenton's reaction dependent on ferrous ions present in the tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of cod muscle proteins in sarcoplasmic and myofibril fractions to in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation and to point out protein candidates that might play a major role in the deterioration of fish quality. Extracted control proteins and proteins subjected to free radicals generated by Fe(II)/ascorbate mixture were labeled with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide (FTSC) to tag carbonyl groups and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Consecutive visualization of protein carbonyl levels by capturing the FTSC signal and total protein levels by capturing the SyproRuby staining signal allowed us to quantify the relative change in protein carbonyl levels corrected for changes in protein content. Proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and homology-based searches. The results show that freshly extracted cod muscle proteins exhibit a detectable carbonylation background and that the incubation with Fe(II)/ascorbate triggers a further oxidation of both sarcoplasmic and myofibril proteins. Different proteins exhibited various degrees of sensitivity to oxidation processes. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDK), triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate mutase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and enolase were the sarcoplasmic proteins most vulnerable to ferrous-catalyzed oxidation. Moreover, NDK, phosphoglycerate mutase, and GAPDH were identified in several spots differing by their pI, and those forms showed different susceptibilities to metal-catalyzed oxidation, indicating that post-translational modifications may change the resistance of proteins to oxidative damage. The Fe(II)/ascorbate treatment significantly

  9. The serum protein carbonyl content level in relation to exercise stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiporn Mekrungruangwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein carbonyl (P is oxidatively-modified protein with diagnostic potential for acute myocardial infarction. However, many findings indicated the elevation of serum PC content level related to exercise, which could cause false positive results and limiting the specificity for acute coronary syndrome diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the level of serum protein carbonyl content in healthy volunteers subjected to exercise stress test (EST. Materials and Methods: Serum from healthy volunteers was collected 5-10 min before performing EST and 1 hour after the EST was achieved. The serum was collected, and the serum PC content level was determined by spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Results: The serum PC content level after exercise stress test was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.373 ± 0.05 nM/mg vs. 0.275 ± 0.02 nM/mg, P < 0.0001. The results demonstrated that in both male and female, serum PC content level after EST was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.29 ± 0.03 nM/mg vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in male, 0.27 ± 0.02 nM/mg vs. 0.38 ± 0.06 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in female, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that exercise stress test could result in non-specificity and false positive increasing in serum PC content level in healthy subjects, which may cause misinterpretation when using PC as cardiac marker, especially in patients, who underwent exercise stress test or patients who performing heavy physical activities.

  10. Proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins in rat liver: discovering possible mechanisms for tetracycline-induced steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhenglu; Yan, Siyu; Hu, Hui; Duan, Zhigui; Yin, Lanxuan; Liao, Shenke; Sun, Yubai; Yin, Dazhong; Li, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate biochemical mechanisms for the tetracycline-induced steatosis in rats, targeted proteins of oxidative modification were profiled. The results showed that tetracycline induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and cell viability decline in HepG2 cells only under the circumstances of palmitic acid overload. Tetracycline administration in rats led to significant decrement in blood lipids, while resulted in more than four times increment in intrahepatic triacylglycerol and typical microvesicular steatosis in the livers. The triacylglycerol levels were positively correlated with oxidative stress. Proteomic profiles of carbonylated proteins revealed 26 targeted proteins susceptible to oxidative modification and most of them located in mitochondria. Among them, the long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was one of the key enzymes regulating fatty acid β-oxidation. Oxidative modification of the enzyme in the tetracycline group depressed its enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the increased influx of lipid into the livers is the first hit of tetracycline-induced microvesicular steatosis. Oxidative stress is an essential part of the second hit, which may arise from the lipid overload and attack a series of functional proteins, aggravating the development of steatosis. The 26 targeted proteins revealed here provide a potential direct link between oxidative stress and tetracycline-induced steatosis. PMID:25332112

  11. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ZAHARIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations were carried out using venous blood. Statistical data analyses were performed using Statistica software. The comparisons between groups (study and controls were performed by applying parametric and non-parametric tests according with the type of distribution. Results: Statistically significant correlations were found between the value of protein carbonyls (PC and the weight of premature newborns in the case group (p < 0.05, as well as between the PC value and the presence of respiratory distress due to surfactant deficiency in the study group. The average PC value in the study group was higher in the third day as compared with the first day. The PC value was significantly higher in the control group as compared with study group. Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that the respiratory distress in the premature newborn and oxygen therapy stimulate the peroxidation of proteins.

  12. Protein carbonylation and water-holding capacity of pork subjected to frozen storage: effect of muscle type, premincing, and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Heinonen, Marina; Puolanne, Eero

    2011-05-25

    The present work aimed to study the relationship between protein carbonylation and the loss of water-holding capacity (WHC) occurring during frozen storage of porcine muscles. Pork samples corresponding to two different muscle types, glycolytic M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and oxidative M. psoas major (PM), and subjected to two different premincing, minced (MINCED) and intact pork pieces (INTACT), and packaging, vacuum packaged (VACUUM) and packed in oxygen-permeable bags (OXYGEN), procedures were frozen (-18 °C/12 weeks) and analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12) for the relative amount of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (AAS and GGS, respectively), and their ability to hold water using two different techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with the loss of WHC, and both phenomena were found to be more intense in LD muscles and in MINCED and OXYGEN pork samples. The loss in WHC was from ca. 10 to 30% in 12 weeks, depending on the method of determination. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may decrease the WHC of pork samples are thoroughly discussed in the present paper. Besides the likely impact of protein carbonylation in the water-myofibrillar protein relationships, the implication of AAS and GGS in further reactions including plausible cross-linking would explain the decrease of these semialdehydes by the end of frozen storage and would reinforce their liability in the loss of WHC of porcine muscles. The exact nature of these reactions, however, should be investigated in further studies.

  13. Protein carbonyl levels correlate with performance in elite field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Lima, Frederico Luis; Lannes, Luiz; Viana-Gomes, Diego; Pierucci, Anna Paola T R; Salerno, Verônica P

    2015-07-01

    Excess and incorrectly selected exercise can degrade athletic performance from an imbalance in redox homeostasis and oxidative stress, but well-planned training and nutrition can improve antioxidant capacity. The aim of the study was to investigate how nutrient intake could influence oxidative stress and cell lesion biomarkers after 5 days of training followed by a game. Blood was collected from 10 athletes at the start of training (basal), after training (pre-game), and postgame. Their acceleration capacity also was measured pre- and postgame. Blood analysis showed an increase in lactate concentration postgame (13%) and total antioxidant capacity increased both pre-game (13.1%) and postgame (12.7%), all in comparison with basal levels. An oxidative stress marker, protein carbonyl (PC), increased 3-fold over the course of the game, which correlated with a decreased acceleration (r = 0.749). For biomarkers of tissue damage, creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase (AST) increased postgame by 150% and 75%, respectively. The AST variation had a high negative correlation with energy and carbohydrate consumption and a moderate correlation with lipid and vitamin C intake. Protein intake had a positive but moderate correlation with reduced glutathione. The observed correlations suggest that nutritional monitoring can improve exercise physiological homeostasis and that PC serves as a good biomarker for oxidative stress and performance loss.

  14. Determination of Carbonyl Group Content in Plasma Proteins as a Useful Marker to Assess Impairment in Antioxidant Defense in Patients with Eales′ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Mohanraj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Formation of protein carbonyl groups is considered an early biomarker for the oxidant/antioxidant barrier impairment in various inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the intensity of free radical reactions in patients with Eales′ disease, an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the retina. Methods: Twenty patients with Eales′ disease in active vasculitis stage, 15 patients with Eales′ disease in healed vasculitis stage and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited for the study. Plasma protein carbonyl groups,plasma glutathione (GSH superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were determined in erythrocytes. Results: Plasma protein carbonyl content was elevated by a factor of 3.5 and 1.8 respectively in active and healed vasculitis stages. The increase of carbonyl group content in active and healed stage of patients with Eales′ disease correlated with diminished SOD activity and GSH content. There was also increased accumulation of TBARS in active and healed vasculitis stages of Eales′ disease, and this correlated with diminished SOD activity. Conclusion: Our results showed that protein carbonyl group content increases with severity of Eales′ disease. The increase in carbonyl content correlated with diminished antioxidant status. This confirms an earlier report that free radical mediated tissue damage occurs in Eales′ disease. The determination of protein carbonyl content may be used as a simple biomarker to monitor the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in controlling retinal vasculitis in patients with Eales′ disease.

  15. Protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet determine lipid metabolism and response to high-fat feeding in rat progeny in an age-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Gawecki, Jan; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Tubacka, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diet during gestation can exert a long-term effect on the progeny’s health by programming their developmental scheme and metabolism. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of maternal diet on lipid metabolism in 10- and 16-week-old rats. Pregnant dams were fed one of four diets: a normal protein and normal folic acid diet (NP-NF), a protein-restricted and normal folic acid diet (PR-NF), a protein-restricted and folic-acid-supplemented diet (PR-FS), or a normal protein and ...

  16. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-μs timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R2, dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect μs-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) Cα-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly 13C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the Cα magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the Cα region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by Cα-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [13C,15N, 2H] (2H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly 15N/selectively-13C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly 13C/15N/2H labeled sample was well suited to measure 15N and 1H R2 dispersion as well as 13C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit β-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei

  17. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-{mu}s timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishima, Rieko [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Structural Biology Unit (United States); Baber, James; Louis, John M.; Torchia, Dennis A. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Structural Biology Unit (United States)

    2004-06-15

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R{sub 2}, dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect {mu}s-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) C{sub {alpha}}-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly {sup 13}C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the C{sub {alpha}} magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the C{sub {alpha}} region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by C{sub {alpha}}-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N, {sup 2}H] ({sup 2}H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly {sup 15}N/selectively-{sup 13}C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N/{sup 2}H labeled sample was well suited to measure {sup 15}N and {sup 1}H R{sub 2} dispersion as well as {sup 13}C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit {beta}-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei.

  18. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-micros timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishima, Rieko; Baber, James; Louis, John M; Torchia, Dennis A

    2004-06-01

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R(2), dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect micros-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) C(alpha)-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly (13)C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the C(alpha) magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the C(alpha) region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by C(alpha)-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [(13)C,(15)N, (2)H] ((2)H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly (15)N/selectively-(13)C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly (13)C/(15)N/(2)H labeled sample was well suited to measure (15)N and (1)H R(2) dispersion as well as (13)C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit beta-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei. PMID:15014232

  19. Age-Dependent Increase of Brain Copper Levels and Expressions of Copper Regulatory Proteins in the Subventricular Zone and Choroid Plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherleen eFu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our recent data suggest a high accumulation of Cu in the subventricular zone (SVZ along the wall of brain ventricles. Anatomically, SVZ is in direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is secreted by a neighboring tissue choroid plexus. Changes in Cu regulatory gene expressions in the SVZ and choroid plexus as the function of aging may determine Cu levels in the CSF and SVZ. This study was designed to investigate associations between age, Cu levels, and Cu regulatory genes in SVZ and plexus. The SVZ and choroid plexus were dissected from brains of 3-week, 10-week or 9-month old male rats. Analyses by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the SVZ of adult and old animals contained the highest Cu level compared with other tested brain regions. Significant positive correlations between age and Cu levels in SVZ and plexus were observed; the SVZ Cu level of old animals was 7.5- and 5.8-fold higher than those of young and adult rats (p<0.01, respectively. Quantitation by qPCR of the transcriptional expressions of Cu regulatory proteins showed that the SVZ expressed the highest level of Cu storage protein MTs, while the choroid plexus expressed the high level of Cu transporter protein Ctr1. Noticeably, Cu levels in the SVZ were positively associated with type B slow proliferating cell marker Gfap (p<0.05, but inversely associated with type A proliferating neuroblast marker Dcx (p<0.05 and type C transit amplifying progenitor marker Nestin (p<0.01. Dmt1 had significant positive correlations with age and Cu levels in the plexus (p<0.01. These findings suggest that Cu levels in all tested brain regions are increased as the function of age. The SVZ shows a different expression pattern of Cu-regulatory genes from the choroid plexus. The age-related increase of MTs and decrease of Ctr1 may contribute to the high Cu level in this neurogenesis active brain region.

  20. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding protein (G/sub i/) and two additional pertussis toxin substrates associated with muscarinic receptors in rat heart myocytes: characterization and age dependency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscona-Amir, E.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-07-12

    The coupling of muscarinic receptors with G-proteins was investigated in cultured myocytes prepared from the hearts of newborn rats. The coupling was investigated in both young (5 days after plating) and aged (14 days after plating) cultures, in view of the completely different effects of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) on muscarinic agonist binding to homogenates from young vs aged cultures. Pretreatment of cultures from both ages by Bordetella pertussis toxin (IAP) was found to eliminate any Gpp(NH)p effect on carbamylcholine binding. IAP by itself induced a rightward shift in the carbamylcholine competition curve in homogenates from aged cultures, but no such effect was observed in homogenates from young cultures. IAP-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation of membrane preparations from young and aged cultures revealed major differences between them. Young cultures exhibited a major IAP substrate at 40 kDa, which was also recognized by anti-..cap alpha../sub i/ antibodies, and two novel IAP substrates at 28 and 42 kDa, which were weakly ADP-ribosylated by the toxin and were not recognized with either anti-..cap alpha../sub i/ or anti-..cap alpha../sub 0/ antibodies. In aged cultures, only the 40-kDa band (ribosylated to a lower degree) was detected. The parallel age-dependent changes in the three IAP substrates (28, 40, and 42 kDa) and in the interactions of the G-protein(s) with the muscarinic receptors strongly suggest close association between the two phenomena. All of these age-dependent changes in the G-protein related parameters were prevented by phosphatidylcholine-liposome treatment of the aged cultures. The role of the membrane lipid composition in these phenomena is discussed.

  1. T-cell epitope polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein among field isolates from Sierra Leone: age-dependent haplotype distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalloh Muctarr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of the development of a successful malaria vaccine, understanding the polymorphisms exhibited by malaria antigens in natural parasite populations is crucial for proper vaccine design. Recent observations have indicated that sequence polymorphisms in the C-terminal T-cell epitopes of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (Pfcsp are rather low and apparently stable in low endemic areas. This study sought to assess the pattern in a malaria endemic setting in Africa, using samples from Freetown, Sierra Leone. Methods Filter-paper blood samples were collected from subjects at a teaching hospital in Freetown during September–October 2006 and in April–May 2007. The C-terminal portion of the Pfcsp gene spanning the Th2R and Th3R epitopes was amplified and directly sequenced; sequences were analysed with subject parameters and polymorphism patterns in Freetown were compared to that in other malaria endemic areas. Results and Discussion Overall, the genetic diversity in Freetown was high. From a total of 99 sequences, 42 haplotypes were identified with at least three accounting for 44.4% (44/99: the 3D7-type (19.2%, a novel type, P-01 (17.2%, and E12 (8.1%. Interestingly, all were unique to the African sub-region and there appeared to be predilection for certain haplotypes to distribute in certain age-groups: the 3D7 type was detected mainly in hospitalized children under 15 years of age, while the P-01 type was common in adult antenatal females (Pearson Chi-square = 48.750, degrees of freedom = 34, P = 0.049. In contrast, the single-haplotype predominance (proportion > 50% pattern previously identified in Asia was not detected in Freetown. Conclusion Haplotype distribution of the T-cell epitopes of Pfcsp in Freetown appeared to vary with age in the study population, and the polymorphism patterns were similar to that observed in neighbouring Gambia, but differed significantly at the sequence level from

  2. Cytoplasmic androgen binding protein of rat liver: molecular characterization after photoaffinity labeling and functional correlation with the age-dependent synthesis of alpha 2u-globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liver of the mature male rat contains a moderate affinity (Kd = 10(-8)M), low-capacity, cytoplasmic androgen binding protein (CAB) whose appearance during puberty and disappearance during senescence correlate with the androgen-dependent synthesis of alpha 2u-globulin. Molecular properties of CAB were examined by photoaffinity labeling with tritiated methyltrienolone (R-1881), a synthetic androgen, and by its localization within the hepatocytes which are competent to produce alpha 2u-globulin. Photoaffinity labeling of the liver cytosol derived from postpubertal male rats, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography, showed a predominant androgen binding band corresponding to Mr 31,000. This 31-kilodalton (kDa) binding component was conspicuously absent in the liver of androgen-insensitive prepubertal and senescent male rats and in adult male rats treated with estradiol-17 beta. In addition, unlike the cytoplasmic extract, the nuclear lysate of the male rat hepatocytes did not contain the 31-kDa androgen binder. Disappearance of the 31-kDa androgen binding band from the cytosolic fraction of androgen-insensitive animals was associated with a concomitant appearance of a minor androgen binding component of apparent Mr 29,000. The livers of postpubertal male rats normally contain two subpopulations of hepatocytes, only one of which is highly active (competent) in alpha 2u-globulin synthesis. Separation of these two subpopulations through a fluorescence-activated cell sorter followed by whole cell labeling showed more than a 2-fold higher uptake of R-1881 by the competent cells

  3. Levels and Age Dependency of Neurofilament Light and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Healthy Individuals and Their Relation to the Brain Parenchymal Fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Vågberg

    Full Text Available Neurofilament light (NFL and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP are integral parts of the axonal and astrocytal cytoskeletons respectively and are released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of cellular damage. In order to interpret the levels of these biomarkers in disease states, knowledge on normal levels in the healthy is required. Another biomarker for neurodegeneration is brain atrophy, commonly measured as brain parenchymal fraction (BPF using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Potential correlations between levels of NFL, GFAP and BPF in healthy individuals have not been investigated.To present levels of NFL and GFAP in healthy individuals stratified for age, and investigate the correlation between them as well as their correlation with BPF.The CSF was analysed in 53 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 70 (1 sample missing for GFAP analysis and 48 of the volunteers underwent determination of BPF using MRI.Mean (±SD NFL was 355 ng/L (±214, mean GFAP was 421 ng/L (±129 and mean BPF was 0.867 (±0.035. All three biomarkers correlated with age. NFL also correlated with both GFAP and BPF. When controlled for age, only the correlation between NFL and GFAP retained statistical significance.This study presents data on age-stratified levels of NFL and GFAP in the CSF of healthy individuals. There is a correlation between levels of NFL and GFAP and both increase with age. A correlation between NFL and BPF was also found, but did not retain statistical significance if controlled for age.

  4. iCar-PseCp: identify carbonylation sites in proteins by Monte Carlo sampling and incorporating sequence coupled effects into general PseAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianhua; Liu, Zi; Xiao, Xuan; Liu, Bingxiang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Carbonylation is a posttranslational modification (PTM or PTLM), where a carbonyl group is added to lysine (K), proline (P), arginine (R), and threonine (T) residue of a protein molecule. Carbonylation plays an important role in orchestrating various biological processes but it is also associated with many diseases such as diabetes, chronic lung disease, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, chronic renal failure, and sepsis. Therefore, from the angles of both basic research and drug development, we are facing a challenging problem: for an uncharacterized protein sequence containing many residues of K, P, R, or T, which ones can be carbonylated, and which ones cannot? To address this problem, we have developed a predictor called iCar-PseCp by incorporating the sequence-coupled information into the general pseudo amino acid composition, and balancing out skewed training dataset by Monte Carlo sampling to expand positive subset. Rigorous target cross-validations on a same set of carbonylation-known proteins indicated that the new predictor remarkably outperformed its existing counterparts. For the convenience of most experimental scientists, a user-friendly web-server for iCar-PseCp has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iCar-PseCp, by which users can easily obtain their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematical equations involved. It has not escaped our notice that the formulation and approach presented here can also be used to analyze many other problems in computational proteomics. PMID:27153555

  5. Apple phenolics as inhibitors of the carbonylation pathway during in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation of myofibrillar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Tine; Utrera, Mariana; Morcuende, David; Van Royen, Geert; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; De Smet, Stefaan; Estévez, Mario

    2016-11-15

    The effect of apple phenolics on the oxidative damage caused to myofibrillar proteins by an in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation system was investigated. Three pure phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and phloridzin) and an apple peel extract were added to myofibrillar proteins in three concentrations (50, 100 and 200μM), and a blank treatment was included as a control. All suspensions were subjected to Fe(3+)/H2O2 oxidation at 37°C during 10days, and protein oxidation was evaluated as carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes) and Schiff base cross-links. Significant inhibition by apple phenolics was found as compared to the control treatment, with (-)-epicatechin being the most efficient antioxidant and phloridzin showing the weakest antioxidant effect. The higher concentrations of apple extract showed effective antioxidant activity against protein oxidation in myofibrillar proteins, emphasizing the potential of apple by-products as natural inhibitors of protein oxidation in meat products. PMID:27283697

  6. A NMR experiment for simultaneous correlations of valine and leucine/isoleucine methyls with carbonyl chemical shifts in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugarinov, Vitali; Venditti, Vincenzo; Marius Clore, G

    2014-01-01

    A methyl-detected 'out-and-back' NMR experiment for obtaining simultaneous correlations of methyl resonances of valine and isoleucine/leucine residues with backbone carbonyl chemical shifts, SIM-HMCM(CGCBCA)CO, is described. The developed pulse-scheme serves the purpose of convenience in recording a single data set for all Ile(δ1), Leu(δ) and Val(γ) (ILV) methyl positions instead of acquiring two separate spectra selective for valine or leucine/isoleucine residues. The SIM-HMCM(CGCBCA)CO experiment can be used for ILV methyl assignments in moderately sized protein systems (up to ~100 kDa) where the backbone chemical shifts of (13)C(α), (13)Cβ and (13)CO are known from prior NMR studies and where some losses in sensitivity can be tolerated for the sake of an overall reduction in NMR acquisition time.

  7. Hop proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis, protein carbonylation, and cytoskeleton disorganization in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells via reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) have been shown to suppress the growth of diverse human cancer cells and are considered as promising additions to the arsenal of chemopreventive phytochemicals. An oligomeric mixture of PCs from hops (Humulus lupulus) significantly decreased cell viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hop PCs, at 50 or 100 μg/ml, exhibited apoptosis-inducing properties as shown by the increase in caspase-3 activity. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accompanied by an augmented accumulation of protein carbonyls. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis in combination with 2-alkenal-specific immunochemical detection identified β-actin and protein disulfide isomerase as major putative targets of acrolein adduction. Incubation of HT-29 cells with hop PCs resulted in morphological changes that indicated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. PC-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was also quantified; but, the measured H2O2 levels would not explain the observed changes in the oxidative modifications of actin. These findings suggest new modes of action for proanthocyandins as antitumorgenic agents in human colon cancer cells, namely, promotion of protein oxidative modifications and cytoskeleton derangement. PMID:19271284

  8. Low intensity training of mdx mice reduces carbonylation and increases expression levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzewicz, Janek; Tanihata, Jun; Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Ito, Naoki; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2015-05-01

    High intensity training induces muscle damage in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, an animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, low intensity training (LIT) rescues the mdx phenotype and even reduces the level of protein carbonylation, a marker of oxidative damage. Until now, beneficial effects of LIT were mainly assessed at the physiological level. We investigated the effects of LIT at the molecular level on 8-week-old wild-type and mdx muscle using 2D Western blot and protein-protein interaction analysis. We found that the fast isoforms of troponin T and myosin binding protein C as well as glycogen phosphorylase were overcarbonylated and downregulated in mdx muscle. Some of the mitochondrial enzymes of the citric acid cycle were overcarbonylated, whereas some proteins of the respiratory chain were downregulated. Of functional importance, ATP synthase was only partially assembled, as revealed by Blue Native PAGE analysis. LIT decreased the carbonylation level and increased the expression of fast isoforms of troponin T and of myosin binding protein C, and glycogen phosphorylase. In addition, it increased the expression of aconitate hydratase and NADH dehydrogenase, and fully restored the ATP synthase complex. Our study demonstrates that the benefits of LIT are associated with lowered oxidative damage as revealed by carbonylation and higher expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction. Potentially, these results will help to design therapies for DMD based on exercise mimicking drugs.

  9. Study of Protein Carbonyl Group, Nitric Oxide and MDA (Index of Lipid Peroxidation) as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vilas U Chavan, R R Melinkeri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormalities in lipid and protein metabolism. The free radicals and oxidative stress may act as a common pathway to diabetes itself, as well as to its later complications. Objectives: The present study was planned to study the bio-markers of oxidative stress, such as protein carbonyl (CO) group, nitric oxide (NO.) in the form of total nitrite (NOx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid p...

  10. Study of Protein Carbonyl Group, Nitric Oxide and MDA (Index of Lipid Peroxidation as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas U Chavan, R R Melinkeri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as protein carbonyl, NOx (total nitrites and MDA are significantly increased in type 2 DM compared to healthy subjects. There is increased protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and increased conversion of NO. to its end products like nitrite and nitrates in type 2 DM. This suggests that there is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress in type 2 DM patients compared to healthy subjects.

  11. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  12. Analysis of protein carbonylation - pitfalls and promise in commonly used methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Wojdyla, K.; Nedic, O.;

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of proteins has received a lot of attention in the last decades due to the fact that they have been shown to accumulate and to be implicated in the progression and the pathophysiology of several diseases such as Alzheimer, coronary heart diseases, etc. This has also resulted in the fact...... that research scientists are becoming more eager to be able to measure accurately the level of oxidized protein in biological materials, and to determine the precise site of the oxidative attack on the protein, in order to get insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of diseases...

  13. Analysis of protein carbonylation-pitfalls and promise in commonly used methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, K; Nedić, O;

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of proteins has received a lot of attention in the last decades due to the fact that they have been shown to accumulate and to be implicated in the progression and the pathophysiology of several diseases such as Alzheimer, coronary heart diseases, etc. This has also resulted in the fact...... that research scientists are becoming more eager to be able to measure accurately the level of oxidized protein in biological materials, and to determine the precise site of the oxidative attack on the protein, in order to get insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of diseases...

  14. Differential age-dependent import regulation by signal peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Teng

    Full Text Available Gene-specific, age-dependent regulations are common at the transcriptional and translational levels, while protein transport into organelles is generally thought to be constitutive. Here we report a new level of differential age-dependent regulation and show that chloroplast proteins are divided into three age-selective groups: group I proteins have a higher import efficiency into younger chloroplasts, import of group II proteins is nearly independent of chloroplast age, and group III proteins are preferentially imported into older chloroplasts. The age-selective signal is located within the transit peptide of each protein. A group III protein with its transit peptide replaced by a group I transit peptide failed to complement its own mutation. Two consecutive positive charges define the necessary motif in group III signals for older chloroplast preference. We further show that different members of a gene family often belong to different age-selective groups because of sequence differences in their transit peptides. These results indicate that organelle-targeting signal peptides are part of cells' differential age-dependent regulation networks. The sequence diversity of some organelle-targeting peptides is not a result of the lack of selection pressure but has evolved to mediate regulation.

  15. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharie, Gabriela; Antonia POPESCU; BLAGA, LIGIA; Melinda MATYAS

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations...

  16. Age-dependant expression of alpha-macula adherens protein in rat heart%α-黏着斑蛋白在大鼠心脏表达分布随增龄变化的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光谋; 吴俊琢; 张艳芬; 郭志坤

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macula adherens protein is found closely associated with congenital cardiac malformation and myocardial differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression characteristics of α-macula adherens protein in rat heart, as well as the property of age-dependant expression during myocardial growth. DESIGN: Randomized controlled, observational comparative study. SETTING: Department of Cell Biology of Xinxiang Medical College; Department of Bioengineering and Agricultural Economics of Puyang Vocational Technical School. MATERIALS: This study was conducted at the Morphological Laboratory of Xinxiang Medical College between January and June 2003. Totally 28 Wistar rats of clean grade were divided into infant group, youth group,middle-age group, and old-age group with 7 rats in each group. METHODS: All rats were anaesthetized and then cardiac tissues were cut into consecutive coronal slices of 5 μm thick. The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of infant, youth, middle-age and oldage groups was detected using IHC method. The positive cells displayed brownish yellow granules on the surface, cytoplasm and intercalated disc. Routine HE staining was performed on all specimens for structural comparison. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of different groups. RESULTS: All the 28 rats entered the final results analysis. ① α-macula adherens protein was found to be expressed in myocardium in atrium, ventricle, papilla muscles and interventricular septum. ② In infant rats, the expression of α-macula adherens protein was mainly observed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium, with less expression on cell surface and in cytoplasm; in contrast, α-macula adherens protein in young, middleaged and old rats was found to be typically expressed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium. CONCLUSION: The expression of α-macula adherens protein displays age-dependant manner during rat

  17. Protein Carbonyl as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Severe Leptospirosis, and Its Usefulness in Differentiating Leptospirosis from Dengue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Narmada; Wickremesinghe, Shalini; Niloofa, Roshan; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Karunanayake, Lilani; de Silva, H Janaka; Wickremesinghe, A R; Premawansa, Sunil; Rajapakse, Senaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma M

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of disease severity in leptospirosis is not clearly understood whether it is due to direct damage by pathogen or by adverse immune responses. Knowledge on biomarkers of oxidative stress which could be used in identifying patients with severe illness has shown to be of great value in disease management. Thus, the main aim of this study was to assess the damage to serum proteins and lipids, and their significance as biomarkers of oxidative stress in severe leptospirosis. In regions endemic for both leptospirosis and dengue, leptospirosis cases are often misdiagnosed as dengue during dengue epidemics. Therefore, the second aim was to assess the potential of the oxidative stress markers in differentiating severe leptospirosis from critical phase dengue. We measured serum antioxidants (uric acid and bilirubin), total antioxidant capacity (AOC), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid hydroperoxide (LP) in patients with severe leptospirosis (n = 60), mild leptospirosis (n = 50), dengue during the critical phase (n = 30) and in healthy subjects (n = 30). All patient groups had similar total antioxidant capacity levels. However, the presence of significantly high uric acid and total bilirubin levels may reflect the degree of renal and hepatic involvement seen in severe leptospirosis patients (p<0.02). Serum PC and LP levels were significantly higher in leptospirosis patients compared to critical phase dengue infections (p<0.005). Moreover, high serum PC levels appear to differentiate SL from DC [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96; p<0.001]. Serum PC may be a reliable biomarker of oxidative damage to serum proteins to identify severe leptospirosis patients (AUC = 0.99) and also to differentiate severe leptospirosis from mild cases (AUC = 0.78; p<0.005) indicating its contribution to pathogenesis. Use of serum PC as an indicator of leptospirosis severity and as an oxidative stress biomarker in differentiating leptospirosis from dengue would provide the opportunity to

  18. Protein Carbonyl as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Severe Leptospirosis, and Its Usefulness in Differentiating Leptospirosis from Dengue Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada Fernando

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of disease severity in leptospirosis is not clearly understood whether it is due to direct damage by pathogen or by adverse immune responses. Knowledge on biomarkers of oxidative stress which could be used in identifying patients with severe illness has shown to be of great value in disease management. Thus, the main aim of this study was to assess the damage to serum proteins and lipids, and their significance as biomarkers of oxidative stress in severe leptospirosis. In regions endemic for both leptospirosis and dengue, leptospirosis cases are often misdiagnosed as dengue during dengue epidemics. Therefore, the second aim was to assess the potential of the oxidative stress markers in differentiating severe leptospirosis from critical phase dengue. We measured serum antioxidants (uric acid and bilirubin, total antioxidant capacity (AOC, protein carbonyl (PC and lipid hydroperoxide (LP in patients with severe leptospirosis (n = 60, mild leptospirosis (n = 50, dengue during the critical phase (n = 30 and in healthy subjects (n = 30. All patient groups had similar total antioxidant capacity levels. However, the presence of significantly high uric acid and total bilirubin levels may reflect the degree of renal and hepatic involvement seen in severe leptospirosis patients (p<0.02. Serum PC and LP levels were significantly higher in leptospirosis patients compared to critical phase dengue infections (p<0.005. Moreover, high serum PC levels appear to differentiate SL from DC [area under the curve (AUC = 0.96; p<0.001]. Serum PC may be a reliable biomarker of oxidative damage to serum proteins to identify severe leptospirosis patients (AUC = 0.99 and also to differentiate severe leptospirosis from mild cases (AUC = 0.78; p<0.005 indicating its contribution to pathogenesis. Use of serum PC as an indicator of leptospirosis severity and as an oxidative stress biomarker in differentiating leptospirosis from dengue would provide the opportunity

  19. Plasma Protein Carbonyls and Breast Cancer Risk in Sisters Discordant for Breast Cancer from the New York Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Terry, Mary Beth; Liao, Yuyan; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Gurvich, Irina; Senie, Ruby; Santella, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including breast cancer. Several population-based case-control studies have demonstrated that various biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. We selected sisters discordant for breast cancer (n=645) from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry to explore factors that contribute to variation in plasma protein carbonyls, and to determine whether this bio...

  20. Elevated protein carbonylation, and misfolding in sciatic nerve from db/db and Sod1(-/- mice: plausible link between oxidative stress and demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Hamilton

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy is associated with decrements in motor/sensory neuron myelination, nerve conduction and muscle function; however, the mechanisms of reduced myelination in diabetes are poorly understood. Chronic elevation of oxidative stress may be one of the potential determinants for demyelination as lipids and proteins are important structural constituents of myelin and highly susceptible to oxidation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether there is a link between protein oxidation/misfolding and demyelination. We chose two distinct models to test our hypothesis: 1 the leptin receptor deficient mouse (dbdb model of diabetic polyneuropathy and 2 superoxide dismutase 1 knockout (Sod1(-/- mouse model of in vivo oxidative stress. Both experimental models displayed a significant decrement in nerve conduction, increase in tail distal motor latency as well as reduced myelin thickness and fiber/axon diameter. Further biochemical studies demonstrated that oxidative stress is likely to be a potential key player in the demyelination process as both models exhibited significant elevation in protein carbonylation and alterations in protein conformation. Since peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 is a key component of myelin sheath and has been found mutated and aggregated in several peripheral neuropathies, we predicted that an increase in carbonylation and aggregation of PMP22 may be associated with demyelination in dbdb mice. Indeed, PMP22 was found to be carbonylated and aggregated in sciatic nerves of dbdb mice. Sequence-driven hydropathy plot analysis and in vitro oxidation-induced aggregation of purified PMP22 protein supported the premise for oxidation-dependent aggregation of PMP22 in dbdb mice. Collectively, these data strongly suggest for the first time that oxidation-mediated protein misfolding and aggregation of key myelin proteins may be linked to demyelination and reduced nerve conduction in peripheral

  1. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-07-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post {gamma}-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (<30% v/v) stressors were used, nor with between-site comparisons. Concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30% v/v) produced a small difference. {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and

  2. Age-dependent dosimetry and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides into the environment following the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 created an urgent need for internationally acceptable dose coefficients for calculating the doses delivered to all members of the public, from conception to old age. Organ masses and the kinetics of distribution and retention of elements in humans generally vary with age and often not in simple linear relationship to body weight. Unless variations are considered calculated radiation doses to children may be seriously underestimated. The International Commission on Radiological Protection created in 1987 a Task Group on Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides (AGDOS). The work of AGDOS and the general problems encountered in deriving age-dependent dose coefficients will be discussed in this paper. The first two AGDOS reports, ICRP Publication 56 Parts 1 and 2, provide dose coefficients for the ages 3 months, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and for adults for the 21 elements considered to be of most immediate importance for radiation protection. To develop these dose coefficients, the ICRP Publication 30 dosimetric and biokinetic models were reevaluated and extended. The basic dosimetric model is retained but equivalent dose is now integrated from age at intake to 70 years and the new ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors are incorporated. The development of age-dependent biokinetic models is complicated by the lack of age-related human, or even animal data for the majority of the elements. Thus in formulating the models it has been necessary to use all the available information, biokinetic, physiological chemical and biochemical, and to adopt a number of new approaches including the development of generic biokinetic models for chemically related families of elements such as the actinides and the alkaline earth elements. (author)

  3. Effect of helium neon laser therapy for enhancing healing of chronic leg ulcers on growth factors and oxidative status: Correlation with protein carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of He:Ne laser irradiation on growth factors and oxidative stress during its biostimulatory effects on wound healing. Twenty two chronic leg ulcer patients, were exposed to three sessions per week of 632.8 nm2 He Ne laser irradiation at power output 10 mW and energy density of 1-4 J/cm2. Serum protein carbonyls, wound edge DNA, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (BGF) were estimated in sera and tissue of each patient before and after the 8∼ session post He:Ne laser irradiation used for treatment of chronic leg ulcer. Laser irradiation decreased ulcer size in all of the treated patients. 65% of ulcers exhibited 100%, complete recovery and 35% of ulcers exhibited recovery below 80%. Biochemical investigations revealed significant increase in the levels of serum and tissue FGF, and EGF, while serum protein carbonyls were decreased. The decrease in serum protein carbonyls was inversely correlated with the percentage of ulcer healing, while the increase in tissue growth factors was positively correlated with the percentage of ulcer healing. There was no significant increase in the level of DNA after laser therapy. However, DNA-fragmentation before and after laser therapy revealed the presence of small DNA fractions ranging from 21 kb to less than 0.5 kb before laser therapy, which decreased in intensity or was completely eliminated after laser therapy. Me:Ne therapy is of great benefit in the treatment of chronic wounds and shades the light on the oxidative stress and growth factor status during the treatment of chronic leg ulcer with soft laser irradiation. (author)

  4. The age dependence of galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, D S; Lake, G; Quinn, T; Stadel, J; Governato, Fabio; Lake, George; Quinn, Thomas; Reed, Darren S.; Stadel, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    We analyse clustering properties of a Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) universe within a cosmological dark matter simulation of sufficient resolution to resolve structure down to the scale of dwarfs. We show that the age-clustering correlation, recently found among discrete virialized haloes by Gao et al., is strong for objects likely to host luminous galaxies, which includes the satellite halo (subhalo) population. Older mock galaxies are significantly more clustered in our catalog, which consists of satellite haloes as well as the central peaks of discrete haloes, selected by peak circular velocity. This suggests that the clustering age dependence is manifested in real galaxies. At small scales (less than ~5 Mpc/h), the very simple assumption that galaxy colour depends solely on halo age is inconsistent with the strength of the observed clustering colour trends, providing an independent verification that luminosity weighted galaxy ages do not closely trace the assembly epoch of their dark matter hosts. The ag...

  5. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa J Schafer

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR enhances longevity and mitigates aging phenotypes in numerous species. Physiological responses to CR are cell-type specific and variable throughout the lifespan. However, the mosaic of molecular changes responsible for CR benefits remains unclear, particularly in brain regions susceptible to deterioration during aging. We examined the influence of long-term CR on the CA1 hippocampal region, a key learning and memory brain area that is vulnerable to age-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Through mRNA sequencing and NanoString nCounter analysis, we demonstrate that one year of CR feeding suppresses age-dependent signatures of 882 genes functionally associated with synaptic transmission-related pathways, including calcium signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP, and Creb signaling in wild-type mice. By comparing the influence of CR on hippocampal CA1 region transcriptional profiles at younger-adult (5 months, 2.5 months of feeding and older-adult (15 months, 12.5 months of feeding timepoints, we identify conserved upregulation of proteome quality control and calcium buffering genes, including heat shock 70 kDa protein 1b (Hspa1b and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (Pdia4 and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (Pdia6, and calreticulin (Calr. Expression levels of putative neuroprotective factors, klotho (Kl and transthyretin (Ttr, are also elevated by CR in adulthood, although the global CR-specific expression profiles at younger and older timepoints are highly divergent. At a previously unachieved resolution, our results demonstrate conserved activation of neuroprotective gene signatures and broad CR-suppression of age-dependent hippocampal CA1 region expression changes, indicating that CR functionally maintains a more youthful transcriptional state within the hippocampal CA1 sector.

  6. Carbonyl reductase inactivation may contribute to mouse lung tumor promotion by electrophilic metabolites of butylated hydroxytoluene: protein alkylation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Colin T; Fritz, Kristofer S; Meier, Brent W; Kirichenko, Oleg V; Thompson, John A

    2008-08-01

    Promotion of lung tumors in mice by the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is mediated by electrophilic metabolites produced in the target organ. Identifying the proteins alkylated by these quinone methides (QMs) is a necessary step in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Covalent adducts of the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin 6 and Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase were detected previously in lung cytosols from BALB/c mice injected with BHT, and complimentary in vitro studies demonstrated that QM alkylation causes inactivation and enhances oxidative stress. In the present work, adducts of another protective enzyme, carbonyl reductase (CBR), were detected by Western blotting and mass spectrometry in mitochondria from lungs of mice one day after a single injection of BHT and throughout a 28-day period of weekly injections required to achieve tumor promotion. BHT treatment was accompanied by the accumulation of protein carbonyls in lung cytosol from sustained oxidative stress. Studies in vitro demonstrated that CBR activity in lung homogenates was susceptible to concentration- and time-dependent inhibition by QMs. Recombinant CBR underwent irreversible inhibition during QM exposure, and mass spectrometry was utilized to identify alkylation sites at Cys 51, Lys 17, Lys 189, Lys 201, His 28, and His 204. Except for Lys 17, all of these adducts were eliminated as a cause of enzyme inhibition either by chemical modification (cysteine) or site-directed mutagenesis (lysines and histidines). The data demonstrated that Lys 17 is the critical alkylation target, consistent with the role of this basic residue in NADPH binding. These data support the possibility that CBR inhibition occurs in BHT-treated mice, thereby compromising one pathway for inactivating lipid peroxidation products, particularly 4-oxo-2-nonenal. These data, in concert with previous evidence for the inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, provide a molecular basis to explain lung inflammation leading to

  7. 50Hz Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Enhance Protein Carbonyl Groups Content in Cancer Cells: Effects on Proteasomal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eleuteri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are an assessed cause of prolonging free radicals lifespan. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on protein oxidation and on the 20S proteasome functionality, the complex responsible for the degradation of oxidized proteins. Caco 2 cells were exposed, for 24–72 hours, to 1 mT, 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. The treatment induced a time-dependent increase both in cell growth and in protein oxidation, more evident in the presence of TPA, while no changes in cell viability were detected. Exposing the cells to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields caused a global activation of the 20S proteasome catalytic components, particularly evident at 72 hours exposure and in the presence of TPA. The finding that EGCG, a natural antioxidant compound, counteracted the field-related pro-oxidant effects demonstrates that the increased proteasome activity was due to an enhancement in intracellular free radicals.

  8. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  9. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity ☆

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vidal; J.P. Cavaille; Graziani, F.; M. Robin; Ouari, O; Pietri, S.; Stocker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or...

  10. Age-dependent complex noise fluctuations in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the parameters of colored noise in EEG data of 17 722 professional drivers aged 18–70. The whole study is based upon experiments showing that biological neural networks may operate in the vicinity of the critical point and that the balance between excitation and inhibition in the human brain is important for the transfer of information. This paper is devoted to the study of EEG power spectrum which can be described best by a power function with 1/fλ distribution and colored noise corresponding to the critical point in the EEG signal has the value of λ = 1 (purple noise). The slow accumulation of energy and its quick release is a universal property of the 1/f distribution. The physiological mechanism causing energy dissipation in the brain seems to depend on the number and strength of the connections between clusters of neurons. With ageing, the number of connections between the neurons decreases. Learning ability and intellectual performance also decrease. Therefore, age-related changes in the λ coefficient can be anticipated. We found that absolute values of λ coefficients decrease significantly with increasing age. Deviations from this rule are related to age-dependent slowing of the dominant frequency in the alpha band. Age-dependent change in the parameter and colored noise may be indicative of age-related changes in the self-organization of brain activity. Results obtained include (i) the age-dependent decrease of the absolute values of the average λ coefficient with the regression coefficient 0.005 1/year, (ii) distribution of λ value changes related to EEG frequency bands and to localization of electrodes on the scalp, and (iii) relation of age-dependent changes of colored noise and EEG energy in separate frequency bands. (paper)

  11. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Peng, Jigen

    2007-07-01

    Based on J. Mena-Lorca and H.W. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.

  12. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point. PMID:25768548

  13. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  14. Targeting Reactive Carbonyl Species with Natural Sequestering Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Won Hwang; Yoon-Mi Lee; Giancarlo Aldini; Kyung-Jin Yeum

    2016-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl species generated by the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars are highly reactive due to their electrophilic nature, and are able to easily react with the nucleophilic sites of proteins as well as DNA causing cellular dysfunction. Levels of reactive carbonyl species and their reaction products have been reported to be elevated in various chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In an effort to identify sequestering agents...

  15. Role of Mitochondrial Complex IV in Age-Dependent Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro-Arnaiz, Ines; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Torres-Capelli, Mar; Meléndez-Rodríguez, Florinda; Veiga, Sónia; Veys, Koen; Sebastian, David; Elorza, Ainara; Tello, Daniel; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Cogliati, Sara; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Balsa, Eduardo; Fuertes, Esther; Romanos, Eduardo; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio; De Bock, Katrien; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-09-13

    Aging is associated with progressive white adipose tissue (WAT) enlargement initiated early in life, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here we show that mitochondrial complex IV (CIV) activity and assembly are already repressed in white adipocytes of middle-aged mice and involve a HIF1A-dependent decline of essential CIV components such as COX5B. At the molecular level, HIF1A binds to the Cox5b proximal promoter and represses its expression. Silencing of Cox5b decreased fatty acid oxidation and promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. Moreover, local in vivo Cox5b silencing in WAT of young mice increased the size of adipocytes, whereas restoration of COX5B expression in aging mice counteracted adipocyte enlargement. An age-dependent reduction in COX5B gene expression was also found in human visceral adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings establish a pivotal role for CIV dysfunction in progressive white adipocyte enlargement during aging, which can be restored to alleviate age-dependent WAT expansion. PMID:27626667

  16. Age dependencies in the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, A.M. (Munich Univ. (Germany). Radiobiological Inst. GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection); Barclay, D. (GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection)

    1992-01-01

    Models for the dose and age dependence of radiation induced cancer have been based primarily on the follow-up of the atomic bomb survivors. Two different concepts have been deduced for leukaemias and for other cancers. The excess leukaemias appear in a distinct temporal wave with a maximum 5 to 10 years after radiation exposure; the distribution is more narrow for younger ages, but there is little dependence of the total attributable risk on age at exposure. For other cancers the latent periods are longer and, according to the current interpretation, the excess rates are then proportional to the age specific spontaneous rates, so that most excess cases would arise at old age. The factors of proportionality, and thus the attributable risks, are assumed to be markedly higher for young ages at exposure. It is argued here, that there is no firm support for this interpretation. (author).

  17. Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Xu

    Full Text Available Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation, CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  18. Age-dependent forest carbon sink: Estimation via inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Shi, Peijun; Jia, Gensuo; Dai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Xiang; Shangguan, Wei; Du, Ling; Wu, Hao; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-12-01

    Forests have been recognized to sequester a substantial amount of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the magnitude and time course of the C sink. Revealing the intrinsic relationship between forest age and C sink is crucial for reducing uncertainties in prediction of forest C sink potential. In this study, we developed a stepwise data assimilation approach to combine a process-based Terrestrial ECOsystem Regional model, observations from multiple sources, and stochastic sampling to inversely estimate carbon cycle parameters including carbon sink at different forest ages for evergreen needle-leaved forests in China. The new approach is effective to estimate age-dependent parameter of maximal light-use efficiency (R2 = 0.99) and, accordingly, can quantify a relationship between forest age and the vegetation and soil C sinks. The estimated ecosystem C sink increases rapidly with age, peaks at 0.451 kg C m-2 yr-1 at age 22 years (ranging from 0.421 to 0.465 kg C m-2 yr-1), and gradually decreases thereafter. The dynamic patterns of C sinks in vegetation and soil are significantly different. C sink in vegetation first increases rapidly with age and then decreases. C sink in soil, however, increases continuously with age; it acts as a C source when the age is less than 20 years, after which it acts as a sink. For the evergreen needle-leaved forest, the highest C sink efficiency (i.e., C sink per unit net primary productivity) is approximately 60%, with age between 11 and 43 years. Overall, the inverse estimation of carbon cycle parameters can make reasonable estimates of age-dependent C sequestration in forests.

  19. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  20. The role of HSP70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Fox, Amy C.; Clark, Andrew T.; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Farris, Alton B.; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6–12week old) and aged (16–17 month old) HSP70−/− and wild type (WT) mice to determine if HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70−/− and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70−/− mice than aged WT mice subjected to CLP (p=0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared to WT mice, aged septic HSP70−/− mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70−/−mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β compared to WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  1. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-12-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  2. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments. The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables. Given an environment ξ, the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process, whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+, and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N. Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t. We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation, and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process. We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t), and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  3. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YingQiu; LIU QuanSheng

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments.The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables.Given an environment ξ,the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process,whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+,and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N.Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t.We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation,and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process.We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t),and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  4. Demographic drivers of age-dependent sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection has a critical role in evolution, and it is fundamental to identify what ecological factors drive its variation. Disentangling the ecological correlates of sexual selection over the long term, however, is challenging and has rarely been done in nature. We sought to assess how demographic changes influenced the intensity, direction and form of sexual selection and whether selective pressures varied with age. We tested whether breeder sex ratio, number of competitors and age structure influenced selection differentials on horn length of wild bighorn rams (Ovis canadensis) of different age classes on Ram Mountain, Alberta. We used 21 years of data including a detailed pedigree, demographic parameters and repeated morphological measurements. Sexual selection on horn length of males of all ages was directional and positive. Selection intensity increased with the number of competitors, reflecting male-male encounter rate during the rut, but was independent of breeder sex ratio or age structure. This result can also be linked to changes in population size because the number of competitors was highly correlated to total number of sheep. This demographic effect likely arises from age-dependent mating tactics. Males aged 2-4 years are weakly competitive and experienced stronger sexual selection as they accounted for a greater proportion of all males. Selection experienced by mature males appeared independent of demography. Our study provides a rare description of the demographic determinants of sexual selection in nature. PMID:27090379

  5. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-09-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  6. Age dependence of natural uranium and thorium concentrations in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Packer, Ana Paula; Marro, Leonora; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jing; Cornett, R Jack

    2007-02-01

    The age dependence of the natural concentration of uranium and thorium in the skeleton was investigated using human vertebrae bone collected from two Canadian locations (Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Regina, Saskatchewan). The concentration of both radioelements in digested ashed bone samples was determined using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric means for uranium level in bones showed a significant statistical difference between the two locations studied. Similarly for thorium, a statistical difference was observed, although this difference was considered marginal. The thorium concentration differed only marginally with respect to age group, indicating that its behavior in the body could be age-independent. Conversely, the uranium level in bones was found to change for the age groups tested, an indication of age-specific deposition. The age profile for uranium was comparable to the calcium turn-over rate, indicating that uranium deposition is probably, in part, dictated by this metabolic process, showing the role of present uptake into the uranium concentration in bones for populations exposed to significant uranium intake. PMID:17220713

  7. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  8. Age-dependent morphological and compositional variations on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Extended smooth plains cover the interior of a number of craters on Ceres. Smooth plains appear on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains also ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating distinct geological boundaries. Ikapati crater shows smooth plains on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains, ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating a distinct geological boundary. The interior of Occator also exhibits extended plains of ponded material, multiple flows originating from the center overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim, dome-like features, vents cracks and fissures. Furthermore, crater densities on Occator's floor are lower than those on the ejecta blanket indicating a post-impact formation age of the flows. The flows to the northeast appear to originate from the central region and move slightly uphill. This indicates either a feeding zone that pushes the flows forward by supplying low-viscosity material or a depression of the crater center, possibly after discharging a subsurface reservoir. The plains and flows as well as some areas surrounding the craters appear spectrally blue. Both plains and flow material are characterized in camera and spectrometer visible spectra by a slightly negative slope with a gradual drop off up to 10% in reflectance from 0.5μm to 1μm. Although the spectral variations in the visible are subtle, they are clearly expressed in the color ratio composite. The crater densities of 20 locations across the surface of Ceres with different spectral behavior were analyzed in order to investigate the age dependence of spectral surface features. The results indicate that bluish material is mainly associated with the youngest impact craters on Ceres ( 1 Ga

  9. A Method to Site-Specifically Identify and Quantitate Carbonyl End Products of Protein Oxidation Using Oxidation-Dependent Element Coded Affinity Tags (O-ECAT) and NanoLiquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Young, N L; Whetstone, P A; Cheal, S M; Benner, W H; Lebrilla, C B; Meares, C F

    2005-08-25

    Protein oxidation is linked to cellular stress, aging, and disease. Protein oxidations that result in reactive species are of particular interest, since these reactive oxidation products may react with other proteins or biomolecules in an unmediated and irreversible fashion, providing a potential marker for a variety of disease mechanisms. We have developed a novel system to identify and quantitate, relative to other states, the sites of oxidation on a given protein. A specially designed Oxidation-dependent carbonyl-specific Element-Coded Affinity Mass Tag (O-ECAT), AOD, ((S)-2-(4-(2-aminooxy)-acetamido)-benzyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic acid, is used to covalently tag the residues of a protein oxidized to aldehyde or keto end products. After proteolysis, the resulting AOD-tagged peptides are affinity purified, and analyzed by nanoLC-FTICR-MS, which provides high specificity in extracting co-eluting AOD mass pairs with a unique mass difference and affords relative quantitation based on isotopic ratios. Using this methodology, we have mapped the surface oxidation sites on a model protein, recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in its native form (as purchased) and after FeEDTA oxidation. A variety of modified amino acid residues including lysine, arginine, proline, histidine, threonine, aspartic and glutamic acids, were found to be oxidized to aldehyde and keto end products. The sensitivity of this methodology is shown by the number of peptides identified, twenty peptides on the native protein and twenty-nine after surface oxidation using FeEDTA and ascorbate. All identified peptides map to the surface of the HSA crystal structure validating this method for identifying oxidized amino acids on protein surfaces. In relative quantitation experiments between FeEDTA oxidation and native protein oxidation, identified sites showed different relative propensities towards oxidation independent of amino acid

  10. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrokhotov, Igor; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey

    It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity. The special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Germany). List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human (international index of protein) using the program Mascot (MS version 2.0.04 , UK) according to the following criteria: 1 - enzyme-trypsin; 2 - peptide tol. ± 5 ppm; 3 - MS / MS tol. 0.5Da. From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than 24. Analysis of the list of proteins was performed using software developed in the laboratory of VA Ivanisenko (ICG SB RAS) Age of healthy individuals was ranged from 18 to 54 years. Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years (youth and mature age 1), 25-40 years (mature age 2) and 40-54 years (mature age 3) It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age. It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients (under 25 years old) , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons (25 to 40 years). When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group (40-54 years ) there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Thus

  11. Age-Dependent Effects of Haptoglobin Deletion in Neurobehavioral and Anatomical Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583

  12. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  13. Elevated Protein Carbonylation, and Misfolding in Sciatic Nerve from db/db and Sod1−/− Mice: Plausible Link between Oxidative Stress and Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Ryan T.; Arunabh Bhattacharya; Walsh, Michael E.; Yun Shi; Rochelle Wei; Yiqiang Zhang; Rodriguez, Karl A.; Rochelle Buffenstein; Chaudhuri, Asish R.; Holly Van Remmen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy is associated with decrements in motor/sensory neuron myelination, nerve conduction and muscle function; however, the mechanisms of reduced myelination in diabetes are poorly understood. Chronic elevation of oxidative stress may be one of the potential determinants for demyelination as lipids and proteins are important structural constituents of myelin and highly susceptible to oxidation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether there is a link...

  14. Age-dependent changes in the proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance after alcohol and black tea consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, A; Bylińska, A; Skrzydlewska, E

    2011-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes in the redox balance that is additionally modified by alcohol. Ethanol metabolism is connected with generation of free radicals which can damage cell components especially when antioxidant mechanisms are not able to neutralize them. In connection with the necessity of prevention against oxidative consequences, natural antioxidants are looked for. A natural and commonly used component of the diets with antioxidant properties are teas, especially the black tea. This study provides evidence of the role of black tea in the protection of rat plasma proteins and lipids against oxidative stress caused by aging and ethanol intoxication. For 5 weeks, the rats (2-, 12-, and 24-months old) used for the experiment received a black tea beverage (3 g/l) without or with alcohol (given for 4 weeks). The decrease in antioxidant abilities determined as total antioxidant status during aging and ethanol intoxication resulted in enhanced lipid and protein oxidation (determined as malondialdehyde, carbonyl groups, dityrosine, tryptophan and sulfhydryl groups level). In consequence the decrease in anti-proteases (alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin) activity and the increase in proteases (elastase and cathepsin G) activity were observed. Black tea protected the plasma antioxidants and prevented oxidative modifications of lipid and protein observed during aging as well as ethanol intoxication. The results indicate that a shift into plasma proteolytic activity results from a decrease in antioxidant abilities, so the use of black tea appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress caused by ethanol and/or aging.

  15. Age-dependent alterations of decorin glycosaminoglycans in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Ying Liu; Wei Xia; Dan Lei; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans, a family of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) conjugated proteins, are important constituents of human skin connective tissue (dermis) and are essential for maintaining mechanical strength of the skin. Age-related alterations of dermal proteoglycans have not been fully elucidated. We quantified transcripts of 20 known interstitial proteoglycans in human skin and found that decorin was the most highly expressed. Decorin was predominantly produced by dermal fibroblasts. Decorin was localiz...

  16. Chronic BDNF deficiency leads to an age-dependent impairment in spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Anne; Psotta, Laura; Brigadski, Tanja; Endres, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial mediator of neural plasticity and, consequently, of memory formation. In hippocampus-dependent learning tasks BDNF also seems to play an essential role. However, there are conflicting results concerning the spatial learning ability of aging BDNF(+/-) mice in the Morris water maze paradigm. To evaluate the effect of chronic BDNF deficiency in the hippocampus on spatial learning throughout life, we conducted a comprehensive study to test differently aged BDNF(+/-) mice and their wild type littermates in the Morris water maze and to subsequently quantify their hippocampal BDNF protein levels as well as expression levels of TrkB receptors. We observed an age-dependent learning deficit in BDNF(+/-) animals, starting at seven months of age, despite stable hippocampal BDNF protein expression and continual decline of TrkB receptor expression throughout aging. Furthermore, we detected a positive correlation between hippocampal BDNF protein levels and learning performance during the probe trial in animals that showed a good learning performance during the long-term memory test.

  17. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their Scaling Limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Siva R Athreya; Srikanth K Iyer

    2010-06-01

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  18. LINC00507 Is Specifically Expressed in the Primate Cortex and Has Age-Dependent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Ward, Melanie; Chen, Bei Jun; Iyer, Anand M; Aronica, Eleonora; Janitz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the appreciation of the role of non-coding RNA in the development of organism phenotype. It is possible to divide the non-coding elements of the transcriptome into three categories: short non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Long non-coding RNAs are those transcripts that are greater than 200 nts in length and lack any significant open reading frames that produce proteins greater then 100 amino acids. Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a subclass of long non-coding RNAs. In contrast to protein coding RNAs, lincRNAs are expressed in a more tissue- and species-specific manner. In particular, many lincRNAs are only conserved amongst higher primates. This coupled with the propensity of many lincRNAs to be expressed in the brain, suggests that they are in fact one of the major drivers of organism complexity. We analysed 39 lincRNAs that are expressed in the frontal cortex and identified LINC00507 as being expressed in a cortex-specific manner in non-human primates and humans. The expression patterns of LINC00507 appear to be age-dependent, suggesting it may be involved in brain development of higher primates. Moreover, the analysis of LINC00507 potential to bind ribosomes revealed that this previously identified non-coding transcript may harbour a micropeptide. PMID:27059230

  19. [Age-dependent changes in mRNA transport (nucleus-cytoplasm)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W E; Agutter, P S; Prochnow, D J; Fasold, H; Sève, A P; Tsiapalis, C M; Schröder, H C

    1993-01-01

    Transport of mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm is an ATP-dependent process which occurs strictly vectorially. Because the mRNA is structurally bound during transport, mRNA transport is a "solid-state" process consisting of i) mRNA release from the nuclear matrix, ii) mRNA translocation through the nuclear pore, and iii) cytoskeletal binding. We identified and purified the following components involved in the translocation step: i) the nuclear envelope (NE) nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) which is stimulated by the 3'poly(A) tail of mRNA, ii) the poly(A)-recognizing mRNA carrier, iii) the NE protein kinase, and iv) the NE phosphatase. In addition, we found that an RNA helicase activity is present in NE, which also may be involved in RNA transport. Our results show that, besides poly(A), also double-stranded RNA structures may modulate RNA export. The amount of mRNA released from nuclei markedly decreases with age. Evidence is presented that this age-dependent change is caused by an impairment of polyadenylation of mRNA, hnRNA processing, release of mRNA from nuclear matrix, and translocations of mRNA from nuclear to cytoplasmic compartment (decrease in activities of NE NTPase, protein kinase, and phosphatase; decrease in poly(A)-binding affinity of mRNA carrier).

  20. Age-Dependent Changes of Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Availability in the Postnatal Murine Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Szafranski, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (TH) triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) are crucial for retinal development and function, and increasing evidence points at TH dysregulation as a cause for retinal degenerative diseases. Thus, precise regulation of retinal TH supply is required for proper retinal function, but knowledge on these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Several transmembrane transporters have been described as key regulators of TH availability in target tissues of which the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a high affinity transporter for T4 and T3, plays an essential role in the central nervous system. Moreover, in the embryonic chicken retina, MCT8 is highly expressed, but the postnatal availability of MCT8 in the mammalian retina was not reported to date. In the present study, spatiotemporal retinal MCT8 availability was examined in mice of different age. For this purpose, we quantified expression levels of Mct8 via Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in mouse eyecups (C57BL/6) of juvenile and adult age groups. Additionally, age-dependent MCT8 protein levels were quantified via Western blotting and localized via immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. While no difference in Mct8 expression levels could be detected between age groups, MCT8 protein levels in juvenile animals were about two times higher than in adult animals based on Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that MCT8 immunoreactivity in the eyecup was restricted to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In juvenile mice, MCT8 was broadly observed along the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, tightly surrounding photoreceptor outer segments. Distinct immunopositive staining was also detected in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. However, in adult specimens, immunoreactivity visibly declined in all layers, which was in line with Western blot analyses. Since MCT8 was abundantly present in juvenile and about twofold lower in

  1. Kinetics of the Double Carbonylation of Benzylchloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is a multi-phase-catalyzed reaction to produce calcium phenylpyruvate by double carbonylation of benzylchloride. Based on the analysis of the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model of the carbonylation reaction was obtained. The model was verified through experiments in which the diffusion effect was neglected with the appropriate operation manner. But it is inevitable that the carbonylation process is controlled by diffusion as the autoclave scaling up.

  2. Age-dependent decrease in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of ouabain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Kanai, S; Sato, Y; Kitani, K

    1988-03-01

    The biliary excretion of i.v. injected ouabain was examined in male and female Wistar-derived rats in relation to age. The hepatic uptake velocity for ouabain was also determined in isolated hepatocyte preparations obtained from male rats of various ages. Biliary recovery values of ouabain (percent of the dose) were fairly comparable for young male and female rats (3-4 month old). Recovery progressively decreased with age, the first 10-min recoveries at 24 months being about one-third those of respective young values in both sexes. A significant linear relation was demonstrated between the first 10-min recovery (Y, percent of the dose) and rat age (X, month), yielding the relations of Y = 17.75-0.43X for males and Y = 18.99-0.43X for females respectively. Similarly, the initial uptake velocity (Y, nmol/mg/min) for ouabain decreased in a linear fashion with age (X, month), yielding a significant negative correlation (Y = 0.704-0.0021X, r = -0.839, P less than 0.005, N = 21) at an ouabain concentration of 8 microM. Kinetic studies using non-linear regression analysis revealed a significantly lower Vmax value (0.533 +/- 0.041 nmol/mg/min) in old (24-29 months) rats compared to the young (4-4.5 months) value (1.193 +/- 0.105 nmol per mg/min, P less than 0.05), while the affinity constant (Km, microM) did not differ significantly between young and old animals (203.12 +/- 25.42 microM in young rats vs 283.68 +/- 28.90 microM in old rats, mean +/- SE, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). The results of the present study suggest that the age-dependent decrease in the biliary recovery of i.v. injected ouabain in rats can be largely explained by the decrease with age in the hepatic uptake of ouabain. Furthermore, the results provide further support for our previous thesis that the decrease in the lateral mobility of hepatocyte plasma membrane proteins, as revealed by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, may play a significant role in the age-dependent

  3. Intrinsic Age-Dependent Changes and Cell-Cell Contacts Regulate Nephron Progenitor Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Salomonis, Nathan; Aronow, Bruce J; Hong, Christian I; Zhang, Tongli; Kopan, Raphael

    2015-10-12

    During fetal development, nephrons of the metanephric kidney form from a mesenchymal progenitor population that differentiates en masse before or shortly after birth. We explored intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling progenitor lifespan in a transplantation assay that allowed us to compare engraftment of old and young progenitors into the same young niche. The progenitors displayed an age-dependent decrease in proliferation and concomitant increase in niche exit rates. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed progressive age-dependent changes, with heterogeneity increasing in older populations. Age-dependent elevation in mTor and reduction in Fgf20 could contribute to increased exit rates. Importantly, 30% of old progenitors remained in the niche for up to 1 week post engraftment, a net gain of 50% to their lifespan, but only if surrounded by young neighbors. We provide evidence in support of a model in which intrinsic age-dependent changes affect inter-progenitor interactions that drive cessation of nephrogenesis. PMID:26460946

  4. Surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabatti, Iacopo; Femoni, Cristina; Iapalucci, Maria Carmela; Longoni, Giuliano; Zacchini, Stefano; Zarra, Salvatore

    2012-06-01

    Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters.Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters. CCDC 867747 and 867748. For crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30400g

  5. Blood carbonyl protein measurement as a specific oxidative stress biomarker after intestinal reperfusion in rats Dosagem da proteína carbonilada sanguínea como biomarcador específico do estresse oxidativo após reperfusão intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Jamel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: An experimental study was performed to investigate the use of protein carbonyl group as a specific biological marker for oxidative stress in a rat model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups with eight animals each: Group 1 - Control group; Group 2 - Sham; Group 3 - Intestinal ischaemia by clamping ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery for one hour, followed by another hour of reperfusion. Blood samples were taken in order to analyze the protein carbonyl level by Slot blotting assay. RESULTS: In group 3 a significant increase of protein carbonyl level was observed if compared to the homogenous levels of groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: From the results it may be concluded that the protein carbonylation may be used as a specific marker for measuring oxidative stress in rat intestinal reperfusion model.OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo experimental com a finalidade de investigar o uso da proteína carbonilada como um marcador biológico específico do estresse oxidativo em um modelo de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal, em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quarto ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos compostos por oito animais cada: Grupo 1 - Controle; Grupo 2 - Simulação e Grupo 3 - Submetido à isquemia, mediante clampeamento de ramos ileais da artéria mesentérica superior por uma hora, seguida de reperfusão, por igual período. Amostras sanguíneas obtidas foram utilizadas para analise dos níveis de proteína carbonilada, através do método Slot blotting. RESULTADOS: No grupo 3 houve uma elevação significante da concentração de proteína carbonilada sérica se comparada aos níveis sanguíneos homogêneos encontrados nos grupos 1 e 2. CONCLUSÃO: Fundamentado nos resultados é possível concluir que, a carbonilação protéica pode ser utilizada como um marcador específico para a mensuração do

  6. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Christiansen-Jucht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors.

  7. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E

    2015-06-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a "standard" model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  8. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  9. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  10. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  11. Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Lesions in Ulcerative Colitis and Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has long been known as a pathogenic factor of ulcerative colitis (UC and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC, but the effects of secondary carbonyl lesions receive less emphasis. In inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as superoxide anion free radical (O2∙-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (HO∙, are produced at high levels and accumulated to cause oxidative stress (OS. In oxidative status, accumulated ROS can cause protein dysfunction and DNA damage, leading to gene mutations and cell death. Accumulated ROS could also act as chemical messengers to activate signaling pathways, such as NF-κB and p38 MAPK, to affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. More importantly, electrophilic carbonyl compounds produced by lipid peroxidation may function as secondary pathogenic factors, causing further protein and membrane lesions. This may in turn exaggerate oxidative stress, forming a vicious cycle. Electrophilic carbonyls could also cause DNA mutations and breaks, driving malignant progression of UC. The secondary lesions caused by carbonyl compounds may be exceptionally important in the case of host carbonyl defensive system deficit, such as aldo-keto reductase 1B10 deficiency. This review article updates the current understanding of oxidative stress and carbonyl lesions in the development and progression of UC and CAC.

  12. Trifluoromethylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Sodium Trifluoroacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of copper (Ⅰ) halide as catalyst, a variety of carbonyl compounds could be trifluoromethylated with sodium trifluoroacetate to give the corresponding alcohols in moderate to high yields.

  13. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Roel A; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C; Yakala, Gopala K; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q; de Boer, Rudolf A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Tietge, Uwe J F; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-11-13

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complications in mice in conjunction with the development of renal and systemic low-grade inflammation (LGI). C57BL/6J mice susceptible to develop age-dependent sclerotic pathologies with amyloid features in the kidney, were fed low (10% lard) or high-fat diets (45% lard) for 24, 40 and 52 weeks. HFD-feeding induced overt adiposity, altered lipid and insulin homeostasis, increased systemic LGI and adipokine release. HFD-feeding also caused renal upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, infiltrating macrophages, collagen I protein, increased urinary albumin and NGAL levels. HFD-feeding severely aggravated age-dependent structural changes in the kidney. Remarkably, enhanced amyloid deposition rather than sclerosis was observed. The degree of amyloidosis correlated significantly with body weight. Amyloid deposits stained positive for serum amyloid A (SAA) whose plasma levels were chronically elevated in HFD mice. Our data indicate obesity-induced chronic inflammation as a risk factor for the acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis and functional impairment in mice, and suggest that obesity-enhanced chronic secretion of SAA may be the driving factor behind this process.

  14. Optimal harvesting for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-xue; DU Ming-yin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal harvesting policy for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative solution of the system are proved using the fixed point theorem. By Mazur's theorem, the existence of optimal control strategy is demonstrated and optimality conditions derived by means of normal cone.

  15. An age-dependent population equation with diffusion and delayed birth process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fragnelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new age-dependent population equation which takes into account not only a delay in the birth process, but also other events that may take place during the time between conception and birth. Using semigroup theory, we discuss the well posedness and the asymptotic behavior of the solution.

  16. Age-dependent seizures of absence epilepsy and sleep spindles dynamics in WAG/Rij rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubov, Vadim V.; Sitnikova, Evgenia Y.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Khramova, Marina V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2015-03-01

    In the given paper, a relation between time-frequency characteristics of sleep spindles and the age-dependent epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats is discussed. Analysis of sleep spindles based on the continuous wavelet transform is performed for rats of different ages. It is shown that the epileptic activity affects the time-frequency intrinsic dynamics of sleep spindles.

  17. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  18. OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR A PERIODIC PREDATOR-PREY MODEL WITH AGE-DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate optimal policy for periodic predator-prey system with age-dependence.Namely,we consider the model with periodic vital rates and initial distribution.The existence of optimal control strategy is discussed by Mazur's theorem and optimality condition is derived by means of normal cone.

  19. Stratospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Corinna; Walker, Kaley A.; Deshler, Terry; von Hobe, Marc

    2015-04-01

    An estimation of the global stratospheric burden of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) calculated using satellite based measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) will be presented. OCS is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the atmosphere in the absence of volcanic eruptions. With a long lifetime of 2-6 years it reaches the stratosphere where it is photolyzed and the sulfur oxidized and condensed to aerosols, contributing to the stratospheric aerosol layer. The aerosol layer is the one factor of the middle-atmosphere with a direct impact on the Earth's climate by scattering incoming solar radiation back to space. Therefore it is crucial to understand and estimate the different processes and abundances of the species contributing to the aerosol layer. However, the exact amount of OCS in the stratosphere has not been quantified yet. A study on the OCS mixing ratio distribution based on ACE-FTS data has already been made by Barkley et al. (2008), also giving an estimation for the total atmospheric OCS mass. ACE-FTS is an infrared solar occultation spectrometer providing high- resolution profile observations since 2004. In the scope of this work the focus lies on the stratospheric OCS burden, calculated by integrating the ACE profiles. A global overview on the stratospheric OCS amount in the past and present based on the ACE data as well as a look at regional and seasonal variability will be given. Furthermore, the results of this work will be useful for further studies on OCS fluxes and lifetimes, and in quantifying the contribution of OCS to the global stratospheric sulfur burden. Barkley et al., 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14810.

  20. Proteomic and carbonylation profile analysis of rat skeletal muscles following acute swimming exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Magherini

    Full Text Available Previous studies by us and other groups characterized protein expression variation following long-term moderate training, whereas the effects of single bursts of exercise are less known. Making use of a proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of acute swimming exercise (ASE on protein expression and carbonylation patterns in two hind limb muscles: the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL and the Soleus, mostly composed of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres, respectively. Carbonylation is one of the most common oxidative modifications of proteins and a marker of oxidative stress. In fact, several studies suggest that physical activity and the consequent increase in oxygen consumption can lead to increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS production, hence the interest in examining the impact of RONS on skeletal muscle proteins following ASE. Results indicate that protein expression is unaffected by ASE in both muscle types. Unexpectedly, the protein carbonylation level was reduced following ASE. In particular, the analysis found 31 and 5 spots, in Soleus and EDL muscles respectively, whose carbonylation is reduced after ASE. Lipid peroxidation levels in Soleus were markedly reduced as well. Most of the decarbonylated proteins are involved either in the regulation of muscle contractions or in the regulation of energy metabolism. A number of hypotheses may be advanced to account for such results, which will be addressed in future studies.

  1. Defects of Lipid Synthesis Are Linked to the Age-Dependent Demyelination Caused by Lamin B1 Overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Hernandez, Marylens; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Nmezi, Bruce C.; Lu, Yue; Estécio, Marcos R. H.; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Junda; He, Rong-Rong; Gong, Pin; Rigatti, Lora H.; Dupree, Jeffrey; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina and plays a critical role in maintaining nuclear architecture, regulating gene expression and modulating chromatin positioning. We have previously shown that LMNB1 gene duplications cause autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disease. The mechanisms by which increased LMNB1 levels cause ADLD are unclear. To address this, we used a transgenic mouse model where Lamin B1 overexpression is targeted to oligodendrocytes. These mice showed severe vacuolar degeneration of the spinal cord white matter together with marked astrogliosis, microglial infiltration, and secondary axonal damage. Oligodendrocytes in the transgenic mice revealed alterations in histone modifications favoring a transcriptionally repressed state. Chromatin changes were accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis pathways, many of which are known to play important roles in myelin regulation and are preferentially expressed in oligodendrocytes. Decreased lipogenic gene expression resulted in a significant reduction in multiple classes of lipids involved in myelin formation. Many of these gene expression changes and lipid alterations were observed even before the onset of the phenotype, suggesting a causal role. Our findings establish, for the first time, a link between LMNB1 and lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes, and provide a mechanistic framework to explain the age dependence and white matter involvement of the disease phenotype. These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and may also shed light on the regulation of lipid synthesis pathways in myelin maintenance and turnover. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is fatal neurological disorder caused by increased levels of the nuclear protein, Lamin B1. The disease is characterized by an age-dependent loss of myelin, the fatty sheath that covers nerve fibers. We have studied a mouse model where Lamin B

  2. The age-dependent influence of self-reported health and job characteristics on retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Mortelmans, Dimitri; Vannieuwenhuyze, Jorre T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Social scientists and economists doubt the usefulness of self-reported health status as an indicator of overall health status. Self-reported health acts as a justification for retirement when this decision is in reality driven by other reasons. In this study, we looked at income, job satisfaction, and job status. Methods We introduce a survival model (Cox model) that simultaneously includes both health and job characteristics as independent variables. We also take the age-dependent...

  3. Age-Dependent Modulation of Cortical Transcriptomes in Spinal Cord Injury and Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jaerve, Anne; Kruse, Fabian; Malik, Katharina; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-01-01

    Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI). Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of t...

  4. OPTIMAL HARVESTING CONTROL PROBLEM FOR LINEAR AGE-DEPENDENT POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoZhixue; WangMiansen

    2003-01-01

    An optimal harvesting problem for linear age-dependent population dynamics is investigated.By Mazur''s Theorem,the existence of solutions of the optimal control problem(OH) is demonstrated.The first order necessary conditions of optimality for problem (OH) is obtained by the conception of normal cone.Finally,under suitable assumptions,the uniqueness of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is given.The results extend some knowncriteria.

  5. Comparison between Numerical and Simulation Methods for Age-dependent Branching Models with Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, R.; Slavtchova-Bojkova, M.

    2005-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: primary: 60J80, 60J85, secondary: 62M09, 92D40 This work aims to provide and to compare numerical computation and simulation method to estimate the distribution of some relevant variables related to an age-dependent model allowing immigration at state zero. Specifically, we analyze the behaviour of the following variables: the extinction time and the waiting time for the beginning of the survival of population forever. They are strongly related to t...

  6. Age-dependent effects of conditioning on cholinergic and vasopressin systems in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Biemans, BAM; Van der Zee, EA; Daan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Active shock avoidance was used to explore the impact of behavioural stimulation on the neurochemistry of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We have found previously that the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of young rats was significantly enhanced 24 hours after fear conditioning. Here, we investigated whether this observation is age-dependent. We used 26 month-old Wistar rats with a deteriorated circadian system, and compared them with young rats (4 ...

  7. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  8. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  9. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate.

  10. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

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    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05. Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation. These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors

  11. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of fres...

  12. Age-Dependent Neuroimmune Modulation of IGF-1R in the Traumatic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress is accompanied by discordant upregulation of Fyn signaling in the frontal cortex, but the mechanistic details of the potential cellular behavior regarding IGF-1R/Fyn have not been established. Methods Trans-synaptic IGF-1R signaling during the traumatic stress was comparably examined in wild type, Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice. Techniques included primary neuron culture, in vitro kinase activity, immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, sucrose discontinuous centrifugation. Besides that, [3 H] incorporation was used to assay lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate robust upregulation of synaptic Fyn activity following traumatic stress, with higher amplitude in 2-month mice than that in 1-year counterpart. We also established that the increased Fyn signaling is accompanied by its molecular connection with IGF-1R within the synaptic zone. Detained analysis using Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice reveal that IGF-1R/Fyn signaling is governed to a large extent by mu opioid receptor (MOR, and with age-dependent manner; these signaling cascades played a central role in the modulation of lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Conclusions Our data argued for a pivotal role of synaptic IGF-1R/Fyn signaling controlled by MOR downstream signaling cascades were crucial for the age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress. The result here might present a new quality of synaptic cellular communication governing the stress like events and have significant potential for the development of therapeutic approaches designed to minimize the heightened vulnerability during aging.

  13. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide ⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bteich, S.B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Context More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152 - 308 GHz and analyzed using Watson’s A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. PMID:27738349

  14. A preliminary approach to age-dependent deposition modeling for human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the respiratory tract model, presented by the ICRP Task Group on Lung Dynamics, is limited to adult workers for determining internal radiation exposure from inhaled radionuclides, the development of the model for estimating radiation doses in the general public, including all age groups, from environmental radioactive materials is required. This paper provides background information in developing the age-dependent respiratory tract model. A way of obtaining deposition probability through major mechanisms, such as impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion, in the respiratory airways is given. A computer program for estimating the percent deposition of inhaled monodisperse particles is described. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Fitting model of ABR age dependency in a clinical population of normal hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad, Saskia; Immerzeel, Tabitha; Hoeve, Hans; Goedegebure, Andre

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to present a simple and powerful fitting model that describes age-dependent changes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in a clinical population of normal hearing children. A total of 175 children (younger than 200 weeks postconceptional age) were referred for audiologic assessment with normal ABR results. ABR parameters of normal hearing children between 2003 and 2008 were included. The results of the right ears recorded at 90 dB nHL were analyzed....

  16. Fluctuation limit theorems for age-dependent critical binary branching systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo-Salas Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an age-dependent branching particle system in ℝd, where the particles are subject to α-stable migration (0 < α ≤ 2, critical binary branching, and general (non-arithmetic lifetimes distribution. The population starts off from a Poisson random field in ℝd with Lebesgue intensity. We prove functional central limit theorems and strong laws of large numbers under two rescalings: high particle density, and a space-time rescaling that preserves the migration distribution. Properties of the limit processes such as Markov property, almost sure continuity of paths and generalized Langevin equation, are also investigated.

  17. The work of the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on age-dependent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the accident at Chernobyl and developing concern in regard to the consequences of discharging radionuclides into the environment has come increasing awareness of the need to assess radiation doses to all age groups in the population. In 1987, ICRP set up a Task Group of Committee 2 on Age-dependent Dosimetry with the responsibility for calculating internationally agreed dose coefficients for members of the public. This covered the calculation and ingestion, as well as doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. This paper reviews the programme of work.(authors). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Age-Dependent Differences in Systemic and Cell-Autonomous Immunity to L. monocytogenes

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    Ashley M. Sherrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Host defense against infection can broadly be categorized into systemic immunity and cell-autonomous immunity. Systemic immunity is crucial for all multicellular organisms, increasing in importance with increasing cellular complexity of the host. The systemic immune response to Listeria monocytogenes has been studied extensively in murine models; however, the clinical applicability of these findings to the human newborn remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the ability to control infection at the level of an individual cell, known as “cell-autonomous immunity,” appears most relevant following infection with L. monocytogenes; as the main target, the monocyte is centrally important to innate as well as adaptive systemic immunity to listeriosis. We thus suggest that the overall increased risk to suffer and die from L. monocytogenes infection in the newborn period is a direct consequence of age-dependent differences in cell-autonomous immunity of the monocyte to L. monocytogenes. We here review what is known about age-dependent differences in systemic innate and adaptive as well as cell-autonomous immunity to infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  19. Age-Dependent Increase of Absence Seizures and Intrinsic Frequency Dynamics of Sleep Spindles in Rats

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    Evgenia Sitnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of neurological diseases increases with age. In WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, the incidence of epileptic spike-wave discharges is known to be elevated with age. Considering close relationship between epileptic spike-wave discharges and physiologic sleep spindles, it was assumed that age-dependent increase of epileptic activity may affect time-frequency characteristics of sleep spindles. In order to examine this hypothesis, electroencephalograms (EEG were recorded in WAG/Rij rats successively at the ages 5, 7, and 9 months. Spike-wave discharges and sleep spindles were detected in frontal EEG channel. Sleep spindles were identified automatically using wavelet-based algorithm. Instantaneous (localized in time frequency of sleep spindles was determined using continuous wavelet transform of EEG signal, and intraspindle frequency dynamics were further examined. It was found that in 5-months-old rats epileptic activity has not fully developed (preclinical stage and sleep spindles demonstrated an increase of instantaneous frequency from beginning to the end. At the age of 7 and 9 months, when animals developed matured and longer epileptic discharges (symptomatic stage, their sleep spindles did not display changes of intrinsic frequency. The present data suggest that age-dependent increase of epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats affects intrinsic dynamics of sleep spindle frequency.

  20. Experimental febrile seizures induce age-dependent structural plasticity and improve memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Ichikawa, J; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y; Koyama, R

    2016-03-24

    Population-based studies have demonstrated that children with a history of febrile seizure (FS) perform better than age-matched controls at hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Here, we report that FSs induce two distinct structural reorganizations in the hippocampus and bidirectionally modify future learning abilities in an age-dependent manner. Compared with age-matched controls, adult mice that had experienced experimental FSs induced by hyperthermia (HT) on postnatal day 14 (P14-HT) performed better in a cognitive task that requires dentate granule cells (DGCs). The enhanced memory performance correlated with an FS-induced persistent increase in the density of large mossy fiber terminals (LMTs) of the DGCs. The memory enhancement was not observed in mice that had experienced HT-induced seizures at P11 which exhibited abnormally located DGCs in addition to the increased LMT density. The ectopic DGCs of the P11-HT mice were abolished by the diuretic bumetanide, and this pharmacological treatment unveiled the masked memory enhancement. Thus, this work provides a novel basis for age-dependent structural plasticity in which FSs influence future brain function. PMID:26794590

  1. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  2. Age-dependent changes in β-adrenoceptor function in human detrusors and possible mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李凯; 李振华; 王平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study age-dependent changes in β-adrenergic responsiveness and their possible mechanisms.Methods Responsiveness to the β-adrenergic agonists isoprenaline, BRL37344, forskolin, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) was examined in samples from 10 older patients by using a cellular function test. A radioligand binding assay was performed using the non-selective β-adrenergic receptor ligand [3H]- dihydroalprenolol ([3H]-DHA). Specimens from 10 young men were used as controls.Results There were no age-dependent changes in contractile response to KCl. The relaxation responses to isoprenaline, BRL37344, and forskolin decreased in the aged group by 15.0%, 17.6%, and 12.6%, respectively (P<0.001). The pD2 values for isoprenaline and BRL37344 also declined significantly. There was no difference in the responsiveness to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) between the two groups; the maximum binding site decreased significantly with increasing age, but the equilibrium-dissociation constant did not change. Conclusions There is an age-related decline in β-adrenergic responsiveness which might be one of the causative factors of reduced bladder compliance in the elderly. A decrease in cAMP level caused by reduced receptor density and adenylyl cyclase activity might be the underlying molecular mechanism of the changes in β-adrenergic responsiveness.

  3. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Azuma

    Full Text Available Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR, are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging.

  4. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

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    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  5. Impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress contributes to aging-related ischemic intolerance.

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    Chunhu Gu

    Full Text Available Reactive aldehydes can initiate protein oxidative damage which may contribute to heart senescence. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is considered to be a potential interventional target for I/R injury management in the elderly. We hypothesized that aldehyde mediated carbonyl stress increases susceptibility of aged hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with a focus on SIRT1. Male C57BL/6 young (4-6 mo and aged (22-24 mo mice were subjected to myocardial I/R. Cardiac aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, SIRT1 activity and protein carbonyls were assessed. Our data revealed that aged heart exhibited increased endogenous aldehyde/carbonyl stress due to impaired ALDH2 activity concomitant with blunted SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. Exogenous toxic aldehydes (4-HNE exposure in isolated cardiomyocyte verified that aldehyde-induced carbonyl modification on SIRT1 impaired SIRT1 activity leading to worse hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R injury, which could all be rescued by Alda-1 (ALDH2 activator (all P<0.05. However, SIRT1 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of Alda-1 on H/R cardiomyocyte. Interestingly, myocardial I/R leads to higher carbonylation but lower activity of SIRT1 in aged hearts than that seen in young hearts (P<0.05. The application of Alda-1 significantly reduced the carbonylation on SIRT1 and markedly improved the tolerance to in vivo I/R injury in aged hearts, but failed to protect Sirt1(+/- knockout mice against myocardial I/R injury. This was verified by Alda-1 treatment improved postischemic contractile function recovery in ex vivo perfused aged but not in Sirt1(+/- hearts. Thus, aldehyde/carbonyl stress is accelerated in aging heart. These results provide a new insight that impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress plays a critical role in the increased susceptibility of aged heart to I/R injury. ALDH2 activation can restore this aging-related myocardial ischemic intolerance.

  6. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  7. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  8. Magnetorheological characterisation of carbonyl iron based suspension

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    M. Kciuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this article was to present the investigation results of magnetorheological fluids (MR composed of carbonyl iron (CI particles and analyse their flow behaviour in terms of the internal structure formation by a control of applied external magnetic field. The morphology, magnetic properties, sedimentation stability, and magnetorheological properties of the examined MR fluids were studied.Design/methodology/approach: Model MR fluid was prepared using silicone oil OKS 1050 mixed with carbonyl iron powder CI. Furthermore, to reduce sedimentation Aerosil 200 was added as stabilizers. In the purpose to determine the properties of the analyzed fluids the sedimentation and dynamic viscosity were investigated.Findings: Dynamic viscosity of investigated magnetorheological fluids rapidly and reversibly change in response to the applied external magnetic field. Moreover added particles of fumed silica inhibited sedimentation of carbonyl iron particles.Research limitations/implications: MR fluids with excellent properties can be applied in various fields of civil engineering, safety engineering, transportation and life science. They offer an outstanding capability of active control of mechanical properties. But there are no systematic published studies of factors affecting the durability of MR fluids and devices. There is very little information on the effects of exposing different MR fluids to temperature, for this reasons further efforts are needed in order to obtain even better results.Originality/value: The investigation results are reliable and could be very useful both for designers and the practitioners of many branches of industry.

  9. Age-dependent changes in cat masseter nerve: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, M H; Engelhardt, J K; Adinolfi, A M; Chirwa, S S

    1992-07-24

    The present study was undertaken to determine the manner in which aging affects the function and structure of the masseter nerve in old cats. Electrophysiological data demonstrated a significant decrease in the conduction velocity of the action potential in old cats compared with that observed in adult cats. Light microscopic analyses revealed an age-dependent decrease in axon diameter. Electron microscopic observations of the masseter nerve in the aged cats revealed a disruption of the myelin sheaths and a pronounced increase in collagen fibers in the endoneurium and perineurium. These morphological changes are discussed and then related to the decrease in conduction velocity which was observed in the electrophysiological portion of this study. PMID:1521161

  10. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya

    2016-05-01

    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles. PMID:27411826

  11. Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L-1. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated 226Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 μSv yr-1). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 μSv yr-1 from water intake of 2 L day-1

  12. Age dependency of serum insulin - like growth factor (IGF-1 in healthy Turkish adolescents and adults.

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    Tiryakioaylu O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH secretion in healthy subjects. Measurements of IGF-1 are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with acromegaly and the diagnosis of GH deficiency in children. AIMS: To assess age dependency and normal ranges of serum IGF-1 levels in healthy Turkish population. SETTING AND DESIGN: We therefore studied 272 healthy adolescents and adults between 15-75 years of age. None had diabetes or other endocrine disease or had received estrogen therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were measured in all subjects. Serum samples were obtained during morning hours and IGF-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The age-dependent reference range for serum IGF-1 concentrations was calculated by simple least linear regression analysis: the regression line represents the means with 95 percent confidence intervals. Correlation analysis was also done. RESULTS: Ageing was negatively related to serum levels of IGF-1 (P= 0.0001, r=-0.931 with a mean decrease (youngest vs. oldest. IGF-1 levels increased during adolescence, with the highest mean values during puberty. After puberty, a subsequent decline in serum levels of IGF-1 was apparent. There were also a significant difference according to gender; females had significantly higher levels (357.909+/-219.167 mg/L than males (307.962+/-198.41 mg/L (P=0.012. IGF-1 levels were correlated with body height (P=0.001, r=0.223, body weight (P=0.002,r=-0.188 and BMI (P=0.039, r=0.128. CONCLUSION: IGF-1 serum levels increase in adolescents with a peak in puberty, whereafter IGF-1 levels return to prepubertal levels.

  13. Age-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters

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    Seok Kyu eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB, with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in postnatal day 7, 10 and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.

  14. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  15. Age-dependent improvement in passive avoidance learning of the young chick: cholinergic mediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolman, J F; Mattingly, B A

    1982-06-01

    Cholinergic mediation of the age-dependent improvement in response suppression of the young chick was studied by determining the performance of 4-day-old chicks, pretreated with scopolamine, during passive avoidance (PA) and extinction testing. In Experiment 1, chicks were trained briefly to key peck for heat reward (prepunishment training), and then tested for PA learning under immediate, 2-sec-delayed, or no shock condition. Half of the chicks in each wing-shock (5 mA, 5 sec) condition received saline injections before prepunishment training and .5 mg/kg scopolamine injections after prepunishment training. The rest of the chicks received .5 mg/kg scopolamine injections both before and after prepunishment training. For chicks in both scopolamine groups, delaying shock onset resulted in significantly less response suppression than immediate response-contingent shock. In Experiment 2, 4-day-old chicks injected with either saline or scopolamine were trained to key peck for heat reward and then tested for resistance to extinction under either response-contingent shock or nonshock conditions. Punishment decreased the number of extinction responses for both saline and scopolamine groups of chicks. Previous studies have shown that normal 1-day-old chicks do not show a significant delay of punishment effect during PA testing and that response-contingent punishment increases the number of their responses during extinction. Hence, the results of the present experiments indicate that the age-dependent improvement in response suppression of the young chick cannot be explained solely by a significant increase in central cholinergic functioning. PMID:7096681

  16. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  17. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde forcarbonyls and 6-fluoro-4-chromanone for>_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  18. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  19. Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Species: Carbonyl Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts...... satisfactorily oxidation of OCS over a wide range of stoichiometric air–fuel ratios (0.5 ≤λ≤7.3), temperatures (450–1700 K), and pressures (0.02–3.0 atm) under dry conditions. The governing reaction mechanisms are outlined based on calculations with the kinetic model. The oxidation rate of OCS is controlled...

  20. Clinical Features of Schizophrenia With Enhanced Carbonyl Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Makoto; Kobori, Akiko; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Toriumi, Kazuya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Okazaki, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Amano, Naoji; Miyata, Toshio; Itokawa, Masanari

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that advanced glycation end products, generated as a consequence of facilitated carbonyl stress, are implicated in the development of a variety of diseases. These diseases include neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer disease. Pyridoxamine is one of the 3 forms of vitamin B6, and it acts by combating carbonyl stress and inhibiting the formation of AGEs. Depletion of pyridoxamine due to enhanced carbonyl stress eventually leads to a decrease in the other...

  1. Pollution survey of carbonyl compounds in train air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hao; ZHU Lizhong

    2007-01-01

    The train iS an important vehicle in China,but its air quality has important impacts on passengers' health.In this work,pollution from carbonyl compounds was measured in the air of six trains.The obiectives of this work were to investigate carbonyl compound levels in selected air from trains,identify their emission sources,and assess the intake of carbonyl compounds for passengers.The methods for sampling and analyzing 10 carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde,acetaldehyde,acrolein,acetone,propionalde hyde,crotonaldehyde,butyraldehyde,benzaldehyde,cyclo hexanone,and valeraldehyde in indoor air were proposed with the sampling efficiency,recovery,and detection limit being 92%-100%,91%-104%,and 0.26-0.82 ng/m3,respec tively.It was indicated that the total concentrations of carbonyl compounds were 0.159-0.2828 mg/m3 with the average concentration of 0.2330 mg/m3.The average concen trations of formaldehyde.acetaldehyde and acetone were 0.0922,0.0499,and 0.0580 mg/m3,accounting for 42.6%,21.4%.and 24.9% of the total concentrations of carbonyl compounds,respectively.The carbonyl compounds probably came from woodwork and cigarette smoking.The intake of carbonyl compounds for the passengers was approximately 0.043-0.076 mg/h.The carbonyl compounds in train air could be harmful to human health.

  2. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems

  3. Age-Dependent Defects of Regulatory B Cells in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Gene Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadafumi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, thrombocytopenia, eczema, and high incidence of malignancy and autoimmunity. The cellular mechanisms underlying autoimmune complications in WAS have been extensively studied; however, they remain incompletely defined. We investigated the characteristics of IL-10-producing CD19+CD1dhighCD5+ B cells (CD1dhighCD5+ Breg obtained from Was gene knockout (WKO mice and found that their numbers were significantly lower in these mice compared to wild type (WT controls. Moreover, we found a significant age-dependent reduction of the percentage of IL-10-expressing cells in WKO CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells as compared to age-matched WT control mice. CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice did not suppress the in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines from activated CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice displayed a basal activated phenotype which may prevent normal cellular responses, among which is the expression of IL-10. These defects may contribute to the susceptibility to autoimmunity with age in patients with WAS.

  4. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  5. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonsom@oaep.go.th; Srisuksawad, Kanitha [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. {sup 226}Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L{sup -1}. The highest {sup 226}Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated {sup 226}Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} from water intake of 2 L day{sup -1}.

  6. Prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan infections in suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damriyasa, I Made; Bauer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed on 20 pig breeding farms in southern Hesse, central Germany, to evaluate the prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites in unweaned piglets. Faecal samples of 514 clinically unaffected piglets of different age (Balantidium coli (16 of 20 farms), Entamoeba sp. (15), Jodamoeba sp. (14), Isospora (I.) suis (9), Chilomastix sp. (6) and Eimeria spp. (6). The protozoan species differed in the start and course of (oo)cyst excretion. I. suis oocysts and Jodamoeba cysts were detected already in the first week of life whereas shedding of the other parasites started later on. The prevalence of Isospora oocyst excretion increased to a maximum (18%) in 2-3 weeks old animals followed by a sharp decline. The proportion of Balantidium, Entamoeba or Jodamoeba positive suckling piglets continously increased until the age of 5-7 weeks to 60%, 52% and 22%, respectively, whereas that of Chilomastix positive animals remained on a low level of 8-12% independent of the age. Eimeria oocysts were found transiently in the faeces of 1-4 weeks old piglets. PMID:17009710

  7. Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dupont

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the investigation of the host-pathogen interaction in vivo has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Using RT-PCR and global transcriptome analysis, high throughput 16S rDNA sequencing as well as immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we characterize the EPEC-host interaction following oral challenge of newborn mice. Spontaneous colonization of the small intestine and colon of neonate mice that lasted until weaning was observed. Intimate attachment to the epithelial plasma membrane and microcolony formation were visualized only in the presence of a functional bundle forming pili (BFP and type III secretion system (T3SS. Similarly, a T3SS-dependent EPEC-induced innate immune response, mediated via MyD88, TLR5 and TLR9 led to the induction of a distinct set of genes in infected intestinal epithelial cells. Infection-induced alterations of the microbiota composition remained restricted to the postnatal period. Although EPEC colonized the adult intestine in the absence of a competing microbiota, no microcolonies were observed at the small intestinal epithelium. Here, we introduce the first suitable mouse infection model and describe an age-dependent, virulence factor-dependent attachment of EPEC to enterocytes in vivo.

  8. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  9. Age-dependent radiation dose due to uranium in public drinking water in Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was done to evaluate the ingestion dose due to uranium in drinking water. The area of study is the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. The uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent radiation dose was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values and dose conversion factors for different age groups. The concentration of uranium varies from below the detection limit (detection limit 0.20 μg.L-1) to 2.50 ± 0.18 μg.L-1, with a geometric mean of 0.67 μg.L-1 in tap water, whereas in groundwater the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 μg.L-1 with a geometric mean of 10.07 μg.L-1. The annual ingestion dose by the drinking water pathway due to uranium in tap water for various age groups was found to vary from 0.23 to 6.35 μSv.y-1 with an average of 1.08 μSv.y-1. The ingestion dose due to uranium in tap water is 15 times lower than that of groundwater consumption. (authors)

  10. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females. By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  11. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  12. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers. PMID:27537082

  13. Age-dependent modulation of cortical transcriptomes in spinal cord injury and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jaerve

    Full Text Available Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI. Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of the corticospinal tract as there was only a small overlap between the significantly lesion-regulated genes in both age groups. Over-representation analysis of the lesion-regulated genes revealed that, in addition to biological processes in common, such as lipid metabolism, others, such as activation of complement cascade, were specific for aged animals. When a recently developed treatment to suppress fibrotic scarring (anti-scarring treatment AST was applied to the injured spinal cord of aged (22 months and young (2 months rats, we found that the cortical gene expression in old rats was modulated to resemble regeneration-associated profiles of young animals including the up-regulation of known repair promoting growth and transcription factors at 35 dpo. In combination with recent immunohistochemical findings demonstrating regenerative axon growth upon AST in aged animals, the present investigation on the level of gene expression strongly supports the feasibility of a successful AST therapy in elderly patients.

  14. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  15. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems.

  16. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  17. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  18. Human TTR conformation altered by rhenium tris-carbonyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Lidia; Policar, Clotilde; Stura, Enrico A; Shepard, William

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a 54 kDa homotetrameric serum protein that transports thyroxine (T4) and retinol. TTR is potentially amyloidogenic due to homotetramer dissociation into monomeric intermediates that self-assemble as amyloid deposits and insoluble fibrils. Most crystallographic structures, including those of amyloidogenic variants show the same tetramer without major variations in the monomer-monomer interface nor in the volume of the interdimeric cavity. Soaking TTR crystals in a solution containing rhenium tris-carbonyl derivatives yields a TTR conformer never observed before. Only one of the two monomers of the crystallographic dimer is significantly altered, and the inner part of the T4 binding cavity is expanded at one end and shrunk at the other. The result redefines the mechanism of allosteric communication between the two sites, suggesting that negative cooperativity is a function of dimer asymmetry, which can be induced through internal or external binding. An aspect that remains unexplained is why the conformational changes are ubiquitous throughout the crystal although the heavy metal content of the derivatized crystals is relatively low. The conformational changes observed, which include Leu(82), may represent a form of TTR better at scavenging β-Amyloid. At a resolution of 1.69Å, with excellent refinement statistics and well defined electron density for all parts of the structure, it is possible to envisage answering important questions that range from protein cooperative behavior to heavy atom induced protein conformational modifications that can result in crystallographic non-isomorphism. PMID:27402536

  19. Gas-phase chemistry of ruthenium and rhodium carbonyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shiwei; Wang, Yang; Qin, Zhi; Fan, Fangli; Haba, Hiromitsu; Komori, Yukiko; Wu, Xiaolei; Tan, Cunmin; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Short-lived ruthenium and rhodium isotopes were produced from a (252)Cf spontaneous fission (SF) source. Their volatile carbonyl complexes were formed in gas-phase reactions in situ with the carbon-monoxide containing gas. A gas-jet system was employed to transport the volatile carbonyls from the recoil chamber to the chemical separation apparatus. The gas-phase chemical behaviors of these carbonyl complexes were studied using an online low temperature isothermal chromatography (IC) technique. Long IC columns made up of FEP Teflon were used to obtain the chemical information of the high-volatile Ru and Rh carbonyls. By excluding the influence of precursor effects, short-lived isotopes of (109-110)Ru and (111-112)Rh were used to represent the chemical behaviours of Ru and Rh carbonyls. Relative chemical yields of about 75% and 20% were measured for Ru(CO)5 and Rh(CO)4, respectively, relative to the yields of KCl aerosols transported in Ar gas. The adsorption enthalpies of ruthenium and rhodium carbonyl complexes on a Teflon surface were determined to be around ΔHads = -33(+1)(-2) kJ mol(-1) and -36(+2)(-1) kJ mol(-1), respectively, by fitting the breakthrough curves of the corresponding carbonyl complexes with a Monte Carlo simulation program. Different from Mo and Tc carbonyls, a small amount of oxygen gas was found to be not effective for the chemical yields of ruthenium and rhodium carbonyl complexes. The general chemical behaviors of short-lived carbonyl complexes of group VI-IX elements were discussed, which can be used in the future study on the gas-phase chemistry of superheavy elements - Bh, Hs, and Mt carbonyls. PMID:26573993

  20. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  1. Cardioprotective effects of quercetin against ischemia-reperfusion injury are age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartekova, M; Radosinska, J; Pancza, D; Barancik, M; Ravingerova, T

    2016-09-19

    Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound present in various types of food, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in different cardiac as well as non-cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models in adult animals. However, there is no evidence about the effects of quercetin on I/R injury in non-mature animals, despite the fact that efficiency of some interventions against I/R is age-dependent. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of chronic quercetin treatment on I/R injury in juvenile and adult rat hearts. Juvenile (4-week-old) as well as adult (12-week-old) rats were treated with quercetin (20 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks, hearts were excised and exposed to 25-min global ischemia followed by 40-min reperfusion. Functional parameters of hearts and occurrence of reperfusion arrhythmias were registered to assess the cardiac function. Our results have shown that quercetin improved post-ischemic recovery of LVDP, as well as recovery of markers of contraction and relaxation, +(dP/dt)max and -(dP/dt)max, respectively, in juvenile hearts, but not in adult hearts. Quercetin had no impact on incidence as well as duration of reperfusion arrhythmias in animals of both ages. We conclude that the age of rats plays an important role in heart response to quercetin treatment in the particular dose and duration of the treatment. Therefore, the age of the treated subjects should be taken into consideration when choosing the dose of quercetin and duration of its application in prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27643931

  2. Age-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability in subiculum after status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkwon Chung

    Full Text Available Kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KA-SE in mature rats results in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and a pattern of cell death resembling hippocampal sclerosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In contrast, KA-SE in young animals before postnatal day (P 18 is less likely to cause cell death or epilepsy. To investigate whether changes in neuronal excitability occur in the subiculum after KA-SE, we examined the age-dependent effects of SE on the bursting neurons of subiculum, the major output region of the hippocampus. Patch-clamp recordings were used to monitor bursting in pyramidal neurons in the subiculum of rat hippocampal slices. Neurons were studied either one or 2-3 weeks following injection of KA or saline (control in immature (P15 or more mature (P30 rats, which differ in their sensitivity to KA as well as the long-term sequelae of the KA-SE. A significantly greater proportion of subicular pyramidal neurons from P15 rats were strong-bursting neurons and showed increased frequency-dependent bursting compared to P30 animals. Frequency-dependent burst firing was enhanced in P30, but not in P15 rats following KA-SE. The enhancement of bursting induced by KA-SE in more mature rats suggests that the frequency-dependent limitation of repetitive burst firing, which normally occurs in the subiculum, is compromised following SE. These changes could facilitate the initiation of spontaneous recurrent seizures or their spread from the hippocampus to other parts of the brain.

  3. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  4. Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A; Siedlecki, D; Borja, David; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice; Marcos, S

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To reconstruct the gradient index (GRIN) profile of human crystalline lenses ex-vivo using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging with an optimization technique and to study the dependence of the GRIN profile with age. METHODS: Cross-sectional images of nine isolated human crystalline lenses with ages ranging from 6 to 72 (post mortem time 1 to 4 days) were obtained using a custom-made OCT system. Lenses were extracted from whole cadaver globes and placed in a measurement chamber filled with preservation medium (DMEM). Lenses were imaged with the anterior surface up and then flipped over and imaged again, to obtain posterior lens surface profiles both undistorted and distorted by the refraction through the anterior crystalline lens and GRIN. The GRIN distribution of the lens was described with three variables by means of power function, with variables being the nucleus and surface index, and a power coefficient that describes the decay of the refractive index from the nucleus to the surface. An optimization method was used to search for the parameters that produced the best match of the distorted posterior surface. RESULTS: The distorted surface was simulated with accuracy around the resolution of the OCT system (under 15 µm). The reconstructed refractive index values ranged from 1.356 to 1.388 for the surface, and from 1.396 to 1.434 for the nucleus. The power coefficient ranged between 3 and 18. The power coefficient increased significantly with age, at a rate of 0.24 per year. CONCLUSION: Optical Coherence Tomography allowed optical, non-invasive measurement of the 2-D gradient index profile of the isolated human crystalline lens ex vivo. The age-dependent variation of the changes is consistent with previous data using magnetic resonance imaging, and the progressive formation of a refractive index plateau. PMID:22865954

  5. Carbonyl-Olefin Exchange Reaction: Present State and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Radostina; Jossifov, Christo

    The carbonyl-olefin exchange reaction (COER) is a new reaction between carbonyl group and olefin double bond, which has a formal similarity with the olefin metathesis (OM) - one carbon atom in the latter is replaced with an oxygen atom. Till now the new reaction is performed successfully only when the two functional groups (carbonyl group and olefin double bond) are in one molecule and are conjugated. The α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (substituted propenones) are the compounds with such a structure. They polymerize giving substituted polyacetylenes. The chain propagation step of this polymerization is in fact the COER. The question arises: is it possible the COER to take place when the two functional groups are not in one molecule and are not conjugated, and could this reaction became an alternative of the existing carbonyl olefination reactions?

  6. Metal-free carbonylations by photoredox catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majek, Michal; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of benzoates from aryl electrophiles and carbon monoxide is a prime example of a transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation reaction which is widely applied in research and industrial processes. Such reactions proceed in the presence of Pd or Ni catalysts, suitable ligands, and stoichiometric bases. We have developed an alternative procedure that is free of any metal, ligand, and base. The method involves a redox reaction driven by visible light and catalyzed by eosin Y which affords alkyl benzoates from arene diazonium salts, carbon monoxide, and alcohols under mild conditions. Tertiary esters can also be prepared in high yields. DFT calculations and radical trapping experiments support a catalytic photoredox pathway without the requirement for sacrificial redox partners.

  7. Influence of carbonyl stress on rheological alterations of blood materials and decarbonylation effect of glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭密军; 蔡建光; 贺洪; 龚萍; 李国林; 汤婷; 朱泽瑞; 印大中

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various toxic carbonyls such as malondialdehyde(MDA),a secondary product of lipid peroxidation,and other aldehydes on rheological parameters and their relationship with aging-associated alterations were studied.Both MDA and glutaraldehyde(Glu) in different concentrations significantly increase viscosity,plastic viscosity and yield stress of human plasma and erythrocyte suspensions.MDA(20 mmol/L) reduces sharply the typical fluorescence of proteins(excitation 280 nm/emission 350 nm),and produces age pigment-like fluorescence with a strong emission peak at 460 nm when excites at 395 nm by only being incubated for some hours.In contrast,Glu decreases merely the fluorescence of proteins without producing age pigment-like fluorescence.These data suggest interestingly that the MDA-induced gradual protein cross linking seems to form from different mechanisms compared to the fast rheological changes of blood materials which may take place either in acute and chronic diseases or during aging.On the other hand,MDA induces various deleterious alterations of erythrocytes whereas glutathione(GSH) inhibits the MDA-related carbonyl stress in a concentration-dependent manner.The results indicate that carbonyl-amino reaction exists in the blood widely and GSH has the ability to interrupt or reverse this reaction in a certain way.It implies that carbonyl stress may be one of the important factors in blood stasis and suggests a theoretical and practical approach in anti-stresses and anti-aging.

  8. Gas-phase chemistry of technetium carbonyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Qin, Zhi; Fan, Fang-Li; Haba, Hiromitsu; Komori, Yukiko; Cao, Shi-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Tan, Cun-Min

    2015-05-28

    Gas-phase chemical behaviors of short-lived technetium carbonyl complexes were studied using a low temperature isothermal chromatograph (IC) coupled with a (252)Cf spontaneous fission (SF) source. Fission products recoiled from the (252)Cf SF source were thermalized in a mixed gas containing CO, and then technetium carbonyl complexes were formed from reactions between CO gas and various technetium isotopes. A gas-jet system was employed to transport the volatile carbonyl complexes from a recoil chamber to the IC. Short IC columns made of Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) Teflon and quartz were used to obtain chemical information about the technetium carbonyl complexes. The results for the (104)Tc-(106)Tc carbonyl complexes were found to be strongly influenced by the precursors, and showed the chemical behaviors of (104)Mo-(106)Mo carbonyl complexes, respectively. However, (107)Tc and (108)Tc could represent the chemical information of the element technetium due to their high independent yields and the very short half-lives of their precursors (107)Mo and (108)Mo. An adsorption enthalpy of about ΔHads = -43 kJ mol(-1) was determined for the Tc carbonyl complexes on both the Teflon and quartz surfaces by fitting the breakthrough curves of the (107)Tc and (108)Tc carbonyl complexes with a Monte Carlo simulation program. Chemical yields of around 25% were measured for the Tc carbonyl complexes relative to the transport yields obtained with the gas-jet transport of KCl aerosol particles with Ar carrier gas. Furthermore, the influence of a small amount of O2 gas on the yields of the Mo and Tc carbonyl complexes was studied. PMID:25920667

  9. Carbonyl Emissions From Oil and Gas Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Tran, T.

    2015-12-01

    A number of recent studies have targeted emissions of methane and other hydrocarbons from oil and gas exploration and production activity. These measurements are greatly increasing understanding of the atmospheric impacts of oil and gas development. Very few measurements exist, however, of emissions of formaldehyde and other carbonyls from oil and gas equipment. Carbonyls are toxic and serve as important ozone precursors, especially during winter ozone episodes in places like Utah's Uintah Basin. Current air quality models are only able to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone if they incorporate emissions inventories with very high carbonyl emissions. We measured carbonyl emissions from oil and gas equipment and facilities—including glycol dehydrators, liquid storage tanks, raw gas leaks, raw gas-burning engines, and produced water surface impoundments—in Rocky Mountain oil and gas fields. Carbonyl emissions from raw gas were below detection, but emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other carbonyls were detected from liquid storage tanks, glycol dehydrators, and other oil and gas equipment. In some cases, carbonyls may be formed from the degradation of methanol and other chemicals used in oil and gas production, but the collected data provide evidence for other non-combustion formation pathways. Raw gas-burning engines also emitted carbonyls. Emissions from all measured sources were a small fraction of total volatile organic compound emissions. We incorporated our measurements into an emissions inventory, used that inventory in an air quality model (WRF-SMOKE-CAMx), and were unable to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone. This could be because (1) emission sources we have not yet measured, including compressors, gas processing plants, and others, are large; (2) non-carbonyl emissions, especially those that quickly degrade into carbonyls during photochemical processing, are underestimated in the inventory; or (3) the air quality model is unable

  10. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Chiba (Japan); Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    underlie the age-dependent susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

  11. Age dependent association of endometrial polyps with increased risk of cancer involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel Maritza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial polyps (EMPs are commonly encountered in routine surgical pathology practice, but opinions differ on whether they are intrinsically a marker for concurrent or subsequent malignancy. The objectives of the present study are 1 to investigate the age-group in which EMP are most commonly encountered 2 to document the age-group in which EMP are most commonly associated with malignancies 3 To investigate whether the age of diagnosis of the various carcinoma subtypes in EMPs is congruent with published data on similar malignancies arising in non-polypoid endometrium and 4 To investigate whether the histologic subtype distribution of malignancies associated with EMPs are similar or different from the distribution of malignancies arising from non-polypoid endometrium based on published data. Patients and methods All cases of EMPs were retrieved from the files of Yale-New Haven Hospital for the period 1986–1995. The patients were divided into 5 age groups: Each group was further subclassified based on an association (or lack thereof of EMPs with endometrial carcinoma. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of malignancy associated EMPs between the age groups. Results We identified 513 EMPs, of which 209 (41% were from biopsy specimens and 304 (59% from hysterectomy specimens. Sixty six (13% of all EMPs were malignant. The 66 malignant EMPs included 58 endometrioid, 6 serous, 1 carcinosarcoma, and 1 clear cell carcinoma. In age group >35, only 1(2.5% of 40 EMPs was associated with endometrial malignancy. In contrast, 37(32% of 115 EMPs were associated with malignancy in the age group > 65. The frequency of malignant EMPs increased with age and reached statistical significance in the age group >65 (p Conclusions EMPs show statistically significant age dependent association with malignant tumor involvement. Careful search for malignancy, particularly in women with multiple risk factors is advised in daily practice

  12. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  13. B16 melanoma tumor growth is delayed in mice in an age-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2012-08-01

    tumor volumes of 417.62 and 216.34 mm3 in the 16- and 24-month age groups, respectively (p≤0.005. Histologically, implanted tumors in young mice exhibited characteristics of aggressive, rapidly growing tumor cells including high vascularity, mitosis, and invasiveness compared to tumors in old mice. We contend that the decrease in B16 melanoma tumor growth seen with increasing age in B6 and CB6 F1 mice represents a biological process, which we are calling age-dependent cancer resistance (ADCR. Our data provide a detailed description of conditions necessary to use the model to investigate the mechanisms of ADCR and determine its biological and clinical relevance.

  14. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed...... of this process depends on the extent of oxidation at C-3 compared with other sites. HO*, generated by gamma radiolysis, gave the highest total carbonyl yield, with protein-bound carbonyls predominating over released. In contrast, metal ion/H2O2 systems, gave more released than bound carbonyls, with this ratio...... modulated by EDTA. This is ascribed to metal ion-protein interactions affecting the sites of initial oxidation. Hypochlorous acid gave low concentrations of released carbonyls, but high yields of protein-bound material. The peroxyl radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride...

  15. Reactivity, Selectivity, and Reaction Mechanisms of Aminoguanidine, Hydralazine, Pyridoxamine, and Carnosine as Sequestering Agents of Reactive Carbonyl Species: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzani, Mara; De Maddis, Danilo; Casali, Gaia; Carini, Marina; Vistoli, Giulio; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-08-19

    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are endogenous or exogenous byproducts involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of different oxidative-based disorders. Detoxification of RCS by carbonyl quenchers is a promising therapeutic strategy. Among the most studied quenchers are aminoguanidine, hydralazine, pyridoxamine, and carnosine; their quenching activity towards four RCS (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and malondialdehyde) was herein analyzed and compared. Their ability to prevent protein carbonylation was evaluated in vitro by using an innovative method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The reactivity of the compounds was RCS dependent: carnosine efficiently quenched 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, pyridoxamine was particularly active towards malondialdehyde, aminoguanidine was active towards methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and hydralazine efficiently quenched all RCS. Reaction products were generated in vitro and were characterized by HRMS. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the reactivity was controlled by specific stereoelectronic parameters that could be used for the rational design of improved carbonyl quenchers. PMID:26891408

  16. A New HPLC Method to Determine Carbonyl Compounds in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new HPLC method was established to determine the carbonyl compounds in air. As the absorbent, 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2, 4-DNPH) reacted with carbonyls specifically, which form the corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, then analyzed by HPLC. The chromatographic conditions, the recovery rate, stability of samples, reagent blank, sampling efficiency were all studied systematically. The results showed that this established method had high sensitivity and good selectivity compared with other analytical methods, and it can determine ten carbonyl compounds in air in 26 min simultaneously.

  17. TDP-1/TDP-43 regulates stress signaling and age-dependent proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 is a multifunctional nucleic acid binding protein linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia. To learn more about the normal biological and abnormal pathological role of this protein, we turned to Caenorhabditis elegans and its orthologue TDP-1. We report that TDP-1 functions in the Insulin/IGF pathway to regulate longevity and the oxidative stress response downstream from the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO3a. However, although tdp-1 mutants are stress-sensitive, chronic upregulation of tdp-1 expression is toxic and decreases lifespan. ALS-associated mutations in TDP-43 or the related RNA binding protein FUS activate the unfolded protein response and generate oxidative stress leading to the daf-16-dependent upregulation of tdp-1 expression with negative effects on neuronal function and lifespan. Consistently, deletion of endogenous tdp-1 rescues mutant TDP-43 and FUS proteotoxicity in C. elegans. These results suggest that chronic induction of wild-type TDP-1/TDP-43 by cellular stress may propagate neurodegeneration and decrease lifespan.

  18. Assignment of congested NMR spectra: Carbonyl backbone enrichment via the Entner Doudoroff pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbourt, Amir; Day, Loren A.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2007-12-01

    In NMR spectra of complex proteins, sparse isotope enrichment can be important, in that the removal of many 13C- 13C homonuclear J-couplings can narrow the lines and thereby facilitate the process of spectral assignment and structure elucidation. We present a simple scheme for selective yet extensive isotopic enrichment applicable for production of proteins in organisms utilizing the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) metabolic pathway. An enrichment scheme so derived is demonstrated in the context of a magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR (MAS SSNMR) study of Pf1 bacteriophage, the host of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain K (PAK), an organism that uses the ED pathway for glucose catabolism. The intact and infectious Pf1 phage in this study was produced by infected PAK cells grown on a minimal medium containing 1- 13C D-glucose ( 13C in position 1) as the sole carbon source, as well as 15NH 4Cl as the only nitrogen source. The 37 MDa Pf1 phage consists of about 93% major coat protein, 1% minor coat proteins, and 6% single-stranded, circular DNA. As a consequence of this composition and the enrichment scheme, the resonances in the MAS SSNMR spectra of the Pf1 sample were almost exclusively due to carbonyl carbons in the major coat protein. Moreover, 3D heteronuclear NCOCX correlation experiments also show that the amino acids leucine, serine, glycine, and tyrosine were not isotopically enriched in their carbonyl positions (although most other amino acids were), which is as expected based upon considerations of the ED metabolic pathway. 3D NCOCX NMR data and 2D 15N- 15N data provided strong verification of many previous assignments of 15N amide and 13C carbonyl shifts in this highly congested spectrum; both the semi-selective enrichment patterns and the narrowed linewidths allowed for greater certainty in the assignments as compared with use of uniformly enriched samples alone.

  19. Deposition of carbonyl sulphide to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczewski, S. M.; Brown, K. A.; Bel, J. N. B.

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is a trace constituent of the atmosphere and is also the main form in which 35S is released from CO 2-cooled nuclear reactors. Measurements of its deposition velocity ( Vg) are therefore important for validating radiological dose models and for interpreting the role of COS in the global S cycle. The Vg of [ 35S]COS to thin layers of several contrasting soils was measured in a through-flow fumigation system. Deposition velocity was not significantly affected by soil type, although deposition to moist soil was significantly greater ( P dried soils, mean values being 5.71 × 10 -6 ms -1 and 3.06 × 10 -6 ms -1, respectively. The results obtained are about three orders of magnitude smaller than published Vg values for SO 2 to similar soils, which suggests that uptake by soils is not a major sink for atmospheric COS. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that deposition to soil of [ 35S]COS from nuclear reactors is unlikely to contribute significantly to radiation dose from the food chain pathway. The reduction in Vg observed in heat-treated soils indicates a microbial involvement in uptake. However, it seems unlikely that microbial metabolism is the rate-controlling step, since stimulation of the microflora by the addition of nutrients did not increase COS deposition.

  20. The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a higher oxidative stress and age-dependent degenerative diseases model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Kumagai, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Ishii, Sanae; Furukawa, Ayako; Takei, Shiro; Sakura, Masaaki; Kawamura, Noriko; Hosokawa, Masanori

    2009-04-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of a series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant) strains. Compared with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains show a more accelerated senescence process, a shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to human geriatric disorders. The higher oxidative stress status observed in SAMP mice is partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be a cause of this senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function. Based on our recent observations, we discuss a possible mechanism for mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, and a role for the hyperoxidative stress status in neurodegeneration in SAMP mice. These SAM strains can serve as a useful tool to understand the cellular mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:18688709

  1. Theoretical Estimate of Hydride Affinities of Aromatic Carbonyl Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Teng; ZHU Xiao-Qing; CHENG Jin-Pei

    2003-01-01

    @@ Aromatic carbonyl compounds are one type of the most important organic compounds, and the reductions ofthem by hydride agents such as LiAlH4 or NaBH4 are widely used in organic synthesis. The reactivity of carbonyl compounds generally increases in the following order: ketone < aldehyde, and amide < acid < ester < acid halide, which could be related to their hydride affinities (HA). In the previous paper, Robert[1] calculated the absolute HAof a series of small non-aromatic carbonyl compounds. In this paper, we use DFT method at B3LYP/6-311 + + G (2d, 2p)∥B3LYP/6-31 + G* level to estimate hydride affinities of five groups of aromatic carbonyl compounds. The detailed results are listed in Table 1.

  2. Microsurgeons do better--tactile training might prevent the age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Megerle, Kai; Weinzierl, Andrea; Agua, Kariem; Cerny, Michael; Schmauss, Verena; Lohmeyer, Joern A; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Erne, Holger

    2015-12-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the normal sensibility of the hand seems to be age-dependent with the best values in the third decade and a consecutive deterioration afterwards. However, it is not clear if long-term tactile training might prevent this age-dependent decline. We evaluated sensibility of the hand in 125 surgeons aged between 26 and 75 years who perform microsurgical operations, thereby undergoing regular tactile training. We examined sensibility of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) and the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10) using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and compared the results to 154 age-matched individuals without specific long-term tactile training. We found significantly lower static and moving 2PD values for the sixth, seventh, and eighth decade of life in the microsurgery group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that long-term tactile training might prevent the known age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

  3. Microsurgeons do better--tactile training might prevent the age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Megerle, Kai; Weinzierl, Andrea; Agua, Kariem; Cerny, Michael; Schmauss, Verena; Lohmeyer, Joern A; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Erne, Holger

    2015-12-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the normal sensibility of the hand seems to be age-dependent with the best values in the third decade and a consecutive deterioration afterwards. However, it is not clear if long-term tactile training might prevent this age-dependent decline. We evaluated sensibility of the hand in 125 surgeons aged between 26 and 75 years who perform microsurgical operations, thereby undergoing regular tactile training. We examined sensibility of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) and the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10) using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and compared the results to 154 age-matched individuals without specific long-term tactile training. We found significantly lower static and moving 2PD values for the sixth, seventh, and eighth decade of life in the microsurgery group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that long-term tactile training might prevent the known age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand. PMID:26306813

  4. Carbonyl-Olefin Exchange Reaction and Related Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossifov, Christo; Kalinova, Radostina

    A new carbon—carbon double bond forming reaction (carbonyl olefin exchange reaction) mediated by transition metal catalytic systems has been discovered. The catalytic systems used (transition metal halides or oxohalides alone or in combination with Lewis acids) are active only in the case when the two reacting groups are in one molecules and are conjugated. In addition these systems accelerate other reactions which run simultaneously with the carbonyl olefin metathesis rendering a detailed investigation of the process very complicated.

  5. Purification and characterization of a novel carbonyl reductase with high stereo-selectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming; XU Yan; MU Xiaoqing; XIAO Rong

    2007-01-01

    A novel NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase was separated from Candida parapsilosis CCTCC 203011.The enzyme gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),which was purified through ammonium sulfate,Diethylamino Ethanol (DEAE) sepharose Fast flow (FF),phenyl-sepharose FF and blue sepharose FF chromatography from cell-free extract.The molecular mass of the enzyme was about 30 kDa.The optimum pH and temperature for reduction were 4.5℃ and 35℃,respectively.The Cu2+ had strong restrictive effect on enzyme activity.In addition,the carbonyl reductase was an enzyme with high substrate specificity and stereo-selectivity,and showed high asymmetric reduction activity towards α-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate.For the asymmetric reduction of α-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate,(S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol and (R)-ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate were produced by the purified enzyme,with the 100% and 94.3% e.e.value,respectively.Therefore,the enzyme could be one of the effective biocatalysts for asymmetric synthesis of chiral alcohols.The amino acid sequences of one peptide from the purified enzyme were analyzed by LC-MASS-MASS,and the carbonyl reductase showed some identity to the hypothetical protein CaO 19.10414 reported.

  6. [Defects in TOR regulatory complexes retard aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress development in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homza, B V; Vasyl'kovs'ka, R A; Semchyshyn, H M

    2014-01-01

    TOR signaling pathway first described in yeast S. cerevisiae is the highly conserved regulator of eukaryotic cell growth, aging and stress resistance. The effect of nitrogen sources, in particular amino acids, on the activity of TOR signaling pathway is well studied, however its relation to carbohydrates is poor understood. The aim of the present study is expanding of our understanding of potential role of TOR regulatory complexes in development of carbonyl/oxidative stress that can result from yeast cultivation on glucose and fructose. It has been shown that the level of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds and protein carbonyl groups increased with time of yeast cultivation and was higher in cells grown on fructose that demonstrated their accelerated aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress development as compared with cells grown on glucose. The strains defective in TOR proteins cultivated in the presence of glucose as well as fructose demonstrated lower markers of the stress and aging than parental strain. Thus these data confirmed the previous conclusion on fructose more potent ability to cause carbonyl/oxidative stress and accelerated aging in S. cerevisiae as compared with glucose. However, defects in TOR regulatory complexes retard aging and development of the stress in yeast independent on the type of carbohydrate in the cultivation medium. PMID:24834721

  7. Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  8. Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Dong, Yuanlin; Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The Aβ accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. γ-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated Aβ accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.

  9. Age dependence of the rapid antidepressant and synaptic effects of acute NMDA receptor blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eNosyreva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist that produces rapid antidepressant responses in individuals with major depressive disorder. The antidepressant action of ketamine has been linked to blocking NMDA receptor activation at rest, which inhibits eukaryotic elongation factor2 kinase leading to desuppression of protein synthesis and synaptic potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Here, we investigated ketamine mediated antidepressant response and the resulting synaptic potentiation in juvenile animals. We found that ketamine did not produce an antidepressant response in juvenile animals in the novelty suppressed feeding or the forced swim test. In addition ketamine application failed to trigger synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile animals, unlike its action in slices from older animals (6-9 weeks old. The inability of ketamine to trigger an antidepressant response or subsequent synaptic plasticity processes suggests a developmental component to ketamine mediated antidepressant efficacy. We also show that the NMDAR antagonist AP5 triggers synaptic potentiation in mature hippocampus similar to the action of ketamine, demonstrating that global competitive blockade of NMDA receptors is sufficient to trigger this effect. These findings suggest that global blockade of NMDA receptors in developmentally mature hippocampal synapses are required for the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine.

  10. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Oaks

    Full Text Available Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  11. Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Karson Ayşe; Utkan Tijen; Balcı Fuat; Arıcıoğlu Feyza; Ateş Nurbay

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy Ayşe Karson1*, Tijen Utkan2, Fuat Balcı3, Feyza Arıcıoğlu4 and Nurbay Ateş1 Abstract Recent clinical studies revealed emotional and cognitive impairments associated with absence epilepsy. Preclinical research with genetic models of absence epilepsy however have primarily focused on dysfunctional emotional processes and paid relatively less attention t...

  12. Age-dependent effects of UCP2 deficiency on experimental acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Müller

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 μg/kg body weight at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively, suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions.

  13. Age-dependent alterations in the inflammatory response to pulmonary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Helena M; Ochani, Kanta; Lin, Ke; Lee, Ji Young; Miller, Edmund J

    2015-12-01

    The aging lung is increasingly susceptible to infectious disease. Changes in pulmonary physiology and function are common in older populations, and in those older than 60 years, pneumonia is the major cause of infectious death. Understanding age-related changes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and how they affect both pulmonary and systemic responses to pulmonary challenge are critical to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the elderly patient. In this observational study, we examined age-associated differences in inflammatory responses to pulmonary challenge with cell wall components from Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6 months or greater than 18 months (approximating humans of 20 and 55-65 years), were challenged, intratracheally, with lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan. Cellular and cytokine evaluations were performed on both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and plasma, 24 h post-challenge. The plasma concentration of free thyroxine, a marker of severity in non-thyroidal illness, was also evaluated. The older animals had an increased chemotactic gradient in favor of the airspaces, which was associated with a greater accumulation of neutrophils and protein. Furthermore, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory mediator and putative biomarker in acute lung injury, was increased in both the plasma and BAL of the older, but not young animals. Conversely, plasma free thyroxine, a natural inhibitor of MIF, was decreased in the older animals. These findings identify age-associated inflammatory/metabolic changes following pulmonary challenge that it may be possible to manipulate to improve outcome in the older, critically ill patient. PMID:26318747

  14. Clinical features of schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Makoto; Kobori, Akiko; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Toriumi, Kazuya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Okazaki, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Amano, Naoji; Miyata, Toshio; Itokawa, Masanari

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that advanced glycation end products, generated as a consequence of facilitated carbonyl stress, are implicated in the development of a variety of diseases. These diseases include neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer disease. Pyridoxamine is one of the 3 forms of vitamin B6, and it acts by combating carbonyl stress and inhibiting the formation of AGEs. Depletion of pyridoxamine due to enhanced carbonyl stress eventually leads to a decrease in the other forms of vitamin B6, namely pyridoxal and pyridoxine. We previously reported that higher levels of plasma pentosidine, a well-known biomarker for advanced glycation end products, and decreased serum pyridoxal levels were found in a subpopulation of schizophrenic patients. However, there is as yet no clinical characterization of this subset of schizophrenia. In this study, we found that these patients shared many clinical features with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. These include a higher proportion of inpatients, low educational status, longer durations of hospitalization, and higher doses of antipsychotic medication, compared with patients without carbonyl stress. Interestingly, psychopathological symptoms showed a tendency towards negative association with serum vitamin B6 levels. Our results support the idea that treatment regimes reducing carbonyl stress, such as supplementation of pyridoxamine, could provide novel therapeutic benefits for this subgroup of patients. PMID:24062594

  15. NRFL-1, the C. elegans NHERF orthologue, interacts with amino acid transporter 6 (AAT-6 for age-dependent maintenance of AAT-6 on the membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Hagiwara

    Full Text Available The NHERF (Na(+/H(+ exchanger regulatory factor family has been proposed to play a key role in regulating transmembrane protein localization and retention at the plasma membrane. Due to the high homology between the family members, potential functional compensations have been a concern in sorting out the function of individual NHERF numbers. Here, we studied C. elegans NRFL-1 (C01F6.6 (nherf-like protein 1, the sole C. elegans orthologue of the NHERF family, which makes worm a model with low genetic redundancy of NHERF homologues. Integrating bioinformatic knowledge of C. elegans proteins into yeast two-hybrid scheme, we identified NRFL-1 as an interactor of AAT-6, a member of the C. elegans AAT (amino acid transporter family. A combination of GST pull-down assay, localization study, and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding and characterized the PDZ interaction. AAT-6 localizes to the luminal membrane even in the absence of NRFL-1 when the worm is up to four-day old. A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP analysis suggested that NRFL-1 immobilizes AAT-6 at the luminal membrane. When the nrfl-1 deficient worm is six-day or older, in contrast, the membranous localization of AAT-6 is not observed, whereas AAT-6 tightly localizes to the membrane in worms with NRFL-1. Sorting out the in vivo functions of the C. elegans NHERF protein, we found that NRFL-1, a PDZ-interactor of AAT-6, is responsible for the immobilization and the age-dependent maintenance of AAT-6 on the intestinal luminal membrane.

  16. Age-dependent kinetics of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the absence of cyclin D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorg Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis continuously adds new neurons to the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. It involves the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of neuronal progenitors, and is thus closely linked to the cell cycle machinery. Cell cycle progression is governed by the successive expression, activation and degradation of regulatory proteins. Among them, D-type cyclins control the exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D2 (cD2 has been shown to be required for the generation of new neurons in the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. It is differentially expressed during hippocampal development, and adult cD2 knock out (cD2KO mice virtually lack neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb. In the present study we examined the dynamics of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of cD2KO mice. Animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine at seven time points during the first 10 months of life and brains were immunohistochemically analyzed for their potential to generate new neurons. Results Compared to their WT litters, cD2KO mice had considerably reduced numbers of newly born granule cells during the postnatal period, with neurogenesis becoming virtually absent around postnatal day 28. This was paralleled by a reduction in granule cell numbers, in the volume of the granule cell layer as well as in apoptotic cell death. CD2KO mice did not show any of the age-related changes in neurogenesis and granule cell numbers that were seen in WT litters. Conclusions The present study suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis becomes increasingly dependent on cD2 during early postnatal development. In cD2KO mice, hippocampal neurogenesis ceases at a time point at which the tertiary germinative matrix stops proliferating, indicating that cD2 becomes an essential requirement for ongoing neurogenesis with the transition from developmental to adult neurogenesis. Our data further support the notion that

  17. A higher oxidative status accelerates senescence and aggravates age-dependent disorders in SAMP strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masanori

    2002-11-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone, short-lived) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant, longer-lived) strains. Comparing with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains of mice show a more accelerated senescence process, shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders observed in humans, including senile osteoporosis, degenerative joint disease, age-related deficits in learning and memory, olfactory bulb and forebrain atrophy, presbycusis and retinal atrophy, senile amyloidosis, immunosenescence, senile lungs, and diffuse medial thickening of the aorta. The higher oxidative stress observed in the SAMP strains of mice are partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be one cause of the senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function, including neuronal cell degeneration. This senescence acceleration is also observed during senescence/crisis in cultures of isolated fibroblast-like cells from SAMP strains of mice, and was associated with a hyperoxidative status. These observations suggest that the SAM strains are useful tools in the attempt to understand the mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration of cells and tissues, and their aggravation, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:12470893

  18. Surveillance test and monitoring strategy for the availability improvement of standby equipment using age-dependent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases, the safety of a nuclear power plant greatly depends on the successful operation of specific standby equipment at the time of demand arrival. For the effective management of safety-critical standby equipment, unavailability measures are introduced and widely applied. In this study, we propose an age-dependent unavailability model for standby equipment that considers aging-relevant information, such as the number of actual operations, the elapsed time from installation, and maintenance activities, in an integrated manner. Based on the proposed model, we present two availability enhancement strategies: the Online Monitoring based Inspection Method (OMIM) and the Shortening Surveillance Test Interval Method (SSTIM). In the OMIM, ‘elapsed-time sensitive' elements are monitored, without actual operation, at the differentiated monitoring interval with the help of sensing devices. For the remaining parts of the elements, actual testing is performed with an adaptive interval for each standby turn by the SSTIM. The effectiveness of the proposed enhancement schemes is demonstrated through a case study for the motor-operated valve (MOV). It is our belief that the proposed schemes can be widely applied in areas such as equipment testing, maintenance strategies, dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and risk-informed regulations. - Highlights: • An age-dependent unavailability model for standby equipment was investigated. • An Online Monitoring-based Inspection Method was suggested. • Changing the test interval for each standby turn was suggested. • The effectiveness of the suggested methods was analyzed quantitatively

  19. Role of acid sphingomyelinase in the age-dependent dysregulation of sphingolipids turnover in the tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Nataliya A; Garkavenko, Vladimir V; Storozhenko, Galina V; Timofiychuk, Olga A

    2016-04-01

    Old age-associated pathologies usually coincide with altered sphingolipid metabolism. In the present article, the role of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in the age-dependent changes of sphingomyelin (SM) and ceramide contents in the tissues has been investigated by means of ASMase inhibitors, imipramine and zoledronic acid. It has been determined that ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio increased, while SM level decreased in the heart, liver, blood serum and skeletal muscles of 24-month old rats in contrast to 3-month old animals. Injections of imipramine or zoledronic acid to 24-month old rats resulted in significant downregulation of ASMase in the liver and skeletal and heart muscles. The both inhibitors decreased the ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio and increased the SM content in all tissues studied, except the heart, of old rats to the levels close to those observed in the young animals. Long-term treatment of rats by inhibitors, which have different mechanisms of action on ASMase, exerts the similar, but not equal effects on enzyme activity and SM turnover. In summary, the data above strongly suggest that the age-dependent up-regulation of ASMase plays an important role in the modulation of ceramide and SM contents in rat tissues and that imipramine and zoledronic acid are useful tools for SM turnover manipulation at old age. PMID:26830134

  20. Age-Dependent Cell Trafficking Defects in Draining Lymph Nodes Impair Adaptive Immunity and Control of West Nile Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M Richner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impaired immune responses in the elderly lead to reduced vaccine efficacy and increased susceptibility to viral infections. Although several groups have documented age-dependent defects in adaptive immune priming, the deficits that occur prior to antigen encounter remain largely unexplored. Herein, we identify novel mechanisms for compromised adaptive immunity that occurs with aging in the context of infection with West Nile virus (WNV, an encephalitic flavivirus that preferentially causes disease in the elderly. An impaired IgM and IgG response and enhanced vulnerability to WNV infection during aging was linked to delayed germinal center formation in the draining lymph node (DLN. Adoptive transfer studies and two-photon intravital microscopy revealed a decreased trafficking capacity of donor naïve CD4+ T cells from old mice, which manifested as impaired T cell diapedesis at high endothelial venules and reduced cell motility within DLN prior to antigen encounter. Furthermore, leukocyte accumulation in the DLN within the first few days of WNV infection or antigen-adjuvant administration was diminished more generally in old mice and associated with a second aging-related defect in local cytokine and chemokine production. Thus, age-dependent cell-intrinsic and environmental defects in the DLN result in delayed immune cell recruitment and antigen recognition. These deficits compromise priming of early adaptive immune responses and likely contribute to the susceptibility of old animals to acute WNV infection.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial properties of monoterpenes and their carbonylated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigre, R; Kalck, P; Roques, C; Roux, I; Michel, G

    1996-06-01

    Some monoterpenes and their carbonylated products were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. The carbonylation of tested monoterpenes was shown to increase the bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities specifically by the contact method. Concerning the killing effects, only (1R,2S,5R)-isopulegol, its carbonylated products, and (R)-carvone showed significant bactericidal activities, particularly against Enterococcus faecium and Escherichia coli above a concentration of 10 microliters/ml. A fungicidal efficiency of (1R,2S,5R)-isopulegol and (R)-carvone against Aspergillus niger was also noted. It seems that the presence of an oxygenated function in the framework increases the antimicrobial properties. However, monoterpenes were more active using a micro-atmosphere method. PMID:8693045

  2. PROTEIN OXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS IN LEPROSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Girish

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Methods: Total 30 leprosy cases were studied. Patients were subjected to various tests like, serum protein carbonyl as an index of protein oxidation, while serum Vitamin C and Vitamin E levels as endogenous antioxidants.Aims The presence of carbonyl groups in proteins has been used as a marker of ROS-mediated protein oxidation. The present work was undertaken to study the importance of endogenous antioxidants like Vitamin C and vitamin E in different types of leprosy patients.Results: An increased level of protein carbonyl indicates oxidative stress .The levels of Vitamins C, E decreased significantly in leprosy.Conclusions: Protein carbonyl can be used as sensitive indicator of oxidative stress in leprosy patients. Vitamin C and vitamin E can be supplemented along with anti-leprosy drugs to control the protein oxidation in leprosy patients.

  3. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  4. Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages.

  5. The structure of optimal time- and age-dependent harvesting in the Lotka-McKendrik population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritonenko, Natali; Yatsenko, Yuri

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes optimal harvesting of age-structured populations described by the Lotka-McKendrik model. It is shown that the optimal time- and age-dependent harvesting control involves only one age at natural conditions. This result leads to a new optimization problem with the time-dependent harvesting age as an unknown control. The integral Lotka model is employed to explicitly describe the time-varying age of harvesting. It is proven that in the case of the exponential discounting and infinite horizon the optimal strategy is a stationary solution with a constant harvesting age. A numeric example on optimal forest management illustrates the theoretical findings. Discussion and interpretation of the results are provided.

  6. Estimating true age-dependence in survival when only adults can be observed: an example with Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.

  7. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  8. An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.

    2007-08-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

  9. Inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency of torsional eye movement responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Klaus; Naessl, Andrea; Schneider, Erich; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2003-07-01

    To investigate age dependent changes we analysed torsional eye movement responses to binaural and monaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in 57 healthy subjects (20-69 years old). GVS (1-3 mA) induced torsional eye movements consisting of static torsion toward the anode (amplitude 1-6 degrees ) and superimposed torsional nystagmus (slow phase velocity 0.5-3 degrees /s, quick phase amplitude 0.5-2 degrees, nystagmus frequency 0.75-1.5 s-1). Static ocular torsion and torsional nystagmus increased from the third to the sixth decade and decreased in older subjects, e.g. slow phase velocity increased from 1.5 degrees /s (20-29 years) to 2.9 degrees /s (50-59 years) and decreased to 2.5 degrees /s for the seventh decade (60-69 years). Thus, an inverse U-shaped curve was found for the dependence of torsional eye movement responses on age. All structures relevant for vestibular function degenerate with age, but at varying times. Since hair cell loss precedes those seen in the vestibular nerve and Scarpa's ganglion, the decrease in hair cell counts could be compensated for by increased sensitivity of afferent nerve fibres or central mechanisms. Increased sensitivity could thus maintain normal function despite reduced peripheral input. As GVS acts at the vestibular nerve (thereby bypassing the hair cells), electrical stimulation should be more efficient in subjects with the beginning of hair cell degeneration, as seen in our data up to the sixth decade. The degeneration of nerve fibres, ganglion cells and central neurons becomes evident at older ages. Thus, the compensatory increase in sensitivity breaks down and GVS-induced eye movements decline-a finding that is reflected by the inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency presented in this study.

  10. Formation of vesicles with an organometallic amphiphilic bilayer by supramolecular arrangement of metal carbonyl metallosurfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Parera Piella, Elisabet; Comelles, Francesc; Barnadas Rodríguez, Ramon; Suades Ortuño, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Metallo-vesicles are formed in water medium as a result of the supramolecular arrangement of molybdenum carbonyl metallosurfactants. These new kind of surfactants contain a hydrophobic metal carbonyl fragment and are easily prepared from surfactant phosphine ligands

  11. Efficient Nd Promoted Rh Catalysts for Vapor Phase Methanol Carbonylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng ZHANG; Qing Li QIAN; Ping Lai PAN; Yi CHEN; Guo Qing YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A Nd promoted-Rh catalysts supported on polymer-derived carbon beads for vapor-phase methanol carbonylation was developed. Rh-Nd bimetallic catalysts obviously have higher activity than that of supported Rh catalyst under similar reaction condition. The difference between the activity of above two catalyst systems is clearly caused by the intrinsic properties generated by the introduction of Nd.

  12. Contamination of coal benzol by carbonyl compound impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, T.P.

    1985-03-01

    The origin of most carbonyl compounds in nitration-grade benzene produced from coke-oven crude benzole (causing problems in isopropylbenzene production) was concluded to be the piperylene fraction (a by-product of isoprene manufacture) used as an additive in the washing of the benzene with sulphuric acid.

  13. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  14. α-Carbonyl Radical Cyclizatio n in Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Intramolecular radical cyclization reactions are now used routinely to synthesize carbocyclic and heterocyclic structures. We have reported that α-carbonyl radicals 1, generated from the corresponding iodo ketones or enones, underwent intramolecular radical cyclization smoothly to afford products 2.1, 2,3

  15. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  16. Iron-Sulfur-Carbonyl and -Nitrosyl Complexes: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidewell, Christopher; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information, materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained, are provided for an experiment on iron-sulfur-carbonyl and -nitrosyl complexes. The experiment involved (1) use of inert atmospheric techniques and thin-layer and flexible-column chromatography and (2) interpretation of infrared, hydrogen and carbon-13 nuclear…

  17. Carbonyl Sulfides as Possible Intermediates in the Photolysis of Oxathiiranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Snyder, J. P.; Holm, A.;

    1981-01-01

    species and several dipolarophiles is rationlized in terms of a labile carbonyl suffide intermediate capable of facile sulfur extrusion from a long, weak O-S bond. Finally, the electronic absorption spectra of a series of para-substituted benzaldehyde O-sulfide model system have been calculated with CNDO...

  18. Organometallic and Bioorganometallic Chemistry - Ferrocene and Metal Carbonyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čakić Semenčić, M.

    2011-02-01

    -substituted products. Owing to the low barrier to internal rotation around Cp-Fe-Cp axis (ω torsion angle ferrocene is characterized by D5d-symmetrical staggered and D5h-symetrical eclipsed forms. In the appropriately substituted ferrocenes, deviation from Cp coplanarity (tilt angle Θ may occur as well; e. g. ferrocenophanes are derivatives in which homo- or heteroatomic bridges spanned two Cp rings, causing appreciable deformations of ferrocene molecule (ω=0–26°; Θ=9–24°. A characteristic development of the science in the new age has been the gradual merging of what were once separate research disciplines. In such a way, on the border between classical organic and inorganic chemistry (long ago organometallic chemistry was established and in the last decades "hybridization" of biology (biochemistry and organometallic chemistry has resulted in the appearance of bioorganometallic chemistry. In short, this new discipline deals with conjugates of organometallics with biomolecules (DNA, PNA, carbohydrates, steroids, amino acids, peptides.... The principal fields of research activity in bioorganometallic chemistry are therapy, bioanalysis (sensors, molecular recognition in aqueous medium, enzymes (proteins, peptides, toxicology and environment.This article reviews only a few (interesting examples out of the immense number of bioorganometallics (classes. Many bioorganometallic drugs showed improved bioactivity in comparison with their classical anticancer and antimalarial analogues (e. g. tamoxifene → hydroxyferrocifene; chloroquine → ferroquine. Organometallic bioprobes are the molecules incorporating organometallic responding components (e. g. metal carbonyls. In the appropriately designed devices, these "molecular sensors" read out the information that is available from the molecular recognition events by FT-IR spectroscopy. Electrochemically active bioorganometallics (e. g. probes containing ferrocene are used in biosensors for detection of DNA, glucose in blood, etc. The

  19. A correlation of reactive oxygen species accumulation by depletion of superoxide dismutases with age-dependent impairment in the nervous system and muscles of Drosophila adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Saori; Hirai, Jun; Yasukawa, Takashi; Nakahara, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2015-08-01

    The theory that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in internal organs is a major promoter of aging has been considered negatively. However, it is still controversial whether overexpression of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which remove ROS, extends the lifespan in Drosophila adults. We examined whether ROS accumulation by depletion of Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) or Mn-SOD (SOD2) influenced age-related impairment of the nervous system and muscles in Drosophila. We confirmed the efficient depletion of Sod1 and Sod2 through RNAi and ROS accumulation by monitoring of ROS-inducible gene expression. Both RNAi flies displayed accelerated impairment of locomotor activity with age and shortened lifespan. Similarly, adults with nervous system-specific depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 also showed reduced lifespan. We then found an accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in the flies with suppressed SOD expression. A half-dose reduction of three pro-apoptotic genes resulted in a significant suppression of the neuronal loss, suggesting that apoptosis was involved in the neuronal loss caused by SOD silencing. In addition, depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 in musculature is also associated with enhancement of age-related locomotion impairment. In indirect flight muscles from SOD-depleted adults, abnormal protein aggregates containing poly-ubiquitin accumulated at an early adult stage and continued to increase as the flies aged. Most of these protein aggregates were observed between myofibril layers. Moreover, immuno-electron microscopy indicated that the aggregates were predominantly localized in damaged mitochondria. These findings suggest that muscular and neuronal ROS accumulation may have a significant effect on age-dependent impairment of the Drosophila adults.

  20. Age-dependent decrease and alternative splicing of methionine synthase mRNA in human cerebral cortex and an accelerated decrease in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Muratore

    Full Text Available The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-α, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  1. Free backbone carbonyls mediate rhodopsin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Naoki; Pope, Andreyah; Sanchez-Reyes, Omar B; Eilers, Markus; Opefi, Chikwado A; Ziliox, Martine; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O

    2016-08-01

    Conserved prolines in the transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often considered to function as hinges that divide the helix into two segments capable of independent motion. Depending on their potential to hydrogen-bond, the free C=O groups associated with these prolines can facilitate conformational flexibility, conformational switching or stabilization of the receptor structure. To address the role of conserved prolines in family A GPCRs through solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we focus on bovine rhodopsin, a GPCR in the visual receptor subfamily. The free backbone C=O groups on helices H5 and H7 stabilize the inactive rhodopsin structure through hydrogen-bonds to residues on adjacent helices. In response to light-induced isomerization of the retinal chromophore, hydrogen-bonding interactions involving these C=O groups are released, thus facilitating repacking of H5 and H7 onto the transmembrane core of the receptor. These results provide insights into the multiple structural and functional roles of prolines in membrane proteins. PMID:27376589

  2. Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

  3. Orally administrated Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 ameliorates age-dependent colitis by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway via the regulation of lipopolysaccharide production by gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ju Jeong

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammaging effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB on age-dependent inflammation, we first screened and selected a tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and reactive oxygen species (ROS-inhibitory LAB, Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29, among the LABs isolated from fermented vegetables using LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of C29 (2 × 109 CFU/rat for 8 weeks in aged Fischer 344 rats (age, 16 months inhibited the expression of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase, inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 and the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB, activator protein 1 (AP1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Treatment with C29 induced the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1, and reduced intestinal microbial LPS and plasmatic LPS levels and ROS, as well as the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, which is significantly higher in aged rats than in young rats. C29 treatment also reduced plasmatic reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, and TNF-α, and suppressed expression of senescence markers p16 and p53 in the colon of the aged rats, but increased SIRT 1 expression. Based on these findings, we concluded that C29 treatment may suppress aging-dependent colitis by inhibiting NF-κB, AP1, and MAPK activation via the inhibition of gut microbiota LPS production and the induction of tight junction protein expression.

  4. Phenolic carbonyls undergo rapid aqueous photodegradation to form low-volatility, light-absorbing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the aqueous photochemistry of six phenolic carbonyls - vanillin, acetovanillone, guaiacyl acetone, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, and coniferyl aldehyde - that are emitted from wood combustion. The phenolic carbonyls absorb significant amounts of solar radiation and decay rapidly via direct photodegradation, with lifetimes (τ) of 13-140 min under Davis, CA winter solstice sunlight at midday (solar zenith angle = 62°). The one exception is guaiacyl acetone, where the carbonyl group is not directly connected to the aromatic ring: This species absorbs very little sunlight and undergoes direct photodegradation very slowly (τ > 103 min). We also found that the triplet excited states (3C*) of the phenolic carbonyls rapidly oxidize syringol (a methoxyphenol without a carbonyl group), on timescales of 1-5 h for solutions containing 5 μM phenolic carbonyl. The direct photodegradation of the phenolic carbonyls, and the oxidation of syringol by 3C*, both efficiently produce low volatility products, with SOA mass yields ranging from 80 to 140%. Contrary to most aliphatic carbonyls, under typical fog conditions we find that the primary sink for the aromatic phenolic carbonyls is direct photodegradation in the aqueous phase. In areas of significant wood combustion, phenolic carbonyls appear to be small but significant sources of aqueous SOA: over the course of a few hours, nearly all of the phenolic carbonyls will be converted to SOA via direct photodegradation, enhancing the POA mass from wood combustion by approximately 3-5%.

  5. Contribution to the penetration of radionuclides across the skin. Age dependence of promethium through rat skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper: - the time dependence of permeation of 147Pm3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model was studied; - the age dependence of promethium through the skin was proved; - the optimum biological model of human skin was selected, and - the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 147Pm3+ the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels was assessed. Concluding it can be said, that: -it was proved, that the 5-day-old rats (5DR) represents the optimum animal model to the human skin; - in the case of 8DR to 11DR the dominant route of 147Pm3+ penetration is along the follicles; - the permeation resistance of the skin depends on the thickness and mechanical properties of the skin. Comparing amounts of penetrated ions of promethium through the skin without hairs (3DR to 6DR) and through the skin with hairs, it was showed that the additional diffusion along hair's follicles pronounced with animal skin can be important also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in used animal models. (authors)

  6. Age-Dependent Morphologic Alterations in the Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thicknesses Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the age-dependent morphologic alterations in the outer retina and choroid at the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Thirty eyes (30 normal subjects; average age, 49 years) were examined; five (age range, third-eighth decades of life) had refractive errors of ±2 diopters or less and no fundus abnormalities. An Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) map of the outer retinal and choroidal thickness was constructed using swept-source OCT. The outer retinal and choroidal segmentation lines were drawn automatically, partially manually, within 6 millimeters of the macula. Results The mean outer retinal and choroidal thicknesses in the 6-millimeter-diameter circle were 145±13 and 236±68 microns, respectively. The choroidal thickness and age were negatively (r = -0.66, P<0.01) correlated; the outer retinal thickness and age were not correlated (r = -0.16, P = 0.39). The outer retinal and choroidal thicknesses in the ETDRS map were not correlated (r = -0.13, P = 0.49) within 1 millimeter but correlated (r = 0.32, P<0.01) within 6 millimeters. Conclusions The choroid thins with aging. The outer retina remains stable. Outer retina and choroid are correlated in the entire macula except for the center. ETDRS map can be useful for evaluation of the morphologic relationship between the outer retina and choroid. PMID:27467879

  7. Application of dynamic system reliability methods for incorporation of age-dependant reliability parameters and data into the PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest way to quantify reliability models consists in using the hypothesis that SSC failure and repair rates are constant. However, failures and repairs are implemented in time and consequently they are age-dependent. That is why the dynamic aspects of aging and decision-making in NPP lifetime management become increasingly notable and more advanced tools are needed for their analysis. The paper presents the dynamic system reliability approaches - GO-FLOW and ATRD - to extend the FT methodology for NPP aging systems. Alternative methodologies to investigate the feasibility of increasing of failure, restore and repair rates of all component categories or reducing the surveillance intervals of repairable components to take into account aging processes in plant availability. Both approaches are used for preparation of comparable aging process component and system models of the three-train residual heat removal and low pressure injection system of a Russian-design pressurized water reactor WWER-1000/V320. The possible extensions of these methodologies are compared with the equivalent FT models of this system. (author)

  8. FDA-approved drugs that protect mammalian neurons from glucose toxicity slow aging dependent on cbp and protect against proteotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lublin

    Full Text Available Screening a library of drugs with known safety profiles in humans yielded 30 drugs that reliably protected mammalian neurons against glucose toxicity. Subsequent screening demonstrated that 6 of these 30 drugs increase lifespan in C. elegans: caffeine, ciclopirox olamine, tannic acid, acetaminophen, bacitracin, and baicalein. Every drug significantly reduced the age-dependent acceleration of mortality rate. These protective effects were blocked by RNAi inhibition of cbp-1 in adults only, which also blocks protective effects of dietary restriction. Only 2 drugs, caffeine and tannic acid, exhibited a similar dependency on DAF-16. Caffeine, tannic acid, and bacitracin also reduced pathology in a transgenic model of proteotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. These results further support a key role for glucose toxicity in driving age-related pathologies and for CBP-1 in protection against age-related pathologies. These results also provide novel lead compounds with known safety profiles in human for treatment of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetic complications.

  9. Apolipoprotein E4 Causes Age-Dependent Disruption of Slow Gamma Oscillations during Hippocampal Sharp-Wave Ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna K; Jones, Emily A; Lin, Yuan-Hung; Karlsson, Mattias P; Kay, Kenneth; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Tong, Leslie M; Nova, Philip; Carr, Jessie S; Frank, Loren M; Huang, Yadong

    2016-05-18

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism by which it causes cognitive decline is unclear. In knockin (KI) mice, human apoE4 causes age-dependent learning and memory impairments and degeneration of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Here we report two functional apoE4-KI phenotypes involving sharp-wave ripples (SWRs), hippocampal network events critical for memory processes. Aged apoE4-KI mice had fewer SWRs than apoE3-KI mice and significantly reduced slow gamma activity during SWRs. Elimination of apoE4 in GABAergic interneurons, which prevents learning and memory impairments, rescued SWR-associated slow gamma activity but not SWR abundance in aged mice. SWR abundance was reduced similarly in young and aged apoE4-KI mice; however, the full SWR-associated slow gamma deficit emerged only in aged apoE4-KI mice. These results suggest that progressive decline of interneuron-enabled slow gamma activity during SWRs critically contributes to apoE4-mediated learning and memory impairments. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  10. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  11. Contents of chemical elements in stomach during prenatal development: different age-dependent dynamical changes and their significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Fan Hou; Hai-Rong Li; Li-Zhen Wang; De-Zhu Li; Lin-Sheng Yang; Chong-Zheng Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe dynamic of different chemical elements in stomach tissue during fetal development.METHODS: To determine contents of the 21 chemical elements in each stomach samples from fetus aging four to ten months. The content values were compared to those from adult tissue samples, and the values for each month group were also analyzed for dynamic changes.RESULTS: Three representations were found regarding the relationship between contents of the elements and ages of the fetus, including the positive correlative (K), reversely correlative (Na, Ca, P, Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Li, Cd, Ba,Se ) and irrelevant groups (Mg, Co, Ni, V, Pb, Ti).CONCLUSION: The chemical elements' contents in stomach tissues were found to change dynamically with the stomach weights. The age-dependent representations for different chemical elements during the prenatal development may be of some significance for assessing development of fetal stomach and some chemical elements. The data may be helpful for the nutritional balance of fetus and mothers during prenatal development and even the perinatal stages.

  12. Age-dependent occurrence of an ascending axon on the omega neuron of the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G; Pollack, G S

    1986-01-22

    The omega neurons (ON1s) are a mirror-symmetrical pair of identified prothoracic auditory interneurons of crickets which have been previously described as intraganglionic. Using intracellular techniques we stained ON1s of female Teleogryllus oceanicus and found that many ON1s have axons which project anteriorly out of the prothoracic ganglion. The ascending axon arises contralateral to the soma at the most anteriolateral bend of the bow-shaped process of an otherwise "archetypical" ON1 and travels up the neck connective in a ventral position just inside the connective tissue sheath. The occurrence of the ascending axon is age-dependent. Seventy-five percent of ON1s stained in late nymphal stages and in young adults had an ascending axon while only 30% of ON1s in older adults had an ascending axon. Evidence is presented to show that ON1s having ascending axons are developmental variants of the "archetypical" ON1 and do not represent a separate neuron type. The two morphological types of ON1s are not distinguishable on the basis of their responses to sound stimuli having carrier frequencies of 3.5-60 kHz. Although we know that the ascending axon conducts action potentials, its target and terminal morphology are not yet known.

  13. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Kang, Dai-In; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki Bog

    2015-07-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix. PMID:26330833

  14. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  15. Anchoring selenido-carbonyl ruthenium clusters to functionalized silica xerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauzzi, Daniele; Graiff, Claudia; Pattacini, Roberto; Predieri, Giovanni; Tiripicchio, Antonio [Universita di Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica, Chimica Fisica]. E-mail: tiri@unipr.it

    2003-12-01

    Silica Xerogels containing carbonyl Ru{sub 3}Se{sub 2} nido clusters were prepared in three different ways. The simple dispersion of [Ru{sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-Se){sub 2}(CO){sub 7}(PPh {sub 3}){sub 2}] via sol gel process produces an inhomogeneous material; by contrast, homogeneous xerogels were obtained by reaction of [Ru{sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-Se){sub 2}(CO){sub 8}(PPh {sub 3})] with functionalized xerogels containing grafted diphenylphosphine moieties and by reaction of [Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] with a xerogel containing grafted phosphine-selenide groups. The reaction between [Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] and dodecyl diphenylphosphine selenide led to the formation of four selenido carbonyl clusters, which are soluble in hydrocarbon solvents and can be deposited as thin films from their solution by slow evaporation. (author)

  16. Special Topic 3B: Acidity, Basicity, and Carbonyl Condensation Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Mike A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this video is to help second-year organic chemistry students review the concepts and questions that most frequently appear on standardized entrance exams, like the MCAT, DAT, PCAT, and GRE. I'll here teach you how to sort molecules according to acidity and basicity. I'll also review the following carbonyl condensation and related reactions: the aldol reaction, the Claisen and intramolecular diketone condensations, and the malonic ester synthesis. --Dr. Mike Christiansen from Ut...

  17. Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl-olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jacob R; Zimmerman, Paul M; Gianino, Joseph B; Schindler, Corinna S

    2016-05-19

    The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon-carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl-olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon-carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis. PMID:27120158

  18. Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl-olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jacob R; Zimmerman, Paul M; Gianino, Joseph B; Schindler, Corinna S

    2016-04-27

    The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon-carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl-olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon-carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis.

  19. Carbonylation of Ethene Catalysed by Pd(II-Phosphine Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cavinato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with olefin carbonylation catalysed by Pd(II-phosphine complexes in protic solvents. In particular, the results obtained in the carbonylation with ethene are reviewed. After a short description of the basic concepts relevant to this catalysis, the review treats in greater details the influence of the bite angle, skeletal rigidity, electronic and steric bulk properties of the ligand on the formation of the products, which range from high molecular weight perfectly alternating polyketones to methyl propanoate. It is shown that the steric bulk plays a major role in directing the selectivity. Particular emphasis is given to the factors governing the very active and selective catalysis to methyl propanoate, including the mechanism of the catalytic cycles with diphosphine- and monophosphine-catalysts. A brief note on the synthesis of methyl propanoate using a “Lucite” type catalyst in ionic liquids is also illustrated. A chapter is dedicated to the carbonylation of olefins in aqueous reaction media. The nonalternating CO-ethene copolymerization is also treated.

  20. Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl-olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Gianino, Joseph B.; Schindler, Corinna S.

    2016-05-01

    The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon-carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl-olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon-carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis.

  1. Beads,Necklaces, Chains and Strings in Capping Carbonyl Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enos Masheija Kiremire

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explain at length the close relationship between transition metal carbonyl clusters with main group clusters especially the boranes using the 14n and 4n rules. When the ‘shielding’ electrons are removed from a transition metal carbonyl cluster and becomes ‘naked’, it resembles a corresponding one in the main group elements. A an expanded table of osmium carbonyl clusters was constructed using the capping fragment Os(CO2(14n-2 and the fragment Os(CO3 (14n+0. The table reveals the fact that the known series such closo, nido and arachno are part and parcel of a wide range of series especially the capping series 14n+q, where q takes up negative multiple integers of two including 0 such as such = 0, -2,-4, -6, and so on. The linkage between capping series in transition metal carbonyl clusters has also been identified. Apart from the capping series generated in the table, there is another type of series where the skeletal cluster elements remained the same but the number of carbonyl ligands successively decreased. These types of series are referred to as stripping series. Mapping generating functions were also derived which produces any cluster formula or series required. Also the table shows that many clusters form utilizing some of its atoms as closo nucleus around which the larger ones are built and thus forming clusters within larger clusters. The table may be used to categorize a given cluster formula that falls within its range. Otherwise, using the 14n rule or 4n rule can be used for cluster classification. Furthermore, the table indicated that atoms, fragments and molecules can be classified into series. Through this approach of using series, Hoffmann’s important isolobal relationship of chemical species can splendidly be explained.Using the 14n rule and 4n rules creates a framework under which chemical species such as atoms, fragments, molecules and ions some of which may appear unrelated from main group

  2. Supplementation of selenium-enriched yeast attenuates age-dependent transcriptional changes of heart in mitochondrial DNA mutator mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijin Xiao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age is a major risk factor in developing heart diseases and has been associated with profound transcriptional changes in mammalian tissues. Low tissue selenium has recently been linked to several age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the global effects of age and dietary supplementation of selenium on heart transcriptional profiles in POLG mutator mice. Methods: Heart transcription profiles from young (2-month-old and old (13-month-old animals fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 1.0 mg selenium from seleniumenriched yeast (SP/kg diet were obtained and validated using microarray and real-time RTPCR techniques. Results: Aging led to significant transcriptional changes, where the expression of 1942 genes in old animals was changed by a fold change larger than 2.0, when compared to young animals. Age-regulated genes are associated with cardiovascular system development, immune and inflammatory response, and cellular oxidative stress response. Multiple genes linked with cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy, and cardiac fibrosis, such as Myh7, Lcn2, Spp1, and Serpine1, were significantly up-regulated in old animals. SP supplementation also caused significant transcriptional changes in the heart, especially in old mice where many age-dependent transcriptional changes were totally or partially reversed by SP. Upstream regulator analysis further indicated that genes for Foxo1 and Foxo3, two transcriptional regulators involved in the regulation of cardiac muscle remodeling, were significantly activated by SP, suggesting that Foxo-mediated transcriptional activities play important roles in the anti-aging properties of SP. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(3:98- 119 Page 99 of 119 Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that SP supplementation attenuated age-related transcriptional changes in the heart of old POLG mice, which implies a potential clinical application of

  3. Deletion of insulin-degrading enzyme elicits antipodal, age-dependent effects on glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer O Abdul-Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is widely recognized as the principal protease responsible for the clearance and inactivation of insulin, but its role in glycemic control in vivo is poorly understood. We present here the first longitudinal characterization, to our knowledge, of glucose regulation in mice with pancellular deletion of the IDE gene (IDE-KO mice. METHODOLOGY: IDE-KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates were characterized at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in terms of body weight, basal glucose and insulin levels, and insulin and glucose tolerance. Consistent with a functional role for IDE in insulin clearance, fasting serum insulin levels in IDE-KO mice were found to be ∼3-fold higher than those in wild-type (WT controls at all ages examined. In agreement with previous observations, 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited a severe diabetic phenotype characterized by increased body weight and pronounced glucose and insulin intolerance. In marked contrast, 2-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited multiple signs of improved glycemic control, including lower fasting glucose levels, lower body mass, and modestly enhanced insulin and glucose tolerance relative to WT controls. Biochemically, the emergence of the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice correlated with age-dependent reductions in insulin receptor (IR levels in muscle, adipose, and liver tissue. Primary adipocytes harvested from 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice also showed functional impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice is not a primary consequence of IDE deficiency, but is instead an emergent compensatory response to chronic hyperinsulinemia resulting from complete deletion of IDE in all tissues throughout life. Significantly, our findings provide new evidence to support the idea that partial and/or transient inhibition of IDE may constitute a valid approach to the treatment of diabetes.

  4. Age- dependent effect of Alzheimer’s risk variant of CLU on EEG alpha rhythm in non-demented adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya ePonomareva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the genomic region harboring the CLU gene (rs11136000 has been associated with the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. CLU C allele is assumed to confer risk for AD and the allele T may have a protective effect.We investigated the influence of the AD-associated CLU genotype on a common neurophysiological trait of brain activity (resting-state alpha-rhythm activity in non-demented adults and elucidated whether this influence is modified over the course of aging. We examined quantitative EEG (qEEG in cohort of non-demented individuals (age range 20-80 divided into young (age range 20-50 and old (age range 51-80 cohorts and stratified by CLU polymorphism. To rule out the effect of the ApoE genotype on EEG characteristics, only subjects without the ApoE epsilon4 allele were included in the study.The homozygous presence of the AD risk variant CLU CC in non-demented subjects was associated with an increase of alpha3 absolute power. Moreover, the influence of CLU genotype on alpha3 was found to be higher in the subjects older than 50 years of age. The study also showed age-dependent alterations of alpha topographic distribution that occur independently of the CLU genotype.The increase of upper alpha power has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Moretti et al., 2012a. In our study, the CLU CC- dependent increase in upper alpha rhythm, particularly enhanced in elderly non-demented individuals, may imply that the genotype is related to preclinical dysregulation of hippocampal neurophysiology in aging and that this factor may contribute to pathogenesis of AD.

  5. [Chemical Characteristics and Sources of Atmospheric Carbonyls During the 2014 Beijing APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-lang; Tan, Ji-hua; Guo, Song-jun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin

    2016-03-15

    Pollution characteristic and variation trend of atmospheric carbonyls were investigated in November during the 2014 Beijing APEC. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were the dominant carbonyls, accounting for 82.66% of total carbonyls, and especially, formaldehyde accounted for 40.12% of total carbonyls. Atmospheric concentrations of total carbonyls decreased by around 64.10% after the clean air policy was carried out during the Beijing APEC, and the variation trend of carbonyls showed a similar pattern to those of other pollutants like PM₂.₅ during the APEC. Strong correlations (R² of 0.67-0.98) were observed among formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and total carbonyls during and after the APEC, indicating that they had similar sources; however, poor correlations (R² of -0.11-0.42 and 0.16-0.94, respectively) were observed before the APEC, implying different emission sources for ambient carbonyls. The calculated ratios of C1/C2, C2/C3 and OC/EC indicated that both vehicles and coal emissions were responsible for atmospheric carbonyls before the APEC, and emissions from coal burning were the major contributor to atmospheric carbonyls during and after the APEC, especially after the APEC. PMID:27337869

  6. Indoor carbonyl compounds in an academic building in Beijing, China: concentrations and influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjia JIANG; Pengyi ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Carbonyl compounds in indoor air are of great concern for their adverse health effects. Between February and May, 2009, concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were measured in an academic building in Beijing, China. Total concentration of the detected carbonyls ranged from 20.7 to 189.1 I.tg.m3, and among them acetone and formaldehyde were the most abundant, with mean concentrations of 26.4 and 22.6gg.m-3, respectively. Average indoor concentrations of other carbonyls were below I 0 gg. m~3. Principal component analysis identified a combined effect of common indoor carbonyl sources and ventilation on indoor carbonyl levels. Diurnal variations of the carbonyl compounds were investigated in one office room, and carbonyl concentrations tended to be lower in the daytime than at night, due to enhanced ventilation. Average concentrations of carbonyl compounds in the office room were generally higher in early May than in late February, indicating the influence of temperature. Carbo- nyl source emission rates from both the room and human occupants were estimated during two lectures, based on one-compartment mass balance model. The influence of human occupants on indoor carbonyl concentrations varies with environmental conditions, and may become signifi- cant in the case of a large human occupancy.

  7. Oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 protects against aging-dependent neurodegeneration by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain of R6/2 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheue-Er Wang,1,2 Ching-Lung Lin,1 Chih-Hsiang Hsu,1 Shuenn-Jyi Sheu,3 Chung-Hsin Wu1 1Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 2Department of Pathological Inspection, Saint Paul’s Hospital, Taoyuan, 3Brion Research Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Neurodegeneration is characterized by progressive neurological deficits due to selective neuronal loss in the nervous system. Huntington’s disease (HD is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder. Neurodegeneration in HD patients shows aging-dependent pattern. Our previous study has suggested that a herbal formula B401 may have neuroprotective effects in the brains of R6/2 mice. Objective: To clarify possible mechanisms for neurodegeneration, which improves the understanding the aging process. This study focuses on clarifying neurodegenerative mechanisms and searching potential therapeutic targets in HD patients. Methods: The oxidative stress and apoptosis were compared in the brain tissue between R6/2 HD mice with and without oral B401 treatment. Expressions of proteins for oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain tissue of R6/2 HD mice were examined by using immunostaining and Western blotting techniques. Results: R6/2 HD mice with oral B401 treatment significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels in the blood, but markedly increased expressions of superoxide dismutase 2 in the brain tissue. Furthermore, R6/2 HD mice with oral B401 treatment significantly increased expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, but significantly reduced expressions of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, calpain, and caspase-3 in the brain tissue. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that the herbal formula B401 can remedy for aging-dependent neurodegeneration of R6/2 mice via suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 can be developed as a potential health supplement for ameliorating aging-dependent

  8. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  9. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions.

  10. Analysis of a Multivariate Counting Process Generated from an Age-dependent Non-homogeneous Poisson Process Defined on a Finite Semi-Markov Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sumita, Ushio; HUANG, Jia-Ping

    2008-01-01

    We consider a multivariate counting process generated from an age-dependent non-homogeneous Poisson process defined on a finite semi-Markov pro-cess, generalizing many existing counting processes of importance. The dynamicbehavior of the multivariate counting process is captured through analysis of theunderlying Laplace transform generating functions. Some asymptotic results arealso obtained.

  11. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Roel A.; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C.; Yakala, Gopala K.; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complicat

  12. Happy Birthday, you're Fired! : The Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult" minimu

  13. A Limit Theorem for Multi-Type Subcritical Age-Dependent Branching Processes with two Types of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Slavtchova-Bojkova, Maroussia

    2011-01-01

    Марусия Н. Славчова-Божкова - В настоящата работа се обобщава една гранична теорема за докритичен многомерен разклоняващ се процес, зависещ от възрастта на частиците с два типа имиграция. Целта е да се обобщи аналогичен резултат в едномерния случай като се прилагат “coupling” метода, теория на възстановяването и регенериращи процеси. This work continues the study of the classical subcritical age-dependent branching process and the effect of the following two-type immigration pattern in...

  14. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimura Kaoru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. Results We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4 of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post

  15. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  16. Natural radioactivity in tap water and associated age-dependent dose and lifetime risk assessment in Amman, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amir, Sajedah M. [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, Amman 11934 (Jordan); Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F., E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan); Al-Abed, Tahseen [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, Amman 11934 (Jordan); Awadallah, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan)

    2012-04-15

    With the aim of assessing potential public impact, preliminary investigations on tap waters collected from highly populated areas in Amman and Aqaba, Jordan were conducted by measuring gross alpha and beta activities as well as uranium and radium radionuclides. Gross activities deduced by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were ranged in <50-250{+-}23 mBq l{sup -1} for alpha and <188-327{+-}29 mBq l{sup -1} for beta in Amman whereas higher concentrations were found in Aqaba. The results show that gross {beta} activities are generally higher than the corresponding gross {alpha} activities and direct correlations between gross activities and total dissolved solids (TDS) exist. Moreover, the effect of TDS on gross analyses was studied and devoted to the optimization of LSC parameters. {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry after separation from the matrix by extraction chromatography and electroplating. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations were measured, respectively, using de-gassing and gas proportional counter techniques. Uranium and radium concentrations do not reach the WHO recommended levels and the radioisotopic activity ratios were discussed. The associated age-dependent dose from water ingestion in Amman was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value of 0.15 mSv y{sup -1}, which exceeds the WHO recommended limit of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} but still below the Jordanian limit of 0.5 mSv y{sup -1}. Although the Jordanian limit was exceeded for babies and infants, the lifetime risk assessment showed values as low as 10{sup -4}. Thereby it is concluded that tap waters of Amman is radiologically safe and pose no significant hazard to the public. Finally, a comparison of the investigated waters with worldwide data was made. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Current levels of natural radioactivity in tap water in Amman, Jordan are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water radioactivity

  17. Redox proteomics identification of oxidatively modified myocardial proteins in human heart failure: implications for protein function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Brioschi

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress in a failing heart may contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF. The aim of this study was to identify the oxidised proteins in the myocardium of HF patients and analyse the consequences of oxidation on protein function. The carbonylated proteins in left ventricular tissue from failing (n = 14 and non-failing human hearts (n = 13 were measured by immunoassay and identified by proteomics. HL-1 cardiomyocytes were incubated in the presence of stimuli relevant for HF in order to assess the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the induction of protein carbonylation, and its consequences on protein function. The levels of carbonylated proteins were significantly higher in the HF patients than in the controls (p<0.01. We identified two proteins that mainly underwent carbonylation: M-type creatine kinase (M-CK, whose activity is impaired, and, to a lesser extent, α-cardiac actin. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to angiotensin II and norepinephrine led to ROS generation and M-CK carbonylation with loss of its enzymatic activity. Our findings indicate that protein carbonylation is increased in the myocardium during HF and that these oxidative changes may help to explain the decreased CK activity and consequent defects in energy metabolism observed in HF.

  18. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Ales; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg

    2015-01-01

    An alternative and robust method for the reduction of carbonyl groups by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is reported in this paper. With its very mild reaction conditions, good to excellent yields, absolute regioselectivity and the non-metallic character of the reagent, it provides an excellent too...... for H-1, H-2 as well as H-3 chemistry. It is a new strategy for the one-pot synthesis of aromatic alcohols selectively labeled with heavy isotopes of hydrogen. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Nano-Aluminum Powder Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shi-Zhen; LIU Jin

    2008-01-01

    A new and effective Barbier-Grignard allylation of aldehydes or ketones has been carried out with nano-aluminum powder in aqueous 0.1 mol·L-1 NH4Cl (aq.) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. Aromatic carbonyl compounds gave homoallylic alcohols in good yields. The effectiveness of reaction was strongly influenced by the steric environment surrounding the carbonyl group. Aliphatic carbonyl compounds proceeded in low yields. The dominant stereoisomer was an erythro-isomer when an ortho-hydroxyl carbonyl compound was reacted under such a reaction condition.

  20. The carbonyl oxide-aldehyde complex: a new intermediate of the ozonolysis reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi; McKee, M. L.; Radharkrishnan, T. P.

    1991-12-01

    MP4(SDQ)/6-31G (d,p) calculations suggest that the ozonolysis of alkenes in solution phase does not proceed via carbonyl oxide, but via a dipole complex between aldehyde and carbonyl oxide, which is 9 kcal/mol more stable than the separated molecules. The dipole complex is probably formed in the solvent cage upon decomposition of primary ozonide to aldehyde and carbonyl oxide. Rotation of either aldehyde or carbonyl oxide in the solvent cage leads to an antiparallel alignment of molecular dipole moments and dipole-dipole attraction.

  1. Temporal profiles of age-dependent changes in cytokine mRNA expression and glial cell activation after status epilepticus in postnatal rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohonen Saku

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Status epilepticus (SE is proposed to lead to an age-dependent acute activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes, which may contribute to neuronal damage in the hippocampus. The extent and temporal profiles of activation of these processes are well known in the adult brain, but less so in the developing brain. We have now further elucidated to what extent inflammation is activated by SE by investigating the acute expression of several cytokines and subacute glial reactivity in the postnatal rat hippocampus. Methods SE was induced by an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of kainic acid (KA in 9- and 21-day-old (P9 and P21 rats. The mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-10 (IL-10, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 were measured from 4 h up to 3 days after KA injection with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. IL-1β protein expression was studied with ELISA, GFAP expression with western blotting, and microglial and astrocyte morphology with immunohistochemistry 3 days after SE. Results SE increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in hippocampus of both P9 and P21 rats, their induction being more rapid and pronounced in P21 than in P9 rats. MMP-9 expression was augmented similarly in both age groups and GDNF expression augmented only in P21 rats, whereas neither IFN-γ nor TGF-β1 expression was induced in either age group. Microglia and astrocytes exhibited activated morphology in the hippocampus of P21 rats, but not in P9 rats 3 d after SE. Microglial activation was most pronounced in the CA1 region and also detected in the basomedial amygdala. Conclusion Our results suggest that SE provokes an age-specific cytokine expression in the acute phase, and age-specific glial cell activation in the subacute phase as verified now in the

  2. trans-Di-μ-carbonyl-bis{carbonyl[η5-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-1-(5-methyl-2-furylcyclopentadienyl]ruthenium(I}(Ru—Ru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Ru2(C14H17O2(CO4], each RuI atom is connected to one end-on and two bridging carbonyl groups and one cyclopentadienyl ring. The two Ru atoms are connected into binuclear complexes via two bridging carbonyl groups, forming four-membered rings which are located on centres of inversion. The Ru—Ru distance of 2.7483 (11 Å corresponds to a single bond. The two carbonyl groups in these binuclear complexes are trans-oriented.

  3. Reactivity of Ir(III) carbonyl complexes with water: alternative by-product formation pathways in catalytic methanol carbonylation

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, A.; Elliott, P. I. P.; Haak, S; Meijer, A.J.H.M.; Sunley, G.J

    2013-01-01

    The reactions of water with a number of iridium(III) complexes relevant to the mechanism for catalytic methanol carbonylation are reported. The iridium acetyl, [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)]−, reacts with water under mild conditions to release CO2 and CH4, rather than the expected acetic acid. Isotopic labeling and kinetic experiments are consistent with a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack by water on a terminal CO ligand of [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)]− to give an (undetected) hydroxycarbonyl spec...

  4. IRC analysis of methanol carbonylation reaction catalyzed by rhodium complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Maorong; FENG; Wenlin; JI; Yongqiang; LEI; Ming

    2004-01-01

    In the reaction cycle for methanol carbonylation catalyzed by Rh complex, the structure geometries of the reactant, intermediates, transition states and product of each elemental reaction have been studied by using the energy gradient method at HF/LANL2DZ level, and the changes of their potential profiles have also been calculated. Through IRC analyses of the transition states for each elemental reaction, it is confirmed that the various structure geometries obtained are stationary points on the cycle reaction pathway of methanol carbonylation catalyzed by Rh complex, and the changes are given in energies and structure geometries of the reactant molecules along the reaction pathway of lowest energy. It has been proposed that the geometrical conversions of intermediates play an important role during the cycle reaction. Through analyses of structure geometries, it has been suggested that, in addition to cis- and trans- structure exchange linkage of catalysis reactive species, the two pathways, cis- and trans-cata- lyzed cycle reactions, can also be linked through geometrical conversion of intermediates, of which the activation energy is 49.79 kJ/mol. Moreover, the reductive elimination elemental reaction may be neither cis-cycle nor trans- one, showing that the cycle reaction can be achieved through various pathways. However different the pathway, the oxidative addition elemental reaction of CH3I is the rate-controlling step.

  5. Age-dependent changes in the proteome following complete spinal cord transection in a postnatal South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natassya M Noor

    Full Text Available Recovery from severe spinal injury in adults is limited, compared to immature animals who demonstrate some capacity for repair. Using laboratory opossums (Monodelphis domestica, the aim was to compare proteomic responses to injury at two ages: one when there is axonal growth across the lesion and substantial behavioural recovery and one when no axonal growth occurs. Anaesthetized pups at postnatal day (P 7 or P28 were subjected to complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level T10. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury and from age-matched controls. Proteins were separated based on isoelectric point and subunit molecular weight; those whose expression levels changed following injury were identified by densitometry and analysed by mass spectrometry. Fifty-six unique proteins were identified as differentially regulated in response to spinal transection at both ages combined. More than 50% were cytoplasmic and 70% belonged to families of proteins with characteristic binding properties. Proteins were assigned to groups by biological function including regulation (40%, metabolism (26%, inflammation (19% and structure (15%. More changes were detected at one than seven days after injury at both ages. Seven identified proteins: 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 gamma, cofilin, alpha enolase, heart fatty acid binding protein (FABP3, brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7 and ubiquitin demonstrated age-related differential expression and were analysed by qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA levels for FABP3 at P7+1day and ubiquitin at P28+1day were statistically significant. Immunocytochemical staining showed differences in ubiquitin localization in younger compared to older cords and an increase in oligodendrocyte and neuroglia immunostaining following injury at P28. Western blot analysis supported proteomic results for ubiquitin and 14-3-3 proteins. Data obtained at the two ages demonstrated changes in response to injury, compared to controls, that were

  6. Influences of characteristic meteorological conditions on atmospheric carbonyls in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Zhu

    2009-08-01

    Atmospheric pollutants are controlled not only by their production rates but also by meteorological conditions. The influences of dust storm, sauna weather (haze with high temperature and high humidity), wet precipitation and wind speed on atmospheric carbonyls in Beijing were investigated. During a severe dust episode (April 17, 2006), the mixing ratios of carbonyls were significantly elevated to 13-27 ppbV from 7 to 13 ppbV in the previous non-dust days (April 15 and 16) with the increasing extents of 38-154%. The accumulating effect and the lower photolysis rate in the dust day may be responsible for the increases of carbonyls' levels. Additionally, the contribution from heterogeneous reactions occurring on dust particles to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde cannot be ruled out. During the period of typical sauna weather, the concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls increased to 18-60 ppbV from 10 to 17 ppbV before the sauna days. The air mass over Beijing during the sauna days was controlled by a subtropical anticyclone and the boundary layer became quite stable, which was beneficial to the rapid accumulation of air pollutants including carbonyls. Wet precipitation was found to be an effective removal process to the atmospheric carbonyls. After one-hour of rain in summer, the total concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls decreased to less than half of that before the rainfall. The similar temporal varying patterns of carbonyls and inorganic ions in rainwater indicated that carbonyls were mainly washed out from the atmosphere into rainwater as inorganic ions were. Strong wind could evidently dilute atmospheric carbonyls and a negative correlation was found between wind speeds and the concentrations of carbonyls in spring in Beijing.

  7. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. PMID

  8. Iron(III)-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Carbonyl-Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saá, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis are summarized in this Highlight. Schindler and co-workers have reported that the environmentally benign FeCl3 catalyst promotes ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis (RCCOM) in high yield under very mild conditions. PMID:27491787

  9. Iron(III)-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Carbonyl-Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saá, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis are summarized in this Highlight. Schindler and co-workers have reported that the environmentally benign FeCl3 catalyst promotes ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis (RCCOM) in high yield under very mild conditions.

  10. Preparation and microwave shielding property of silver-coated carbonyl iron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiao Guo, E-mail: xgcao@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Ren, Hao [Guangzhou Research Institute of O-M-E Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Hai Yan [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is prepared by the electroless plating process. • The silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is a new kind of conductive filler. • The reflection and absorption dominate the shielding mechanism of the prepared powder. • Increasing the thickness of electroconductive adhesive will increase the SE. - Abstract: Electroless silver coating of carbonyl iron powder is demonstrated in the present investigation. The carbonyl iron powders are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) before and after the coating process. The relatively uniform and continuous silver coating is obtained under the given coating conditions. In this paper, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding mechanism of the silver-coated carbonyl iron powder is suggested. The reflection of silver coating and absorption of carbonyl iron powder dominate the shielding mechanism of the silver-coated carbonyl iron powder. The silver-coated carbonyl iron powders are used as conductive filler in electroconductive adhesive for electromagnetic interference shielding applications. The effect of the thickness of electroconductive adhesive on the shielding effectiveness (SE) is investigated. The results indicate that the SE increases obviously with the increase of the thickness of electroconductive adhesive. The SE of the electroconductive adhesive with 0.35 mm thickness is above 38 dB across the tested frequency range.

  11. Ketene as a Reaction Intermediate in the Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate over Mordenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Temel, Burcin;

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented insight into the carbonylation of dimethyl ether over Mordenite is provided through the identification of ketene (CH2CO) as a reaction intermediate. The formation of ketene is predicted by detailed DFT calculations and verified experimentally by the observation of doubly deuterated ...... acetic acid (CH2DCOOD), when D2O is introduced in the feed during the carbonylation reaction....

  12. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-Sung Lee; Dai-In Kang; Seung Zhoo Yoon; Yeon Hee Ryu; Inhyung Lee; Hoon-Gi Kim; Byung-Cheon Lee; Ki Bog Lee

    2015-01-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-depen-dent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-depen-dent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increas-ing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  13. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log Kow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  14. Impact of HVAC filter on indoor air quality in terms of ozone removal and carbonyls generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at detecting ozone removal rates and corresponding carbonyls generated by ozone reaction with HVAC filters from various building, i.e., shopping mall, school, and office building. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental chamber. By examining dust properties including organic carbon proportion and specific surface area of dusts adsorbed on filters along with ozone removal rates and carbonyls generation rate, the relationship among dust properties, ozone removal rates, and carbonyls generation was identified. The results indicate a well-defined positive correlation between ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generation on filters, as well as a positive correlation among the mass of organic carbon on filters, ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generations.

  15. Development of an automatic sampling device for the continuous measurement of atmospheric carbonyls compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sampling strategies were studied to develop an automatic instrument for the continuous measurement of atmospheric carbonyl compounds. Because of its specificity towards carbonyls compounds, sampling by using a transfer of gaseous phase in a liquid phase associated with a simultaneous chemical derivatization of the trapped compounds was first studied. However, this method do not allow a quantitative sampling of all studied carbonyl compounds, nor a continuous measurement in the field. To overcome the difficulties, a second strategy was investigated: the cryogenic adsorption onto solid adsorbent followed by thermodesorption and a direct analysis by GC/MS. Collection efficiency using different solid adsorbents was found greater than 95% for carbonyl compounds consisting of 1 to 7 carbons. This work is a successful first step towards the realization of the automatic sampling device for a continuous measurement of atmospheric carbonyls compounds. (author)

  16. Synthesis, characterization and bioactivities of N,O-carbonylated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; Liu, Xiaoli; Yue, Lin; Jiang, Qixing; Xia, Wenshui

    2016-10-01

    N,O-Carbonylated chitosan derivative (NTCS) was synthesized via oxidation and substitution reaction, respectively. The carboxyethylation of the polysaccharide was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Zeta potential measurement and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is revealed that compared with chitosan (CS), NTCS exhibited an excellent solubility in distilled water, high in vitro bile acid binding capacity, as well as a low viscosity. The in vitro bile acid binding capacity reached 17.21mg/g, which was 4.5-fold higher than that of CS. The results suggest that NTCS may be useful as a potential functional food supplement in food industry or a key ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. These findings provide important supports for developing new food additive, and expand the scope of application of CS in the food industry. PMID:27189702

  17. Carbonyl Sulfide Isotopologues: Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections and Stratospheric Photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielache, Sebastian Oscar; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Eskebjerg, Carsten;

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted carbonyl sulfide isotopologues were calculated using wavepacket dynamics. The calculated absorption cross section of 16O12C32S is in very good agreement with the accepted experimental spectrum between 190 and 250 nm. Relative to 16...... can be explained in terms of the change in the norm of the initial wavepacket. Implications for our understanding of the stratospheric sulfur cycle are discussed.......12C32S, isotopic substitution shows a significant enhancement of the cross section for 16O13C32S, a significant reduction for 18O12C32S and 17O12C32S and almost no change for the sulfur isotopologues 16O12C33S, 16O12C34S, and 16O12C36S. The analysis of the initial wavepackets shows that these changes...

  18. Direct Vapor Phase Carbonylation of Methanol over NiCl2/C Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction The carbonylation of alcohols via homogenous catalysis is important in manufacturing acetic acid and higher carboxylic acids and their esters[1,2]. The main route to produce acetic acid is to make methanol carbonylated by means of the Monsanto and BP process in which a homogeneous rhodium catalyst is used. Although the homogeneous carbonylation of methanol is a highly selective process, it is affected by the disadvantages associated with a highly corrosive reaction medium due to the use of methyl iodide as the promoter, and the difficulty of the product separation[3]. The use of a heterogeneous catalyst seems very interesting and attractive to us[4], especially the direct vapor phase carbonylation of methanol without a halide promoter is of considerable importance and is strong incentive economically. There has, however, been very little success in finding either heterogeneous or homogeneous catalysts that can catalyze the reaction effectively without the addition of a promoter[5,6]. According to the known carbonylation mechanism[7,8], the methyl iodide directly carbonylates with CO to from MeCOI which interacts with methanol(MeOH) to produce methyl acetate(MeCOOMe) and HI, and then MeOH reacts with HI to from CH3I. In fact, this carbonylation reaction is the indirect catalytic carbonylation of methanol[9]. In this work, a novel catalyst for the direct vapor phase carbonylation of methanol without the addition of any halide in the feed as a promoter was investigated. Compared to the known liquid phase methanol carbonylation process, some advantages of this vapor phase reaction are as follows:

  19. Influence of caffeine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration and neuroinflammation is age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Lucia; Costa, Giulia; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Khairnar, Amit; Castelli, Maria Paola; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Madeddu, Camilla; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration to adult mice potentiates glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As neuroinflammatory response seems to correlate with neurodegeneration, and the young brain is particularly vulnerable to neurotoxicity, we evaluated dopamine neuron degeneration and glial activation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adolescent and adult mice. Mice were treated with MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg), alone or with caffeine (10 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were evaluated in CPu, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CD11b were evaluated in CPu and SNc by immunohistochemistry. MDMA decreased TH in SNc of both adolescent and adult mice, whereas TH-positive fibers in CPu were only decreased in adults. In CPu of adolescent mice, caffeine potentiated MDMA-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein without altering CD11b, whereas in SNc caffeine did not influence MDMA-induced glial activation. nNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased by MDMA in CPu of adults, whereas in adolescents, levels were only elevated after combined MDMA plus caffeine. Caffeine alone modified only nNOS. Results suggest that the use of MDMA in association with caffeine during adolescence may exacerbate the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine potentiated glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in adult mice. In this study, caffeine was shown to potentiate MDMA-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta, astrogliosis, and TNF-α levels in caudate-putamen of adolescent mice. Results suggest that combined use of MDMA plus caffeine during adolescence may worsen the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. PMID:26442661

  20. Influence of caffeine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration and neuroinflammation is age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Lucia; Costa, Giulia; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Khairnar, Amit; Castelli, Maria Paola; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Madeddu, Camilla; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration to adult mice potentiates glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As neuroinflammatory response seems to correlate with neurodegeneration, and the young brain is particularly vulnerable to neurotoxicity, we evaluated dopamine neuron degeneration and glial activation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adolescent and adult mice. Mice were treated with MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg), alone or with caffeine (10 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were evaluated in CPu, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CD11b were evaluated in CPu and SNc by immunohistochemistry. MDMA decreased TH in SNc of both adolescent and adult mice, whereas TH-positive fibers in CPu were only decreased in adults. In CPu of adolescent mice, caffeine potentiated MDMA-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein without altering CD11b, whereas in SNc caffeine did not influence MDMA-induced glial activation. nNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased by MDMA in CPu of adults, whereas in adolescents, levels were only elevated after combined MDMA plus caffeine. Caffeine alone modified only nNOS. Results suggest that the use of MDMA in association with caffeine during adolescence may exacerbate the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine potentiated glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in adult mice. In this study, caffeine was shown to potentiate MDMA-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta, astrogliosis, and TNF-α levels in caudate-putamen of adolescent mice. Results suggest that combined use of MDMA plus caffeine during adolescence may worsen the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA.

  1. Variation of ambient carbonyl levels in urban Beijing between 2005 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wentai; Shao, Min; Wang, Ming; Lu, Sihua; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Bin; Yang, Yudong; Zeng, Limin; Chen, Zhongming; Chang, Chih-Chung; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Min

    2016-03-01

    Carbonyl compounds are important precursors of secondary air pollutants. With the rapid economic development and the implementation of stricter control measures in Beijing, the sources of carbonyls possibly changed. Based on measurement data obtained at an urban site in Beijing between 2005 and 2012, we investigated annual variations in carbonyl levels and sources during these years. In summer, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels decreased significantly at a rate of 9.1%/year and 7.2%/year, respectively, while acetone levels increased at a rate of 4.3%/year. In winter, formaldehyde levels increased and acetaldehyde levels decreased. We also investigated the factors driving the variation in carbonyls levels during summer by determination of emission ratios for carbonyls and their precursors, and calculation of photochemical formation of carbonyls. The relative declines for primary formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were larger than those for secondary formation. This is possibly due to the increasing usage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas which could result in the rise of carbonyl precursor emission ratios. The increase in acetone levels might be related to the rising solvent usage in Beijing during these years. The influences of these sources should be paid more attention in future research.

  2. Electroless plating preparation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Zhou, Wancheng; Li, Rong; Qing, Yuchang; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To solve the serious electromagnetic interference problems at elevated temperature, one thin microwave-absorbing sheet employing Co-coated carbonyl iron particles and polyimide was prepared. The Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were successfully prepared using an electroless plating method. The microstructure, composition, phase and static magnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized by combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The electromagnetic parameters of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and the electromagnetic loss mechanism of the material-obtained was discussed. The microwave absorption properties of composites before and after heat treatment at 300 °C for 100 h were characterized in 2-18 GHz frequency range. It was established that composites based on Co-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate thermomagnetic stability, indicating that Co coating reduces the oxidation of carbonyl iron. Thus, Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composites are useful in the design of microwave absorbers operating at temperatures up to 300 °C.

  3. Combinational losses of synucleins reveal their differential requirements for compensating age-dependent alterations in motor behavior and dopamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor-Robson, Natalie; Peters, Owen M; Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Buchman, Vladimir L

    2016-10-01

    Synucleins are involved in multiple steps of the neurotransmitter turnover, but the largely normal synaptic function in young adult animals completely lacking synucleins suggests their roles are dispensable for execution of these processes. Instead, they may be utilized for boosting the efficiency of certain molecular mechanisms in presynaptic terminals, with a deficiency of synuclein proteins sensitizing to or exacerbating synaptic malfunction caused by accumulation of mild alterations, which are commonly associated with aging. Although functional redundancy within the family has been reported, it is unclear whether the remaining synucleins can fully compensate for the deficiency of a lost family member or whether some functions are specific for a particular member. We assessed several structural and functional characteristics of the nigrostriatal system of mice lacking members of the synuclein family in every possible combination and demonstrated that stabilization of the striatal dopamine level depends on the presence of α-synuclein and cannot be compensated by other family members, whereas β-synuclein is required for efficient maintenance of animal's balance and coordination in old age. PMID:27614017

  4. Mammary tumorigenesis in APC{sup min/+} mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Experimental Radiobiology for Children' s Health Research Group, Research, Center for Radiation Protection (Japan); Mieko, Okamoto [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    The ApcM{sup min/+} (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  5. [Age-dependent characteristics of oxidative stress formation in the liver of rats with hypothyroidism during intensive physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhazaérli, Mokhamad Salem; Davydov, V V

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study free radical protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 1.5-month-old and 12-month-old rats with drug-induced hypothyroidism caused by exercises. The results of the present study suggest that intensive exercises are accompanied by an increase of intensity of free radical processes in the liver. Hypothyroidism and exercises do not greatly affect free radical processes in the liver of 12-month-old rats but result in additional stimulation of free radical oxidation in subcellular liver fractions of 1.5-month-old rats. An increase of free radical processes in the liver of 1.5-month-old rats with hypothyroidism caused by exercises is associated neither with changes in the first level antioxidant defense system enzymes function, nor with modulation of hepatocytes subcellular sensitivity to prooxidants. Such change is due largely to an increase of free radical production in the liver cells. PMID:17290792

  6. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alex Pasternak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs. In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases.

  7. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca2+ entry and IP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages. • IP3-pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]d) and diastolic Na+ concentration ([Na+]d) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd3+)-sensitive Ca2+ entry and inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd3+ treatment significantly reduced both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP3-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd3+ normalized both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca2+ entry through Gd3+ sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP3 receptors

  8. FeCl3 -Catalyzed Ring-Closing Carbonyl-Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Wenjuan; Xi, Hui; Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Enlu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhiping

    2016-08-22

    Exploiting catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis is an ongoing challenge in organic synthesis. Reported herein is an FeCl3 -catalyzed ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis. The protocol allows access to a range of carbo-/heterocyclic alkenes with good efficiency and excellent trans diastereoselectivity. The methodology presents one of the rare examples of catalytic ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis. This process is proposed to take place by FeCl3 -catalyzed oxetane formation followed by retro-ring-opening to deliver metathesis products. PMID:27431372

  9. FeCl3 -Catalyzed Ring-Closing Carbonyl-Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Wenjuan; Xi, Hui; Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Enlu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhiping

    2016-08-22

    Exploiting catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis is an ongoing challenge in organic synthesis. Reported herein is an FeCl3 -catalyzed ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis. The protocol allows access to a range of carbo-/heterocyclic alkenes with good efficiency and excellent trans diastereoselectivity. The methodology presents one of the rare examples of catalytic ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis. This process is proposed to take place by FeCl3 -catalyzed oxetane formation followed by retro-ring-opening to deliver metathesis products.

  10. Visible Light-Induced Carbonylation Reactions with Organic Dyes as the Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Bao; Qi, Xinxin; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-09-01

    Dyes can CO do it: Organic dyes and pigments are usually applied in textile dyeing, which can be dated back to the Neolithic period. Interestingly, the possibility to use organic dyes as photoredox catalysts has also been noticed by organic chemists and applied in organic synthesis. Carbonylation reactions as a powerful procedure in carbonyl-containing compound preparation have also been studied. In this manuscript, the recent achievements in using organic dyes as visible-light sensitizers in carbonylation chemistry are summarized and discussed.

  11. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna mungo is altered by overexpression of ALDRXV4 gene via reactive carbonyl detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Deepak; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2016-06-01

    Vigna mungo (blackgram) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein rich edible seeds. Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the growth and productivity of crop plants including blackgram. The ALDRXV4 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of carbonyl metabolites in the cells and plays an important role in the osmoprotection and detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species. In the present study, we developed transgenic plants of V. mungo using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis whereas the expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme activity. The T1 generation transgenic plants displayed improved tolerance to various environmental stresses, including drought, salt, methyl viologen and H2O2 induced oxidative stress. The increased aldose reductase activity, higher sorbitol content and less accumulation of the toxic metabolite, methylglyoxal in the transgenic lines under non-stress and stress (drought and salinity) conditions resulted in increased protection through maintenance of better photosynthetic efficiency, higher relative water content and less photooxidative damage. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type plants. This study of engineering multiple stress tolerance in blackgram, is the first report to date and this strategy for trait improvement is proposed to provide a novel germplasm for blackgram production on marginal lands.

  12. Engineering of a novel carbonyl reductase with coenzyme regeneration in E. coli for efficient biosynthesis of enantiopure chiral alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ping; Gao, Jia-Xin; Zheng, Gao-Wei; Wu, Hong; Zong, Min-Hua; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-07-20

    The novel anti-Prelog stereospecific carbonyl reductase from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 was successfully expressed in E. coli combined with glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) to construct an efficient whole-cell biocatalyst with coenzyme NADH regeneration. The enzymatic activity of GAcCR (AcCR with a GST tag) reached 304.9U/g-dcw, even 9 folds higher than that of wild strain, and the activity of GDH for NADH regeneration recorded 46.0U/mg-protein in the recombinant E. coli. As a whole-cell biocatalyst, the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS (pETDuet-gaccr-gdh) possessed a broad substrate spectrum for kinds of carbonyl compounds with encouraging yield and stereoselectivity. Besides, the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate (COBE) to optically pure ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate (CHBE) catalyzed by the whole-cell biocatalyst was systematically investigated. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the optical purity of CHBE was over 99% e.e. for (S)-enantiomer, and the initial rate and product yield reached 8.04μmol/min and 99.4%, respectively. Moreover, the space-time yield was almost 20 folds higher than that catalyzed by the wild strain. Therefore, a new, high efficiency biocatalyst for asymmetric reductions was constructed successfully, and the enantioselective reduction of prochiral compounds using the biocatalyst was a promising approach for obtaining enantiopure chiral alcohols. PMID:27211999

  13. Age-dependent neuroplasticity mechanisms in Alzheimer Tg2576 mice following modulation of brain amyloid-β levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Lilja

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of modulating brain amyloid-β (Aβ levels at different stages of amyloid pathology on synaptic function, inflammatory cell changes and hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. processes perturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Young (4- to 6-month-old and older (15- to 18-month-old APP(SWE transgenic (Tg2576 mice were treated with the AD candidate drug (+-phenserine for 16 consecutive days. We found significant reductions in insoluble Aβ1-42 levels in the cortices of both young and older transgenic mice, while significant reductions in soluble Aβ1-42 levels and insoluble Aβ1-40 levels were only found in animals aged 15-18 months. Autoradiography binding with the amyloid ligand Pittsburgh Compound B ((3H-PIB revealed a trend for reduced fibrillar Aβ deposition in the brains of older phenserine-treated Tg2576 mice. Phenserine treatment increased cortical synaptophysin levels in younger mice, while decreased interleukin-1β and increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were detected in the cortices of older mice. The reduction in Aβ1-42 levels was associated with an increased number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive proliferating cells in the hippocampi of both young and older Tg2576 mice. To determine whether the increased cell proliferation was accompanied by increased neuronal production, the endogenous early neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX was examined in the dentate gyrus (DG using immunohistochemical detection. Although no changes in the total number of DCX(+-expressing neurons were detected in the DG in Tg2576 mice at either age following (+-phenserine treatment, dendritic arborization was increased in differentiating neurons in young Tg2576 mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that reducing Aβ1-42 levels in Tg2576 mice at an early pathological stage affects synaptic function by modulating the maturation and plasticity of newborn neurons in

  14. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  15. Total Synthesis of (-)-Spinosyn A via Carbonylative Macrolactonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Shen, Xingyu; Li, Yong; Dai, Mingji

    2016-08-31

    Spinosyn A (1), a complex natural product featuring a unique 5,6,5,12-fused tetracyclic core structure, is the major component of spinosad, an organic insecticide and an FDA-approved agent used worldwide. Herein, we report an efficient total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A with 15 steps in the longest linear sequence and 23 steps total from readily available compounds 14 and 23. The synthetic approach features several important catalytic transformations including a chiral amine-catalyzed intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to afford 22 in excellent diastereoselectivity, a one-step gold-catalyzed propargylic acetate rearrangement to convert 28 to α-iodoenone 31, an unprecedented palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Heck macrolactonization to form the 5,12-fused macrolactone in one step, and a gold-catalyzed Yu glycosylation to install the challenging β-forosamine. This total synthesis is highly convergent and modular, thus offering opportunities to synthesize spinosyn analogues in order to address the emerging cross-resistance problems. PMID:27510806

  16. Characterization of aura tropospheric emissions spectrometer carbonyl sulfide retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kuai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a description of the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES carbonyl sulfide (OCS retrieval algorithm, along with evaluation of the biases and uncertainties against aircraft profiles from the HIPPO campaign and data from the NOAA Mauna Loa site. In general, the OCS retrievals (1 have less than 1.0 degree of freedom for signals (DOFs, (2 are sensitive in the mid-troposphere with a peak sensitivity typically between 300 to 500 hPa, (3 but have much smaller systematic errors from temperature, CO2 and H2O calibrations relative to random errors from measurement noise. Here we estimate the monthly means from TES measurements averaged over multiple years so that random errors are reduced and useful information about OCS seasonal and latitudinal variability can be derived. With this averaging, TES OCS data are found to be consistent (within the calculated uncertainties with NOAA ground observations and HIPPO aircraft measurements. TES OCS data also captures the seasonal and latitudinal variations observed by these in situ data.

  17. Aldol Condensation of Volatile Carbonyl Compounds in Acidic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noziere, B.; Esteve, W.

    2003-12-01

    Reactions of volatile organic compounds in acidic aerosols have been shown recently to be potentially important for organic aerosol formation and growth. Aldol condensation, the acid-catalyzed polymerization of carbonyl compounds, is a likely candidate to enhance the flux of organic matter from the gas phase to the condensed phase in the atmosphere. Until now these reactions have only been characterized for conditions relevant to synthesis (high acidities and liquid phase systems) and remote from atmospheric ones. In this work, the uptake of gas-phase acetone and 2,4\\-pentanedione by sulfuric acid solutions has been measured at room temperature using a Rotated Wetted Wall Reactor coupled to a Mass Spectrometer. The aldol condensation rate constants for 2,4\\-pentanedione measured so far for sulfuric acid solutions between 96 and 70 % wt. display a variation with acidity in agreement with what predicted in the organic chemical literature. The values of these constants, however, are much lower than expected for this compound, and comparable to the ones of acetone. Experiments are underway to complete this study to lower acidities and understand the discrepancies with the predicted reactivity.

  18. Heterogeneous oxidation of carbonyl sulfide on mineral oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YongChun; LIU JunFeng; HE Hong; YU YunBo; XUE Li

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) on mineral oxides including SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, ZnO and TiO2, which are the main components of atmospheric particles, were investigated using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (in situ DRIFTS), ion chromatography (IC), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The main products and intermediates of the heterogeneous oxidation of OCS on these oxides were identified with in situ DRIFTS and IC. The reaction mechanism and kinetics were also discussed. It is found that the reaction mechanism on these mineral oxides is the same as that on Al2O3 for the same final products and the intermediates at room temperature. Namely, OCS can be catalytically oxidized to produce surface SO42- species and gaseous CO2 through the surface hydrogen thiocarbonate (HSCO2-) and HSO3- species. The activity series for heterogeneous oxidation of OCS follows: Al2O3 ≈ CaO>MgO>TiO2 ≈ ZnO>Fe2O3>SiO2. The specific area, basic hydroxyl and surface basicity of these oxides have effect on the reactivity. This study suggests that heterogeneous reactions of OCS on mineral dust may be an unneglectable sink of OCS.

  19. Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commane, Róisín; Meredith, Laura K.; Baker, Ian T.; Berry, Joseph A.; Munger, J. William; Montzka, Stephen A.; Templer, Pamela H.; Juice, Stephanie M.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2015-11-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, has a summer minimum associated with uptake by vegetation and soils, closely correlated with CO2. We report the first direct measurements to our knowledge of the ecosystem flux of OCS throughout an annual cycle, at a mixed temperate forest. The forest took up OCS during most of the growing season with an overall uptake of 1.36 ± 0.01 mol OCS per ha (43.5 ± 0.5 g S per ha, 95% confidence intervals) for the year. Daytime fluxes accounted for 72% of total uptake. Both soils and incompletely closed stomata in the canopy contributed to nighttime fluxes. Unexpected net OCS emission occurred during the warmest weeks in summer. Many requirements necessary to use fluxes of OCS as a simple estimate of photosynthesis were not met because OCS fluxes did not have a constant relationship with photosynthesis throughout an entire day or over the entire year. However, OCS fluxes provide a direct measure of ecosystem-scale stomatal conductance and mesophyll function, without relying on measures of soil evaporation or leaf temperature, and reveal previously unseen heterogeneity of forest canopy processes. Observations of OCS flux provide powerful, independent means to test and refine land surface and carbon cycle models at the ecosystem scale.

  20. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  1. Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle Effects of Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Carbonyl Sulfide(OCS) is considered to be one of the major sources of sulfur appearing in the stratosphere due to its relative inertness, about I to 10 yearsl. However, the roles of OCS as well as other reduced sulfur compounds such as carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and dimethyl disulfide(CH3)2S2, are not completely understood in the atmosphenc sulfur cycle. Consequently vely little information is available about the effect of sulfur compounds in the stratosphere. The ability of OCS to penetrate into the stratosphere makes it an excellent tracer for study of the role of the sulfi r cycle in stratospheric chemistry. Previously techniques such as gas chromatography and whole air sampling have been used to measure OCS analytically. Each technique had its drawbacks however, with both being quite slow, and whole air sampling being somewhat unreliable. With molecular spectroscopy, however, it has been found in recent years that the tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDL) provides a very rapid and accurate method of measuring OCS and other trace gases

  2. Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. Elliott [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States); Berry, Joseph A. [Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Billesbach, Dave [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Torn, Margaret S [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zahniser, Mark [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Seibt, Ulrike [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maseyk, Kadmiel [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    The April-June 2012 campaign was located at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site Central Facility and had three purposes. One goal was to demonstrate the ability of current instrumentation to correctly measure fluxes of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS). The approach has been describe previously as a critical approach to advancing carbon cycle science1,2, but requires further investigation at the canopy scale to resolve ecosystem processes. Previous canopy-scale efforts were limited to data rates of 1Hz. While 1 Hz measurements may work in a few ecosystems, it is widely accepted that data rates of 10 to 20 Hz are needed to fully capture the exchange of traces gases between the atmosphere and vegetative canopy. A second goal of this campaign was to determine if canopy observations could provide information to help interpret the seasonal double peak in airborne observations at SGP of CO2 and COS mixing ratios. A third goal was to detect potential sources and sinks of COS that must be resolved before using COS as a tracer of gross primary productivity (GPP).

  3. Age-Associated Increase in Cytokine Production During Systemic Inflammation-II: The Role of IL-1β in Age-Dependent IL-6 Upregulation in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Mizuki; Evers, B Mark; Saito, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) upon acute inflammatory stress is significantly augmented by aging in adipose tissue, a major source of this cytokine. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of age-dependent IL-6 overproduction using visceral white adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice. Upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IL-6 was produced by adipose tissue explants, and secreted levels were significantly higher in cultures from aged (24 months) mice compared to young (4 months). Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), two inducers of IL-6, were mainly produced by the lungs and spleen rather than adipose tissue in mice after LPS injection. Treatment of adipose explants with physiological levels of IL-1β induced significant age-dependent secretion of IL-6, while treatment with TNFα had little effect, demonstrating an augmented response of adipose tissues to IL-1β in the aged. In vitro experiments utilizing a neutralizing antibody against IL-1β and in vivo experiments utilizing IL-1-receptor-1 deficient mice, confirmed that IL-6 overproduction in the aged is regulated by autocrine/paracrine action of IL-1β which specifically occurs in aged adipose tissues. These findings indicate an elevated inflammatory potential of adipose tissue in the aged and a unique IL-1β-mediated mechanism for IL-6 overproduction, which may impact age-associated vulnerability to acute inflammatory diseases such as sepsis.

  4. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  5. Synthesis of 2-Cyclopentenone Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Carbonyl α-Alkenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Panpan; Meng, Yinggao; Wang, Han; Han, Feipeng; Wang, Yulong; Song, Chuanjun; Chang, Junbiao

    2016-08-01

    2-Cyclopentenone derivatives have been efficiently synthesized from 5-bromo-5-hexen-2-ones via palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbonyl α-alkenylation followed by double-bond migration under mild reaction conditions. PMID:27463262

  6. Nanostructured palladium tailored via carbonyl chemical route towards oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical Abstract: Mass-depending morphologies of nanostructured Palladium obtained via the carbonyl chemical route. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Mass-depending morphology was observed in nanostructured palladium supported on carbon prepared by the carbonyl chemical route. •The Morphological effect of carbon supported Pd was investigated towards ORR. -- Abstract: Carbon supported palladium nanostructures were synthesized via the carbonyl chemical route. Compared with nanostructured platinum, prepared via carbonyl chemical route, Pd nanomaterials showed mass-loading morphology, whereas particle size and morphology of Pt nanostructures was constant. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on nanostructured Pd, with different morphology in both acid and alkaline medium was investigated. A relationship, based on X-ray diffraction structural analysis pattern, transmission electron microscope, with the Pd morphological effect on ORR activity was identified

  7. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xiao-Yu

    2014-02-07

    A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  8. Ruthenium carbonyl catalyst supported on ceric oxide for preparation of olefins from synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    A catalyst comprising a ruthenium carbonyl compound deposited on a cerium oxide-containing support material provides for the selective synthesis of low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  9. Incorporating Cobalt Carbonyl Moieties onto Ethynylthiophene-Based Dithienylcyclopentene Switches. 1. Photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, Emma C.; Areephong, Jetsuda; Cafolla, Attilio A.; Long, Conor; Browne, Wesley R.; Pryce, Mary T.; Feringa, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of dithienyl perhydro- and perfluorocyclopentene photochromic molecular switches appended with cobalt carbonyl binding 3-ethynylthiophene and phenyl-3-ethynylthiophene substituents are reported. Their photochromic properties, fatigue resistance, and the

  10. A carbonyl iron/carbon fiber material for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youh, Meng-Jey; Wu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Wang-Hua; Chiu, Sheng-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Fa; Yu, Hsin-Chih; Hsu, Jen-Sung; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2011-03-01

    A carbonyl iron/carbon fiber material consisting of carbon fibers grown on micrometer-sized carbonyl iron sphere, was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of C2H2 and H2. The hollow-core carbon fibers (outer diameter: 140 nm and inner diameter: 40 nm) were composed of well-ordered graphene layers which were almost parallel to the long axis of the fibers. A composite (2 mm thick) consisting of the carbonyl iron/carbon fibers and epoxy resin demonstrated excellent electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption. Minimum reflection losses of -36 dB (99.95% of EM wave absorption) at 7.6 GHz and -32 dB (99.92% of EM wave absorption) at 34.1 GHz were achieved. The well-dispersed and network-like carbon fibers in the resin matrix affected the dielectric loss of the EM wave while the carbonyl iron affected the magnetic loss.

  11. Fabrication and electromagnetic characteristics of microwave absorbers containing PPY and carbonyl iron composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dengao, E-mail: lidengao123@163.com [College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang Hongbin; Zhao Jumin [College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yang Xiaoli [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, IN 46323-2094 (United States)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Polypyrrole powders are prepared by in situ polymerization method. {yields} Then PPY-carbonyl iron composite with different mixture ratios have been prepared. {yields} The effect of the mass ratio of PPY-carbonyl iron on the microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. {yields} A possible microwave absorbing mechanism of PPY-carbonyl iron composite has been proposed. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop microwave absorbers using both dielectric and magnetic lossy materials. Polypyrrole (PPY) is used as dielectric lossy materials and carbonyl iron particles is used as magnetic lossy materials. Polypyrrole powders are prepared by in situ polymerization method. Then PPY-carbonyl iron composite with different mixture ratios have been prepared by as-prepared material. The structure, morphology and properties of the composites are characterized with IR, XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Net-work Anlyzer. The complex permittivity ({epsilon}{sup '}{sub r}-j{epsilon}{sup ''}{sub r}) and reflection loss (dB) of the composites have been measured at different microwave frequencies in S-band and C-band (30-6000 MHz) employing vector network analyzer model HP 8722ET vector. The effect of the mass ratio of PPY-carbonyl iron on the microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. A possible microwave absorbing mechanism of PPY-carbonyl iron composite has been proposed. The PPY-carbonyl iron composite can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI), and reduction of radar signature.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks for each patient. They were given Carbonyl Iron 100 mg/day and FeS04 100gm/day . Before and after treatment all the baseline and specific investigations were one. Results were tabulated, comparison and significance were tested by unpaired student ’s’ test and their 'p' value was calculated. Results were shown graphically also. Carbonyl Iron showed improvement in hemoglobin, PCV and better than ferrous Sulphate (P <0.001. Incidence of side effects were less with Carbonyl Iron than Ferrous Sulphate, better compliance was seen with Carbonyl Iron. In conclusion, the present study s howed that Carbonyl Iron had better efficacy and safety in the management of Iron deficiency anemia in antenatal women than ferrous Sulphate

  13. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond in Biologically Active o-Carbonyl Hydroquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHBs play a central role in the molecular structure, chemical reactivity and interactions of biologically active molecules. Here, we study the IHBs of seven related o-carbonyl hydroquinones and one structurally-related aromatic lactone, some of which have shown anticancer and antioxidant activity. Experimental NMR data were correlated with theoretical calculations at the DFT and ab initio levels. Natural bond orbital (NBO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP calculations were used to study the electronic characteristics of these IHB. As expected, our results show that NBO calculations are better than MEP to describe the strength of the IHBs. NBO energies (∆Eij(2 show that the main contributions to energy stabilization correspond to LPàσ* interactions for IHBs, O1…O2-H2 and the delocalization LPàπ* for O2-C2 = Cα(β. For the O1…O2-H2 interaction, the values of ∆Eij(2 can be attributed to the difference in the overlap ability between orbitals i and j (Fij, instead of the energy difference between them. The large energy for the LP O2àπ* C2 = Cα(β interaction in the compounds 9-Hydroxy-5-oxo-4,8, 8-trimethyl-l,9(8H-anthracenecarbolactone (VIII and 9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethylanthracen-1(4H-one (VII (55.49 and 60.70 kcal/mol, respectively when compared with the remaining molecules (all less than 50 kcal/mol, suggests that the IHBs in VIII and VII are strongly resonance assisted.

  14. Metabolism of bupropion by carbonyl reductases in liver and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connarn, Jamie N; Zhang, Xinyuan; Babiskin, Andrew; Sun, Duxin

    2015-07-01

    Bupropion's metabolism and the formation of hydroxybupropion in the liver by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) has been extensively studied; however, the metabolism and formation of erythro/threohydrobupropion in the liver and intestine by carbonyl reductases (CR) has not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the relative contribution of the two metabolism pathways of bupropion (by CYP2B6 and CR) in the subcellular fractions of liver and intestine and to identify the CRs responsible for erythro/threohydrobupropion formation in the liver and the intestine. The results showed that the liver microsome generated the highest amount of hydroxybupropion (Vmax = 131 pmol/min per milligram, Km = 87 μM). In addition, liver microsome and S9 fractions formed similar levels of threohydrobupropion by CR (Vmax = 98-99 pmol/min per milligram and Km = 186-265 μM). Interestingly, the liver has similar capability to form hydroxybupropion (by CYP2B6) and threohydrobupropion (by CR). In contrast, none of the intestinal fractions generate hydroxybupropion, suggesting that the intestine does not have CYP2B6 available for metabolism of bupropion. However, intestinal S9 fraction formed threohydrobupropion to the extent of 25% of the amount of threohydrobupropion formed by liver S9 fraction. Enzyme inhibition and Western blots identified that 11β-dehydrogenase isozyme 1 in the liver microsome fraction is mainly responsible for the formation of threohydrobupropion, and in the intestine AKR7 may be responsible for the same metabolite formation. These quantitative comparisons of bupropion metabolism by CR in the liver and intestine may provide new insight into its efficacy and side effects with respect to these metabolites.

  15. Soil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) across four distinct ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.; Juarez, S.; Kooijmans, L.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.; Chen, H.; Seibt, U.

    2015-12-01

    Soils are additional but poorly resolved sinks of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in terrestrial ecosystems. COS has been proposed as a tracer for quantifying gross photosynthesis based on the coupled stomatal uptake of COS and CO2. But applying this tracer requires the soil COS flux to be subtracted from the ecosystem flux to obtain the actual plant flux. To simulate soil COS fluxes, we have built a 1-D diffusion-reaction model accounting for vertical transport in the soil, microbial sinks and sources, and a litter layer. Uptake and production of COS in the soil column are linked with soil temperature and moisture through empirical functions adapted from enzyme kinetics and lab incubations. We have measured soil COS fluxes and the related soil variables in four distinct ecosystems: a wheat field (Southern Great Plains, OK, USA), an oak woodland (Santa Monica Mountains, CA, USA), a tropical rainforest (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) and a boreal pine forest (Hyytiälä, Finland). Across all sites, a lower soil temperature and a humid climate are generally favorable to soil COS uptake. Strong COS emissions were observed in the wheat field at high soil temperatures after harvesting but were absent in other ecosystems, indicating that COS exchange may behave differently in agricultural soils. We simulated the soil fluxes in all ecosystems using the diffusion-reaction model, and optimized the source/sink strength parameters with field data. The optimized model provides insights that are not attainable from data analysis alone: For example, the wheat field soil must have continued uptake activity even when it showed net emissions, and leaf litter contributed dominantly to the COS sink after rain in the oak woodland. We expect the new model to be useful for simulating global soil COS fluxes as field data on soil fluxes from a broader range of ecosystems become available.

  16. Highly efficient energy transfer from a carbonyl carotenoid to chlorophyll a in the main light harvesting complex of Chromera velia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchan, Milan; Keşan, Gürkan; Slouf, Václav; Fuciman, Marcel; Staleva, Hristina; Tichý, Josef; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    2014-10-01

    We report on energy transfer pathways in the main light-harvesting complex of photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites, Chromera velia. This complex, denoted CLH, belongs to the family of FCP proteins and contains chlorophyll (Chl) a, violaxanthin, and the so far unidentified carbonyl carotenoid related to isofucoxanthin. The overall carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer exhibits efficiency over 90% which is the largest among the FCP-like proteins studied so far. Three spectroscopically different isofucoxanthin-like molecules were identified in CLH, each having slightly different energy transfer efficiency that increases from isofucoxanthin-like molecules absorbing in the blue part of the spectrum to those absorbing in the reddest part of spectrum. Part of the energy transfer from carotenoids proceeds via the ultrafast S2 channel of both the violaxanthin and isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid, but major energy transfer pathway proceeds via the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid. Two S1/ICT-mediated channels characterized by time constants of ~0.5 and ~4ps were found. For the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid excited at 480nm the slower channel dominates, while those excited at 540nm employs predominantly the fast 0.5ps channel. Comparing these data with the excited-state properties of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid in solution we conclude that, contrary to other members of the FCP family employing carbonyl carotenoids, CLH complex suppresses the charge transfer character of the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid to achieve the high carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer efficiency. PMID:24928296

  17. Highly efficient energy transfer from a carbonyl carotenoid to chlorophyll a in the main light harvesting complex of Chromera velia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchan, Milan; Keşan, Gürkan; Slouf, Václav; Fuciman, Marcel; Staleva, Hristina; Tichý, Josef; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    2014-10-01

    We report on energy transfer pathways in the main light-harvesting complex of photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites, Chromera velia. This complex, denoted CLH, belongs to the family of FCP proteins and contains chlorophyll (Chl) a, violaxanthin, and the so far unidentified carbonyl carotenoid related to isofucoxanthin. The overall carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer exhibits efficiency over 90% which is the largest among the FCP-like proteins studied so far. Three spectroscopically different isofucoxanthin-like molecules were identified in CLH, each having slightly different energy transfer efficiency that increases from isofucoxanthin-like molecules absorbing in the blue part of the spectrum to those absorbing in the reddest part of spectrum. Part of the energy transfer from carotenoids proceeds via the ultrafast S2 channel of both the violaxanthin and isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid, but major energy transfer pathway proceeds via the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid. Two S1/ICT-mediated channels characterized by time constants of ~0.5 and ~4ps were found. For the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid excited at 480nm the slower channel dominates, while those excited at 540nm employs predominantly the fast 0.5ps channel. Comparing these data with the excited-state properties of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid in solution we conclude that, contrary to other members of the FCP family employing carbonyl carotenoids, CLH complex suppresses the charge transfer character of the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid to achieve the high carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer efficiency.

  18. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Barron

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  19. Modeling of age-dependent amyloid accumulation and γ-secretase inhibition of soluble and insoluble Aβ in a transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Joanna; Ploeger, Bart; Appelkvist, Paulina; Bogstedt, Anna; Dillner Bergstedt, Karin; Eketjäll, Susanna; Visser, Sandra A G

    2013-12-01

    According to the "amyloid hypothesis," accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. The aims of this investigation were to develop a model for the age-dependent amyloid accumulation and to quantify the age- and treatment-duration-dependent efficacy of the γ-secretase inhibitor MRK-560 in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition. Soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 brain concentrations were compiled from multiple naïve, vehicle, and MRK-560-treated animals. The age of Tg2576 mice in the studies ranged between 3.5 and 26 months. Single doses of MRK-560 inhibited soluble Aβ40 levels in animals up to 9 months old. In contrast, MRK-560 did not cause significant acute effects on soluble Aβ40 levels in animals older than 13 months. Absolute levels of Aβ variants increased exponentially over age and reached a plateau at ∼20 months. In the final model, it was assumed that MRK-560 inhibited the Aβ production rate with an Aβ level-dependent IC50.The age-dependent increase in Aβ levels was best described by a logistic model that stimulated the production rate of soluble Aβ. The increase in insoluble Aβ was defined as a function of soluble Aβ by using a scaling factor and a different turnover rate. The turnover half-life for insoluble Aβ was estimated at 30 days, explaining that at least a 4-week treatment in young animals was required to demonstrate a reduction in insoluble Aβ. Taken together, the derived knowledge could be exploited for an improved design of new experiments in Tg2576 mice. PMID:25505567

  20. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra, E-mail: A.Kwiatkows@gmail.com [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Zebrowski, Jacek [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Oklejewicz, Bernadetta [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Czarnik, Justyna [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Halibart-Puzio, Joanna [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Wnuk, Maciej [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage.

  1. Concentrations of formaldehyde and other carbonyls in environments affected by incense burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2002-10-01

    Burning incense to pay homage to deities is common in Chinese homes and temples. Air samples were collected and analyzed for carbonyls from a home and a temple in Hong Kong where incense burning occurs on a daily basis. Carbonyls in the air were trapped on a solid sorbent coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine, followed by thermal desorption and subsequent GC/MS analysis. The carbonyls identified include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, 2-furfural, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. The levels of the above carbonyls correlate with the intensity of the incense-burning activities. The total mixing ratios of the carbonyls in the temple exceed those in the ambient air outside the temple by 11-23 times. Formaldehyde is the most abundant species, contributing to approximately 55% of the total carbonyl mixing ratios in both the temple and the home environments during incense burning. The mixing ratio of formaldehyde ranges from 108 to 346 ppbv in the temple and averages 103 ppbv in the home during incense burning. These values exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guideline of 100 microg m(-3) (88 ppbv) for formaldehyde. The highest formaldehyde level in the temple exceeds the WHO guideline by 3 times at peak incense burning hours. The mixing ratio of acrolein in the temple ranges from 20 to 99 ppbv, approaching or exceeding the WHO air quality guideline of 50 microg m(-3) (22 ppbv) for acrolein. Our measurements indicate that incense burning significantly elevates the concentrations of a number of carbonyls, most notably formaldehyde and acrolein, in the surrounding environments. This study provides preliminary insights on indoor air quality problems created by incense burning.

  2. Positive trends in Southern Hemisphere observations of carbonyl sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremser, Stefanie; Jones, Nicholas; Smale, Dan; Palm, Mathias; Lejeune, Bernard; Wang, Yuting; Deutscher, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS; lifetime of about 5.7 years) is the longest lived reduced sulfur-containing gas in the atmosphere. The primary source of OCS is the ocean, which is both a direct source (through OCS emission) and an indirect source (due to oxidation of carbon disulfide, CS2, and dimethyl sulfide). Other natural sources of OCS include volcanic outgassing and direct fluxes from wetland regions. The removal of OCS from the atmosphere is dominated by soil and vegetation uptake, with minor contributions from reactions with the hydroxyl radical. Small anthropogenic sources of OCS are coal combustion, biomass burning, and aluminum production. A dominant indirect source results from CS2 emissions from the rayon industry. Transport of tropospheric OCS to the stratosphere during volcanically quiescent periods has been suggested to contribute sulfur to the stratospheric aerosol layer which affects atmospheric radiative balance. If, however, production of stratospheric aerosols from OCS oxidation is smaller than typical estimates, this OCS contribution would be overestimated. The magnitude of the OCS flux to the stratosphere is currently not well quantified as is the relative contribution of OCS to background aerosol loading. While earlier model simulations indicate OCS fluxes into the atmosphere exceeding removal, past total column observations of OCS show no significant trend. Analysis of tropospheric OCS columns at Arrival Heights (Antarctica) and Lauder (New Zealand) show strong positive trends from 2001-2008 followed by weaker trends to 2015, with unexpected temporal coherence. Since trends in ocean and land sources/sinks at these two sites, respectively, are unlikely to be similar, the coherence in trend structure likely results from changes in transport of OCS from the tropics to middle and high latitudes. Potential causes for OCS increases are (i) increases in tropical lower stratospheric OCS and/or (ii) strengthening of the large-scale circulation which

  3. Fructose-Induced Carbonyl/Oxidative Stress in S. cerevisiae: Involvement of TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valishkevych, Bohdana V; Vasylkovska, Ruslana A; Lozinska, Liudmyla M; Semchyshyn, Halyna M

    2016-01-01

    The TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway first described in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly conserved in eukaryotes effector of cell growth, longevity, and stress response. TOR activation by nitrogen sources, in particular amino acids, is well studied; however its interplay with carbohydrates and carbonyl stress is poorly investigated. Fructose is a more potent glycoxidation agent capable of producing greater amounts of reactive carbonyl (RCS) and oxygen species (ROS) than glucose. The increased RCS/ROS production, as a result of glycoxidation in vivo, is supposed to be involved in carbonyl/oxidative stress, metabolic disorders, and lifespan shortening of eukaryotes. In this work we aim to expand our understanding of how TOR is involved in carbonyl/oxidative stress caused by reducing monosaccharides. It was found that in fructose-grown compared with glucose-grown cells the level of carbonyl/oxidative stress markers was higher. The defects in the TOR pathway inhibited metabolic rate and suppressed generation of glycoxidation products in fructose-grown yeast.

  4. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  5. Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M

    2012-12-01

    The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed.

  6. Influence of the Dielectric Medium on the Carbonyl Infrared Absorption Peak of Acetylferrocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. López-Linares

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The solvent effect on the position of the carbonyl vibrational stretching ofacetylferrocene in aprotic media was studied in this work. The solvent-induced shifts in thisorganometallic compound were interpreted in terms of the alternative reaction field model(SCRF-MO proposed by Kolling. In contrast to the established trends for carbonyl groupsin organic systems, the results suggest that the continuum models for the reaction field arenot adequate and that the influence of dipolarity-polarizability described by aninhomogeneous coupling function θ (ε L(n 2 that assumes optical dielectric saturation isresponsible for the carbonyl band shift and, there is empirical evidence that the effect offield-induced intermolecular interaction on band shift, interpreted in terms of the van derWaals forces from the solvent, have a important contribution to this phenomena.

  7. RNA-Seq approach for genetic improvement of meat quality in pig and evolutionary insight into the substrate specificity of animal carbonyl reductases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Jung

    Full Text Available Changes in meat quality traits are strongly associated with alterations in postmortem metabolism which depend on genetic variations, especially nonsynonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs having critical effects on protein structure and function. To selectively identify metabolism-related nsSNVs, next-generation transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq was carried out using RNAs from porcine liver, which contains a diverse range of metabolic enzymes. The multiplex SNV genotyping analysis showed that various metabolism-related genes had different nsSNV alleles. Moreover, many nsSNVs were significantly associated with multiple meat quality traits. Particularly, ch7:g.22112616A>G SNV was identified to create a single amino acid change (Thr/Ala at the 145th residue of H1.3-like protein, very close to the putative 147th threonine phosphorylation site, suggesting that the nsSNV may affect multiple meat quality traits by affecting the epigenetic regulation of postmortem metabolism-related gene expression. Besides, one nonsynonymous variation, probably generated by gene duplication, led to a stop signal in porcine testicular carbonyl reductase (PTCR, resulting in a C-terminal (E281-A288 deletion. Molecular docking and energy minimization calculations indicated that the binding affinity of wild-type PTCR to 5α-DHT, a C(21-steroid, was superior to that of C-terminal-deleted PTCR or human carbonyl reductase, which was very consistent with experimental data, reported previously. Furthermore, P284 was identified as an important residue mediating the specific interaction between PTCR and 5α-DHT, and phylogenetic analysis showed that P284 is an evolutionarily conserved residue among animal carbonyl reductases, which suggests that the C-terminal tails of these reductases may have evolved under evolutionary pressure to increase the substrate specificity for C(21-steroids and facilitate metabolic adaptation. Altogether, our RNA-Seq revealed that selective ns

  8. Ab initio determination of dark structures in radiationless transitions for aromatic carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Hai

    2008-03-01

    Mechanistic photodissociation of a polyatomic molecule has long been regarded as an intellectually challenging area of chemical physics, the results of which are relevant to atmospheric chemistry, biological systems, and many application fields. Carbonyl compounds play a unique role in the development of our understanding of the spectroscopy, photochemistry, and photophysics of polyatomic molecules and their photodissociation has been the subject of numerous studies over many decades. Upon irradiation, a molecule can undergo internal conversion (IC) and intersystem crossing (ISC) processes, besides photochemical and other photophysical processes. Transient intermediates formed in the IC and ISC radiationless processes, which are termed "dark", are not amenable to detection by conventional light absorption or emission. However, these dark intermediates play critical roles in IC and ISC processes and thus are essential to understanding mechanistic photochemistry of a polyatomic molecule. We have applied the multiconfiguration complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method to determine the dark transient structures involved in radiationless processes for acetophenone and the related aromatic carbonyl compounds. The electronic and geometric structures predicted for the dark states are in a good agreement with those determined by ultrafast electron diffraction experiments. Intersection structure of different electronic states provides a very efficient "funnel" for the IC or ISC process. However, experimental determination of the intersection structure involved in radiationless transitions of a polyatomic molecule is impossible at present. We have discovered a minimum energy crossing point among the three potential energy surfaces (S1, T1, and T2) that appears to be common to a wide variety of aromatic carbonyl compounds with a constant structure. This new type of crossing point holds the key to understanding much about radiationless processes after

  9. Synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates from allenols through cascade carbonylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-11-21

    Novel synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates via palladium-catalyzed one-pot multi-component reactions of allenols, aryl iodides, alcohols, and carbon monoxide has been developed. Notably, the formation of the title compounds features a cascade process combining carbonylation of aryl iodide, alcohoxyl carbonylation of the in situ formed allyl palladium complex, and intramolecular condensation of the α-hydroxyl enone intermediate. Moreover, the 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates obtained herein were found to be ready intermediates for the construction of the biologically significant naphtho[1,2-b]furan-5-ol scaffold. PMID:26399394

  10. Improvement on stability of square planar rhodium (Ⅰ) complexes for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华; 潘平来; 袁国卿; 陈新滋

    1999-01-01

    A series of square planar cis-dicarbonyl polymer coordinated rhodium complexes with uncoordinated donors near the central rhodium atoms for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid are reported. Data of IR, XPS and thermal analysis show that these complexes are very stable. The intramolecular substitution reaction is proposed for their high stability. These complexes show excellent catalytic activity, selectivity and less erosion to the equipment for the methanol carbonylation to acetic acid. The distillation process may be used instead of flash vaporization in the manufacture of acetic acid, which reduces the investment on the equipment.

  11. Kinetics of Vapor—Phase Carbonylation of Ethanol on Ni—Zn/C Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGFeng

    2002-01-01

    A novel heterogeneous Ni-Zn/C catalyst was used for vapor-phase carbonylation of ethanol under atmospheric pressure.Experiments were designed with the elimination of mass-transfer resistances.The data of primary reaction in the carbonylation were collected with a differential tubular reactor.Power law rate models were emplyed to express the conversion of ethanol and the yields of ethyl propionated and diethyl ether.The results obtained with the models were in agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Activation of Carbonyl-Containing Molecules with Solid Lewis Acids in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Chemical Engineering; Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering

    2011-09-28

    Current interest in reacting carbonyl-containing molecules in aqueous media is primarily due to the growing emphasis on conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Recently, solid Lewis acids have been shown to perform catalytic reactions with carbonyl-containing molecules such as sugars in aqueous media. Here, catalysis mediated by Lewis acids is briefly discussed, Lewis acid solids that perform catalysis in aqueous media are then described, and the review is concluded with a few comments on the outlook for the future.

  13. Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide in Binary Mixture of Diethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether and Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新学; 刘迎新; 魏雄辉

    2005-01-01

    The solubility and hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in binary mixture of diethylene glycol diethyl ether and water are studied as a function of composition. The use of an aqueous solution of diethylene glycol diethyl ether enhances the solubility and hydrolysis rate of carbonyl sulfide compared with that in pure water. The composition of the mixture with maximum hydrolysis rate varies with temperature. The thermophysical properties including density, viscosity, and surface tension as a function of composition at 20℃ under atmospheric pressure as well as liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data over the temperature range from 28℃ to 90℃ are also measured for the binary mixture.

  14. First application of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis for continuous methanol carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Jørgensen, Betina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A solid, silica-supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) rhodium iodide Monsanto-type catalyst system, [BMIM][Rh(CO)(2)I-2]-[BMIM]I -SiO2, exhibits excellent activity and selectivity towards acetyl products in fixed-bed, continuous gas-phase methanol carbonylation.......A solid, silica-supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) rhodium iodide Monsanto-type catalyst system, [BMIM][Rh(CO)(2)I-2]-[BMIM]I -SiO2, exhibits excellent activity and selectivity towards acetyl products in fixed-bed, continuous gas-phase methanol carbonylation....

  15. Ab initio MO study of reaction mechanism for carbonyl migration of Co complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ab initio method under the effective core potential (ECP) approximation is employed to study the reaction mechanism of carbonyl migration of the cycle of olefin hydroformylation catalyzed by a carbonyl cobalt HCo(CO)3 at Hartree-Fock (HF) level. The structures of the reactant, transition state and product for the reaction are determined. The energy of each stationary point is corrected at MP2/LAN2DZ//LANL2DZ+ZPE (zero-point energy) level. The calculated activation barrier is 28.89 kJ/mol.

  16. POLYMER—SUPPORTED RHODIUM CATALYSTS FOR CARBONYLATION OF METHYL ACETATE TO ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENDean; HUANGShizhuan; 等

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of rhodium catalysts supported on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers containing bipyridine or o-phenylene diamine have been prepared and found to display high activity for methyl acetate carbonylation to form acetic anhydride,the activities are even higher than their homogeneous counterparts. XPS analysis was used to characterize the synthetic catalysts.The apparent activation parameters were determined to be Eα=73.3KJ/mol,ΔH≠=66.3KJ/mol,ΔS≠=-28.6eu.These parameters are very close to those in methanol carbonylation and imply to have analogous mechanism in both cases.

  17. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  18. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14-21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  19. [Can age-dependent cognitive functions be measured? P300 potentials--concept of brain aging--early diagnosis of dementia processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, C

    1996-10-10

    Event related P300 potentials as the electrophysiological substrate of cognitive functions, such as the stimulus processing time (P300 latencies) and visual attention capacity (P300 amplitudes) are suitable for the analysis of age-related changes in cognitive human brain functions. P300 investigations carried out in a total of 330 test subjects aged between 18 and 98 years, showed an overall slight prolongation of the P300 latencies by 10 ms for each decade, as well as a discrete reduction in the P300 amplitudes of 1 microV. To describe the relationship between the P300 parameters and chronological age, polynomial regression models are more suitable than linear functions. This means that in middle-age, P300 potentials change only slightly while, from about the age of 60 upwards, a noticeable acceleration in the P300 changes takes place. An interesting observation was the fact that the acceleration in the P300 latency increase occurred some 10 years earlier in women than in men, beginning in the early postmenopausal period. The polynomial course of the regression function for the age-dependence of P300 potentials might reflect the positive influence of socio-cultural factors on the aging of cognitive functions. The true extent of the age-related changes in cognitive functions, however, can be determined only with the aid of intra-individual longitudinal studies. This is of considerable importance for the early diagnosis of both metabolic and primarily degenerative encephalopathies.

  20. Age-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation Deficits in the Prefrontal Cortex of the Fmr1 Knockout Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Henry G S; Lassalle, Olivier; Brown, Jonathan T; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2016-05-01

    The most common inherited monogenetic cause of intellectual disability is Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The clinical symptoms of FXS evolve with age during adulthood; however, neurophysiological data exploring this phenomenon are limited. TheFmr1knockout (Fmr1KO) mouse models FXS, but studies in these mice of prefrontal cortex (PFC) function are underrepresented, and aging linked data are absent. We studied synaptic physiology and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the medial PFC ofFmr1KO mice from 2 to 12 months. In young adultFmr1KO mice, NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) is intact; however, in 12-month-old mice this LTP is impaired. In parallel, there was an increase in the AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and a concomitant decrease of synaptic NMDAR currents in 12-month-oldFmr1KO mice. We found that acute pharmacological blockade of mGlu5receptor in 12-month-oldFmr1KO mice restored a normal AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and LTP. Taken together, the data reveal an age-dependent deficit in LTP inFmr1KO mice, which may correlate to some of the complex age-related deficits in FXS. PMID:25750254

  1. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  2. Synthesis of the [beta]-D-glucosyl ester of [carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakas, A.; Magnus, V. (Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Horvat, S.; Sandberg, G. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1993-10-01

    An efficient, operationally simple synthetic approach to 1-O-([carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3'-ylacetyl)-[beta]-D-glucopyranose is described. The synthesis was carried out by fusing a fully benzylated 1-O-glucosylpseudourea intermediate with [carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3-acetic acid, followed by hydrogenolytic removal of the protective groups. (Author).

  3. Regiospecific oxidation of an alkyl group of aromatic amine to carbonyl group by DDQ in aq.medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhav S. Mane; Ravi S. Balaskar; Sandip N. Gavade; Pramod N. Pabrekar; Murlidhar S. Shingare; Dhananjay V. Mane

    2011-01-01

    The regiospecific oxidation of alkyl group of both sterically hindered and unhindered aromatic amine to corresponding carbonyl compound was done in aq. medium by using DDQ. The optimized reaction protocol was found to be most simple, high yielding and novel method for oxidation of alkyl group of aromatic amine in to its carbonyl compound.

  4. Enhanced antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated flaky carbonyl iron particles prepared by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yingying, E-mail: zyzlchappy1989@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Zhou, Wancheng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Li, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); No. 603 Faculty, Xi’an Institute of High Technology, Xi’an 710025 (China); Mu, Yang; Qing, Yuchang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were prepared by electroless plating method. • The obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 400 °C after Co-coated. • The permeability of the Co-coated particle composite kept almost invariable. • Co-coated carbonyl iron composite reserves a better absorption after heat treatment. - Abstract: Co was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using an electroless plating method. The morphologies, composition, as well as magnetic, antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows that the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred from 300 to 400 °C after Co-coated. In contrast to raw carbonyl iron, the Co-coated carbonyl iron shows better stability on electromagnetic properties after 300 °C heat treatment for 10 h, demonstrating that the Co coating can act as the protection of carbonyl iron.

  5. Green Synthesis and Regioselective Control of Sn/I2 Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Crotyl Halide in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yan; ZHA,Zhang-Gen; ZHOU,Yu-Qing; WANG,Zhi-Yong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Barbier-type carbonyl allylation is particularly useful due to ease of operation and the availability and tractability of allylic substrates,[1] Metals such as indium, zinc and tin are often used as the mediator. Here we present a green approach toward the synthesis, that is, Sn/I2 mediated allylation of carbonyl compounds with crotyl halide in water.

  6. Photopromoted carbonylation of olefins with carbon dioxide and labelling studies with 13CO2 and 13CH3OH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jingmei; GAO Dabin; HU Jiehan; ZHOU Guangyun; JIA Yingping; WANG Xiangsheng

    2003-01-01

    Photopromoted carbonylation of olefins with carbon dioxide can be completed in ambient conditions (room temperatures and atmospheric pressure) by Co(OAc)2 catalysis. It was found that in carbonyl carbons of methyl ester of aliphatic acid 50% is from CO2 and the other 50% from CH3OH by labelling experimental with 13CO2 and 13CH3OH.

  7. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Guan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  8. Magnetically Recoverable Supported Ruthenium Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Alkynes and Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A ruthenium (Ru) catalyst supported on magnetic nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized and used for hydrogenation of alkynes at room temperature as well as transfer hydrogenation of a number of carbonyl compounds under microwave irradiation conditions. The cata...

  9. Magnetic Silica-Supported Ruthenium Nanoparticles: An Efficient Catalyst for Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-pot synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles on magnetic silica is described which involve the in situ generation of magnetic silica (Fe3O4@ SiO2) and ruthenium nano particles immobilization; the hydration of nitriles and transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds occurs in hi...

  10. α-Regioselective Barbier Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds and Allyl Halides Mediated by Praseodymium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San; Li, Ying; Zhang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    The first utility of praseodymium as a mediating metal in the Barbier reaction of carbonyl compounds with allyl halides was reported in this paper. In contrast to the traditional metal-mediated or catalyzed Barbier reactions, exclusive α-adducts were obtained in this one-pot reaction with a broad scope of substrates and feasible reaction conditions. PMID:27490708

  11. Levels, sources and health risks of carbonyls and BTEX in the ambient air of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujie Zhang; Yujing Mu; Junfeng Liu; Abdelwahid Mellouki

    2012-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of carbonyls and BTEX (benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,m,p-xylene and o-xylene) were measured simultaneously at a same sampling site in Beijing from September 2008 to August 2010.The average concentrations of the total measured carbonyls during autumn,winter,spring,and summer were 37.7,31.3,39.7,50.5 μg/m3,respectively,and maximal values for their diurnal variations usually happened at noontime.In contrast to carbonyls,the average concentrations of the total measured BTEX during the four seasons were 27.2,31.9,23.2,19.1 μg/m3,respectively,and minimal values for their diurnal variations always occurred in the early afternoon.The average concentration for carbonyls increased about 24% from September 2008-August 2009 to September 2009-August 2010,for BTEX,increased about 15%.Integrated life time cancer risks for three carcinogens (benzene,formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in Beijing exceeded the value of 1E-06,and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk of exposure to formaldehyde exceeded unity.

  12. The Palladium-Catalyzed Vinylation and Carbonylation of Bromoindoles and N-Acety1-bromoindoline

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, Akira; Izumi, Taeko; Ogata, Hideaki

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts The palladium-catalyzed vinylic substitution reaction of alkenes has been shown to proceed in moderate yields with 5- and 6-bromoindols, and N-acetyl-5-bromoindoline. 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-Bromoindoles also undergo facile palladium-assisted carbonylation with carbon monoxide in methanol to produce methoxycarbonylindoles in moderate yields.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterizations, crystal structures and DFT studies of nalidixic acid carbonyl hydrazones derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, F. R. G.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Lancellotti, M.; Machado, D.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Cuin, A.; Formiga, A. L. B.; Corbi, P. P.

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the synthesis and characterization of the 1-ethyl-7-methyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbohydrazide (hzd) and six carbonyl hydrazones derivatives of the nalidixic with 1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene (hpyrr), 1H-imidazol-2-ylmethylidene (h2imi), pyridin-2-ylmethylidene (h2py), pyridin-3-ylmethylidene (h3py), pyridin-4-ylmethylidene(h4py) and (2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene (hsali). The carbonyl hydrazones were characterized by elemental and ESI-QTOF-MS analyses, IR and detailed NMR spectroscopic measurements. The 2D NMR experiments allowed the unambiguous assignment of the hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen atoms, which have not been reported for nalidixic acid carbonyl hydrazone derivatives so far. Crystal structures of hzd and the new carbonyl hydrazones h2imi, hpyrr and h3py were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Although the synthesis of hzd was reported decades ago, the hzd crystal structure have not been reported yet. Geometric optimizations of all the characterized structures were performed with the aid of DFT studies. Despite the fact that the hydrazones with 2-pyridine carboxylic acid (h2py) and salicyl aldehyde (hsali) were already reported by literature, a detailed spectroscopic study followed by DFT studies are also reported for such compounds in this manuscript. Antimicrobial studies of the compounds are also presented.

  15. Heterogeneous Chemistry of Carbonyls and Alcohols With Sulfuric Acid: Implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Levitt, N.; Zhang, R.

    2006-12-01

    Recent environmental chamber studies have suggested that acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions of organic carbonyls lead to multifold increases in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass and acid-catalyzed reactions between alcohols and aldehydes in the condensed phase lead to the formation of hemiacetals and acetals, also enhancing secondary organic aerosol growth. The kinetics and mechanism of the heterogeneous chemistry of carbonyls and alcohols with sulfuric acid, however, remain largely uncertain. In this talk, we present measurements of heterogeneous uptake of several carbonyls and alcohols on liquid H2SO4 in a wide range of acid concentrations and temperatures. The results indicate that uptake of larger carbonyls is explained by aldol condensation. For small dicarbonyls, heterogeneous reactions are shown to decrease with acidity and involve negligible formation of sulfate esters. Hydration and polymerization likely explain the measured uptake of such small dicarbonyls on H2SO4 and the measurements do not support an acid- catalyzed uptake. Atmospheric implications from our findings will be discussed.

  16. Direct photolysis of carbonyl compounds dissolved in cloud and fog~droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S. A.; Tapavicza, E.; Furche, F.; Nizkorodov, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Gas-phase photolysis is an important tropospheric sink for many carbonyl compounds; however the significance of direct photolysis of these compounds dissolved in cloud and fog droplets is uncertain. We develop a theoretical approach to assess the importance of aqueous photolysis for a series of carbonyls that possess carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups by comparison with rates of other atmospheric processes. We use computationally and experimentally derived effective Henry's law constants, hydration equilibrium parameters, aqueous hydroxyl radical (OH) rate constants, and optical extinction coefficients to identify types of compounds that will (or will not) have competitive aqueous photolysis rates. We also present molecular dynamics simulations designed to estimate gas- and aqueous-phase extinction coefficients of unstudied atmospherically relevant compounds found in d-limonene and isoprene secondary organic aerosol. In addition, experiments designed to measure the photolysis rate of glyceraldehyde, an atmospherically relevant water-soluble organic compound, reveal that aqueous quantum yields are highly molecule-specific and cannot be extrapolated from measurements of structurally similar compounds. We find that only two out of the 92 carbonyl compounds investigated, pyruvic acid and acetoacetic acid, may have aqueous photolysis rates that exceed the rate of oxidation by dissolved OH. For almost all carbonyl compounds lacking α,β-conjugation that were investigated, atmospheric removal by direct photolysis in cloud and fog droplets can be neglected under typical atmospheric conditions.

  17. Ketene as a Reaction Intermediate in the Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate over Mordenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Temel, Burcin;

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented insight into the carbonylation of dimethyl ether over Mordenite is provided through the identification of ketene (CH2CO) as a reaction intermediate. The formation of ketene is predicted by detailed DFT calculations and verified experimentally by the observation of doubly deuterated...

  18. [pi] Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon-Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    An exercise is described that has illustrated the effect of various factors on [pi] backbonding to carbonyl ligands, where the students can view the molecular orbitals corresponding to the M-CO [pi] interaction as well as the competing interaction between the metal and co-ligands. The visual and hands-on nature of the modeling exercise has helped…

  19. Weak carbonyl-methyl intermolecular interactions in acetone clusters explored by IR plus VUV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiwen [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu, Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xie, Min [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Bernstein, Elliot R. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1872 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl overtone of acetone clusters is observed by IR-VUV spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone molecules in the dimer are stacked with an antiparallel way. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the acetone trimer and the tetramer are the cyclic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl groups would interact with the methyl groups in acetone clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These weak interactions are further confirmed by H/D substitution experiment. -- Abstract: Size-selected IR-VUV spectroscopy is employed to detect vibrational characteristics in the region 2850 {approx} 3550 cm{sup -1} of neutral acetone and its clusters (CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}){sub n} (n = 1-4). Features around 3440 cm{sup -1} in the spectra of acetone monomer and its clusters are assigned to the carbonyl stretch (CO) overtone. These features red-shift from 3455 to 3433 cm{sup -1} as the size of the clusters increases from the monomer to the tetramer. Based on calculations, the experimental IR spectra in the C=O overtone region suggest that the dominant structures for the acetone trimer and tetramer should be cyclic in the supersonic expansion sample. This study also suggests that the carbonyl groups interact with the methyl groups in the acetone clusters. These weak interactions are further confirmed by the use of deuterium substitution.

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Primary Amines in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 江焕峰; 陈鸣才

    2001-01-01

    The chemoselectity of the palladimm-catalyzed carbonylation of amines was affected by the addition of MeOH in supercritical carbon dioxide. The results show different selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide CO2(sc) from that in alcohol.Methyl carbamate and its derivatives were obtained in high yields in CO2(sc).

  1. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl-Stabilised Ammonium Ylide-Mediated Epoxidation Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacek, Johanna; Roiser, Lukas; Zielke, Katharina; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-08-01

    The key factors for carbonyl-stabilised ammonium ylide-mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine-based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions.

  2. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions, in sev...

  3. Oxidized tissue proteins after intestinal reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanaider Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse if the carbonyl proteins measurement could be validated as a method that allows the identification of an intestinal oxidative stress after ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats (n =21 weighting 200 to 250g were divided into three groups. Group I - control (n = 10. Group II - sham (n = 5 and Group III (n = 10 subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and equal period of reperfusion. For this purpose it was clamped the superior mesenteric artery in its distal third. Histological changes and carbonyl protein levels were determined in the samples of all groups. In group III, samples of both normal and reperfused ileal segment were studied. RESULTS: All the reperfused segments showed mucosal and submucosal swelling and inflammatory infiltrate of the lamina propria. Levels of carbonyl protein rose in group III, including in the non-ischemic segments. The sensitivity and specificity of the carbonyl protein tissue levels were respectively 94% and 88%. CONCLUSION: The carbonyl protein method is a useful biologic marker of oxidative stress after the phenomenon of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. It was also noteworthy that the effects of oxidative stress could be seen far from the locus of the primary injury.

  4. Extrastriatal binding of [123I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [123I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [123I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [123I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  5. Age dependent differences in the regulation of hippocampal steroid hormones and receptor genes: relations to motivation and cognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Korz, V

    2013-02-01

    Estrogen and estrogenic functions are age-dependently involved in the modulation of learning, memory and mood in female humans and animals. However, the investigation of estrogenic effects in males has been largely neglected. Therefore, we investigated the hippocampal gene expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα, β) in 8-week-old, 12-week-old and 24-week-old male rats. To control for possible interactions between the expression of the estrogen receptor genes and other learning-related steroid receptors, androgen receptors (AR), corticosterone-binding glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) were also measured. Furthermore, the concentrations of the ligands 17β-estradiol, testosterone and corticosterone were measured. The spatial training was conducted in a hole-board. The 8-week-old rats exhibited higher levels of general activity and exploration during the training and performed best with respect to spatial learning and memory, whereas no difference was found between the 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The trained 8-week-old rats exhibited increased gene expression of ERα compared with the untrained rats in this age group as well as the trained 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, however, were generally higher in the 24-week-old rats than in the 8-week-old and 12-week-old rats. The ERα mRNA concentrations correlated positively with behavior that indicate general learning motivation. These results suggest a specific role of ERα in the age-related differences in motivation and subsequent success in the task. Thus, estrogen and estrogenic functions may play a more prominent role in young male behavior and development than has been previously assumed.

  6. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie L Chow

    Full Text Available Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess

  7. Extrastriatal binding of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry Vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, CHU Dinant Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  8. A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Weiss

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available People who begin daily smoking at an early age are at greater risk of long-term nicotine addiction. We tested the hypothesis that associations between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR genetic variants and nicotine dependence assessed in adulthood will be stronger among smokers who began daily nicotine exposure during adolescence. We compared nicotine addiction-measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence-in three cohorts of long-term smokers recruited in Utah, Wisconsin, and by the NHLBI Lung Health Study, using a candidate-gene approach with the neuronal nAChR subunit genes. This SNP panel included common coding variants and haplotypes detected in eight alpha and three beta nAChR subunit genes found in European American populations. In the 2,827 long-term smokers examined, common susceptibility and protective haplotypes at the CHRNA5-A3-B4 locus were associated with nicotine dependence severity (p = 2.0x10(-5; odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.39 in subjects who began daily smoking at or before the age of 16, an exposure period that results in a more severe form of adult nicotine dependence. A substantial shift in susceptibility versus protective diplotype frequency (AA versus BC = 17%, AA versus CC = 27% was observed in the group that began smoking by age 16. This genetic effect was not observed in subjects who began daily nicotine use after the age of 16. These results establish a strong mechanistic link among early nicotine exposure, common CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes, and adult nicotine addiction in three independent populations of European origins. The identification of an age-dependent susceptibility haplotype reinforces the importance of preventing early exposure to tobacco through public health policies.

  9. How does education change the relationship between fertility and age-dependency under environmental constraints? A long-term simulation exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: When asked what a desirable fertility level for populations might be, most politicians, journalists, and even social scientists would say it is around two children per woman, a level that has been labelled by demographers "replacement-level fertility." The reasons given for considering this level of fertility as something to aim at usually include maintaining the size of the labour force and stabilizing the old-age-dependency ratio. Objective: In this paper, we scrutinize this wide-spread view by introducing education in addition to age and sex as a further relevant source of observable population heterogeneity. We consider several criteria for assessing the long-term implications of alternative fertility levels and present numerical simulations with a view on minimizing the education-weighted total dependency ratio and complement this with the goal of reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emission in the context of climate change. Methods: We perform thousands of alternative simulations for different fertility levels (assumed to be constant over time starting from empirically given population structures and derive the rate of fertility which yields the lowest level of our education-weighted dependency ratio. We study the sensitivity of our results to different parameter values and choose to focus on the actual populations of Europe and China over the course of the 21st century. Results: The results show that when education is assumed to present a cost at young age and results in higher productivity during adult age, then the fertility rate that on the long run keeps dependency at a minimum turns out to lie well below replacement fertility both in Europe and in China under a set of plausible assumptions. The optimal fertility level falls even lower when climate change is factored in as well. Conclusions: We conclude that there is nothing magical or particularly desirable about replacement level fertility.

  10. Inhibitory effects of reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chloro-phenylhydrazone on fluoroquinolone resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-feng; JIANG Jian-ping; XU Ning; HUANG Zhi-mi; WANG Yu-yue

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to fluoro-quinolones may be grouped into three principal categories: gene mutations of DNA topoisomerase Ⅱ (GyrA or GyrB), DNA topoisomerase Ⅳ (ParC or ParE), decrease of outer membrane permeation and upregulation of multi-drug efflux pump (active efflux system).1 Efflux pumps are transport proteins removing toxic substrates (including virtually all classes of clinically relevant antibiotics) from cells to the external environment. These proteins exist in both Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria as well as in fungi and mammalian (tumour) cells.2-4 It has been reported that alkaloid reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) can inhibit NorA multi-drug efflux.5,6 In order to explore the universality of drug efflux in microorganisms, 85 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. Baumannii) were tested using reserpine and CCCP. The quinolone-resistant-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC genes in 35 isolates of A. Baumannii were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced by DNA sequencer. The correlation between resistant mutation regularity and bacterial drug efflux were analysed.

  11. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of ...

  12. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis) were evaluated using tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing potential, scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species (ROS...

  13. Evaluation of hazardous airborne carbonyls on a university campus in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Ho, Kin Fai; Ng, Louisa Pan Ting; Dai, W T; Cao, Junji; Chan, Chi Sing; Ho, Legolas Baggio

    2014-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of indoor carbonyl compounds for the academic staff workers, and students was conducted on a university campus in Xiamen, China. A total of 15 representative environment categories, including 12 indoor workplaces and three residential units, were selected. The potential indoor pollution sources were identified based on the variability in the molar compositions and correlation analyses for the target carbonyls. Furnishing materials, cooking emissions, and electronic equipment, such as photocopiers, can generate various carbonyls in the workplace. Comparison studies were conducted in the clerical offices, demonstrating that off-gases from wooden furniture and lacquer coatings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the use of cleaning reagents elevated the indoor carbonyl levels. The measured concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in most locations surpassed the exposure limit levels. The lifetime cancer hazard risk (R) associated with formaldehyde was above the concern risk level (1 x 10(-6)) in all of the workplaces. The results indicate that formaldehyde exposure is a valid occupational health and safety concern. Wooden furniture and refurbishing materials can pose serious health threats to occupants. The information in this study could act as a basis for future indoor air quality monitoring in Mainland China. Implications: A university campus represents a microscale city environment consisting of all the working, living, and commercial needs of staff and students. The scope of this investigation covers 21 hazardous carbonyl species based on samples collected from 15 categories of workplaces and residential building in a university campus in southern China. Findings of the study provide a comprehensive assessment of indoor air quality with regards to workers' health and safety. No similar study has been carried out in China. PMID:25185393

  14. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  15. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism; Altersangepasste Anhebung des D-Dimer-Grenzwertes zur Vermeidung unnoetiger CT-Untersuchungen bei Verdacht auf Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.M.; Hoehne, M.; Herold, T. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Radiology; Wrede, C.E. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Emergency Department; Peetz, D. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Laboratory Medicine; Stroszczynski, C. [University Medical Center, Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  16. Age-dependent association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses to Pf332-C231 antigen and protection from malaria, and induction of protective antibodies by sub-patent malaria infections, in Daraweesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C;

    2010-01-01

    , three variable markers for protection were emerged, two age-dependent, the antibody response to Pf332-C231 and an unidentified marker (likely immune response to other antigens), and the third was an age-independent unidentified marker (possibly gene polymorphisms). In conclusion, this report suggests.......211, p=0.014, respectively), and also with age (CC - 0.311, p

  17. Age-dependent modifications of AMPA receptor subunit expression levels and related cognitive effects in 3xTg-AD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eCantanelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs, the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca2+-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q to R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca2+-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca2+ and Zn2+. The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. With qRT-PCR, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1-4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.] and old (12 m.o.a Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1-4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in maintaining cognition in pre-symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice.

  18. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  19. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  20. Recherches récentes sur le cobalt carbonyle et ses dérivés Recent Studies of Cobalt Carbonyl and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poilblanc R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Faisant le point sur l'ensemble de leurs résultats obtenus au cours des dernières années, les auteurs développent divers aspects relatifs aux synthèses, à la physico-chimie et aux structures des complexes dérivés des cobalt carbonyle. L'étude concerne essentiellement : - les dérivés de simple substitution de l'octacarbonyle dicobalt et la tautomérie des complexes dinucléaires; - les dérivés mononucléaires ioniques et leur relation avec les formes alkyle et acétyle du cobalt (I; - le bis (tétracarbonyle cobalt mercure et ses dérivés de substitution ; - les dérivés tétranucléaires et le phénomène de « migration intramoléculaire » des ligands. Les caractéristiques spectrographiques de quelque soixante-dix complexes sont fournies en annexe. The authors review their findings concerning the synthesis, physico-chemical properties and structural nature of cobalt carbonyl derivatives. The article deals with : - Normal substitution of Col (CO,, and tautomerism of binuclear complexes; - lonic mononuclear derivatives in relation with alkyl and acetylcobaltcarbonyls ; - Bis (tetracarbonylcobalt mercury and its substituted derivatives ; - Tetranuclear cobalt complexes exhibiting intramolecular scrambling. Spectrographic data of some 70 compounds are given.

  1. Efficient light-harvesting using non-carbonyl carotenoids: Energy transfer dynamics in the VCP complex from Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keşan, Gürkan; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Violaxanthin-chlorophyll a protein (VCP) from Nannochloropsis oceanica is a Chl a-only member of the LHC family of light-harvesting proteins. VCP binds carotenoids violaxanthin (Vio), vaucheriaxanthin (Vau), and vaucheriaxanthin-ester (Vau-ester). Here we report on energy transfer pathways in the VCP complex. The overall carotenoid-to-Chla energy transfer has efficiency over 90%. Based on their energy transfer properties, the carotenoids in VCP can be divided into two groups; blue carotenoids with the lowest energy absorption band around 480nm and red carotenoids with absorption extended up to 530nm. Both carotenoid groups transfer energy efficiently from their S2 states, reaching efficiencies of ~70% (blue) and ~60% (red). The S1 pathway, however, is efficient only for the red carotenoid pool for which two S1 routes characterized by 0.33 and 2.4ps time constants were identified. For the blue carotenoids the S1-mediated pathway is represented only by a minor route likely involving a hot S1 state. The relaxed S1 state of blue carotenoids decays to the ground state within 21ps. Presence of a fraction of non-transferring red carotenoids with the S1 lifetime of 13ps indicates some specific carotenoid-protein interaction that must shorten the intrinsic S1 lifetime of Vio and/or Vau whose S1 lifetimes in methanol are 26 and 29ps, respectively. The VCP complex from N. oceanica is the first example of a light-harvesting complex binding only non-carbonyl carotenoids with carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer efficiency over 90%.

  2. Photo-promoted carbonylation of chloroalkanes with carbon monoxide by non-precious metal catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The photo-promoted carbonylation of chloroalkanes with carbon monoxide was carried out under ambient conditions with copper and cadmium salts catalysts. The results indicated that the corresponding esters were produced with three salt catalysts, i.e.CuBr2, CuCl2 and CdI2. Among these catalysts, CdI2 was the most efficient in terms of ester yield and selectivity, particularly, 60% yield and 75% selectivity in the carbonylation of chlorocyclohexane were achieved. Furthermore, the yield and selectivity of the ester can be improved greatly by adding tri-n-butylamine in the CuBr2 and CuCl2 catalyst systems. On the other hand, the additive. As a result, we suggest that iodide ion plays an important role in the catalyst system of the cadmium salts.(C) 2007 Ying Ping Jia. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A catalyst for the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid in gaseous phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘平来; 柳忠阳; 朱长城; 袁国卿

    1996-01-01

    A novel Rh/Ys catalyst for the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid in gaseous phase is reported. The porous carbon beads (Ys) prepared from the carbonation of poly(vinylidene chloride) were used as the support. This catalyst has a specific surface area of 1 000 m2/g, high mechanical strength and thermal stability. The average diameter of the pore is in the range of 0.8 - 1.2nm. Experimental evidence showed that this catalyst was of high activity and selectivity, which could compare to those of the homogeneous catalyst from Monsanto. The catalytic rate could get to 900 g AcOH/g Rh·h during the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid. The fine spreading of Ph over the Ys surface is the key factor for the activity.

  4. Rheological properties of magnetorheological fluid prepared by gelatin-carbonyl iron composite particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hua-jin; HUANG Hong-jun; ZHANG Ling-zhen; QI Jian-ying; CAO Shao-kun

    2005-01-01

    Gelatin-carbonyl iron composite particle was prepared by micro emulsion method. The analysis of scanning electron microscope(SEM) shows that the ultrafine particles are spheroids coated by gelatin, and the average sizes of particles are 3-10 μm. The specific saturation magnetization σs is 130.9 A·m2/kg, coercivity Hc is 0.823 A/m, and residual magnetism r is 4.98 Am2/kg for the composite particles. It is shown that the particles possess properties of soft magnetic. The yield stress of magnetorheological fluid(MRF) with composite particle reaches 70 kPa at 0.5 T magnetic induction. Magnetorheological effects are superior in lower magnetic field intensity and the subsidence stability of the MRF is excellent compared with pure carbonyl iron powder.

  5. Amino acid decarboxylations produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls in amino acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; León, M Mercedes; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-10-15

    The formation of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde in mixtures of phenylalanine, a lipid oxidation product, and a second amino acid was studied to determine the role of the second amino acid in the degradation of phenylalanine produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. The presence of the second amino acid usually increased the formation of the amine and reduced the formation of the Strecker aldehyde. The reasons for this behaviour seem to be related to the α-amino group and the other functional groups (mainly amino or similar groups) present in the side-chain of the amino acid. These groups are suggested to modify the lipid-derived reactive carbonyl but not the reaction mechanism because the Ea of formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde remained unchanged in all studied systems. All these results suggest that the amine/aldehyde ratio obtained by amino acid degradation can be modified by adding free amino acids during food formulation. PMID:27173560

  6. Influence of gamma radiation reaction on the hydroesterification of butenes catalyzed by metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hydro carboxylation reaction, which first has been studied by Reppe, olefine and acetylene compounds are processed with carbon monoxide and water at high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of metal carbonyls. This reaction can be enhanced considerably by application of ionizing radiation. Lower pressures and in particular lower temperatures can be used if gamma irradiation is performed during carboxylation. For the experiments a mixture of buten-1 and buten-2 as well as pure buten-1 and pure buten-2 has been used to study the behaviour of these olefines with respect to the isomerization of the reaction products and to the olefines not transformed in the reaction process. Replacing water, methanol has been used as a reaction component, thus obtaining directly the respective carbonyl acid esters, which can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively with respect to their isomeric composition by gaschromatography. (orig./HK)

  7. Design and fabrication of microfluidic mixer from carbonyl iron–PDMS composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jiaxing

    2010-10-12

    This paper introduces a carbonyl iron-PDMS (CI-PDMS) composite magnetic elastomer in which carbonyl iron (CI) particles are uniformly distributed in a PDMS matrix. The CI particles and the PDMS were mixed at different weight ratios and tested to determine the influence of CI concentration. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnetic elastomers were characterized, respectively, by vibrating-sample magnetometer and by tensile testing using a mechanical analyzer. The elastomer was found to exhibit high magnetization and good mechanical flexibility. The morphology and deformation of the CI-PDMS membrane also were observed. A magnetically actuated microfluidic mixer (that is, a micromixer) integrated with CI-PDMS elastomer membranes was successfully designed and fabricated. The high efficiency and quality of the mixing makes possible the impressive potential applications of this unique CI-PDMS material in microfluidic systems. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  8. Heme carbonyls: environmental effects on nu(C-O) and Fe-C/C-O bond length correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvernail, Nathan J; Roth, Arne; Schulz, Charles E; Noll, Bruce C; Scheidt, W Robert

    2005-10-19

    The synthesis and characterization of four low-spin (carbonyl)iron(II) tetraphenylporphyrinates, [Fe(TPP)(CO)(L)], where L = 1-methylimidazole, 2-methylimidazole, 1,2-dimethylimidazole (unsolvated), and 1,2-dimethylimidazole (toluene solvate) are reported. The complexes show nearly the same value of nu(C-O) in toluene solution (1969-72 cm(-1)) but a large range of CO stretching frequencies in the solid-state (1926-1968 cm(-1)). The large solid-state variation results from CO interactions in the solid state, as shown by an examination of the crystal structures of the four complexes. The high precision of the four structures obtained allows us to make a number of structural and spectroscopic correlations that describe the Fe-C-O and N(Im)-Fe-CO units. The values of nu(C-O) and the Fe-C and C-O bond distances are strongly correlated and provide a structural, as well as a spectroscopic, correlation of the pi back-bonding model. The interactions of CO described are closely related to the large range of CO stretching frequencies observed in heme proteins and specific interactions observed in carbonylmyoglobin (MbCO).

  9. The Pharmacological Activities of the Metabolites of N-[(Trimethylamineboryl)-Carbonyl]-L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M. C.III; Sood, A.; Spielvogel, B. F.; Shrewsbury, R. P.; Hall, I. H.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolites of N-[(trimethylamineboryl)-carbonyl]-L-phenylalanine methyl ester 1 proved to be active in a number of pharmacological screens where the parent had previously demonstrated potent activity. The proposed metabolites demonstrated significant activity as cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, and anti-inflammatory agents. In cytotoxicity screens several of the proposed metabolites afforded better activity than the parent compound against the growth of suspended and solid tumor cell lines. Eva...

  10. Kinetic studies on vapor phase carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid over Rh/Ys catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳忠阳; 潘平来; 朱长城; 袁国卿

    1997-01-01

    A novel catalyst Rh/Ys for the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid with CH3I as the promoter shows excellent activity and selectivity.The reaction is kinetically controlled.The reaction rate is in proportion to the concentration of Rh and CH3I but has nothing to do with those of CH3OHH and CO.The surface active energy is Ea ~51.02 kJ/mol.A mechanism is also proposed.

  11. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel N-Pyridylpyrazole Carbonyl Thioureas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝雷; 马翼; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel N-pyridylpyrazole carbonyl thioureas were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by melting points, 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis or HRMS. The bioassay tests indicated that some of these compounds exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against Mythirnna separata Walker and Culex pipiens pallens. Among 17 compounds, 5n and 5p showed 100% larvicidal activity against Mythimna separata Walker at the test concentration of 100 mg/L.

  12. Ionization of oriented carbonyl-sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Küpper, Jochen; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhøj, Line; Nielsen, Jens H; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl-sulphide molecules by circularly-polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molecular electric dipole moment. These findings are explained by a tunneling model invoking the laser-induced Stark shifts associated with the dipoles and polarizabilities of the molecule and its unrelaxed cation.

  13. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Mary E.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Berry, Joseph A; Berkelhammer, Max; Desai, Ankur R; Campbell, J. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil–COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been made show smal...

  14. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and various soils in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J; C. Geng; Mu, Y; Zhang, Y.; Z. Xu; Wu, H

    2010-01-01

    Using a dynamic enclosure, the exchange rates of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and 18 soils from 12 provinces in China were investigated. The emission or uptake of COS from the soils was highly dependent on the soil type, soil temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric COS mixing ratio. In general, with the only exception being paddy soils, the soils in this investigation acted as sinks for atmospheric COS under wide ranges of soil temperature and soil moisture. Two intensive...

  15. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in soils for better estimates of ecosystem carbon uptake

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Whelan; T. W. Hilton; J. A. Berry; M. Berkelhammer; A. R. Desai; Campbell, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil-COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been ...

  16. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and various soils in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J; C. Geng; Mu, Y; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H

    2009-01-01

    Using a dynamic enclosure, the exchange fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between the atmosphere and 18 soils from 10 provinces in China were investigated. The emission or uptake of COS from the soils was highly dependent on the soil type, soil temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric COS mixing ratio. In general, with the only exception being paddy soils, the soils in this investigation acted as sinks for atmospheric COS under wide ranges of soil temperature and soil moisture. Two i...

  17. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Regazzoni; Barbora de Courten; Davide Garzon; Alessandra Altomare; Cristina Marinello; Michaela Jakubova; Silvia Vallova; Patrik Krumpolec; Marina Carini; Jozef Ukropec; Barbara Ukropcova; Giancarlo Aldini

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, whi...

  18. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization for gaseous carbonyl analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Lewis, Alastair C; Ródenas-García, Milagros

    2013-06-28

    We present a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization technique for the analysis of gaseous carbonyl compounds using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) as the derivatizing reagent. The novel microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization technique has been developed to measure nmol per mole (ppbv) mixing ratios of gaseous carbonyl compounds, which are of particular importance to atmospheric chemistry. The technique utilised a planar glass microreactor comprising three inlets and one outlet, gas and fluid splitting and combining channels, mixing junctions, and a 2.0m long, 620μm internal diameter reaction microchannel. The microreactor integrated three functions, providing: (1) a gas and liquid mixer and reactor, (2) reagent heating, and (3) sample pre-concentration. The concentration of derivatization solution, the volumetric flow rates of the incoming gas sample and PFBHA solution, and the temperature of the microreactor were optimised to achieve a near real-time measurement. The enhanced phase contact area-to-volume ratio and the high heat transfer rate in the microreactor resulted in a fast and high efficiency derivatization reaction, generating an effluent stream which was ready for direct introduction to GC-MS. Good linearity was observed for eight carbonyl compounds over the measurement ranges of 1-500ppbv when they were derivatized under optimal reaction conditions. The method detection limits (MDLs) were below 0.10nmolmol(-1) for most carbonyls in this study, which is below or close to their typical concentrations in clean ambient air. The performance of the technique was assessed by applying the methodology to the quantification of glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) formed during isoprene photo-oxidation in an outdoor photoreactor chamber (EUPHORE). Good agreements between GLY and MGLY measurements were obtained comparing this new technique with Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR), which provides support for the potential effectiveness of

  19. Coupling Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds Mediated by Gallium Metal in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志勇; 袁仕祯; 查正根; 张祖德

    2003-01-01

    A simple and effective pinacol coupling of various aromatic aldehydes mediated by gallium in good yields has been carried out. The reaction is highly effective in water in the prurience of KOH or HCl and was strongly affected by the steric environ-ment surrounding the carbonyl group. Aliphaflc aldehydes, ke-tones and aromatic ketones appear inert under the same reac-tion conditions.

  20. Influence of shape anisotropy on microwave complex permeability in carbonyl iron flakes/epoxy resin composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Fu-Sheng; Qiao Liang; Zhou Dong; Zuo Wen-Liang; Yi Hai-Bo; Li Fa-Shen

    2008-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of carbonyl iron flake composites for microwave complex permeability, this paper investigates the feature of the flakes. The shape anisotropy was certified by the results of the magnetization hysteresis loops and the Mossbauer spectra. Furthermore, the shape anisotropy was used to explain the origin of composite microwave performance, and the calculated results agree with the experiment. It is believed that the shape anisotropy dominates microwave complex permeability, and the natural resonance plays main role in flake.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika; Souris

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks fo...

  2. Density functional theory study of electroreductive hydrocoupling of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Naoki

    2006-11-24

    [reaction: see text] The electroreductive hydrocoupling of methyl cinnamate, methyl crotonate, cumarin, and benzalacetone was studied by DFT (B3LYP/6-311++ G**) calculations. The computational outcomes for the transition states in the hydrocoupling of anion radicals generated by a one-electron transfer to the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds well agree with the diastereoselectivities in the experimental results previously reported. PMID:17109548

  3. Hydrogen bond and protonation during interaction of transition metal carbonyl complexes with HCl and perfluoro-tert-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of IR-spectrometry HCl interaction with some carbonyl complexes of transition metals: (Et5C5)Re(CO)3, (η6 - Me3C6H3)M(CO)3, where M = Cr, Mo, W at low temperatures in solution of liquid xenon, as well as interaction of certain complexes of Arene M (CO)L2 type with perfluoro-tert-butanol, have been investigated. It is ascertained that HCl is able to form H-bond with carbonyl Π-complexes by transition metals via oxygen atom of carbonyl group at metal atom in xenon solution. The protonation of carbonyl complexes of transition metals to metal atom can proceed via the stage of hydrogen bond formation to oxygen atom of CO group

  4. Synthesis, structural and vibrational properties of 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-halophenyl thioureas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Erben, Mauricio F.; Bolte, Michael

    2013-02-01

    1-(Adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)thiourea (1) and 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(2-bromo-4,6-difluorophenyl)thiourea (2) were synthesized by the reaction of adamantane-1-carbonyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate to afford the adamantane-1-carbonylisothiocyanate in situ followed by treatment with suitable halogenated anilines. The structures of the products were established by elemental analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Bond lengths and angles show the usual values. All of three condensed cyclohexane rings of the adamantane residues adopt the usual chair conformation. The molecular conformation of 1 and 2 is stabilized by an intramolecular (Nsbnd H⋯Odbnd C) hydrogen bond which forms a pseudo-six-membered ring. Structural features have been complemented with the joint analysis of the FTIR and FT-Raman spectra along with quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level.

  5. Effect of carbonyl inhibitors and their H₂O₂ detoxification on lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Caiqing; Tu, Maobing; Han, Pingping; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-04-01

    Biomass degradation compounds significantly inhibit biochemical conversion of biomass prehydrolysates to biofuels and chemicals, such as lactic acid. To characterize the structure-activity relationship of carbonyl inhibition on lactic acid fermentation, we examined effects of eight carbonyl compounds (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phthalaldehyde, benzoic acid, and pyrogallol aldehyde) and creosol on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Pyrogallol aldehyde reduced the cell growth rate by 35 % at 1.0 mM and inhibited lactic acid production completely at 2.0 mM. By correlating the molecular descriptors to the inhibition constants in lactic acid fermentation, we found a good relationship between the hydrophobicity (Log P) of aldehydes and their inhibition constants in fermentation. The inhibitory effect of carbonyl inhibitors appeared to correlate with their thiol reactivity as well. In addition, we found that H2O2 detoxified pyrogallol aldehyde and phthalaldehyde inhibitory activity. H2O2 detoxification was applied to real biomass prehydrolysates in lactic acid fermentation. PMID:25666370

  6. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species.

  7. Spatial distributions of and diurnal variations in low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater, and the controlling factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kazuhiko, E-mail: takedaq@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Katoh, Shinya; Mitsui, Yumi; Nakano, Shinichi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Nakatani, Nobutake [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai-Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We studied the spatial distributions of and the diurnal variations in four low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and glyoxal, in coastal seawater. The samples were taken from the coastal areas of Hiroshima Bay, the Iyo Nada, and the Bungo Channel, western Japan. The formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyoxal concentrations were higher in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay than at offshore sampling points in the Iyo Nada and the Bungo Channel. These three compounds were found at much higher concentrations in the surface water than in deeper water layers in Hiroshima Bay. It is noteworthy that propionaldehyde was not detected in any of the seawater samples, the concentrations present being lower than the detection limit (1 nanomole per liter (nM)) of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system we used. Photochemical and biological experiments were performed in the laboratory to help understand the characteristic distributions and fates of the LMW carbonyl compounds. The primary process controlling their fate in the coastal environment appears to be their biological consumption. The direct photo degradation of propionaldehyde, initiated by ultraviolet (UV) absorption, was observed, although formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not degraded by UV irradiation. Our results suggest that the degradation of the LMW carbonyl compounds by photochemically formed hydroxyl radicals is relatively insignificant in the study area. Atmospheric deposition is a possible source of soluble carbonyl compounds in coastal surface seawater, but it may not influence the carbonyl concentrations in offshore waters. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight (LMW) carbonyl compounds in coastal seawater were determined. • Photochemical productions of LMW carbonyl compounds in seawater were observed. • LMW carbonyl compounds were largely consumed biologically. • Photochemical degradation was relatively insignificant in the study area.

  8. Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ahmed A.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Orasche, J.; Abbaszade, G.; Lintelmann, J.; Arteaga-Salas, J. M.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Harndorf, H.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-09-01

    Gas phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from a research ship diesel engine at Rostock University, Germany. The ship engine was operated using two different types of fuels, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF). Sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using cartridges and impingers. Both sampling methods involved the derivatization of CCs with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by two analytical techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). Analysis of DNPH cartridges by GC-SIM-MS method has resulted in the identification of 19 CCs in both fuel operations. These CCs include ten aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, isobutanal, butanal, isopentanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, nonanal), three unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde), three aromatic aldehyde (benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde, m,o-molualdehyde), two ketones (acetone, butanone) and one heterocyclic aldehyde (furfural). In general, all CCs under investigation were detected with higher emission factors in HFO than DF. The total carbonyl emission factor was determined and found to be 6050 and 2300 μg MJ-1 for the operation with HFO and DF respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the dominant carbonyls in the gas phase of ship engine emission. Formaldehyde emissions factor varied from 3500 μg MJ-1 in HFO operation to 1540 μg MJ-1 in DF operation, which is 4-30 times higher than those of other carbonyls. Emission profile contribution of CCs showed also a different pattern between HFO and DF operation. The contribution of formaldehyde was found to be 58% of the emission profile of HFO and about 67% of the emission profile of DF. Acetaldehyde showed opposite behavior with higher contribution of 16% in HFO compared to 11% for DF. Heavier carbonyls

  9. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. PMID:27173550

  10. Recherches récentes sur le cobalt carbonyle et ses dérivés Recent Studies of Cobalt Carbonyl and Its Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Poilblanc R.; Attali S.; Arabi M. S.; Labroue D.; Maisonnat A.; De Montaurzon D.

    2006-01-01

    Faisant le point sur l'ensemble de leurs résultats obtenus au cours des dernières années, les auteurs développent divers aspects relatifs aux synthèses, à la physico-chimie et aux structures des complexes dérivés des cobalt carbonyle. L'étude concerne essentiellement : - les dérivés de simple substitution de l'octacarbonyle dicobalt et la tautomérie des complexes dinucléaires; - les dérivés mononucléaires ioniques et leur relation avec les formes alkyle et acétyle du cobalt (I); - le bis (tét...

  11. OPTIMAL HARVESTING CONTROL PROBLEM FOR LINEAR AGE-DEPENDENT POPULATION DYNAMICS%具有年龄结构的种群线性动力系统的最优收获控制问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒志学; 王绵森

    2003-01-01

    An optimal harvesting problem for linear age-dependent population dynamics is investigated.By Mazur's Theorem,the existence of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is demonstrated.The first order necessary conditions of optimality for problem (OH) is obtained by the conception of normal cone. Finally,under suitable assumptions,the uniqueness of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is given.The results extend some known criteria.

  12. In Vivo Microdialysis Reveals Age-Dependent Decrease of Brain Interstitial Fluid Tau Levels in P301S Human Tau Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kaoru; Cirrito, John R.; Stewart, Floy R; Jiang, Hong; Finn, Mary Beth; Holmes, Brandon B.; Binder, Lester I.; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Diamond, Marc I.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Holtzman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Although tau is a cytoplasmic protein, it is also found in brain extracellular fluids, e.g., CSF. Recent findings suggest that aggregated tau can be transferred between cells and extracellular tau aggregates might mediate spread of tau pathology. Despite these data, details of whether tau is normally released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), its concentration in ISF in relation to CSF, and whether ISF tau is influenced by its aggregation are unknown. To address these issues, we develo...

  13. Light-activation of the Archaerhodopsin H+-pump reverses age-dependent loss of vertebrate regeneration: sparking system-level controls in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Dany Spencer Adams; Ai-Sun Tseng; Michael Levin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Optogenetics, the regulation of proteins by light, has revolutionized the study of excitable cells, and generated strong interest in the therapeutic potential of this technology for regulating action potentials in neural and muscle cells. However, it is currently unknown whether light-activated channels and pumps will allow control of resting potential in embryonic or regenerating cells in vivo. Abnormalities in ion currents of non-excitable cells are known to play key roles in the et...

  14. Carbonyl compounds in dining areas, kitchens and exhaust streams in restaurants with varying cooking methods in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jen-Hsuan; Lee, Yi-Shiun; Chen, Kang-Shin

    2016-03-01

    Eighteen carbonyl species in C1-C10 were measured in the dining areas, kitchens and exhaust streams of six different restaurant types in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Measured results in the dining areas show that Japanese barbecue (45.06ppb) had the highest total carbonyl concentrations (sum of 18 compounds), followed by Chinese hotpot (38.21ppb), Chinese stir-frying (8.99ppb), Western fast-food (8.22ppb), Chinese-Western mixed style (7.38ppb), and Chinese buffet (3.08ppb), due to their different arrangements for dining and cooking spaces and different cooking methods. On average, low carbon-containing species (C1-C4), e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and butyraldehyde were dominant and contributed 55.01%-94.52% of total carbonyls in the dining areas of all restaurants. Meanwhile, Chinese-Western mixed restaurants (45.48ppb) had high total carbonyl concentrations in kitchens mainly because of its small kitchen and poor ventilation. However, high carbon-containing species (C5-C10) such as hexaldehyde, heptaldehyde and nonanaldehyde (16.62%-77.00% of total carbonyls) contributed comparatively with low carbon-containing compounds (23.01%-83.39% of total carbonyls) in kitchens. Furthermore, Chinese stir-frying (132.10ppb), Japanese barbecue (125.62ppb), Western fast-food (122.67ppb), and Chinese buffet (119.96ppb) were the four restaurant types with the highest total carbonyl concentrations in exhaust streams, indicating that stir-frying and grilling are inclined to produce polluted gases. Health risk assessments indicate that Chinese hotpot and Japanese barbecue exceeded the limits of cancer risk (10(-6)) and hazard index (=1), mainly due to high concentrations of formaldehyde. The other four restaurants were below both limits. PMID:26969068

  15. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppendieck, D. G.; Hubbard, H. F.; Weschler, C. J.; Corsi, R. L.

    Ozone concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than typical urban ambient concentrations are necessary for gas-phase ozonation of buildings, either for deodorization or for disinfection of biological agents. However, there is currently no published literature on the interaction of building materials and ozone under such extreme conditions. It would be useful to understand, for example in the case of building re-occupation planning, what types and amounts of reaction products may form and persist in a building after ozonation. In this study, 24 materials were exposed to ozone at concentrations of 1000 ppm in the inlet stream of experimental chambers. Fifteen target carbonyls were selected and measured as building ozonation by-products (BOBPs). During the 36 h that include the 16 h ozonation and 20 h persistence phase, the total BOBP mass released from flooring and wall coverings ranged from 1 to 20 mg m -2, with most of the carbonyls being of lower molecular weight (C 1-C 4). In contrast, total BOBP mass released from wood-based products ranged from 20 to 100 mg m -2, with a greater fraction of the BOBPs being heavier carbonyls (C 5-C 9). The total BOBP mass released during an ozonation event is a function of both the total surface area of the material and the BOBP emission rate per unit area of material. Ceiling tile, carpet, office partition, and gypsum wallboard with flat latex paint often have large surface areas in commercial buildings and these same materials exhibited relatively high BOBP releases. The greatest overall BOBP mass releases were observed for three materials that building occupants might have significant contact with: paper, office partition, and medium density fiberboard, e.g., often used in office furniture. These materials also exhibited extended BOBP persistence following ozonation; some BOBPs (e.g., nonanal) persist for months or more at emission rates large enough to result in indoor concentrations that exceed their odor

  16. Electrochemical Dissolution Behavior and the Residue Formation Mechanism of Laboratory Made Carbonyl Nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Why residue is formed during anodic dissolution of carbonyl nickel was explained. • Spatiotemporal pattern of pitting in anodic Ni dissolution was described. • The role of sulfur impurities on anodic Ni dissolution was explained. - Abstract: The anodic dissolution of two laboratory-made Ni samples obtained using the carbonyl method was investigated to understand the origin of residue formation in the anode basket in an electroplating tank. The first sample was obtained with 3 ppm addition of carbonyl sulfide to introduce a small amount of sulfur (CN-S sample). The second was obtained without sulfur impurities (CN sample). Linear sweep voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were applied to characterize the dissolution of these samples. The dissolution of the CN-S sample took place in the active region at low overpotentials. This behavior is determined by the presence of sulfur impurities that break down the passive layer and facilitate Ni dissolution. The CN sample without sulfur was dissolved at high overpotentials. The overpotential-time plots displayed regular large amplitude oscillations in which the overvoltage periodically moved between the transpassive and passive regimes. The anodic dissolution of this sample was controlled by two competing processes: breakdown and formation of the passive layer. Scanning electron microscopy and white light interference microscopy were applied to monitor the morphological changes of the two samples as a function of the dissolution time. The results of these studies showed that the CN-S sample dissolved uniformly across the surface. However, the roughness and the aspect ratio of the protruding features on the surface increased with time. This sample produced a fine residue due to detachment of small protruding crystallites. In contrast, the dissolution of the CN sample involved pit formation and took place predominantly from the bulk of the pits. The dissolution of this sample left a porous skeleton of more

  17. Sol–gel method as a way of carbonyl iron powder surface modification for interaction improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, P., E-mail: pawel.malecki@pwr.edu.pl [Polymer Engineering and Technology Division, W-3, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50 370 Wrocław (Poland); Kolman, K.; Pigłowski, J. [Polymer Engineering and Technology Division, W-3, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50 370 Wrocław (Poland); Kaleta, J. [Department of Mechanics, Materials Science and Engineering, W-10, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Krzak, J., E-mail: justyna.krzak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Mechanics, Materials Science and Engineering, W-10, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    This article presents a method for modification of carbonyl iron particles’ surface (CIP), (d{sub 50}=4–9 µm) by silica coatings obtained using the sol–gel method. Reaction parameters were determined to obtain dry magnetic powder with homogeneous silica coatings without further processing and without any by-product in the solid or liquid phase. This approach is new among the commonly used methods of silica coating of iron particles. No attempt has been made to cover a carbonyl iron surface by silica in a waste-free method, up to date. In the current work two different silica core/shell structures were made by the sol–gel process, based on different silica precursors: tetraethoxy-silane (TEOS) and tetramethoxy-silane (TMOS). The dependence between the synthesis procedure and thickness of silica shell covering carbonyl iron particles has been described. Surface morphology of the modified magnetic particles and the coating thickness were characterized with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determination of the physicochemical structure of the obtained materials was performed by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), and the infrared technique (IR). The surface composition was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, distribution of particle size was measured using light microscopy. The new, efficient process of covering micro-size CIP with a nanometric silica layer was shown. Results of a performed analysis confirm the effectiveness of the presented method. - Highlights: • Proper covering CIP by sol–gel silica layer avoids agglomeration. • A new solid waste-free method of CIP coating is proposed. • Examination of the properties of modified CIP in depends on washing process. • Coatings on CIP particles doesn’t change the magnetic properties of particles.

  18. Age-dependent impact of CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel deletion on myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilatation in small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miriam F; Björling, Karl; Jensen, Lars Jørn

    2016-01-01

    , structural remodeling, and mRNA + protein expression in small mesenteric arteries from CaV 3.2 knock-out vs. wild-type mice at young vs. mature adult age. In young mice, only, deletion of CaV 3.2 led to enhanced myogenic response and ∼50 % reduction of flow-mediated vasodilatation. Ni(2+) had both CaV 3.......2-dependent and -independent effects. No changes in mRNA expression of several important K(+) and Ca(2+) channel genes were induced by CaV 3.2 knock-out. However, the expression of the other T-type channel isoform (CaV 3.1) was reduced at the mRNA and protein level in mature adult compared to young WT...... arteries. Our study shows important roles of the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilation that disappear with aging. Since increased arterial tone is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease we conclude that CaV 3.2 channels, by modulating pressure- and flow...

  19. Electromagnetic properties of carbonyl iron and their microwave absorbing characterization as filler in silicone rubber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuping Duan; Guofang Li; Lidong Liu; Shunhua Liu

    2010-10-01

    The complex permittivity, permeability and microwave-absorbing properties of rubber composites filled with carbonyl iron are measured at frequencies from 2–18 GHz. The results indicate that the reflection loss peak shifts towards low frequency region with increasing layer thickness or increasing weight concentration. The minimum reflection loss value of –23.06 dB was obtained at 3.3 GHz for the composites with 80% wt. These results show that the composites possess good microwave absorbing ability in both low- and highfrequency bands.

  20. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC; Determinacion de compuestos carbonilicos en aire por HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-07-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak Cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetoacetonitrile. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Calculation of High Frequency Complex Permeability of Carbonyl Iron Flakes in a Nomagnetic Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fu-Sheng; QIAO Liang; YI Hai-Bo; ZHOU Dong; LI Fa-Shen

    2008-01-01

    The carbonyl iron flakes are fabricated by high-energy ball milling.The effective permeability is measured and calculated for the composite consisting of flakes embedded in a nonmagnetic matrix.The magnetic flakes with a shape anisotropy and random spatial distribution of normal direction are considered to calculate the complex permeability of magnetic flake materials.Its analytical model is derived from the Landau-Lifshitz- Gilbert equation and Bruggeman's effective medium theory.The calculated results agree well with the experiment.

  2. Non-Enzymatic Modification of Aminophospholipids by Carbonyl-Amine Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinald Pamplona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-enzymatic modification of aminophospholipids by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes and reducing sugars through carbonyl-amine reactions are thought to contribute to the age-related deterioration of cellular membranes and to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Much evidence demonstrates the modification of aminophospholipids by glycation, glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions. Therefore, a number of early and advanced Maillard reaction-lipid products have been detected and quantified in different biological membranes. These modifications may be accumulated during aging and diabetes, introducing changes in cell membrane physico-chemical and biological properties.

  3. A green synthesis of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from glyceraldehyde acetonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia O. Veloso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic behavior of Cs-exchanged and Cs-impregnated zeolites (X and Y was studied using the Knoevenagel condensation between glyceraldehyde acetonide and ethyl acetoacetate in order to produce the corresponding α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that is an important intermediate for fine chemicals. The influence of reaction temperature, type of zeolite, and basicity of the sites on the catalytic behavior of the samples was evaluated. All zeolites were active for the studied reaction. The formation of the main condensation product was favored at lower reaction temperatures. Products of further condensations were also observed especially for samples that were only dried before catalytic test.

  4. Multiband microwave absorption films based on defective multiwalled carbon nanotubes added carbonyl iron/acrylic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yong, E-mail: liyong1897@163.co [Institute of Naval Logistic Technology and Equipment of PLA, Beijing 100072 (China); Chen Changxin, E-mail: chen.c.x@sjtu.edu.c [National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Pan Xiaoyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ni Yuwei; Zhang Song; Huang, Jie [Institute of Naval Logistic Technology and Equipment of PLA, Beijing 100072 (China); Chen Da; Zhang Yafei [National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-05-01

    Defective multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were introduced to the carbonyl iron (CI) based composites to improve its microwave absorption by a simple ultrasonic mixing process. The electromagnetic parameters were measured in the 2-18 GHz range. Microwave absorption of CI based composites with 2 mm in thickness was evidently enhanced by adding as little as 1.0 wt% defective MWCNTs with two well separated absorption peaks exceeding -20 dB, as compared with that of pure CI based and defective MWCNTs composites. The enhancement mechanism is thought due to the interaction and better electromagnetic match between defective MWCNTs and ferromagnetic CI particles.

  5. Elevated Levels of Carbonyl Compounds in the Atmosphere of Eastern Himalaya in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, C.; Chatterjee, A.; Majumdar, D.; Raha, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Srivastava, A.

    2015-12-01

    A first ever study on atmospheric carbonyl compounds (CC) were made over eastern Himalaya in India. Samples were collected over a high altitude hill station, Darjeeling (27.01°N, 88.15°E, 2200 masl) during 2011-2012. It is well known that CC have toxic and carcinogenic properties as well as they have important effects on regional climate. Therefore their presence in the environment is of great concern especially for the Himalayan region because of the ecological and geographical importance of the area. The average annual concentration of total CCs was 293.3 ± 463.9 μgm-3 with maximum during post monsoon (1104.8 ± 568.0 μgm-3) and minimum during winter season (72.2 ± 42.9 μgm-3). Darjeeling experiences huge emissions of carbonaceous pollutants from massive influx of tourists during premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons. Though the emission strength could be comparable, the loss of carbonyls from the atmosphere could be due to photochemical degradation under high solar insolation during premonsoon. Acetone was most abundant species with an annual average concentration of 200.8±352.9 μgm-3 with 70 % contribution to the total CCs measured. Interestingly, acetone over Darjeeling was found to be much higher than most of the metropolitan cities in the world. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde ratio (1.64 ± 1.43) over Darjeeling is a good representation of a typical urban atmosphere at this high altitude over this part of Himalaya. High carbonyl concentration over eastern Himalaya compared to other megacities across the globe could be attributed to uncontrolled activities related to development in tourism, high population density and moreover it's unique orography and land use pattern with narrow roads, unplanned township etc. The unscientific treatment of human and animal and other domestic waste is another major concern which significantly contribute to carbonyl and other carbonaceous pollutants over this part of Himalaya.

  6. LASER-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION OF METAL CARBONYLS FOR CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF MICROSTRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Tonneau, D.; Auvert, G.; Pauleau, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten and nickel carbonyls were used to produce metal microstructures by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on various substrates. The deposition rate of microstructures produced by thermodecomposition of W(CO)6 on Si substrates heated with a cw Ar+ laser beam was relatively low (10 to 30 nm/s) even at high temperatures (above 900°C). Ni microstructures were deposited on quartz substrates irradiated with a CO2 laser beam. Relatively high laser powers were needed to heat the Ni s...

  7. Carbonyl sulfide detection with a thermoelectrically cooled midinfrared quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Chad; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Tittel, Frank K.; Uehara, Kiyoji; Gmachl, Claire; Sivco, Deborah L.

    2003-11-01

    A compact absorption spectrometer with a midinfrared tunable quantum cascade laser operating at 4.86 μm (2054 cm-1) is used to measure lower concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in air. A detection sensitivity of ~30 parts in 109 of COS and the selectivity of two stable isotopes, 12C16O32S and 12C16O34S, are demonstrated. Specifically, the feasibility of detecting COS in expired human breath as a potential noninvasive medical diagnostic tool is investigated.

  8. STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A BIDENTATE POLYMER BOUND CIS-DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX AS CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhongyang; PAN Pinglai; YUAN Guoqing

    1996-01-01

    Copolymer of 2-vinylpyridine and vinylacetate coordinated with dicarbonylrhodium used as a catalyst for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and anhydride has been studied. The structural characteristics of the copolymer ligand and complex, and the influences of the reaction conditions on the carbonylation catalyzed by this polymer complex have been investigated. In comparison with small molecule catalyst of Rh complex, the bidentate copolymer coordinated complex has better thermal stability. The reaction mechanism of the carbonylation reaction is also illustrated.

  9. Determination of gaseous and particulate carbonyls (glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nonanal and decanal in the atmosphere at Mt. Tai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous and particulate semi-volatile carbonyl compounds were determined every three hours in the atmosphere of Mount Tai (elevation, 1534 m in the North China Plain during 2–5, 23–24 and 25 June, 2006 under a clear sky condition. Using two-step filter cartridge in a series, particulate carbonyls were first collected on a quartz filter and then gaseous carbonyls were collected on a quartz filter impregnated with O-benzylhydroxylamine (BHA. After the two-step derivatization with BHA and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA, carbonyl derivatives were measured using a gas chromatography. The gaseous concentrations were obtained as follow: glycolaldehyde (range 0–1271 ng m−3, average 555 ng m−3, hydroxyacetone (0–707 ng m−3, 163 ng m−3, glyoxal (198–1396 ng m−3, 720 ng m−3, methylglyoxal (410–3170 ng m−3, 1376 ng m−3, n-nonanal (0–236 ng m−3, 71 ng m−3, and n-decanal (0–159 ng m−3, 31 ng m−3. These concentrations are among the highest ever reported in the urban and forest atmosphere. We found that gaseous carbonyls are more than 10 times more abundant than particulate carbonyls. Time-resolved variations of carbonyls did not show any a clear diurnal pattern, except for hydroxyacetone. We found that glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde positively correlated with levoglucosan (a tracer of biomass burning, suggesting that a contribution from field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat crops is significant for the bifunctional carbonyls in the atmosphere of Mt. Tai. Upward transport of the pollutants to the mountaintop from the low lands in the North China Plain is a major process to control the distributions of carbonyls in the upper atmosphere over Mt. Tai.

  10. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to utilize methyl acetate, a potential feedstock derived by carbonylation of methanol with CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Seungjung; Um, Youngsoon; Han, Sung Ok; Woo, Han Min

    2016-04-20

    The possibilities to utilize one-carbon substrates (C1) like CO, methane and methanol have been explored as a cheap alternative feedstock in the biotechnology. For the first time, methyl acetate (MeOAc), which can be formed from carbonylation of methanol with CO, was demonstrated to be an alternative carbon source for the cell growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model microbial cell factory. To do so, a carboxyl esterase activity was necessary to hydrolyze MeOAc to methanol and acetate. Although the wild-type has an unknown esterase activity to MeOAc, the activity was not high enough to grow from 270mM MeOAc as sole carbon source, reaching OD600 of 5.28±0.2 in 32h. Based on the literatures studied for the esterase, we chose three esterases (MekB of Pseudomonas veronii MEK700, AcmB of Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5, and Est of Pyrobaculum calidifontis VA1) and cloned into the wild-type. As a result, the recombinant C. glutamicum expressing the highly active MekB esterase (28.6±0.77U/mg protein) showed complete degradation of MeOAc and utilization of acetate, resulting in OD600 of 16.5±0.02at 24h. In addition, the recombinant strain exhibited the rapid degradation of MeOAc to methanol and acetate in 2h under anaerobic condition. Therefore, MeOAc can be used as another C1-derived carbon source in the biotechnology. PMID:26970052

  11. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Granold; Bernd Moosmann; Irina Staib-Lasarzik; Thomas Arendt; Adriana del Rey; Kristin Engelhard; Christian Behl; Parvana Hajieva

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old anim...

  12. CO dissociation on Ni: The effect of steps and of nickel carbonyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Lytken, Ole; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk;

    2008-01-01

    The dissociation of CO was investigated on a stepped Ni(141313) crystal. The experiments show that the monoatomic steps completely dominate the dissociation of CO on the nickel surface. The activation energy for dissociation of CO along the steps is measured at 500 K to be 150 kJ/mol in the press......The dissociation of CO was investigated on a stepped Ni(141313) crystal. The experiments show that the monoatomic steps completely dominate the dissociation of CO on the nickel surface. The activation energy for dissociation of CO along the steps is measured at 500 K to be 150 k......J/mol in the pressure range 1-7 X 10(-6) mbar CO. Poisoning the steps by preadsorbing 0.05 ML sulfur, the dissociation rate was reduced by more than a factor of 50 clearly providing evidence for the step activity. Furthermore, by deliberately adding remote amounts of nickel carbonyl (0.25%) to the CO gas, it is shown...... that the dissociation probability of CO is increased by a factor of 60 compared to when using a purified CO gas. This clearly demonstrates the importance of avoiding nickel carbonyl when CO dissociation is studied. CO dissociation is important because it is believed to be the rate limiting step in methanation...

  13. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  14. Impact of silica-coating on the microwave absorption properties of carbonyl iron powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave absorption properties, especially the band width and depth of reflection loss are highlighted as key measurement in studies of microwave absorber. In order to improve the band width and depth of reflection loss of carbonyl iron powder (CIP), we prepared SiO2 layers on the surface of CIP by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a SiO2 source and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a surface modifier. SiO2 layer was formed by the hydrolysis of TEOS. The results show that after treatment the CIP is covered by a 5–10 nm coating layer. Contrast to uncoated samples, coated samples show improved absorption properties. The minimum of reflection loss is −38.8 dB at 11 GHz and the band width of reflection loss exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz. - Highlights: • Silica coatings were prepared on the surface of carbonyl iron powder. • Coating layers were identified by several ways. • We discussed the absorbing mechanism of coated samples. • Reflection loss was significantly improved, the width of RL exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz

  15. Analysis of the carbonyl group stretching vibrations in some structural fragments of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsevich, George A; Doroshenko, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The structure and the medium effects exerted on the spectral characteristics of the carbonyl group stretching vibrations in some structural fragments of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate have been analyzed. Calculations of the equilibrium configurations and IR spectra were carried out using the Gaussian program set in the approximation B3LYP/cc-pVDZ. It has been shown that typical bending of the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate chain is observed with an increase in the number of structural units. In order to explain the difference between the calculated and experimental frequencies of the C=O group stretching vibrations, the calculations of the potential energy curve associated with variations in the length of C=O bond and the subsequent numerical solution of a one-dimensional vibrational Schr\\"odinger equation have been performed. The medium effects have been taken into account within the scope of a polarizable continuum model. Owing to the inclusion of the above-mentioned factors, which affect frequencies of the carbonyl groups...

  16. Impact of silica-coating on the microwave absorption properties of carbonyl iron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. [School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Feng, W.J., E-mail: wjfeng@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metal, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Wang, J.S.; Zhao, X.; Zheng, W.Q. [School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Yang, H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metal, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Microwave absorption properties, especially the band width and depth of reflection loss are highlighted as key measurement in studies of microwave absorber. In order to improve the band width and depth of reflection loss of carbonyl iron powder (CIP), we prepared SiO{sub 2} layers on the surface of CIP by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a SiO{sub 2} source and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a surface modifier. SiO{sub 2} layer was formed by the hydrolysis of TEOS. The results show that after treatment the CIP is covered by a 5–10 nm coating layer. Contrast to uncoated samples, coated samples show improved absorption properties. The minimum of reflection loss is −38.8 dB at 11 GHz and the band width of reflection loss exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz. - Highlights: • Silica coatings were prepared on the surface of carbonyl iron powder. • Coating layers were identified by several ways. • We discussed the absorbing mechanism of coated samples. • Reflection loss was significantly improved, the width of RL exceeding −10 dB is from 8 GHz to 14 GHz.

  17. Penicitroamide, an Antimicrobial Metabolite with High Carbonylization from the Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. (NO. 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Wei Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penicitroamide (1, a new metabolite with a new framework, was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth medium of Penicillium sp. (NO. 24. The endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. (NO. 24 was obtained from the healthy leaves of Tapiscia sinensis Oliv. The structure of penicitroamide (1 features a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane core unit with a high degree of carbonylization (four carbonyl groups and one enol group. The chemical structure of penicitroamide (1 was elucidated by analysis of 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS data. In bioassays, penicitroamide (1 displayed antibacterial potency against two plant pathogens, Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Jones Bersey, et al. and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. with MIC50 at 45 and 50 μg/mL. Compound 1 also showed 60% lethality against brine shrimp at 10 μg/mL. Penicitroamide (1 exhibited no significant activity against A549, Caski, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 > 50 μg/mL. Finally, the possible biosynthetic pathway of penicitroamide (1 was discussed.

  18. Preparation and biological behaviour of some neutral [sup 99m]Tc-carbonyl dithiocarbamates showing rapid hepatobiliary excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldas, John; Bonnyman, John (Australian Radiation Lab., Yallambie (Australia))

    1992-10-01

    A simple procedure for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc-carbonyl complexes of dithiocarbamates in high yield and radiochemical purity has been developed and used for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc-carbonyl complexes of bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamate and bis(2-hydroxypropyl)dithiocarbamate. These complexes were found to be extremely stable and their biological behaviour was studied in mice and compared to that of the [sup 99m]TcN- and the [sup 99m]Tc-complexes [prepared by dithionite (dit) reduction] of the same ligands. The carbonyl complexes were found to be efficient hepatobiliary agents and cleared more rapidly than the corresponding [sup 99m]TcN- and [sup 99m]Tc(dit)-complexes. (Author).

  19. Model of In Situ Composite of Cobalt(Ⅱ)-Phthalocyanine and Carbonyl Iron for Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cobalt-phthalocyanine/iron nanocomposite particles have been obtained using method of composite in situ,with the mixture of carbonyl iron and solution of cobalt(Ⅱ)-phthalocyanine (Co-Pc) ultrasonic dispersing in N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF).Structure characterization of their inner and surface have relation with method of carbonyl iron joined in the mixture,contents of carbonyl iron and Co-Pc in the mixture of Co-Pc ultrasonic dispersing in DMF.With a method of composite in situ controlling reasonable experiment condition,it can be obtained that cobalt-phthalocyanine/iron nanocomposite particles has completely been covered with Co-Pc,they had structure of Chinese gooseberry in inner and mere made up of almost regular spherical shape and the average diameter is 1.4 μm.

  20. Infrared Photodissociation Spectra of Mass-Selected Homoleptic Dinuclear Palladium Carbonyl Cluster Cations in the Gas Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洁铭; 邢小鹏; 池超贤; 王冠军; 刘智攀; 周鸣飞

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectra of mass-selected homoleptic dinuclear palladium carbonyl cluster cations Pd2(CO)n (n=5 8) are measured via infrared photodissociation spectroscopy in the carbonyl stretching frequency region. The structures are established by comparison of the experimental spectra with simulated spectra derived from density functional calculations. The Pd2(CO)+ cation is characterized to have two weakly semibridging CO groups with C2 symmetry. The Pd2(CO)6+ and Pd2(CO)7+ cations are determined to involve one weakly semibridging CO group. The Pd2(CO)8+ cation is a CO coordination saturated cluster, which is determined to have a D2d structure with all of the carbonyl groups terminally bonded. Bonding analysis indicates that these cluster cations each has a Pd--Pd half bond. The Pd--Pd distance increases with the number of CO ligands.

  1. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  2. Sulfur isotopic analysis of carbonyl sulfide and its application for biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shohei; Kamezaki, Kazuki; Ogawa, Takahiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Katayama, Yoko; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS or COS) is the most abundant gas containing sulfur in the atmosphere, with an average mixing ratio of 500 p.p.t.v. in the troposphere. OCS is suggested as a sulfur source of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) which plays an important role in Earth's radiation budget and ozone depletion. Therefore, OCS budget should be validated for prediction of climate change, but the global OCS budget is imbalance. Recently we developed a promising new analytical method for measuring the stable sulfur isotopic compositions of OCS using nanomole level samples: the direct isotopic analytical technique of on-line gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) using fragmentation ions S+ (Hattori et al., 2015). The first measurement of the δ34S value for atmospheric OCS coupled with isotopic fractionation for OCS sink reactions in the stratosphere (Hattori et al., 2011; Schmidt et al., 2012; Hattori et al., 2012) explains the reported δ34S value for background stratospheric sulfate, suggesting that OCS is a potentially important source for background (nonepisodic or nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. This new method measuring δ34S values of OCS can be used to investigate OCS sources and sinks in the troposphere to better understand its cycle. It is known that some microorganisms in soil can degrade OCS, but the mechanism and the contribution to the OCS in the air are still uncertain. In order to determine sulfur isotopic enrichment factor of OCS during degradation via microorganisms, incubation experiments were conducted using strains belonging to the genera Mycobacterium, Williamsia and Cupriavidus, isolated from natural soil environments (Kato et al., 2008). As a result, sulfur isotope ratios of OCS were increased during degradation of OCS, indicating that reaction for OC32S is faster than that for OC33S and OC34S. OCS degradation via microorganisms is not mass-independent fractionation (MIF) process, suggesting that this

  3. Gas/particle partitioning of carbonyls in the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A new denuder-filter sampling technique has been used to investigate the gas/particle partitioning behaviour of the carbonyl products from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. A series of experiments was performed in two atmospheric simulation chambers at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature in the presence of NOx and at a relative humidity of approximately 50%. The denuder and filter were both coated with the derivatizing agent O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl-hydroxylamine (PFBHA to enable the efficient collection of gas- and particle-phase carbonyls respectively. The tubes and filters were extracted and carbonyls identified as their oxime derivatives by GC-MS. The carbonyl products identified in the experiments accounted for around 5% and 10% of the mass of secondary organic aerosol formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene respectively.

    Experimental gas/particle partitioning coefficients were determined for a wide range of carbonyl products formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and compared with the theoretical values based on standard absorptive partitioning theory. Photooxidation products with a single carbonyl moiety were not observed in the particle phase, but dicarbonyls, and in particular, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, exhibited gas/particle partitioning coefficients several orders of magnitude higher than expected theoretically. These findings support the importance of heterogeneous chemistry as a pathway for SOA formation and growth during the atmospheric degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons.

  4. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Gas-Phase Reaction of Selected Carbonyls with Cl Atoms between 250 and 340 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, A. S.; Algrim, L.; Abdelhamid, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonyls are important products from the gas phase degradation of most volatile organic compounds. Their atmospheric reactions therefore have a significant impact on atmospheric composition, particularly in aged air masses. While the reactions of short-chain linear carbonyls are well understood, the chemistry of larger (> C6) and branched carbonyl is more uncertain. To provide insight into these reactions, the reactions of three carbonyls (methyl isopropyl ketone, MIK; di-isopropyl ketone, DIK; and diethyl ketone, DEK) with chlorine atoms were investigated between 250 and 340 K and 1 atm in the presence and absence of NOx and an HO2 source (methanol). Experiments were performed in a photochemical reactor using a combination of long-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The kinetics were studied using the relative rate technique with butanone and isopropanol as the reference compounds. The Arrhenius expression for the three rate coefficients was determined to be k(DEK+Cl) = 3.87 x 10-11e(2 × 7 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , k(MIPK+Cl) = 7.20 x 10-11e(0.2× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 , and k(DIPK+Cl) = 3.33 x 10-10e(-3× 8 kJ/mol)/RT cm3 molecules-1 s-1 . Measured reaction products accounted for 38-72 % of the reacted carbon and were consistent with strong deactivation of the carbon atom adjacent to the carbonyl group with respect to H-atom abstraction by Cl atoms. The product distributions also provide insight into radical recycling from the organic peroxy + HO2 reaction, and the relative rates of isomerization, fragmentation and reaction with O2 for carbonyl-containing alkoxy radicals. Implications of these results will be discussed.

  5. Methane to acetic acid over Cu-exchanged zeolites: mechanistic insights from a site-specific carbonylation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimhan, Karthik; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Mathies, Guinevere; Gunther, William R; Griffin, Robert G; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-02-11

    The selective low temperature oxidation of methane is an attractive yet challenging pathway to convert abundant natural gas into value added chemicals. Copper-exchanged ZSM-5 and mordenite (MOR) zeolites have received attention due to their ability to oxidize methane into methanol using molecular oxygen. In this work, the conversion of methane into acetic acid is demonstrated using Cu-MOR by coupling oxidation with carbonylation reactions. The carbonylation reaction, known to occur predominantly in the 8-membered ring (8MR) pockets of MOR, is used as a site-specific probe to gain insight into important mechanistic differences existing between Cu-MOR and Cu-ZSM-5 during methane oxidation. For the tandem reaction sequence, Cu-MOR generated drastically higher amounts of acetic acid when compared to Cu-ZSM-5 (22 vs 4 μmol/g). Preferential titration with sodium showed a direct correlation between the number of acid sites in the 8MR pockets in MOR and acetic acid yield, indicating that methoxy species present in the MOR side pockets undergo carbonylation. Coupled spectroscopic and reactivity measurements were used to identify the genesis of the oxidation sites and to validate the migration of methoxy species from the oxidation site to the carbonylation site. Our results indicate that the Cu(II)-O-Cu(II) sites previously associated with methane oxidation in both Cu-MOR and Cu-ZSM-5 are oxidation active but carbonylation inactive. In turn, combined UV-vis and EPR spectroscopic studies showed that a novel Cu(2+) site is formed at Cu/Al <0.2 in MOR. These sites oxidize methane and promote the migration of the product to a Brønsted acid site in the 8MR to undergo carbonylation. PMID:25562431

  6. Myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation promotes the oxidative modification of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Magon, Nicholas J; Harwood, D Tim; Kettle, Anthony J; Vissers, Margreet C; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2015-04-10

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation. PMID:25697357

  7. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  8. Light-activation of the Archaerhodopsin H(+)-pump reverses age-dependent loss of vertebrate regeneration: sparking system-level controls in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dany Spencer; Tseng, Ai-Sun; Levin, Michael

    2013-03-15

    Optogenetics, the regulation of proteins by light, has revolutionized the study of excitable cells, and generated strong interest in the therapeutic potential of this technology for regulating action potentials in neural and muscle cells. However, it is currently unknown whether light-activated channels and pumps will allow control of resting potential in embryonic or regenerating cells in vivo. Abnormalities in ion currents of non-excitable cells are known to play key roles in the etiology of birth defects and cancer. Moreover, changes in transmembrane resting potential initiate Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration, including regrowth of a functioning spinal cord, in tails that have been inhibited by natural inactivity of the endogenous H(+)-V-ATPase pump. However, existing pharmacological and genetic methods allow neither non-invasive control of bioelectric parameters in vivo nor the ability to abrogate signaling at defined time points. Here, we show that light activation of a H(+)-pump can prevent developmental defects and induce regeneration by hyperpolarizing transmembrane potentials. Specifically, light-dependent, Archaerhodopsin-based, H(+)-flux hyperpolarized cells in vivo and thus rescued Xenopus embryos from the craniofacial and patterning abnormalities caused by molecular blockade of endogenous H(+)-flux. Furthermore, light stimulation of Arch for only 2 days after amputation restored regenerative capacity to inhibited tails, inducing cell proliferation, tissue innervation, and upregulation of notch1 and msx1, essential genes in two well-known endogenous regenerative pathways. Electroneutral pH change, induced by expression of the sodium proton exchanger, NHE3, did not rescue regeneration, implicating the hyperpolarizing activity of Archaerhodopsin as the causal factor. The data reveal that hyperpolarization is required only during the first 48 hours post-injury, and that expression in the spinal cord is not necessary for the effect to occur. Our study

  9. Light-activation of the Archaerhodopsin H+-pump reverses age-dependent loss of vertebrate regeneration: sparking system-level controls in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Spencer Adams

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetics, the regulation of proteins by light, has revolutionized the study of excitable cells, and generated strong interest in the therapeutic potential of this technology for regulating action potentials in neural and muscle cells. However, it is currently unknown whether light-activated channels and pumps will allow control of resting potential in embryonic or regenerating cells in vivo. Abnormalities in ion currents of non-excitable cells are known to play key roles in the etiology of birth defects and cancer. Moreover, changes in transmembrane resting potential initiate Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration, including regrowth of a functioning spinal cord, in tails that have been inhibited by natural inactivity of the endogenous H+-V-ATPase pump. However, existing pharmacological and genetic methods allow neither non-invasive control of bioelectric parameters in vivo nor the ability to abrogate signaling at defined time points. Here, we show that light activation of a H+-pump can prevent developmental defects and induce regeneration by hyperpolarizing transmembrane potentials. Specifically, light-dependent, Archaerhodopsin-based, H+-flux hyperpolarized cells in vivo and thus rescued Xenopus embryos from the craniofacial and patterning abnormalities caused by molecular blockade of endogenous H+-flux. Furthermore, light stimulation of Arch for only 2 days after amputation restored regenerative capacity to inhibited tails, inducing cell proliferation, tissue innervation, and upregulation of notch1 and msx1, essential genes in two well-known endogenous regenerative pathways. Electroneutral pH change, induced by expression of the sodium proton exchanger, NHE3, did not rescue regeneration, implicating the hyperpolarizing activity of Archaerhodopsin as the causal factor. The data reveal that hyperpolarization is required only during the first 48 hours post-injury, and that expression in the spinal cord is not necessary for the effect to occur. Our study shows that

  10. Post-Electrophoretic Identification of Oxidized Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Craig

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative modification of proteins has been shown to play a major role in a number of human diseases. However, the ability to identify specific proteins that are most susceptible to oxidative modifications is difficult. Separation of proteins using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE offers the analytical potential for the recovery, amino acid sequencing, and identification of thousands of individual proteins from cells and tissues. We have developed a method to allow underivatized proteins to be electroblotted onto PVDF membranes before derivatization and staining. Since both the protein and oxidation proteins are quantifiable, the specific oxidation index of each protein can be determined. The optimal sequence and conditions for the staining process are (a electrophoresis, (b electroblotting onto PVDF membranes, (c derivatization of carbonyls with 2,4-DNP, (d immunostaining with anti DNP antibody, and (e protein staining with colloidal gold.

  11. Phenotypic and genetic consequences of protein damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Krisko

    Full Text Available Although the genome contains all the information necessary for maintenance and perpetuation of life, it is the proteome that repairs, duplicates and expresses the genome and actually performs most cellular functions. Here we reveal strong phenotypes of physiological oxidative proteome damage at the functional and genomic levels. Genome-wide mutations rates and biosynthetic capacity were monitored in real time, in single Escherichia coli cells with identical levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage, but with different levels of irreversible oxidative proteome damage (carbonylation. Increased protein carbonylation correlates with a mutator phenotype, whereas reducing it below wild type level produces an anti-mutator phenotype identifying proteome damage as the leading cause of spontaneous mutations. Proteome oxidation elevates also UV-light induced mutagenesis and impairs cellular biosynthesis. In conclusion, protein damage reduces the efficacy and precision of vital cellular processes resulting in high mutation rates and functional degeneracy akin to cellular aging.

  12. Effects of postmortem delays on protein composition and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElHajj, Zeinab; Cachot, Amélie; Müller, Terry; Riederer, Irène M; Riederer, Beat M

    2016-03-01

    Human autopsy brain tissue is widely used to study neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other diseases. However, when it comes to an evaluation of data obtained from such tissue, it is essential to consider potential postmortem effects on protein composition, posttranslational modification and proteolysis with increasing postmortem delays. In this study, we analyzed mouse brain tissues with different postmortem delays (pmd) of 0 h, 6h and 24h, for changes in protein composition, proteolysis and modifications such as S-nitrosylation, carbonylation and ubiquitination. Proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) were of special interest, including cytoskeletal and synaptic proteins or proteins involved in inflammation. Several proteins were fairly resistant to degradation during the first 6h but started to degrade thereafter. S-nitrosylation and carbonylation showed not much variation, except for those proteins that were susceptible to degradation. Brain spectrin was S-nitrosylated at death, and S-nitrosylated degradation fragments were measured at a pmd of 24h, indicating a susceptibility of brain spectrin to degradation. Furthermore, the physiological role of S-nitrosylation remains to be investigated. When studying human brain tissue, some proteins are more susceptible to degradation than others, while ubiquitination and carbonylation were little affected during the first 24h after death. PMID:26791740

  13. Copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization-oxygenation of thiocarbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen: an efficient method for the preparation of oxygen isotopically labeled carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Suenami, Aiko; Yoshida, Atsunori; Murai, Toshiaki

    2007-06-21

    A novel copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization reaction of thiocarbonyl compounds, using molecular oxygen as an oxidant and leading to formation of carbonyl compounds, has been developed, and the utility of the process is demonstrated by its application to the preparation of a carbonyl-18O labeled sialic acid derivative. PMID:17844744

  14. Syntheses of fused tetrahydro--carboline analogues through imide carbonyl activation using BBr3: Evidence for the involvement of fused cyclic -acyliminium ion intermediate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selvaraj Mangalaraj; Jayaraman Selvakumar; Chinnasamy Ramaraj Ramanathan

    2015-05-01

    The fused cyclic -acyliminium ion generated during the imide carbonyl activation reaction of phenethylphthalimide was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Lewis acid assisted imide carbonyl activation methodology was successfully extended to synthesize fused tetrahydro--carboline units from the corresponding -indolylethylimides.

  15. Carbonyl and oxalyl bridged bis(1,5-diaminotetrazole)-based energetic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Hyuk; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2009-09-14

    High density energetic salts containing nitrogen rich cations and carbonyl- or oxalylbis(diamino-tetrazole) anions, which were obtained from cyanogen azide and hydrazine, were readily synthesized. In every case, a new family of energetic salts 3-14 were characterized by vibrational spectroscopy, multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N) NMR, elemental analyses, density, differential scanning calorimetry and impact sensitivity. Compound 12 was structured by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The densities of 3-14, determined by gas pycnometer, range between 1.500 and 1.676 g cm(-3). The heats of formation and detonation properties for these stable salts were calculated by using Gaussian 03 and Cheetah 5.0, respectively. PMID:19658135

  16. Temporal variation of carbonyl compound concentrations at a semi-rural site in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Skov, H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were measured by the DNPH-technique at the semi-rural site Lille Valby, Denmark (55 degrees N) between May-July 1995, The average concentrations were observed to be 1.2 ppbv for formaldehyde, 0.8 ppbv for acetaldehyde and 1.......9 ppbv for acetone, For the set of carbonyl compounds, concentrations were found to be highly correlated, though only during daytime, The weak correlations observed during nighttime are believed to be caused by the dry deposition of especially formaldehyde, During periods with low photochemical activity...... of hydrocarbons during long-range transport. Especially, the concentration levels of acetone showed a pronounced seasonal-variation with the highest levels observed during summertime and lowest in winter and spring. The seasonal variation in the concentration levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were small...

  17. Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

    2014-10-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

  18. Gold/Iron Carbonyl Clusters for Tailored Au/FeOx Supported Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Albonetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel preparation method was developed for the preparation of gold/iron oxide supported catalysts using the bimetallic carbonyl cluster salts [NEt4]4[Au4Fe4(CO16] and [NEt4][AuFe4(CO16] as precursors of highly dispersed nanoparticles over different supports. A series of catalysts with different metal loadings were prepared and tested in the complete oxidation of dichlorobenzene, toluene, methanol and in the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of H2 (PROX as model reactions. The characterization by BET, XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, ICP-AES and XPS point out the way the nature of the precursors and the thermal treatment conditions affected the dispersion of the active phase and their catalytic activity in the studied reactions.

  19. A highly efficient procedure for the oxathioacetalization of carbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The novel efficient procedure has been developed for the oxathioacetalization of carbonyl compounds and 2-mercaptoethanol using the novel carbon-based sulfonic acid as catalyst under solvent-free condition at room temperature. The results showed that the novel catalyst was very efficient for the reactions with good to excellent yields in short time. The novel catalyst owned many advantages such as operational simplicity,without need of any solvent,small amount of usage,low cost of the catalyst used,high yields,applicability to large-scale reactions,reusability and chemoselectivity over the traditional catalysts,which made the catalyst one of the best choices for the reactions.

  20. Adiabatic mixed-field orientation of ground-state-selected carbonyl sulfide molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kienitz, Jens S; Mullins, Terry; Długołęcki, Karol; González-Férez, Rosario; Küpper, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated strong adiabatic mixed-field orientation of carbonyl sulfide molecules (OCS) in their absolute ground state of $\\text{N}_{\\text{up}}/\\text{N}_{\\text{tot}}=0.882$. OCS was oriented in combined non-resonant laser and static electric fields inside a two-plate velocity map imaging spectrometer. The transition from non-adiabatic to adiabatic orientation for the rotational ground state was studied by varying the applied laser and static electric field. Above static electric field strengths of 10~kV/cm and laser intensities of $10^{11} \\text{W/cm}^2$ the observed degree of orientation reached a plateau. These results are in good agreement with computational solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation.